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URBANANDREGI

ONALDEVELOPMENTPLANS
FORMULATI
ONANDI
MPLEMENTATI
ON
(
URDPFI
)GUI
DELI
NES
Vol
umeI
Januar
y,2015

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URBANANDREGI
ONALDEVELOPMENTPLANS
FORMULATI
ONANDI
MPLEMENTATI
ON
(
URDPFI
)GUI
DELI
NES
Vol
umeI

kgjh
fodkl
l ea=h
Hkkjr
MINISTER OF URBAN DEVELOPME
D
ENT
INDIA

FOREWA
ARD

The Urrban and Regional


R
Deevelopment Plans Form
mulation an
nd Implementation
RDPFI)Guideelines,2014
4havebeenformulated
dkeepingin
nviewtheem
mergingsceenarioin
(UR
plan
nneddevelo
opmentofciitiesandtow
wns.ThefirsstGuidelineeswereprep
paredin199
96anda
loto
ofchangesh
havetakenp
placeinterm
msofapplicaationoflatessttechnologgyalongwith
hspatial
grow
wthofcitiessandtownss,andurban
ndynamismtogetherhaascontributedtotheirp
planning
anddevelopmeent.Sincetheeprovisionofinfrastructurefacilitiieshasimpllicationsbey
yondthe
nicipallimittsofcitiesaandtowns,ittbecomesimperativettoformulateeCityRegio
onalPlan
mun
so as
a to ensurre balanced developmeent of all settlements within the region. Heence, the
Guid
delines havee included methodologgical framew
work for plaan formulattion at the Regional
R
leveel.

headvances ofRemote Sensingand


dGeographiicalInformaationSystem
ms(GIS),
Withth
the Plan makin
ng process can
c become expeditiouss and with integration of both spaatial and
o spatial growth of ciities and
attribute data, detailed assessment can be madee in terms of
wns, extent of unauth
horized and
d haphazarrd developm
ment and laying of physical
tow
infrastructure facilities
f
in anticipation
n with the projected
p
grrowth of po
opulation. Prresently,
otifiedoutoftotalnumb
berof7933citiesandttowns.It
about2100MaasterPlanhaavebeenno
DPFI Guideliines, 2014, all the citiees and town
ns of the
is exxpected thaat with the use of URD
coun
ntrywillhav
vethebeneffitofStatuto
oryMasterP
Plans.

uringthattthecities
ThePlaanmakingprocesshasttobefurtheerstrengtheenedbyensu
and towns aree able to geenerate eno
ough resources to susstain themsselves. This will be
d
h transpareency in goveernance is ensured.
e
posssible only iff planned developmen
t along with
The vision for planned developmentt for any ciity or a tow
wn should strive for inclusive
i
w
efforts for provisio
on of both physical
p
and
d social infrrastructure facilities
development with
pulation and
d level of in
nadequacy to
t be reduceed to the minimum
m
for all sections of the pop
u
areas should emeerge as Sma
artCities
posssible extentt. In the eraa of globalizzation, the urban
whichnowisth
hemainfocu
usoftheMin
nistryofUrb
banDevelop
pment.

RDPFI Guideelines, 2014


4 will be of great help
p to State Town and Country
The UR
nning Departments, Urrban Develo
opment Autthorities, Urban Local Bodies, Schools of
Plan
Plan
nning and various
v
Ressearch Instittutions. Thee State Gov
vernments h
have to pro
oactively
adoptthese Gu
uidelinesand
dcomplete thepreparaationof MassterPlans ffor alltheciitiesand
wns.Ministry
yofUrbanD
Developmen
ntwillalway
ysbekeenttoassisttheStateGovernments
tow
inteermsofadop
ptionoftheGuidelines.

VENKAIAH NAIDU)
(V

ii

PREFACE
Planning for development is an envisioning process which requires a sound
assessment of the ground realities and providing options for sustainable
development within the bounds of the demographic, physical, socioeconomic,
jurisdictionalandfinancialaspects.Itisacontinuousprocessandmustincorporate
a regular evaluation of implementation. However, plans have been criticised to be
rigid and static having little regard to investment planning efforts and taking very
longtimeintheprocessofformulationandapproval.
During 1995, a National Workshop on Master Plan Approach: Its Efficacy and
Alternatives was held, which examined the entire process of urban development
planningandimplementationandasarecommendationofthisWorkshop,thefirst
national level planning guidelines Urban Development Plans Formulation and
Implementation(UDPFI)wereframedin1996byInstituteofTownPlanners,India.
UDPFI Guidelines, 1996 provided a framework for plan preparation and
implementation process. Since 1996, many developments have taken place in the
field of urban planning, especially in view of emerging needs and requirements of
urban settlements due to rapid population growth, globalization of economy and
phenomenal advances in information and communication technologies. The towns
and cities have become more dynamic in nature and are subject to unprecedented
changes in terms of requirements of infrastructure and other basic services/
amenities. Besides, new emerging aspects like regional development, inclusive
planning, sustainablehabitat, land use and transport integration at planning stage,
ServiceLevelBenchmarks,disastermanagementconcepts,andgovernancereforms
havegivenanewdimensiontotheplanningprocess.
To address these emerging aspects, it was felt that the revision of the UDPFI
Guidelines should be taken up. The Urban and Regional Development Plans
Formulation and Implementation Guidelines (URDPFI) were conceptualized as
the outcome of widespread consultations with the planning peers in the various
Ministries,Experts,ProfessionalandAcademicInstitutionsandotherstakeholders.
TheURDPFIGuidelines,2014havebeenframedtoincorporatetheprovisionsofthe
legalandpolicyguidelinesofthelineMinistries,bestpracticesoftheStatesandthe
planningsystemsinvogue.Aparticipatoryconsultativeapproachhasbeenfollowed
in order to revise the guidelines to holistically understand and proactively involve
the Government of India Ministries/Agencies and State Governments for guiding
Urbanization.
Inlinewiththeapproach,thefollowingkeyactionswereundertaken:
NationalConsultationConsultativeWorkshopheldinNewDelhitodeliberate
on the URDPFI Guidelines (1st Draft) to holistically consult with National and
Statelevelstakeholders.

iii

Regional Workshops Six Regional Workshops across country were held


coveringalltheStates.TheplanningaspectsvaryingacrossStatesandapproach
toplanninginfuturewerediscussed.
TechnicalCoreGroup(TCG)TCGwasformedbyMoUDandinteractionswere
held periodically with the TCG members formally and informally for getting
inputs.
GoogleDiscussionGroupThisportalwassetupbytheTCPOwhichpromoted
interfacewithvariousplannersandpractitioners.
MonthlyReviewMeetingswithStakeholdersMonthlyreviewmeetingswere
held by MoUD with stakeholders for discussing progress of work and receiving
theirrespectivecomments.
Key Consultations Interaction with more than 50 Organisations, Agencies,
Institutions both public and private have provided technical appraisal and
recommendationintheguidelines.
The URDPFI Guidelines, 2014 comprise two Volumes: VolumeI contains planning
process, contents of the plans suggested in the planning system, resource
mobilization for plan implementation including land and finance as the primary
resources for sustainable development, institutional reforms particularly at State
level,andapproachesandstrategiesforregionalandurbanplanning.Foraddressing
sustainability, various sections focus on land suitability and urban renewal norms
and provide a framework for Crisis/Disaster Management Plans as part of
DevelopmentPlan.Tospeeduptheprocessofplanformulation,simplifiedplanning
techniques,andnormsandstandardsforsocialandphysicalinfrastructureplanning
are detailed along with simplified development promotion regulations. Various
citiesofallclassesacrossthecountryfromdifferentregionshavebeencoveredas
bestpracticesforreview.Theoverallrecommendationsforfutureactionshavealso
beenincluded.
Theurbanandregionalplanningsystemhasbeendividedundertwoheads,a)Core
Area Planning and b) Specific and Investment Planning. The Core Area Planning
comprisesofasetof4interdependentplans:(i)alongtermPerspectivePlanwitha
vision and policy orientation, (ii) a sustainability based long term Regional Plan
(and District Plan) with optimization of regional resources for development, (iii) a
comprehensivelongtermsettlementplanasDevelopmentPlanforurbanandperi
urban areas (iv) A short term rolling Local Area Plan within the framework of
Development Plan. The Specific and Investment Planning comprises a set of three
plans,(i)ArollingSpecialPurposePlanforspecialareaswithintheframeworkof
Development Plan, (ii) Annual Plans to translate the physical and fiscal resource
requirementofDevelopment/LocalAreaPlan,and(iii)Project/Researchtofocus
onitemsofexecution.

iv

A separate volume (VolumeII A) on legal aspects covers the implications of 74th


CAA, 1992; Land Acquisition, Resettlement & Rehabilitation Act, 2013; a review of
theModelTown&CountryPlanningandDevelopmentLaw,ModelMunicipalLaw,
legalrequirementsforindustrialdevelopment,Statelevelplanningframeworkand
otherNationallevelrequirementsforheritageandenvironment conservationwith
the relevant Acts/ Law/ Notifications/ Guidelines etc. Volume II B consists of
Appendices.
A Core Team of TCPO and consultants, M/s Mott McDonald, have worked
painstakinglyalongwiththevariousstakeholdersacrossthecountryforformulating
these Guidelines. The process of preparation of the Guidelines, including the
approach,methodologyandglossaryhasbeendetailedintheAppendixAofVolume
IIB.Thekeycontentofeachvolumeisdetailedinthefollowingtable.
Table:StructureoftheURDPFIGuidelines
Volumes

Chapters

KeyContents

VolumeI:Urban&RegionalPlanningGuidelines

Introduction

Need for Revision of UDPFI Guidelines1996, Recommended


planningsystemforIndia,overallguidingSustainableUrbanand
Regionalplanningaspectsoftheguidelines

PlanFormulation

PlanningProcess,Contentsofvariouslevelofplans

ResourceMobilisation

Land assembly, fiscal resource mobilisation, good governance,


institutionalsetupandkeyinstitutionalreforms

RegionalPlanning
Approach

Aspects of regional planning and classification of region in the


Indian context, regional planning approach and its plan
implementation

UrbanPlanning
Approach

Guidelines for study on location and settlement setting,


distributionoflanduse,citytypology,planningfortownships.

Sustainability
Guidelines

Sustainability and aspects of urban development including


impact of climate change, environment policies and statuary
obligation,planningfordisastermanagement

SimplifiedPlanning
Techniques

Comprehensively covering data collection techniques, types of


survey,analyticaltechniques,projectiontechniques,basemap &
developmentplanpreparation

InfrastructurePlanning Introduces the hierarchy of urban development and norms &


standardsforphysicalinfrastructure,socialinfrastructure,safety
management, commercial activity. Details for transportation
planningandprovisionsforbarrierfreebuiltenvironment

Simplified
Development
PromotionRegulations

Lists the simplified urban land use classification and zoning


regulations, simplified development promotion regulations for
specificlandusezones,specialrequirements

10

General
Recommendation

Recommendations to several Ministries, State Governments and


Organisations

Volumes

Ch
hapters

KeyCon
ntents

VolumeIIA:NationalLegalProvisio
onsinUrban&
&RegionalPlan
nning

Implicationo
of74thCAA

TheRighttoFair
BasisofthenewActaandthekeyffeaturesofthenewAct
Compensatio
onand
TransparenccyinLand
AcquisitionR
Rehabilitation
n&
ResettlementAct,2013

ModelRegionalandTown
n
PlanningTow
wnand
Developmen
ntLaw

KeyfeaturesoftheLaawandsuggeestedchangesinthelaw

ModelMuniccipalLaw

KeyfeaturesoftheLaawandsuggeestedchangesinthelaw

StateLevelP
Planning
ExistingLegaalFramework
k

Anoverv
viewofthekeeyfeaturesofvariousstattelevel
legislatio
on(s)

LegalRequirrementsfor
IndustrialDeevelopment

Industrialpoliciesan
ndActsrelevaantforplanniing,schemesfor
clusterd
developmentunderMinisttries

OtherNation
nalLevelLeegal Nationalllevelheritaggeconservatiionandenvirronmentalleggal
Requirementts
requirem
ments,Canton
nmentrelatedlegalrequirrements.

VolumeIIB:Appendicces

Provisio
onsof74thCo
onstitutionAm
mendmentA
Actandroleso
ofthe
StateTownandCoun
ntryPlanninggDepartmentt,statusofthee
provisio
onsof74thCA
AAonUrbanLocalBodiesanddevelopment
authoritties

Descripttion of making of the Guid


delines, Compiilation of important
Documeents, Definition
ns, Best pracctices, Acts, L
Laws, policiess and
notificattionsreferredin
nVolume1&2A.

The UR
RDPFI Guid
delines, 20
014 are in
ntended to be comprrehensive for promo
oting
balanceed and orrderly reggional and
d urban planning an
nd develo
opment. Th
hese
Guideliines interalia provid
de the fraamework, necessary techniquees, norms and
standarrds, option
ns for resource mobilization inccluding lan
nd assemblly approacches,
anddevelopmenttpromotion
nregulatio
ons.Since conditions
c
varyfrom placeto place
p
nt,theseguidelinesmaaynotbeu
uniformlyaapplicablettoall
andeveenwithinaasettlemen
situatio
ons and places and would
w
need
d to be mo
odified and
d adopted dependingg on
local conditions, felt needss and tech
hnological innovation
ns so thatt the Plann
ning
veasaneffficientand dynamiciinstrumentt.TheURDPFIGuidelines
processsmayserv
are exp
pected to provide an
a integratted framew
work for urban
u
and regional plan
p
formulaationandimplementaation.
The Gu
uidelines are intendeed to be a reference for various aspects o
of planningg by
State Governments, Deveelopment Authoritiess, Privatee Sector and Plann
ning
nceforvarious
Organizzations.Prrivateentitiescanuseeguidelineesasonesttopreferen
Acts,Sttandardsan
nddevelop
pingdifferenttypesofftownshipss.

ARAGGARW
WAL
SHANKA
SSecretary((UD)

****

vi

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The Guidelines are the outcome of participatory approach through widespread
consultations with various Central Government Ministries/ Agencies/ Bodies/
NationalInstitutions/StateGovernments.
Ministry of Urban Development acknowledges the work of M/s Mott MacDonald
(Consultants)inpreparingURDPFIGuidelines,2014.
TheexerciseofformulationoftheURDPFIGuidelines,2014wasguidedandsteered
bythenSecretary,MinistryofUrbanDevelopment(MoUD),Dr.SudhirKrishna,and
Secretary, MoUD Shankar Aggarwal and supported by then Joint Secretary, Dr.
Ashok Singhvi, Mr. Neeraj Mandloi, Joint Secretary, MoUD and Mr. Parmod Kumar,
Director(LSG),MoUD.Mentionalsoneedstobemadeaboutthetirelessworkbythe
officersoftheLSGDivision,MoUD,Mr.SunilKumarPal,UnderSecretaryandMr.C.
JeevanRao,ResearchAssistant.
Mr.J.B.Kshirsagar,ChiefPlanner,TownandCountryPlanningOrganization,Mr.R.
Srinivas, Town and Country Planner, Mr. Sudeep Roy, and Ms. D. Blessy, Assistant
Town and Country Planners, provided technical inputs on various aspects to the
consultantsandcoordinatedtheorganizationofRegionalandNationalWorkshops.
The Staff members of the Metropolitan and Union Territories Division, Town and
CountryPlanningOrganizationprovidedcompletesupportduringtheprocess.
The Town and Country Planning Departments of Haryana, Karnataka, Goa and
OdishaprovidednecessarycollaborationinorganizingtheRegionalWorkshops.The
participation of the States and UTs of Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh,
Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Mizoram, Maharashtra, Puducherry, Punjab, Rajasthan,
Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand in the Regional Workshops provided vital
inputs.
Ministries of Government of India i.e, Department of Land Resources, JnNURM
Directorate,PlanningCommission(fortheircontributionsinResourceMobilization
section), Directorate General of Defence Estates and EMBARQ, India(for their
contributioninUrbanPlanningApproach),NationalDisasterManagementAuthority
(fortheircontributioninDisasterManagementandSustainabilityissues),National
Remote Sensing Centre (for their contributions in GIS based planning), Bureau of
IndianStandards,CentralPublicHealth&EnvironmentalEngineeringOrganization,
Institute of Urban Transport (for their contributions in Physical Infrastructure
aspects), Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority, Ahmedabad Urban
Development Authority, Mumbai Metropolitan Development Authority, Institute of
TownPlanners,IndiaandSchoolofPlanningandArchitecture,Delhifacilitatedthe
exchangeofdataandinformationcollation.Besides,commentsreceivedfromawide
varietyofpeopleintheirofficialandpersonalcapacitiesarealsodulyacknowledged.

vii

viii

TableofContents
1.
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.
1.5.

1.6.
1.7.

2.
2.1.

2.2.

Introduction
UrbanisationTrends
FrameworkforaRenewedPlanningSystem
ClassificationofUrbanSettlements
RecommendedPlanningSystem
Scopeandpurposeofvariousplans
1.5.1. PerspectivePlan
1.5.2. RegionalPlan
1.5.3. DevelopmentPlan
1.5.4. LocalAreaPlan
1.5.5. SpecialPurposePlan
1.5.6. AnnualPlan
1.5.7. Project/Research
1.5.8. Interrelationshipamongvariousplans
SustainableUrbanandRegionalDevelopment
StateLandUtilisationPolicy
1.7.1. LandTransportIntegration
1.7.2. TransitOrientedDevelopment(TOD)
1.7.3. FlexibilityinPlans
1.7.4. LandtogeneratefundforInfrastructureDevelopment
1.7.5. SustainableWasteManagement
1.7.6. Inclusiveplanning
1.7.7. DisasterRiskManagement
1.7.8. Speedingtheprocessofplanning&implementation

1
2
3
5
7
7
7
9
10
11
11
12
12
14
14
15
16
18
19
19
20
20
21

23

PlanFormulation
PlanningProcess
2.1.1. AimsandObjectives
2.1.2. IdentificationofSiteNeeds
2.1.3. IdentificationofProjectedNeeds
2.1.4. PlanFormulation
2.1.5. InclusivePlanning(furthertotheSection1.10.8)
2.1.6. StatutoryObligations
2.1.7. DecentralisationofPlanApprovalProcess
2.1.8. PeoplesParticipation
2.1.9. PlanModification
2.1.10. ReviewandMonitoringofPlans
2.1.11. PlanMonitoringParameters
2.1.12. Evaluation&RevisionofPlans
ContentsofPlans
2.2.1. PerspectivePlan
2.2.2. ContentsofRegionalPlan
2.2.3. ContentsofDevelopmentPlan
2.2.4. ContentsofLocalAreaPlan
2.2.5. ContentsofSpecificPurposePlan(e.g.CityDevelopmentPlansformulatedfor
accessingfundsunderJNNURM)
2.2.6. ContentsofAnnualPlan
2.2.7. ContentsofProjects/Schemes

ix

23
23
24
25
26
30
31
32
32
34
35
36
37
37
38
39
42
48
50
64
66

3
3.1.
3.2.

3.3.

3.4.

3.5.

3.6.

4
4.1.
4.2.
4.3.

4.4.

4.5.

4.6.

4.7.
4.8.

5
5.1.
5.2.

ResourceMobilizationforPlanImplementation
Introduction
Land
3.2.1. LandasaResource
3.2.2. LandEconomics
3.2.3. LandAssembly
3.2.4. InclusiveLandDevelopment
FiscalResourceMobilisation
3.3.1. TraditionalandInnovativeapproachesforFiscalResourceMobilisation
3.3.2. AlternativeFinancialAvenuesbyPrivateSectorParticipation
3.3.3. ExistingTrendofExpenditurePattern
3.3.4. EffectiveFinanceManagement
3.3.5. CityInfrastructureFund
Governance
3.4.1. CharacteristicsofGoodGovernance
3.4.2. EGovernanceReforms
InstitutionalSetUp
3.5.1. TownandCountryPlanningDepartmentsatStateLevels
3.5.2. DistrictPlanningCommittee
3.5.3. UrbanLocalBodies(Municipality,DevelopmentAuthority,MPC)
3.5.4. TeamRequirementforPlanFormulation
InstitutionalReforms
3.6.1. RegulatoryBodyatStateLevel
3.6.2. GrievanceRedressSystem

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88
94
95
97
98
99
101
103
103
104
104
105
107
107
108

109

RegionalPlanningApproach
NeedofRegionasPlanningUnit
AspectsofRegionalPlanning
PlanningRegionsinIndia
4.3.1. DistrictasaPlanningRegion
4.3.2. VarioussettlementsinRegion
MetropolitanPlanningRegion
4.4.1. MetropolitanAdministrativesetups
4.4.2. TransitOriented(Urban)Development(TOD)
4.4.3. Planningforperiurbanarea
4.4.4. VillagePlanning
InvestmentPlanningRegions
4.5.1. ApproachofPlanPreparation
4.5.2. CriteriaforDelineationofRegion
SpecialAreaPlanningRegions
4.6.1. Ecosensitiveareas
4.6.2. Socioeconomicsensitiveareas
LanduseclassificationforRegionalPlanning
CompositionofthePlanningCommittees

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109
110
112
117
119
119
120
122
123
125
125
126
128
129
129
130
132

135

UrbanPlanningApproach
Introduction
GuidelinesforStudyonLocation,SiteandsituationofSettlement
5.2.1. Location
x

135
135
135

5.3.

5.4.

5.5.

5.6.

6.
6.1.

6.2.

6.3.
6.4.

6.5.

6.6.

5.2.2. Site
5.2.3. Situation
5.2.4. Hinterland
5.2.5. Accessibility
5.2.6. SocioEconomicProfile
DistributionofLandUse
5.3.1. DevelopedAreaAverageDensities
5.3.2. ProposedLanduseStructureofUrbanCentres
UrbanPlanningApproach
5.4.1. GreenCity
5.4.2. Compactcity
5.4.3. SmartCity
CityTypology
5.5.1. Hillcity
5.5.2. PlanningforInnercity
5.5.3. Industrialcity
5.5.4. Heritage/Religious/Tourismcity
5.5.5. Portcity
5.5.6. IntegratedTownship
5.5.7. PlanningforAffordableHousing
5.5.8. MediCity
5.5.9. Sportscity
5.5.10. DevelopmentbythePrivateSector
SpecialAreaPlanning(cantonmentarea,restrictedareaetc.)
5.6.1. CantonmentArea

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139
140
140
141
142
143
147
152
157
158
163
165
169
174
180
186
187
189
192
193
193

199

SustainabilityGuidelines

SustainableDevelopment
199
6.1.1. SustainablePlanning
199
6.1.2. EnergyEfficiency
200
6.1.3. UrbanTransport
200
6.1.4. UrbanInfrastructure
201
ClimateChangeMitigationandAdaptation
202
6.2.1. GreenBuilding
203
6.2.2. ClimateProofingGuwahati,Assam:CityResilienceStrategyandMainstreamingPlan203
CityBioDiversityIndex
204
EnvironmentPoliciesandStatutoryObligation
205
6.4.1. NationalEnvironmentalPolicy(NEP),2006
205
6.4.2. EIANotification,2006
207
6.4.3. EnvironmentProtectionAct,1986
207
6.4.4. ForestConservationAct,1980
208
6.4.5. Strategicplanfornewandrenewableenergysectorfortheperiod201117,
MinistryofNewandRenewableEnergy
209
EnvironmentalGuidelines
209
6.5.1. EnvironmentalGuidelinesforIndustries
209
6.5.2. GuidelinesforRainWaterHarvesting
210
6.5.3. GuidelinesforBufferZones
211
EnvironmentalGuidelinesforPlanningEcofragilezones
213
6.6.1. CoastalArea
213
6.6.2. EcoSensitivezones
213

xi

6.7.

7.
7.1.
7.2.

7.3.

7.4.

7.5.

7.6.

7.7.

8.
8.1.
8.2.

6.6.3. WaterbodiesinUrbanAreas
6.6.4. Desertareas
6.6.5. Wetlands
6.6.6. Hillyareas(furthertosection5.5.1)
DisasterManagement
6.7.1. Institutionalsetup
6.7.2. NationalDisasterManagementGuidelines
6.7.3. StateDisasterManagementPlan
6.7.4. DistrictDisasterManagementPlan(DDMP)

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218
219
220
225
227

229

SimplifiedPlanningTechniques
IdentifyingDataNeedsandDataCollectionList
7.1.1. DataChecklist
DataCollectionTechniques
7.2.1. PrimaryDataCollectiontechniques
7.2.2. SecondaryDataCollectiontechniques
TypesofSurveys
7.3.1. SocioEconomicSurvey
7.3.2. Landuse/utilisationSurveys
7.3.3. DensitySurveys
7.3.4. InfrastructureSurveys
7.3.5. TransportationSurveys
AnalyticalTechniques
7.4.1. CarryingCapacity
7.4.2. ApplyingCarryingCapacityforUrbanandRegionalplanning:
7.4.3. ThresholdAnalysis
ProjectionTechniques
7.5.1. PopulationProjection
7.5.2. EconomicProjection
7.5.3. AssessmentofRequirementofHousing
Mapping
7.6.1. ScaleofMap
7.6.2. MapInformationChecklist
7.6.3. ProcedureofCollectingData
BaseMap&DevelopmentPlanPreparation
7.7.1. Basemapfeatures
7.7.2. PlanformulationthroughRemoteSensing&GeographicInformationSystem
7.7.3. BhuvanGeoPortalforPlanning

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235
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239
243
245
246
249
256
257
258
262
263
263
263
272
274
274
274
280

283

InfrastructurePlanning
HierarchyofUrbanDevelopment
TransportationPlanning
8.2.1. ClassificationofUrbanroad
8.2.2. DesignConsiderationofUrbanRoads
8.2.3. Footpath
8.2.4. CycleTracks
8.2.5. ForHillyAreas
8.2.6. PassengerCarUnits(PCU)
8.2.7. DesignServiceVolume

xii

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284
284
285
286
287
288
288
289

8.2.8.
8.2.9.
8.2.10.
8.2.11.
8.2.12.
8.2.13.
8.2.14.
8.2.15.
8.2.16.
8.2.17.
8.2.18.

8.3.

8.4.

8.5.

8.6.

8.7.
8.8.

Parking
289
BusTerminals
293
TruckTerminal
295
IntegratedFreightComplex
296
TravelDemandModellingProcess
298
MRToptionsfortheCity
299
UrbanBusesandcharacteristics
303
TODNorms
303
NonMotorisedVehicles(NMV)
309
RoadSafety
310
SpecialRequirementsforBarrierFreeBuiltEnvironmentforDisabledandElderly
Persons
310
8.2.19. InlandWaterTransportation
311
8.2.20. AirportPlanning
313
PhysicalInfrastructure
314
8.3.1. WaterSupply
314
8.3.2. Sewerage&Sanitation
324
8.3.3. Drainage
335
8.3.4. RainWaterHarvesting
336
8.3.5. Electricity
340
8.3.6. SolidWasteManagement
341
8.3.7. DomesticGasSupplyPipelines
353
8.3.8. TelecomServices
354
8.3.9. ServiceLevelBenchmarkingforInfrastructure
354
SocialInfrastructure
356
8.4.1. ProvisionofInfrastructure
356
8.4.2. EducationFacilities
357
8.4.3. HealthcareFacilities
359
8.4.4. Sociocultural
361
8.4.5. OpenSpaces
362
8.4.6. SportsFacilities
364
8.4.7. Distributionservices
365
8.4.8. Police,CivilDefenceandHomeGuards
366
8.4.9. SafetyManagement
366
8.4.10. SpecialRequirementsforGenderSensitivePlanning
367
CommercialActivities
369
8.5.1. HierarchyofCommercialCentres
369
8.5.2. NormsforCommercialCentres
369
8.5.3. DistributionofActivities
370
8.5.4. UrbanStreetVendors
371
MiscellaneousFacilities
375
8.6.1. Cremation/BurialGround
375
8.6.2. DhobiGhat
375
8.6.3. Mandisandwholesaleagriculturalproducemarkets
376
8.6.4. ProvisionsforLivestockManagement/AnimalManagementCentre
376
8.6.5. NormsforTelephone,PostalandBankingfacilities
377
ProvisionsforHillyAreas
377
AccessProvisionsfortheDifferentlyabled
379

xiii

9.
9.1.
9.2.
9.3.

9.4.

9.5.

10.
10.1.
10.2.
10.3.
10.4.

SimplifiedDevelopmentPromotionRegulations
SimplifiedUrbanLanduseClassification
SimplifiedUrbanLanduseZoningRegulations
PlotRequirementRegulationsinLandusezones
9.3.1. MeansofAccess
9.3.2. AreaandHeightLimitations
9.3.3. MinimumSetbacks
9.3.4. Activitiespermissibleinopenarea
9.3.5. DistancefromElectricLines
SimplifiedDevelopmentPromotionRegulationsforSpecificlandUseZones
9.4.1. ResidentialUseZone
9.4.2. Commercial
9.4.3. PublicandSemipublic
9.4.4. IndustrialuseZone
9.4.5. Transportation&CommunicationUseZone
9.4.6. PrimaryActivity
SpecialRequirement
9.5.1. BuildingNormsforNaturalHabitat
9.5.2. HistoricalorArchaeologicalareas
9.5.3. IndustrialRegions
9.5.4. IntroduceUseofFormBasedCodes

381
382
384
392
392
393
398
400
400
401
401
404
404
407
408
409
409
409
409
410
410

411

GeneralRecommendations
AdoptionofURDPFIGuidelines,2014
KeyRecommendationsintheGuidelines
KeyaspectsofGuidelinesforlocalarea/sitespecificdevelopment
SuggestionsforfutureDevelopmentinPlanning
10.4.1. RecommendationsfortheNationalOrganisation(s)
10.4.2. RecommendationstoStateGovernments/StateTownandCountryPlanning
Departments/LocalBodies/DevelopmentAuthorities

xiv

411
411
413
413
414
417

ListofFigures
Figure1.1:RelationshipofthePlanningSystem__________________________________________________________13
Figure2.1: GeneralProcessofPlanning__________________________________________________________________23
Figure2.2: IdentificationofProjectedRequirements___________________________________________________26
Figure2.3: PlanFormulationProcess____________________________________________________________________28
Figure2.4PlanModificationProcess_______________________________________________________________________35
Figure2.5: ProcessofPreparingCityDevelopmentPlan_______________________________________________54
Figure2.6: CityMobilisationPlanningProcess__________________________________________________________57
Figure2.7: CitySanitationPlanningProcess_____________________________________________________________61
Figure2.8: SlumFreeCityPlanofActionProcess_______________________________________________________63
Figure3.1: ProjectLifeCycle _____________________________________________________________________________77
Figure3.2: FundingSources_______________________________________________________________________________78
Figure3.3: Revenuesources ______________________________________________________________________________78
Figure3.4: SourcesforFundGeneration_________________________________________________________________82
Figure3.5: PPPModels____________________________________________________________________________________90
Figure3.6: CharacteristicsofGoodGovernance_________________________________________________________99
Figure4.1: CategorisationofRegionsinIndianContext______________________________________________112
Figure4.2: PlanPreparationProcessofKerala________________________________________________________114
Figure4.3: PlanPreparationProcessintheStateofGoa______________________________________________115
Figure4.4: ProposedDistrictPlanningProcess________________________________________________________117
Figure4.5: FrameworkforKolkataMetropolitanPlanningCommittee _____________________________120
Figure4.6: PlanningBoardforInterStateRegions____________________________________________________134
Figure5.1: WaytowardsGreenRedevelopment ______________________________________________________147
Figure5.2: CompactCitysConceptandApproach____________________________________________________148
Figure5.3: TypesofIntenseLandUse__________________________________________________________________150
Figure5.4: CaseStudyofChinaSkyCity________________________________________________________________151
Figure5.5: ImportantinsightsofSMARTcityapplicationglobally___________________________________153
Figure5.6: TheUniversalTargets_______________________________________________________________________154
Figure5.7: Malta:WorldsfirstSmartIsland___________________________________________________________155
Figure5.8: IntegratedapproachtoTourismCity/RegionPlanning__________________________________171
Figure5.9: MumbaiPortCityAnalysis _________________________________________________________________176
Figure5.10:SuggestedPortcityPlanningStrategy_____________________________________________________176
Figure6.1: SchematiccrosssectionofArterialRoads ________________________________________________201
Figure6.2: ComponentsofGuwahatiClimateResilienceStrategy___________________________________204
Figure6.3: DisasterManagementCycle________________________________________________________________218
Figure6.4: SuggestedBroadFrameworkfordevelopingSDMPandDDMP_________________________227
Figure7.1: StagesofconductingPrimarySurvey______________________________________________________230
Figure7.2: TechniquesofDataRepresentation:DevelopmentRadar _______________________________244
Figure7.3: TabularpresentationofSmileyface_______________________________________________________244
Figure7.4: ComponentsofCarryingCapacityofUrban&RegionalAreas___________________________247
Figure7.5: PlanningofUrbanandRegionalareasbasedoncarryingcapacity______________________247
Figure7.6: MethodologyformeasuringTourismCarryingCapacity_________________________________249
Figure7.7: LandsuitabilityprocessinPlanning_______________________________________________________252
Figure7.8: Factorstakenintoconsiderationtoassessthemostsuitablelanduse _________________253
Figure7.9: WeightedOverlayofLandSuitability______________________________________________________255
Figure7.10:ProcessofDevelopmentPlanPreparationthroughGIS(A)______________________________277
Figure7.11:ProcessofDevelopmentPlanPreparationthroughGIS(B)______________________________278
Figure7.12:ProcessofDevelopmentPlanPreparationthroughGIS(C)______________________________279
Figure8.1: ProposedKarkardoomaTODProject______________________________________________________304
Figure8.2: ProposedKarkardoomaTODProject______________________________________________________307

xv

Figure8.3: DecisionTree:Selectingthewastewatermanagementsystem(Onsite,Decentralizedor
Conventional) ________________________________________________________________________________327
Figure8.4: FlowchartshowingthevariousArtificialRechargePractices____________________________339
Figure8.5: DitchandFurrowMethod___________________________________________________________________340
Figure8.6: RechargePit: _________________________________________________________________________________340
Figure8.7: ContourPattern______________________________________________________________________________340
Figure8.8: Injectionwell:________________________________________________________________________________340
Figure8.9: SchematicSolidWasteManagementProcess______________________________________________343
Figure8.10:BBMPmodelofSWM ________________________________________________________________________350
Figure8.11:ProcessingofConstructionWasteatMallasandra,Bangalore____________________________351
Figure8.12:CompoundwallsRestrictingStreetVisibility______________________________________________367

xvi

ListofTables
Table1.1: TrendsinUrbanisation20012011___________________________________________________________1
Table1.2: ClassificationofUrbanSettlements___________________________________________________________4
Table1.3: PlanningSystemFramework__________________________________________________________________6
Table2.1: SiteSpecificNeedsofFewCityTypes________________________________________________________24
Table2.2: DecentralisedPlanApprovalProcess________________________________________________________32
Table2.3: ParticipatoryPlanningApproach____________________________________________________________33
Table2.4: ParametersfortheEvaluationofPlans______________________________________________________36
Table3.1: ListofvariousTaxes,Surcharges,Charges,FeesandTollsasmaybeleviedforUrban&
InfrastructureDevelopment__________________________________________________________________81
Table3.2: AlternateSourcesofFundingforProjects___________________________________________________88
Table3.3: PossiblerolesofPrivateandPublicsectorsintheurbandevelopmentprocess_________92
Table3.4: CategorisationofMunicipalExpenditure ___________________________________________________94
Table3.5: CompositionandTrendsofMunicipalExpenditure(Rs.inLakh)_________________________95
Table3.6: SelectiveeGovernmentfunctionsandOnlineServicesinIndia_________________________102
Table3.7: RequiredmanpowerofStateTownPlanningDepartment_______________________________103
Table3.8: NumberofTownPlannersrequiredatDistrictLevel____________________________________104
Table3.9: NumberofTownPlannersinMetropolitanPlanningArea ______________________________104
Table3.10: NumberofTownPlannersrequiredfornonmillionpluscities(small&mediumcities)105
Table4.1:Institutionalresponsibilities________________________________________________________________116
Table4.2: RoadHierarchyforperiurbanareasinlinewithlowincomehabitatplanningnorms123
Table4.3: CriteriaforDelineationofRegion__________________________________________________________127
Table4.4: SimplifiedRegionalLanduseClassification_______________________________________________132
Table5.1: DevelopedAreaAverageDensities ________________________________________________________140
Table5.2: LanduseStructureforDevelopableAreainUrbanCentres_____________________________141
Table5.3: TransitOrientedDevelopmentMatrix_____________________________________________________149
Table5.4: eServicesofaSmartcity___________________________________________________________________156
Table5.5: Landusestructureforhilltowns __________________________________________________________161
Table5.6: LandusestructureforIndustrialtowns___________________________________________________167
Table5.7: LandusestructureforHeritage/Religious/TourismCity_______________________________173
Table5.8: LandusestructureforPortCity____________________________________________________________179
Table5.9: RajasthanTownshipPolicy:TypesofTownships_________________________________________182
Table5.10: SpaceAllocation/LandUseMix:PermittedunderGujaratIntegratedTownshipPolicy,
2008__________________________________________________________________________________________184
Table5.11: ProportionofPlots/Houses/FlatsinTownships/GroupHousingSchemes____________186
Table5.12: CantonmentCategories_____________________________________________________________________194
Table6.1: AccessibilityofPublicTransportatNeighbourhoodLevel_______________________________201
Table6.2 DisasterManagementstrategiesfordifferentsectors____________________________________204
Table6.3 StrategicActionssuggested ________________________________________________________________207
Table6.4 StatutoryObligationsofEnvironmentClearances________________________________________208
Table6.5 Thrustareasofsolarthermalsector_______________________________________________________209
Table6.6 DistanceofDifferentAreasfromIndustrialSite _________________________________________210
Table6.7: ListofBuffersforvariousactivities________________________________________________________211
Table6.8:SalientFeaturesofNDMAguidelinesforManagementofFloods,Earthquakes&other
NaturalHazards_____________________________________________________________________________220
Table7.1: PossibleProxyIndicators___________________________________________________________________232
Table7.2: Fieldsheetfornonresidentialsurvey_____________________________________________________237
Table7.3: Infrastructureindicatorsandbenchmarkprovidingagencies___________________________237
Table7.4: ComprehensiveTableofTransportationSurveys(TransportSurveyformsRefer
AppendixFofVolumeIIB)_________________________________________________________________239
Table7.5: Levelsofevaluatingcarryingcapacityfortheurbanareas______________________________246

xvii

Table7.6:
Table7.7:
Table7.8:
Table7.9:
Table7.10:
Table8.1:
Table8.2:
Table8.3:
Table8.4:
Table8.5:
Table8.6:
Table8.7:
Table8.8:
Table8.9:
Table8.10:
Table8.11:
Table8.12:
Table8.13:
Table8.14:
Table8.15:
Table8.16:
Table8.17:
Table8.18:
Table8.19:
Table8.20:
Table8.21:
Table8.22:
Table8.23:
Table8.24:
Table8.25:
Table8.26:
Table8.27:
Table8.28:
Table8.29:
Table8.30:

ItemsforconsiderationintheinventoryforCityGDPcalculation_______________________261
ScaleofMapsforPlanning___________________________________________________________________263
MapDataChecklist___________________________________________________________________________264
IRSSatelliteDataProductsrelevantforUrbanApplications_____________________________273
BhuvanSatellitedataandthematicGISdataresourcesavailable________________________276
HierarchyofInfrastructureDevelopment__________________________________________________283
Designconsiderationofurbanroads_______________________________________________________285
CarriagewayWidthforeachtypeofroad__________________________________________________286
CapacityofFootpath&Design_______________________________________________________________287
Requiredwidthoffootpathasperadjacentlanduse _____________________________________287
Cycle/NMTtrack____________________________________________________________________________288
CarriagewaywidthinHillyareas___________________________________________________________288
PCUstandards________________________________________________________________________________288
DesignServiceVolumeStandards__________________________________________________________289
RecommendedECSforvarioustypesofvehicles__________________________________________289
ParkingStandards____________________________________________________________________________290
PermissibleECSfordifferentlanduses____________________________________________________292
SpacestandardsforParking________________________________________________________________292
BusBaysParkingStandards_______________________________________________________________295
BroadLandUsebreakup ___________________________________________________________________296
SpaceNorms__________________________________________________________________________________297
BroadLandUseBreakUp___________________________________________________________________298
RecommendedderivedModalSplit_________________________________________________________299
MRToptionsfortheCity_____________________________________________________________________300
TechnicalParametersofPublicTransportOptions_______________________________________301
Typesofurbanbusesandtheircharacteristics____________________________________________303
TODInfluenceZones_________________________________________________________________________305
WaterwaysClassification____________________________________________________________________312
ApproximateLandRequirementforAirportinfrastructure______________________________313
NormsforAirportTerminals________________________________________________________________314
WaterSupplyStandards_____________________________________________________________________315
WaterrequirementsforInstitutionalBuildingsCPHEEO,1999________________________316
WaterrequirementforIndustrialUnits____________________________________________________316
OrganolepticandPhysicalParametersofDrinkingWater________________________________319
GeneralParametersConcerningSubstancesUndesirableinExcessiveAmountsin
drinkingwater________________________________________________________________________________320
Table8.31: PermissiblelimitsofToxicSubstances_____________________________________________________321
Table8.32: PermissibleLimitsofRadioactiveSubstances_____________________________________________322
Table8.33: PesticideResiduesLimitsofDrinkingWater______________________________________________322
Table8.34: BacteriologicalQualityofDrinkingWater _________________________________________________323
Table8.35: RecommendedlandRequirementbasedoncapacities ___________________________________323
Table8.36: DesignPeriodforWaterSupplyComponents _____________________________________________323
Table8.37: RecommendedDesignPeriodforSewerageSystemsComponents______________________325
Table8.38: GeneralEffluentStandardsforDischarge__________________________________________________327
Table8.39:RecommendedupperlimitsoftreatedSewagequalityforspecifiedactivitiesatpointof
use_____________________________________________________________________________________________330
Table8.40: FactSheetforVariousTreatmentProcess_________________________________________________331
Table8.41: GuidelinesfortheselectionofSeptagedisposalsystem__________________________________333
Table8.42: NormsforPublicToiletsinPublicArea____________________________________________________334
Table8.43: Runoffcoefficientsforstatedsurfaces______________________________________________________336
Table8.44: WasteGenerationPerCapitaperDay______________________________________________________341

xviii

Table8.45:
Table8.46:
Table8.47:
Table8.48:
Table8.49:
Table8.50:
Table8.51:
Table8.52:
Table8.53:
Table8.54:
Table8.55:
Table8.56:
Table8.57:
Table8.58:
Table8.59:
Table8.60:
Table8.61:
Table8.62:
Table8.63:
Table8.64:
Table8.65:
Table8.66:
Table8.67:
Table8.68:
Table8.69:
Table9.1:
Table9.2:
Table9.3:
Table9.4:
Table9.5:
Table9.6:
Table9.7:
Table9.8:
Table9.9:
Table9.10:
Table9.11:
Table9.12:
Table9.13:
Table9.14:
Table9.15:
Table9.16:
Table9.17:
Table9.18:
Table9.19:
Table9.20:
Table10.1:
Table10.2:

ComparisonofDifferentSolidWasteTreatmentTechnologies__________________________345
DisposalandProcessingSite_______________________________________________________________350
ServiceLevelBenchmarks____________________________________________________________________355
NormsforPrePrimarytoSecondaryEducation__________________________________________357
NormsforHigherEducationFacilities_____________________________________________________358
HealthCareFacilities________________________________________________________________________360
NormsforSocioCulturalFacilities_______________________________________________________361
HierarchyofOrganisedGreen______________________________________________________________362
NormsforOrganisedGreenforPlainAreas_______________________________________________363
NormsforOrganisedGreenforHillyAreas_______________________________________________363
NormsforMultipurposegrounds__________________________________________________________364
NormsforSportsFacilities_________________________________________________________________364
NormsforDistributionServices ___________________________________________________________365
NormsforPoliceFacilities__________________________________________________________________366
NormsforSafetyFacilities__________________________________________________________________366
HierarchyofCommercialCentres(NBC)__________________________________________________369
NormsforCommercialCentres____________________________________________________________369
AreaofCommercialCentres________________________________________________________________370
DistributiononActivities___________________________________________________________________370
NormsforInformalUnitsforUrbanStreetVendors______________________________________372
NormsforCremation/BurialGround_____________________________________________________375
NormsforDhobiGhat_______________________________________________________________________375
NormsforCommunicationfacilities_______________________________________________________377
NormsforHillyAreas_______________________________________________________________________377
MinimumAccessprovisionsforBarrierFreeBuiltEnvironment_______________________379
SimplifiedUrbanLanduseClassification__________________________________________________382
WidthandLengthofMeansofAccessforResidentialPlots______________________________392
WidthandLengthofMeansofAccessforplotsotherthanresidential _________________392
MinimumSetbacks__________________________________________________________________________398
FrontSetbackswithrespecttoAbuttingRoadWidth____________________________________399
Rearandsidesetbackwithrespecttoabuttingroadwidth______________________________399
DistancesfromElectricLines_______________________________________________________________400
IndicativeMinimumDwellingUnitSizes__________________________________________________401
PlottedHousing _____________________________________________________________________________402
Densitynormsforlowincomehousing____________________________________________________402
GroupHousing_______________________________________________________________________________403
FARandGroundCoverageforGroupHousing____________________________________________403
NormsforCommercialCentres____________________________________________________________404
NormsforPublicandSemiPublicuses____________________________________________________404
SocioCulturalUseZone_____________________________________________________________________406
SecurityandSafetyFacilitiesUseZone____________________________________________________406
IndustrialUseZone _________________________________________________________________________407
NormsforTransportationZone____________________________________________________________408
NormsforFarmHouses ____________________________________________________________________409
NormsforPrimaryActivity_________________________________________________________________409
KeyAspectsoftheGuidelines______________________________________________________________412
RelevantStateLevelActstobeconsideredforrevision__________________________________418

xix

Introduction

1
1.1.

Introduction
UrbanisationTrends

Globally,themoreurbanisedcountrieshavehigherlevelsofincomeandprosperity.
Indian States also exhibit the same trend. At the same time, urbanisation is also
perceivedtobecorrelatedwithpollution,congestionandinferiorqualityoflife.This
would call for developing a paradigm of urban development that would bring in
higherlevelsofprosperity,butwithouttheconcomitantnegativeeffects.TheURDPFI
hasattemptedtodevelopsuchaframework.
Populationtrends:TheCensus2011and2001giveusefulindicatorsforthetrends
inurbanisationinIndia.Thethreeurbanagglomerations,viz.GreaterMumbai,Delhi
andKolkata,havecrossedthe10millionmarkinpopulation,butwithmuchreduced
therateofgrowth.TheMillionPluspopulationcitieshaveshownagrowthofover48
percent,butthenumberofsuchcitieshasgoneupfrom35to 53andfivecitiesviz.
Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad and Pune have attained more than 50
lakhpopulation.ThetotalpopulationinClassIcities(1lakh+)constitutes70%ofthe
total urban population, while the total population of million plus cities constitute
42.6%ofthetotalurbanpopulation.Whatismoreinterestingisthatthecitieswith
lower orders of population have exhibited higher rates of growth of population.
Table1.1givesthedetails:
Table1.1:TrendsinUrbanisation20012011

ClassI
>1lakh
Ofwhich,
BelowMn+
1to10lakh
MillionPluscities >10lakh
Ofwhich,
Megacities@
>1crore
ClassII
50kto<100k
ClassIII
20Kto<50k
ClassIV
10kto<20k
ClassV
5kto<10k
ClassVI
<5k
Total
StatutoryTowns
NonStatutoryCensusTowns&UAs
TotalUrbanPopulation

394

196.3

68.7

70.2

18.8

34.9

15.6
51.4

18.4
48.4

12.9
0.0
11.0 22.0
15.4 37.2
8.5 43.0
4.2 110.1
0.5 112.8
109.8 53.7
84.5
6.4
15.5 185.8
100 53.7

14.8
48.7
65.5
63.8
138.7
180.1
31.8
20.2
179.0
31.8

359
35

88.0
108.3

30.8
37.9

415 104.2
53 160.7

3
496
1388
1561
1041
234
5161
3799
1362
5161

42.5
27.8
35.2
19.5
6.7
0.7
286.1
265.1
21.0
286.1

14.9
9.7
12.2
6.8
2.4
0.2
100.0
92.7
7.3
100.0

3 48.8
605 41.3
1905 58.2
2233 31.9
2187 15.9
498
2.0
7933 377.1
4041 318.5
3892 58.6
7933 377.1

27.6
42.6

Population

%ofUrban
Population

Population

No.of
Towns

468 264.9

No.of
Towns

Decade
Growth
Rate
20012011

Census2011

%ofUrban
Population

Population

Census2001
No.of
Towns

Class

Definition
(Population)

Source:CensusofIndia.

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

Introduction
The decadal population growth rate has, however, shown a decline from 21.5%
during19912001to17.6%during20012011.Thegrowthrateofurbanpopulation
alsoseemstobeheadingforstabilizationasthedecadalvariationremainedaround
31.5%duringthelasttwodecades.
Nonstatutorytowns:Thetrendofurbanisationisreflectedremarkablyinthesizeof
townsthatcarrythegrowingurbanpopulation.AsperCensus2011,thereare7933
townsincluding4041Statutorytownsand3892Censustowns.However,itisnotable
that the number of statutory towns has increased marginally, by 6.4 per cent only,
whereasthenumberofnonstatutorytownshasgoneupby186percent.Obviously,
newtownsaredevelopingveryfast,but,beingnotnotifiedasatown,thesearekept
outofthepurviewofplannedspatialdevelopmentandbecomepronetohaphazard
growth.ThiswouldcallforaseriousefforttointroducetheprinciplesoftheURDPFI
Guidelinestoevennonstatutorytowns,preferablyinaregionalsetup,whereinthe
spatialplansforsuchtownsarepreparedinconjunctionwiththatofthemaincities,
towhichthesearegenerallythesatellitetowns.

1.2.

FrameworkforaRenewedPlanningSystem

The framework for effective Spatial Planning needs to incorporate certain major
issues,which,subjecttolocalvariations,canbelistedandcategorisedasfollows:
Current principles, practises and issues in preparation and implementation of
plansatNational,RegionalandLocallevelssoastoharmonisethesamedrawing
onthebestpractices.
AnalysisofthelatesttrendintheUrbanDevelopmentscenario.
Addressrelevantissuesrelatedtoperiurbanareasandurbanplanningregions.
Compilation and analysis of the relevant data available from Census and other
sources.
Urbandevelopmentissues,especiallyinnewlyformedstatesandbackwardareas.
Needforuniformityinplanningsysteminthecountry.
Streamliningofplanningpractices.
RequirementofcoordinatedeffortsbetweenDepartments/Authorities.
Legal, funding and decision making aspects in implementation of plans and
projects.
Promotingrapidurbanisationandrespondingtotheimpactofclimatechange.
Economicaspectsofplanimplementationwhilepreparinglandusedevelopment
plans.
Promotion of sustainable development with focus on planning for People,
EnvironmentandFinancialviabilityprinciples.

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

Introduction
Inclusive planning, peoples participation and specific issues relating to the
elderly,women,thedifferentlyabledandtheweakersectionsofthesociety.
AttentiontoTransitOrientedDevelopment(TOD).
PlanningforandintegrationofPeriurbanareasintheplanningprocess.
Influenceofindustrialareas,suchasSEZs,onspatialandurbandevelopment.
CRZpolicyandCoastalmanagementincaseofcoastalcities.
Specialissuesofurbandevelopmentinhillareas.
ProvisionsforAffordablehousing.
Safedisposal,mainlybywayofrecyclingandreuse,ofsolidandotherwastes.
Adoptionofgeospatialdataandtechnologyintheplanningprocess.
Definingmeasureablebenchmarksandmilestonesfortheplan.
Arrangementsforperiodicmonitoringandevaluationoftheimplementationofthe
Plan.
Integration of sector specific plans among each other and in overall spatial
planning.
The last mentioned issue has become particularly significant over the years, as
different Ministries advocate preparation of plans for specific sectors, such as Slum
Redevelopment Plan, City Development Plan, City Investment Plan, Comprehensive
Mobility Plan, City Sanitation Plan, District Credit Plan, Coastal Zone Management
Plan, Environmental Conservation Plan, Riverfront Development Plan, Water
ResourceManagementPlan,HeritageConservationPlan,TourismMasterPlan,etc.It
would beofgreathelptoalliftheMasterPlanoftheCity/Regionincorporatesthe
relevantfeaturesofallsuchsectorspecificplan.Also,thesectorspecificplansneedto
alignwiththeframeworkoftheoverallMasterPlan.

1.3.

ClassificationofUrbanSettlements

The classification of urban settlements adopted by the Census of India 2011 is as


follows:
1. AllplaceswithaMunicipality,Corporation,CantonmentBoardornotifiedtown
areacommittee,etc.
2. Allotherplaceswhichsatisfiesthefollowingcriteria:
a. Aminimumpopulationof5,000;
b. Atleast75percentofthemalemainworkingpopulationengagedinnon
agriculturalpursuits;and
c. Adensityofpopulationofatleast400personspersq.km.
The first category of urban units is known as Statutory Towns. These towns are
notifiedunderlawbytheconcernedState/UTGovernmentandhavelocalbodieslike

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

Introduction
Municipal Corporations, Municipalities, Municipal Committees, etc., irrespective of
their demographic characteristics as reckoned on 31st December 2009. The second
category of Towns is known as Census Town. Population trends in respect of
statutorytownsandcensustownsareindicatedinTable1.1.
The human settlement classification for planning purposes, its nomenclature and
populationrangeisredefinedintheURDPFIguidelinesbasedon:
Census2011andreferencetocensustowns.
Masterplanformulationinthestates.
EmergingagglomerationsinIndia.
TheclassificationofurbansettlementsadoptedforURDPFIisindicatedinTable1.2
Table1.2:ClassificationofUrbanSettlements
S.No.

Classification

SmallTown*

Subcategory

PopulationRange

Governing
LocalAuthority

SmallTownI

5,00020,000

NagarPanchayat

SmallTownII

20,00050,000

NagarPanchayat/
MunicipalCouncil

Medium
Town

LargeCity

Metropolitan
City

Megapolis

MediumTownI

50,000to1,00,000

NumberofCities
asperCensusof
India,2011

7467

MunicipalCouncil

MediumTownII

1lakhto5lakh

MunicipalCouncil

372

5lakhto10lakh

MunicipalCorporation

43

MetropolitanCityI

10lakhto50lakh

MunicipalCorporation/
MetropolitanPlanning
Committee

45

MetropolitanCityII

50lakhto1Crore

Same

Morethan1Crore

Same

Note:NamesofLocalAuthoritiesmayvaryasperStatestraditionsandlaws.
Source:ModificationsfortheUDPFIGuidelinesbasedoncensusclassificationandStateexperiences.
*Anyurbancentresevenhavinglessthan5,000populationmaybegivenastatutorystatusandbecalledasaStatutoryTown
andCensusofIndiafollows6foldclassificationasperthepopulationsize

Smalltownscanbereferredastransitionaltownsmentionedinthe74thCAAwherea
NagarPanchayat(asamunicipality)istobeformedforanareaintransitionfroma
ruralareatoanurbanarea.
Agglomerationofurbannodesalongwithitsperiurbanandruralareasarecurrently
observed in the Metropolitan cities II (like in Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad,
Ahmedabad) and in Megapolis. However, Conurbation of settlements is on much
larger scale, which may develop accounting for population more than 5 Crore and
withadjoiningseverallargecitiesandfewmetropolitancities.
TheURDPFIGuidelinesfocusonthestatutorytowns.However,theconceptsstatedin
these Guidelines can be easily made applicable to all human settlements, whether
notifiedasaMunicipality,Cantonment,SpecialEconomicZone,Porttrustareaoreven
avillage.

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

Introduction

1.4.

RecommendedPlanningSystem

Literature review on the planning systems in India and abroad indicates that each
country/territory has evolved its own system suiting specific needs, traditions and
legal arrangements. The recommended urban development planning systems in the
guidelineshave,therefore,takenintoaccountsuchvariations.
The recommended planning system is to consider various plans, both statutory and
nonstatutory, to be a part of the system. These various plans such as urban
revitalisation plan, city development plan, comprehensive mobility plan, city
sanitationplan,coastalzonemanagementplanetc.haveemergedduetotheplanning
needs and/or funding schemes/ programmes. Similarly, regional plan, which is to
coveralargerlandarea,isincludedinthesystemacrossthescaleofplanning.
TheTable1.3below,whichhasbeendesignedbasedonstakeholderconsultations,
suggeststheplanningsystemframeworkonthebasisof
Hierarchy
Spatialextent
Scaleofplanning
Detailsprovidedintheplan
Functionandtheirspeciality

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

Introduction
Table1.3:PlanningSystemFramework
Planning
Scopeandpurposeoftheplan
system
Coreareaofplanning
Perspective
Plan

To identify the region and regional resources


for development within which settlement
(urban and rural) plan to be prepared and
regulatedbyDPC.
Development To prepare a comprehensive Development
Plan
Plan for urban areas, Periurban areas under
control
of
Development
authority/
MetropolitanPlanningCommittee.
LocalArea
To detail the subcity landuse plan and
Plan
integration with urban infrastructure,
mobilityandservices.
Specificandinvestmentplanning
Special
To identify the needs of the special areas
PurposePlan which require special plan within the
frameworkofthedevelopmentplan.

Project/
Research

Variousplans;indicativelist

To develop vision and provide a policy 2030years


frameworkforurban&regionaldevelopment
andfurtherdetailing

RegionalPlan

Annualplan

Time
frame*

20years

LongTerm Conceptplan
Mission
Perspective
statement
Vision
document
Regional
Subregionalplan
Plan
(Mobility1)

2030years
District
City/Metropolitan
(Reviewevery Development DevelopmentPlan
5years)
Plan
(Mobility2)
(Mobility1)
520year
Town
ZonalPlan/
(Reviewevery Planning
Subcityplan
5yrs)
Schemes

520year
City
Comprehensive
(withincity
Development MobilityPlan
utilities30year Plan(asper (asperJnNURM)
plan)
JnNURM)
To translate Development Plan in the context 1year
Investment Auditand
of annual physical & fiscal resource
plan
monitoringplan
requirement.Tomonitorplanimplementation
withperformancemilestones.
To focus on project related investments, 520year
PrefeasibilityDetailedProject
costingandreturns&forthestudiesrequired
&feasibility Report
priortoorpostplanformulation.
study
This should be a continuous process to
support planning and implementation at all
stagesandpromotesinnovationinpractice.

MasterPlan
CityUtility
(30years)

Revised
Development
Plan

Ward
CoastalZone
Committee
MgmtPlan
Plan
1.4.1.
CitySanitation Disaster
Plan(asper Management
JnNURM)
Plan(asper
NDMA)

Urban
Redevelopment
Plan
1.4.2.
Slum
Redevelopment
Plan
(asperRAY)

Schemes&
Subprojects

Projectsuchas:
Riverfront
development
projects

Surveys&
Studies

1.4.3.
Tourism Environmental Heritage
Master Conservation Conservation
Plan
Plan
Plan

Note:ConsultativemeetingsandtheregionalworkshopsduringURDFIformulationhavepointedouttheneedtoreviewtheplanperiodof20yearsandextendthesameto30years.
Howevergeneralconsensuswasinthefavourof20years.Intermittentreviewin5yeargapwouldberequired.

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

Introduction

1.5.

Scopeandpurposeofvariousplans

Theneedandrolesforthespecificplancategory,namely,PerspectivePlan,Regional
Plan, Development Plan, Master Plan, Local Area Plan, Special Purpose Plan and
Annual Plan, thereby resolving gaps in the planning system is detailed in the
followingsection.

1.5.1. PerspectivePlan
Developing a vision for region is essential for policy framework. The vision
stipulates direction of growth and identification of resource potential and
innovations to be adopted for thethrust areas of development. It integrates broad
level plan with the regional or development plan. A realistic vision helps policy
formulationandpreparationofPerspectiveplan.
Perspectiveplandefinesthevisionandfocusesonthespatioeconomicdevelopment
policies,strategiesandprogrammestowardstheintendeddevelopmentoftheState.
The Perspective Plan of a State could include State UrbanisationPolicy and State
Land Utilisation Policy. The plan is based on state resource mapping and analysis
andassessmentofpotentialresources.Itaddressesthelongtermpoliciesregarding
development of infrastructure and resource mobilisation. The scope of this plan
covers the social, economic, environmental and spatial development goals, policies
andprioritiesrelatingtotheactivitiesthathavespatialandfinancialimplications.
The purpose of a perspective plan is to provide an overall framework for
preparation of detailed plans. Therefore it serves as a guide for urban local
authoritiesandregionaldevelopmentauthoritiesinpreparationoftheregionaland
developmentplans.

1.5.2. RegionalPlan
For planned and sustainable development of the human settlements, the regional
planningapproachneedstobepromoted.Theplanningregionscouldbeclassified
underthreeheads:
(a)AdministrativeRegions,whichcanbeDistrictRegionsorMetropolitanRegions
aspertherecommendationsofthe73rd&74thConstitutionalAmendmentAct,
(b) Investment Regions, which can be new investment manufacturing zones,
industrial and freight corridors, special investment regions etc. They could be
identifiedunderNationalActs/policies,
(c)Specialregions,whicharesensitiveintermsofenvironment/socioeconomicor
politicalaspects.
States undertake Urban and Regional Planning under a variety of statutes such as
theTownandCountryPlanningAct,MunicipalLaws,Urban/MetropolitanPlanning/
DevelopmentAct,ImprovementTrustAct,IndustrialDevelopmentAct,Cantonment
BoardAct,MajorPortsActetc.Oftentheselawsaremutuallyexclusive.Forinstance,

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

Introduction
a Master Plan for a city would exclude the lands covered under the Industrial
DevelopmentAct,eventhoughthelandswouldbeadjacentandthemovementofthe
people and of the economic activities may be seamless. This leads to suboptimal
planningforlanduseaswellasforinfrastructure.Itis,therefore,suggestedthatthe
principlesforspatialplanningrecommendedbytheseguidelinesareextendedtoall
areas, whether administered by the regular administrative system of the State
Government or by special laws such as for the ports, cantonments, railways,
industrial zones etc. Furthermore, the concepts of regional planning enunciated in
these guidelines should be extended to all contiguous areas that are socially,
economicallyorfunctionallyinterdependent.Forinstance,aciviliantownandthe
adjoiningport/cantonment/railwayareashouldbecoveredbyanumbrellaregional
plan,eventhoughtheactualauthorityforadministrationoftheindividualpieceof
landwouldcontinuetovestwiththerespectiveorganisation,suchasthePortTrust,
Cantonment Board, Railway Administration, etc. At times, even certain
infrastructurecouldbeplannedanddevelopedinaregionalsetup.Forinstance,the
roadnetwork/mobilityplan,orthedrainageplancouldmoreefficientlybeexecuted
in a regional set up, rather than limiting to the jurisdiction of the statutory
authoritiesadministeringtheirrespectivelands.
Thiswouldalsocallfornotificationofregionalplanningauthorities,forregionsthat
have contours defined by seamless connectivity of people and economic activities.
Typically, a town in the vicinity of a industrial zone (SEZ etc.) should become the
node for notification of a Regional Planning Authority (RPA), wherein the region
would be defined to include the town, the nearby SEZ and the adjoining villages.
Similarly, a Port Area and it adjoining city and villages should put together be
notified as a Region, with a RPA duly notified to prepare a regional plan and
coordinate/ oversee the implementation of the regional plan. Such RPA may be
chairedbyaseniorofficer,suchastheDistrictCollectoror couldevenhaveafull
time officer. Senior representatives of the various authorities administering the
constituent areas (ports, villages, cantonment, SEZ etc.) should be represented on
theexecutivebodyoftheRPA.
Similar RPAs may be notified for tourist areas, religious places and the influence
zones of the transit corridors such as national/ state highways, expressways, and
waterways. Areas including and surrounding the airports may also be similarly
notified for planned regional development. It would also be desirable to regularly
monitor the contours of such RPAs and expand the same, as per need. The State
Town&CountryPlanningActsmaybesuitablymodifiedtoenableformationofsuch
authorities. Till such time such statutory arrangements are put in place, the State
GovernmentcouldissueexecutiveordersconstitutingsuchauthoritiesandMinistry
ofUrbanDevelopmentcouldextendnecessarysupportforthepurpose,asrequired.
Regionalplanistobeacomprehensiveplanatanappropriatescale(district/inter
district,investmentregionorspecialarea)fortheintegrationofurbannodeswith

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

Introduction

the semiurban and rural areas. The plan is based on understanding of the
characteristicsoftheregionsuchasflowofpeople,goods,knowledgeandmoney.
Some states have comprehensive town and country planning legislation, which
providesforurbanplanninganddevelopmentinaregionalperspectivebeyondthe
city limits and coordinated with the overall framework of economic development,
priorities and resource availabilities. Regions, identified in the States, are to be
plannedholisticallyorassubregionsfortheholisticapproachofplanning.
The detailed planning of the urban nodes will be addressed by the development
plans at the next stage of planning, while the requirements of the region will be
addressedbytheregionalplantobringoutpoliciesfordevelopmentandbringingin
harmony between the different types of human settlements. Regional plan focuses
on balanced development and plan for hierarchy of settlements, both urban and
rural(intermsofitsgeographicalareacoverage),hierarchyofconnectivitynetwork,
road, rail, sea and airports and intermodal transport hubs, focuses on land
utilisation, resource mobilisation, environmental protection and disaster risk
management.

1.5.3. DevelopmentPlan
Development plan is a statutory plan prepared (under relevant Act) within the
frameworkofanapprovedperspectiveplan.Theobjectiveofadevelopmentplanis
to provide further necessary details and intended actions in the form of strategies
and physical proposals for various policies given in the perspective plan and
regionalplandependingupontheeconomicandsocialneedsand aspirationofthe
people,availableresourcesandpriorities.
Proposals of a development plan should be definite, supported by an
implementation strategy and evaluation criteria. It makes known publicly the
intention of the local authority regarding physical, social and economic
development,thefacilitiesandtheservicesthatareproposedtobeprovidedinthe
nearfuture.Theapproveddevelopmentplanallowsthelocalauthoritytoimplement
development of the land area specified under the plan with the help of local area
plansandprojects.
ThetimeframeoftheexistingDevelopmentPlansisforaperiodof20yearsbymost
oftheUrbanDevelopmentAuthorities/ULBs.Forgreenfieldcities,alongerplanning
periodcanbeconsidered,alignedwiththeinfrastructurelifeof30years.
These plans should be in phases of 5 years, to make it convenient for periodic
reviews and revision. This 5year cycle could also be usefully coincided with the
State Five Year plans and State Finance Commissions recommendations, though
suchanalignmentneednotbemademandatory.Thetargetssetforeachphasecan
be assessed as the midterm review against the achievements at the end of each

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

Introduction
phase. For Greenfield area, phasing could include a Zero period for approvals,
institutionalsetup,initiallandpollingandrevisitinganystrategy.

1.5.3.1. MasterPlantobereferredasDevelopmentPlan
ThetermDevelopmentPlanisuseddifferentlyinStates.SomeStatesuseitforan
integratedmultisector plan, such as the District Development Plan. In some other
States, it isa statutoryland use plan, approved and adopted bythe local authority
anditsproposalsarepreciseanddefinite,notifyingthepropertyownersthemanner
in which their properties will be affected. The examples of the later type are the
Delhi Master Plan, Chennai Master Plan, Guwahati Master Plan, Ahmedabad
Development Plan, Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Plan and Bhopal
DevelopmentPlan.Here,boththeplans,DevelopmentplansandMasterplanshave
the same functions and impose similar controls, with variation in the use of
nomenclatures by States. Many states prefer and there is a growing consensus to
replacetheterminologyofMasterPlanwithDevelopmentPlan.
InareasundertheSchedule6oftheConstitution,landisnot directlyStatesubject
such as in the NorthEastern (NE) States, where land title is based on community
ownership.TheapproachtolandaspectsoftheDevelopmentPlanmaybedifferent
in such cases. Therefore, a Structure Plan approach to land management may be
appropriateinordertoallocatelandfordifferentlandusesinurbaninfrastructure
etc.
In such cases or otherwise, Structure Plan is to serve as a planning tool which
directsthegrowthandzonesofplanning,butisnotaspreciseasthedevelopment
plan(suchastheStructurePlanforBangaloreMetropolitanRegion).StructurePlans
may be considered as an overarching Development plan for Metropolitan Regions,
allowingbroadframeworkandflexibility.

1.5.4. LocalAreaPlan
Thethrustofmicroplanningshouldshifttolocalareaplans,whichcouldencourage
decentralisationandimproveimplementationofDevelopmentPlans.Inviewofthe
73rd and 74th CAA, planning decision and implementation of plans should be
disaggregated in order to bring the process closer to the local people. This would
enhancethesignificanceofLocalAreaPlans.
Localareaplansaretobepreparedtoguidethedevelopmentorredevelopmentof
land,conservationofbuildingsandphysicalfeatures,providingimprovementsinthe
physical layout, making infrastructure and amenities available and managing the
areatoenhancehealthandsafetyoftheresidentstosupporteconomicdevelopment
as well as to enhance the quality of living, environment, and for area specific
regulatoryparametersiii(seeendnote)fortheareacovered.

10

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

Introduction

Local area plans need to specify the implementation details to comply with the
Government Policies, such as housing, hitech townships, rainwater harvesting,
energy,disastermanagement,industrialandservicesectorinvestment,barrierfree
environmentfortheelderlyandthephysicallydisabled,eGovernance,tourismand
otherpoliciesandfacilitateformulationofspecificprojects.
Theplanshoulddelineatereservationoflandforroadsandotherpublicpurposes,
forconstruction,reclamationetc.Theplanshouldprovideaframeworkforrecovery
of the associated costs for public projects, by mechanisms like levy of betterment
charges,chargesonadditionaldevelopmentrights,andappropriateusercharges.

1.5.5. SpecialPurposePlan
SpecialPurposePlancanbepreparedforspecificdevelopmentsectorsdependingon
itseconomicandenvironmentalimportance.Dependingontheurgencyoftheneed
and priority of the sector requiring special treatment and covering special aerial
extent,SpecialPurposePlansforspecificsubjectscanbeprepared.However,these
plans are to be within the framework of the Regional Plan, Development Plan or
LocalAreaPlaninthejurisdictionofthelocalauthority.
Theseplansmayalsoemergetoservethepurposeofurbanplanningneedsunder
different Central and State Government grants, funding schemes iii(see endnote) /
programmeswithanaimto:
Encourage reforms and fast track planned development of cities, periurban
areas,outgrowths,urbancorridors,andothers,
Scaleup delivery of civic amenities and provision of utilities with emphasis on
universalaccesstotheurbanpoor,
Specialfocusonurbanrenewalprogramme,
SupplementtobudgetdocumentsonULBs,
Sustainability,Environmentalandheritageprotection,
Themebaseddevelopmentsuchastourism,ITetc.

1.5.6. AnnualPlan
AnAnnualPlanwouldcontainthedetailsofthenewandongoingprojectsthatthe
local authority intends to implement during each financial year for necessary
financialresourcemobilisationandmonitoringitsperformance.
The annual plan is to be prepared by the local authority in each financial year to
identify the new projects, which the authority will undertake for implementation
during the year, taking into account the physical and fiscal performance of the
precedingyear,thepriorities,thepoliciesandproposalscontainedintheapproved
RegionalPlan,DevelopmentPlanorLocalAreaPlan.

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

11

Introduction
The annual plan is intended to provide the resource requirement during the year
and sources of funds including those mobilised by the local authority, grants, aids
andproject/schemefundsbytheStateandCentralGovernments.
It is thus an important document for the resource mobilisation as on the basis of
this, the plan funds are to be allocated by the funding body. This plan, therefore,
servesasanimportantlinkwiththebudgetaryprocess.Annualplansalsoprovidea
mechanismtomonitorprogressofdevelopmentplanandvariousprojects.

1.5.7. Project/Research
Projects are derived targets of the sequences of plans, which focus on items of
execution,investments,costingandreturns.Conceivedwithintheframeworkofthe
Perspective plan, Development plan or any of the plans in the planning system,
projectsaretheworkinglayoutswithallsupportinginfrastructureanddocuments
including cost, source of fund and recovery providing all necessary details for
executionincludingfinance,development,administrativeandmanagement.
These projects could be for any area, old or new, any activity or land use like
residential, commercial, industrial, recreational, educational or health related, or
infrastructuredevelopment,separatelyorinanintegratedmanner;forresearchand
development in the field of planning, key surveys to determine statistics, by any
agency such as government, semigovernment, private or even individual; or any
agency prepared by town planners, architects, engineers as the case may be,
enjoyingmaximumfreedomofexpressionintheirdesignwithinthestipulationsof
development promotion rules and other regulations as applicable. Research,
specifically for background studies preceding Perspective Plan, Regional Plan,
Development Plan or even Local Area Plan formulation may be undertaken as
requiredbytheStateGovernmentandlocalauthorities.Specifically,trafficsurveys
&relatedstudiestocollectcurrentstatisticsarecrucialformakingdecisionsinplan
formulation.
(Detailsonthecontentsoftheplanssuggestedaboveintheplanningsystemaregiven
subsequentlyinChapter2PlanFormulation.)

1.5.8. Interrelationshipamongvariousplans
Taking into account the entire planning process and also incorporating the
suggestedplanningsystem,Figure1.1showstheinterrelationshipofthedifferent
plans, directly or indirectly related to the land development, at various levels
rangingfromnationaltoatransitionalurbanarea.
A Perspective Plan is formulation of development strategy generally at the State
levelorattheregionallevel.ThisisdetailedfurtherinRegionalPlanorSubRegional
Plan as the case may be and in Development Plan. Perspective Plan should be a
guiding document for planning. It could also specify the regional planning

12

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

Introduction

authorities,urban/localareaplanningauthorities,regulatoryauthoritiesintheState
and those responsible for preparing plan at various levels. The State Urbanisation
Planshallgiveastockoftheurbanisation,planningstatusandespeciallyoftheland
suitability.
Regional Plans are to be prepared at district and metropolitan region level, and
whereeconomicregionsareformulated.Thisisthelinkagefor aggregationofplan
proposalsforconsolidationandintegrationofphysicalandfiscalplanningeffortsat
District, Metropolitan area, State and also at National level (in case of interstate
regions).AsFigure1.1depicts,integrationanddisaggregationofpolicies,resources
intheplanningsystemoccursatthelevelofRegionalandDevelopmentPlan.
Figure1.1:RelationshipofthePlanningSystem

DevelopmentPlanandMobilityPlanneedtobeintegratedtoensuretransportation
oriented spatial planning. It needs to be emphasised here that urban plans should
not be considered in isolation from its region as each urban centre is part of a
regional system of the settlement which in turn play their respective roles in the
process of development of the region as a whole. The Development Plan shall
provide policies and development proposals, which are detailed in the local area
plantoagreaterscale.Thisinterrelationshipbetweenplanningsystemisthekeyto
implementation; hence DevelopmentPlanand LocalArea Plan should be prepared
inclosecoordination.
However,areasthatrequirespecialplanwithintheframeworkofthedevelopment
plan or planning for specific purpose should be prepared only when the need
arrives.Thefundingschemes,suchasJnNURM,RAY,havesignificantroleinthenew
planningsystem,whereCityDevelopmentPlan,ComprehensiveMobilityPlan,City
Sanitation Plan, Slum Redevelopment Plan, Disaster Management Plan are to be
formulated.Amongall,ComprehensiveMobilityPlanshouldbepreparedalongwith
theDevelopmentPlan,whileCitySanitationPlan,CityDevelopmentPlanshouldbe
preparedinlinewiththeDevelopmentplan.

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

13

Introduction
Project reports and Annual plans are necessary requirements of the planning
system. These are directly interrelated with each other and are vertical with the
entire planning system. Implementation of all intended developments is linked to
this stage and hence these can be prepared following any of the above mentioned
stages.

1.6.

SustainableUrbanandRegionalDevelopment

The urban and regional plans, in all its forms and dimensions, should focus on
sustainability, from financial, social, governance/ managerial and environmental.
Financialsustainabilityistobeachievedbyworkingoutthedetailsofthecapital
and operational costs and the options to recover the same adequately. Each
development project enhances the economic stature of the influence zone and,
accordingly,thedevelopmentactivitiesinsuchinfluencezone shouldbesubjectto
development charges, computed to recover the capex over the project lifecycle.
Similarly,theuserchargesshouldpayfortheoperationalexpenses.Indetermining
suchcharges,crosssubsidiescouldbeprovidedfor.
Socialsustainabilityrelatestoinclusion,i.e.,theprojectshouldprovidebenefitto
allresidentsintheinfluencezoneequitably.Itshouldalsobebasedonidentification
ofthegainersandlosersfromtheprojectandtoensurethatthegainersaresubject
todevelopmentandotherchargesthatcouldbepassedoninanappropriateformto
thelosers.
Governance/managerialsustainabilitywouldrequiretheprojecttomeetallthe
statutory and regulatory requirements and also to have adequate capacities
developed with the local authorities concerned for maintaining the project
effectivelyandefficientlythroughouttheprojectlifecycleatreasonablecosts.
Environmental sustainability would require, for instance, zero landfill for solid
wastemanagementprojects.Infact,eachprojectshouldaimatimprovementinthe
environment,ratherthanonminimisingthedamage.
The sustainability issues have been highlighted in numerous policy documents
includingtheTwelfthFiveYearPlan,whichrecommendsforstrengtheningurban
governance structure/ Local Bodies, augmenting the soft infrastructure including
systemcapacities,inclusivegovernance,environmentalsustainabilityandenhanced
attention to urban renewal as well as to regional approach to planning. These
frameworks have been further detailed in the National Mission for Sustainable
Habitat.

1.7.

StateLandUtilisationPolicy

StateLandUtilisationPolicywouldneedtobedefinedatthePerspectivePlanLevel,
which should be as per the guiding framework of National Land Utilisation Policy,
2013 (draft version is currently in place), brought out by the Department of Land

14

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

Introduction

Resources,MinistryofRuralDevelopment,fordifferentstateskeepingincontextthe
statespecificneeds,potential,prioritiesandlegalprovisions.
The (draft) National Land Utilisation Policy, 2013 takes into consideration the
predominant (existing or scientifically established) functions of land serving the
needs of people, environment as well as different sectors of economy and
development. Also, the Policy takes into consideration the existing laws and
approachesthatgovernlanduses.Itsuggeststhatthelandinthecountrybedivided
into Land Utilisation Zones1 (LUZs) based on the predominant use of those lands.
Here, each state should formulate the strategy of land development in a spatial
conceptplan.ThefollowingsixtypesofLUZsareindicated:
1. PredominantlyRuralandAgriculturalAreas;
2. AreasUnderTransformation;
3. PredominantlyUrbanAreas;
4. PredominantlyIndustrialAreas;
5. PredominantlyEcologicalAreas,LandscapeConservation&TourismAreas,

HeritageAreas1;
6. MajorHazardVulnerableAreas.

ItmaybedesirabletofurtherclassifyareasunderthePredominantlyUrbanAreas
LUZ,whereurbandevelopmentistobepromoted,toberestricted/controlledorto
beprohibited,asperthesituation.
The perspective of the State, the state resource mapping and LUZs would set the
foundation of the longterm policies regarding development of infrastructure and
resourcemobilisationforthelanduseplan.

1.7.1. LanduseTransportIntegration
Inthepastdecades,urbansprawlhasresultedintolossofhighqualityagricultural
land and open space, fragmentation of ecosystems, spatially segregated uses
inducing high dependency on private vehicle use and unfavourable conditions for
publictransport.NationalUrbanTransportPolicy(NUTP),2006hashighlightedthe
need for integrating land use and transport planning. Land transport integration
benefits in making investment decisions in transport infrastructure and services,
which in turn are linked to economic, social and environmental outcomes. It also
helps in determining the optimal use of land in the influence zones of the transit
corridors. Land transport integration would involve two mutually supportive
processes:

LUZ to be considered for eco-tourism, sea and river front natural vegetation areas and protected forests.

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

15

Introduction
Organizing the physical form and land use pattern of a city such that the
traveldemands,triplengthsandtraveltimesareminimized,whileaccessibility,
comfortandefficiencyaremaximized.
Organizing all systems of transportation from pedestrian pathways to mass
transit systems such that they integrate well with eachother and enable the
harmoniousestablishmentoflandusearoundthem,intheprocessgeneratinga
cityformthatissustainable2.
Conventional development plans for Indian cities have a statutory requirement to
plan land uses and channelize growth, whereas transportation plans are not
statutoryandworkwiththemandateofarrivingatregionalandlocallevelprojects
for improving mobility. Thus, URDPFI Guideline suggests the shift from such an
approach to explicitly regarding interactions between various land uses/ activity
subsystems and transportation. Therefore, Comprehensive Mobility Plans (CMPs),
first mooted under the JnNURM, are to be integrated with all development plans
bridgingthetransportationprojectsandstatutorylanduseplanning.3
Transportnetworksareamongthemostpermanentelementofcities,whichchange
very slowly over decades or centuries. While, buildings are the second most
permanentelementofcities,withlifetimeofhundredsofyears,butcanbeadapted
tochangesthroughrefurbishmentbuttheintegrationofthetwoshapestheurban
formofasettlement.

1.7.2. TransitOrientedDevelopment(TOD)
The integration of land use with transport systems is called Transit Oriented
Development, which is essentially any development, macro or micro that is
focusedaroundatransitnode,andfacilitatescompleteeaseofaccesstothetransit
facilitytherebyinducingpeopletoprefertowalkandusepublictransportationover
personalmodesoftransport4.Thisentailsplanningforcompactcitiesandreducing
urban sprawl and dependency on the large scale developments in the periphery
which induce shift from nonmotorizedto motorized modes of travel. Approach to
TOD highly depends on establishing mixed landuse zone as part of strategic
densification.Thepolicyincludes:
Network & Connectivity: Disperse high traffic volumes over multiple parallel
streetsratherthanconcentratingtrafficonfewmajorarterialroads.Createafine
network of streets through urban design that provides choice of routes for all
modes,reducingdistancesbetweenplacesaswellasjourneytimes.
Lastmileconnectivity:Providefast,convenientinterchangeoptionsandspatial
provision for various modes of Intermediate Public Transport (IPT) at

3
4

A framework for this purpose is provided in the Toolkit for Land Use Transport Integration and Density of Urban Growth
brought out by the Ministry of Urban Development under the Sustainable Urban Transport Project (2013).
Ibid.
Draft UTTIPEC Guidelines, 2012

16

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

Introduction

Multimodal Transit Station for seamless travel. Provide multiple mode choices
for lastmile connectivity at various prices and comfort levels. Also, if possible,
eliminatetheneedofIPTbydesignandengineering5.
Pedestrian access: Provide the shortest direct route to pedestrians and non
motorisedmodestostationaswellasbetweenbuildingblocks.
High Density, MixedIncome Development: Compact neighborhoods for
shortercommutesandequityforallsectionsofsociety.Mixofcompatibleuseto
promote24houractivity.
StreetscapeDesign:Urbanplacesshouldbedesignedforenjoyment,relaxation
and equity. Pedestrian and bicycle friendly designated space for all activities.
Keepinginviewthepreventionofheatislandeffectsfromwideandopenstreets,
byproperstreetandlandscaping.
Promote Place Making to Create a Sense of Place: Focus on promoting
liveability,qualityanduniquenessofeachspace
Direct Business to TOD Locations: Create transit services to regional job
centers,focusjobcreationinvestmentsintransitservicedlocations.
Publicfacilitiesatnodesofpublictransport:Planforpublicfacilitiessuchas
schools,universities,sportfacilities,stadiums,theatresandconcerthallsaround
nodesofpublictransport.
Function/Activities at nodes of public transport: Promote multifunctional
developments around nodes that are otherwise deserted in the evening or at
night.Planamixofdifferenttypesofusersandinhabitantstocreatealivelyand
safeplace.
Application of TOD is in context of scales in planning i.e. Regional context, Sub
regionalcontext,citycontextandareacontext.Itshallrequirearobustmethodology
forintervention6andwouldneedtobeplannedat(a)RegionalorSubregionallevel
and(b)CityorLocalAreaplanninglevel.
The context of TOD varies in respect to City Core areas, Peripheral areas and
Greenfield areas which are equally important and mutually dependent on
densification, redevelopment (in context of City Core areas), mode of public
transport and intermediate public transport and therefore uses of land in the
influencezone.However,inthesettingofbrownfieldcitieswheretransformationof
landuse and built form has experienced continuous change, the Development
Oriented Transport (DOT) may be used. DOT incorporates redevelopment or
readjustmentoftransitnetworkmediumsaspertransformationtakingplaceorhas
taken place in development. Detailed approach of identifying TOD influence zone

In case of China and Japan

Working paper on Transit Oriented Development, Embarq, India

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

17

Introduction
anditsplanningiscoveredin Chapter8andZonewiseTODmatrixisprovidedin
Table5.3
Besides, integrated urban development, TOD can benefit as an alternative revenue
generationsourcefrom:
FinancingofUrbanTransportprojectsbyUnlockingLandValuesasHigherFSIin
influencezoneofTransitcorridorswithintheframeworkoftheoverallplanning
guidelinestobepreparedbyrespectivestates.
Transit Corridors (Metro/ Mono Rail, BRTS, Ring Road) attracting economic
activitiesandleadingtoinducedurbandevelopmentwithlessefforts.
Landuse based financing sources along Transport Corridors. For example,
periodic revision of property guidance value, higher property tax along transit
corridors,impactfees,developmentcharges,conversionchargesandbetterment
charges.
If properly planned and implemented, TOD invariably promotes value added
activitiesincludingcommercialandservices.

1.7.3. FlexibilityinPlans
Statutorylanduseplanshaveimplicationsonthelanduseanddevelopmentcontrol
mechanism. Despite statutory backing, due to the controlled conventional (rigid)
approach, Development plans are not implemented fully and meaningfully. Plan
proposalestimateshavenotkeptpacewiththegrowingrequirementofcitiesorthe
aspirationsofthecitydwellers.
Development planning approach is to be for a flexible plan formulation for
facilitation and promotion of development in plan making and implementation,
where changes in landuse are tobe permitted only when necessary by specifically
appointed empowered body Urban and Regional Planning & Development
Authorities (suggested in the institutional reforms Section 3.6.1). These changes
may be guided by large developments, social interest and need for all. Further,
fixation of FAR/FSI, density should be based on more rational grounds and any
changes therein must be carefully planned. Preparation of City Investment Plan
shouldfacilitateeasierimplementationofDevelopmentplan.
For minor changes in the landuse, the planning system is to be improved to allow
flexibility in the Development Plans/Master Plans. Such as allowing mixed use of
land in the zoning regulation must consider the RoW of the abutting road for
industrialandother(residentialandcommercial)aspectsofmix.Verticalmixofuse
of land is an alternative approach for promoting flexibility and is suggested in
Section5.3.2.&9.2.

18

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

Introduction

1.7.4. LandtogeneratefundforInfrastructureDevelopment
The URDPFI Guidelines suggest the ways to augment financial resources for
implementation of the development/ spatial plan through various innovative
sourcesofrevenuegeneration.Formulationofspatialplanshouldbesuchthatthe
planisabletocreateeconomicgrowthandwhichcouldfundtheimplementationof
theplan.Amongthelanddevelopmentmechanism,townplanningschemesfollowed
inthestatesofMaharashtraandGujaratisasuccessfulcasetodemonstratefinancial
sustainability(costrecovery)oftheplan.
Many schemes and projects are conceptualised without proper technofeasibility
studiesorfinancialviabilityassessmentsandthereforeprojectsandresearchhave
beenintegratedintheplanningsystemnow.Consequently,inthePlan,thereisnot
muchappreciationoftheimplicationsofitsstandardsforcapitalcost,costrecovery
and maintenance by the municipalities and the state agencies. The Urban Local
Bodies(ULBs)mainlyinthesmallandmediumsizetowns,withoutexception,suffer
fromaveryweakresourcebase.Theirpercapitaincomeismuchlessthanthelevel
ofexpenditure,whichmakesitheavilydependentonexternalfundinginsteadofits
selfgeneratedrevenues.
To address such issues, fiscal resource generation from land, tax on vacant land,
regulationofunauthorisedinformaldevelopmentandunderutilisationofpermitted
FARcouldbesourceoffinancialresourcegeneration(refersection3.3),whichcan
be for dedicated urban development through an infrastructure fund. Here,
implementingagenciesneedtotreatlandasanassetforinfrastructuredevelopment
throughcapitalgain,stampduty,auctionandothermechanismsinconsensusofthe
StateFinanceCommission.

1.7.5. SustainableWasteManagement
International agencies working on zero waste have claimed that recycling rates of
75%andplushavebeenachievedbymunicipalitieslargeandsmallthroughoutthe
world. The Zero waste/Zero Landfill concept is gaining ground as being
practicably achievable in Indian cities too. Indian cities have the advantage of
significantrecyclingandreuseinthesolidwastemanagementsystem.Thosecanbe
improvedandcoordinatedwiththeviewtomovingtowardsZerowastescenarios.
Zero landfill can be achieved by adopting systematic approach of segregation at
source by planning, by collection facilitation and most importantly by public
awareness. The green waste can be converted into fuel cakes, kitchen waste into
manure, construction & demolition waste into bricks, plastic waste into oil, paper,
glass and steel back into the same and all residuary inert materials can also be
converted into bricks. Achieving zero landfill is more conveniently possible, if (a)
the collection is made from house to house and some segregation is done at
household level and (b) the recycling is done at decentralized, say, ward or even
lowerlevels.

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

19

Introduction
Besides solid waste, the effective management of waste water would result in
availabilityoftreatedwaterforreuse,captureofmethanegasforpowergeneration
and improvement in the quality of the environment. This could also be done in a
zerolandfillconcept.MoredetailsonSustainableWasteManagement,includingthe
normsforwastewateranditsreuse,aregiveninChapter8.

1.7.6. Inclusiveplanning
Development plan / Local area plans in India have not effectively earmarked
adequatelandandspacesfortheurbanpoor/informalsectorforresidentsorother
activities at affordable rate. In new townships and new developments of IT / BPO
Townships, Satellite Townships, SEZ, etc., where the space standards are normally
affluent, informal sector is significantly gaining recognition. Planning norms for
urban street vendors, the marginalised and the informal sector to be adopted and
developedfromthisguideline.Itisofutmostimportancetoprotecttheinterestof
urban poor by reserving space, extending legal title (ownership)and aboveall the
Master Plans/Development Plans to take this component into account. Hence,
Development Plan should allocate space with serious assessment of the
requirements of urban poor after ascertaining the ground realities with regard to
location of vendors, informal activities, slums and need for insitu redevelopment
/upgradation.NormsforinformalsectorandstreetvendorsaregiveninChapter8
andapproachtoaffordablehousingissuggestedinChapter5.
Theplacesofemploymentformostofthecitizensareoftenlocatedfarawayfrom
their place of residence, which discourages them from accessing the most suitable
employment.Whilethishandicapwouldbeapplicableforallsectionsofthesociety,
itismoresignificantforthewomenandotherweakersections,includingtheelderly
andthedifferentlyable.Theeffectivesolutionforthissituationliesintheshelter
transportlivelihood link, which ought to be made a cornerstone for planning.
Accessibility requires quality, attractiveness and safety of public spaces for
pedestrians,cyclistsandpeopleusingpublictransport.
Barrier Free Environment (refer section 8.8) is one way to enable people with
disabilitiestomoveaboutsafelyandfreelyandtousethefacilitieswithinthebuilt
environment7. In addition, to integrate the disabled and elderly persons fully into
thesociety,thesocialinfrastructurenormssuggestcodevelopmentofoldagehome
and orphanage facilities with appropriate infrastructure to be included in all the
plansespeciallyintheLocalAreaPlans.

1.7.7. DisasterRiskManagement
Over the past couple of years, the Government of India has brought about a
paradigm shift in the approach to disaster management. The new policy emanates
from the realisation that investments in mitigation are much more cost effective

Guidelines and space standards for Barrier Free Built Environment for Disabled and Elderly Person, CPWD, Ministry of
Urban Development (2013). Also recommended by UN Habitat.

20

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

Introduction

thanexpenditureonreliefandrehabilitation.Thisapproachhasbeentranslatedin
the URDPFI Guidelines in Chapter 6 for disaster planning, covering institutional
mechanisms,preparedness,responseandcapacitybuildingbothatStateandDistrict
level,especiallyfocusingoninclusiveplanning.
States, metropolitan areas, regions and cities need to collect data, information and
undertake mapping for all infrastructure, services and amenities to understand
requirementsandidentifygaps.Atthelocalplanningarealevel,spatialmapsneedto
be created to evaluate neighbourhood, streets and public spaces based on their
safety;comfortandconvenience(refersection2.2.4).

1.7.8. Speedingtheprocessofplanning&implementation
1.7.8.1. Simplifyingtheplanningprocess
As per the Strategy paper on master plan formulation, inclusive planning,
prioritization for housing and pedestrian movement, TCPO, there is a widely held
viewthattheurbandevelopmentplanningprocessinthepasthasbeenundulytime
consumingand largely confinedto the detailing of landuse aspects and projecting
micro level needs on long term basis when there were dynamic changes in very
short terms. In light to the concern, the State Governments would needto modify
therespectiveTown&CountryPlanningActsforthefollowing:
i.

Simplification of preparation of plan: making provisions in the Development


Plansfordetailingonlythefocusedkeysectorsandpreparationofthedraftfor
approvalinalimitedtimetooneyear,assuggestedbyTCPO.(referChapter2
onPlanFormulation).

ii.

Simplification in the implementation of plan: the plans to be easily


understandable&acceptable,minimizingconflictingrecommendationswithin
a plan, provision for translation of plans and related documents into
vernacularlanguages.

iii. Simplificationindatagathering:userfriendlyGISandremotesensingdatato
be sourced for simplifying the process for plan formulation by developing a
spatial data base useful for planning, decision making and implementation
decision(referChapter7forSimplifiedPlanningTechniques)
iv. Simplification of approval/schemes: improving the approval process by
developing citizens charter, approval mechanism for the change in landuse
permissions and by developing regulatory body at State and/or local area
planning level to bridge the gap between approval and implementation.
Provision of Interim development order 8in between the period of plan
formulationtoimplementationcanbeconsidered.

Kerala Town & Country Planning Ordinance, 2013

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

21

Introduction
v.

Better public participation: The State planning provisions to be modified to


emphasizeoninvolvementofpublicatearlystages,formulationofGrievance&
Redresssystemtoaddressthepublicgrievancesandbringingtransparencyin
accountingsystem.ItissuggestedtoinvolveResidentialWelfareAssociations
in Local area plans (LAPs) and ULBs to use modern tools for awareness
throughwebsites/onprojectsites.

Foremost, during the plan formulation, roles and responsibilities for the
implementationoftheplanaretobewelldefinedinordertoachievethemilestones
as per the action plan and to bring in transparency in the implementation system.
Further, during plan evaluation and monitoring, citizens charter should to be
involved,fortransparencyandaccountability.
In case of inadequacy in the manpower capacity with the Government bodies for
planning, outsourcing to nongovernmental and private organisation could be
consideredasanoption,butassuggestedbyTCPOLocalBodiesandDevelopment
AuthoritiesoftheStatesneedtotakenecessarystepsinthedirectionandtakealead
toensurethatallthecitiesandtownsoftheStatehavestatutoryMasterPlansbythe
end of the XII Five year plan. For this purpose, boost to the training of the new
planners and provision of adequate planning schools is imperative, since the
planningtask,complexandinterdisciplinaryasitis,mustbedoneonlybyqualified
planners.

22

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

P
PlanFormu
ulation

2
2.1
1.

Plan
nFormulation
n
PlanningPrrocess

Spaatial develo
opment planning is a continu
uous, timeoriented, cyclic process and
sho
ould be seeen and practised
p
as a proccess where planningg, implem
mentation,
mon
nitoring,reeviewandp
planupdattinggoonaasadynam
micprocess.Inthispro
ocess,the
deccision to prrepare a plan
p
is outsside the cy
ycle of planning proccess. The following
f
diaggramportrraysthegen
neralproceessofplann
ning.
Figu
ure2.1: Gen
neralProcesssofPlannin
ng

Follo
owingaretheestagesofplaanningproceess:
DevelopmenttofAimsand
dObjectives
Identification
nofsiteneed
ds
Identification
nofprojected
dneeds
Planformulaation
Inclusiveplanning
Statutoryoblligations
Decentralisattionofplanaapprovalproccess
Peoplespartticipation
Planmodificaation
Reviewandrrevisionofplans.

2.1
1.1. Aim
msandO
Objectivees
Theeaimoftheplanisa broadand
dgeneralstatementindicatingtthedecisio
onsofthe
poliicy makerss, aspirations of the people
p
and
d needs of the commu
unity. For example,
Toprovidejob
bopportun
nitiesforalllisastatementofaim
ms.
Objectivesareespecificsttatementsiindicatingtthewaysaandmeans ofachievin
ngtheset
aim
ms taking into accoun
nt the pottentials. Fo
or examplee, for the aim relateed to job
opp
portunities,,theobjecttivescouldbe:
Provisiono
ofjobsthro
oughdevelo
opmentofiindustries/commercceortrade;;

DPFIGuidelin
nes,2014.MiinistryofUrb
banDevelopment
URD

23

PlanFormulation
Provisionofincentivesandinducements(specific)toindustries;
Provisionsofinformalsectoreconomicactivitysitesaspartofcommercialareas,
andsuchothers.
Theaimsandobjectivesformulationexercisecomprisesthefollowingsteps:
1. Identification of values cherished by and needs of various stakeholders
includingcitizens,administrators,professionals,politicians,andothergroupof
people.
2. Identificationofaimsincorporatingthevalues.
3. Identification of criteria that further defines each aim to form basis for
formulationofobjectives.
4. Formulationofobjectives,whichcouldbefurtherdefinedasdesignobjectives
andimplementationobjectives.

2.1.2. IdentificationofSiteNeeds
Forcomprehensivespatialplanningandintegrationofthesectoraldevelopment,site
specificneedsaretobeidentifiedinthebeginningoftheplanningprocess.Thereport
of the Working Group on Urban Strategic Planning (12th Five year plan), states that
duetoLackofComprehensivePlanningApproach,haphazardgrowthandproliferation
of slums around industrial locations, periurban areas and randomly located new
developmentssuchasSEZsandtownshiphastakenplace.
Diverse ground conditions and interrelationships in settlements require different
strategiesforspatialplanning.Thegrowthpotentialandspecialfunctionsperformed
bytheurbancentressuchasmarketing,industrial,tourism,pilgrimcentresetc.need
tobeexplicitlyrecognized.
Atthisstageoftheplanningprocess,thesiteneedsshouldbeidentifiedbasedonthe
typologyofurbandevelopmentsuchasportcity,oldcity,industrialtownships,peri
urbanareas,corridordevelopment,regionaldevelopmentandaccordinglythevision
needs to be prepared. Table 2.1 throws light on some sitespecific features for
studying urban and regional settlements while planning. The list is comprehensive
butnotexhaustive.
Table2.1: SiteSpecificNeedsofFewCityTypes
Indicators

PortCity

Common
Indicators

Regional Settings & connectivity, Historical background, Location Analysis, Demography, Socio
economicAnalysis,Environmentalprofile,LandProfile,KeyDevelopmentalIndicators,Infrastructure,
ProposedDevelopments,Existingregulations,Administrativeprofile.

SiteSpecific
Indicators

Cargoandlogistics,
Railways,Coastal
features/detailsof
theport,Analysisof
primaryeconomic
activities,e.g.
fishing.

24

IndustrialCity

LogisticsandTransportation,
Infrastructure,analysisof
Environmentalparameters
(pollution),Common
TreatmentFacilities,
Hazardousandnon
hazardouswastedisposal
system.

PeriUrbanArea

Realestate,Housing,
Landuseconversion,
Naturalfeatures,
Analysisofsocio
economicprofile/
Primaryeconomic
activitye.g.agriculture.

OldCity

Density,Landuse,
Builtup,Socio
Economicprofile,
Infrastructure
status,Household
industries,Parking
andHeritage.

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

PlanFormulation

Thestageofidentificationofsiteneedsshouldbetakenasbaselinestudyphase.As
this stage has implications on the following stages, a broadbased study should be
doneforidentificationandincorporationofasmuchaselementsthatarespecificto
the settlement and are likely to have impact on the future development of the
settlementstopreparesoundproposals.

2.1.3. IdentificationofProjectedNeeds
After identification of site needs, the next stage in the process of planning is
identification of projected requirements of various activities, supporting
infrastructure and land as the basic input for plan formulation. It is this stage of
planningwhichwouldrequiremostofthetime.Thus,thereisneedtominimisethe
time taken at this stage. In this context, it is emphasised that primary surveys and
studiesshouldberationallychosensothatitsavestimeandminimisesdelaysinthe
process.Thechoiceoftechniqueofsurveys,analysis,synthesisandprojectionsshould
also be such that it is effective and time saving (refer Chapter 7 for choosing the
planningtechniques).

2.1.3.1. GapsandProjections
Expansion or development of settlement necessarily requires corresponding
provision of infrastructure to support residents and economic activities. Thus,
infrastructure gap analysis should be carried out mandatorily while preparing the
plan. Infrastructure gap can be assessed on the basis of remaining life of existing
infrastructureandcoverageofinfrastructureagainstbenchmarks.Specialfocusmust
be paid to the transport infrastructure at this stage. Detailed study/ research of
different modes of transportation and their corridors should be carried out to find
abouttraveldemandandpatternoftheplanningarea.Usingpublicconsultationsand
carrying capacity techniques (further elaborated in Chapter 7), current or future
requirementsininfrastructurecanbeidentified.Thebackgroundstudyofstandards
andguidelinesfordisastermitigationshould becompletedtofindoutthegapsthat
mayexistincityinfrastructure,landscapeandadministration.
Aimsandobjectivesofthestudyshouldalsobeconsideredatthislevelforsettingup
priorities of development. To incorporate the element of sustainability in human
settlement planning and development, environmental and infrastructural carrying
capacity study of the planning area alongwith detailed assessment of space
requirementsmustbecarriedoutatthisstage.Thecapacitytoholdthepopulationis
anindicatorforinfrastructureprojection.
Population projections can be carried out based on past trends, employment and
induced growth (of the future proposed economic activity of the land). The
correspondingneedsofthehumansettlementsoninfrastructure aretobeprojected
(refer Chapter8). Priorities for planned development are identified through norms

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

25

PlanF
Formulation
and stan
ndards for buildings,, provision
n of services and inffrastructure provided
d by
nationalagencies,n
nationalan
ndstatelevelprogram
mmesandpolicies.

2.1.3.2. Consulttation
Public participatio
p
on is the key
k to plan
nning exerrcise and hence
h
diffeerent group
p of
stakehollders shoulld be consulted to kn
now the needs and finalise
f
thee prioritiess for
projectio
ons.Differeentdemogrraphic,sociial,econom
miccategoriiesofstakeeholderscanbe
prepared
dforwiderangingpu
ublicparticcipationsucchasrepreesentativesfromagen
ncies
and institutions involved
i
i plannin
in
ng and deevelopmen
nt of the area, elected
represen
ntatives,associations,expertsinthesectorsandtheresidentpublic.
Figure2.2: IdentificattionofProjecctedRequirem
ments

2.1.4. PlanFo
ormulatiion
Based on
n planningg techniquees, planning theories//principless, norms an
nd standarrds
multiplealternativesofurban
nplanning conceptsm
mustbepreepared.Th
hislevelofp
plan
r
viision devellopment. At
A all scalees of plann
ning, land and
formulattion also requires
transporrtintegrationissuggeestedatthisstageofp
planning,w
whereinaC
Comprehen
nsive
Mobility
yPlan(CMP
P)istobefo
ormulated..Alltransportationsu
urveysandstudiessho
ould
beunderrtakenindependently
ybythetraansportdeepartmento
orjointlyu
underJnNU
URM
orotherschemesb
beforethissstage.
Theopportunities forTransittOriented Developmentandmultimodal mobilityn
need
to be tak
ken into acccount. Usee of nonm
motorized traffic
t
optio
ons and pu
ublic transp
port
aretobeeoptimised.TheroleeofIntelliggentTrafficcSystem(IITS)andElectronic Road
R
Pricing (ERP)
(
has to
t be intro
oduced. To a large exxtent these issueswill define future
developm
mentpoten
ntialandth
hequalityo
oflifeincitiies.

26

URDPFIG
Guidelines,2
2014.MinistrryofUrbanD
Developmentt

PlanFormulation

2.1.4.1. VisioningExercise
The focus of the plan preparation exercise should be on ensuring adequate
stakeholderparticipationtoarriveatasharedvisionforthesettlements,withregard
toeconomicdevelopmentandqualityoflife.Thevisionthusarrivedshouldformthe
guiding principle for the Regional or Development plan. These would include inter
alia:
Economic Development Objectives (Increase in GDP, Income, Employment and
suchothers)
TransportationObjectives
UtilityServices(levelsandcoverage)Objectives
SocialInfrastructureObjectives
Safetyandsecurityofthecitizens
GrowthPattern/DesignObjectives
InvestmentProgram/SustainabilityObjectives
Others,ifany.
PlanningandDevelopmentAuthorityshouldclearlymentionina planastohowthe
plans are likely to benefit the dwellers in economic terms and in this context, the
calculationofeconomicbenefitsisgiveninChapter7.

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

27

PlanF
Formulation
Figure2.3: PlanForm
mulationProcess

AlternativeConceptPlans
2.1.4.2. PreparaationofA
The outccomes of the first thrree stages would yieeld a digitaal updated Basemap and
LandInfformationSSystem,accompletereeportonsttatusoftheeregion/cityestablish
hing
existing situationw
withregard
dsallelemeentsofdev
velopment, identificattionofareaasof
concern,,asharedv
visionand developmeentgoalsandobjectiv
ves.Thissh
houldform
mthe
inputforrformulationoftheplan.Theplanninghorrizonforth
heplanninggperiodsho
ould
beidentiifiedbased
donthereccommended
dplanningsystemandthecomp
ponentssho
ould
include:

28

URDPFIG
Guidelines,2
2014.MinistrryofUrbanD
Developmentt

PlanFormulation

Estimation of land requirement for different uses (refer Chapter 5 & 9 for
detailing).
Land suitability analysis: Environmental sensitive areas, social, economic and
others(referChapter7forfurthercontext).
Delineation of developable area based on environmental land suitability and
growthtrend.
Preparationofageneralactivitystructure.
Preparation of a conceptual land use plan as per the required scale (refer
Table7.7).
Asprojectionsareestimationsofanenvisionedpattern,deviationfromtheprojection
are always possible and hence projected figures should not be always treated as
absolute.Hereitisrequiredbyplannerstobuildalternativescenariosandsituations
whichmayhighlighttheextremitiesaspessimisticoroptimistic.
Thefollowingkeyremarkstobefocusedwhileformulatingtheplan:
a. Land is limited and a very important natural resource and must be utilized
vigilantly.Careshouldbetakenregardinginterrelationofvariousactivitiesand
land uses with each other. Land use to be planned most solicitously. New
conceptslikeCompactcities,mixedlanduseetc.canalsobeexplored,ifnotfor
theentirejurisdiction,thenfortheupcomingzonesatleast.
b. Deteriorating traffic conditions due to faster increasing travel demand in cities
haveimpactnotonlyonenvironmentbutalsooneconomybywastageofman
hours. Thus, to reduce the trip generation, land use and transport integration
should be made at the initial stage by incorporating TOD and mixed land use
concepts.
c. As a part of the plan implementation, a study regarding quality and quantity
manpower should be done and suggestions be made concerning human
resourcesrequirementforeffectiveimplementationofalltheaspectsoftheplan.
d. Verticalmobilityofthevulnerablesectionsofthepopulationmustbeintegralto
the planning goals. Inclusion of the women and population involved or
dependentontheinformalsectormustbeconsultedwhilepreparingplans.
e. Toprepareandimplementalltheaspectsoftheplanforthewholeplanperiod
requires steady flow of finance, otherwise the optimum outcome of the plans
cannot be realized. Thus, it is imperative to plan and map out all the financial
sources in the beginning of planning process so that plan proposals and
milestonestargetedcangetmaximumresults.Itshouldincludefinancialaspects
not only for plan implementation but also for plan preparation. At this stage,
revenue generation capacity of plan itself should also be defined with
measurablemilestoneagainstwhichplancouldbemonitoredandreviewedfrom
timetotime.
f.
Other parameters, based on which plan is prepared and projected for plan
periodshouldbeprovidedwithdistinctmeasurablemilestoneagainstwhichplan

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

29

PlanFormulation

g.

h.

i.

must be intermittently reviewed at interval of 5 years and finally evaluated at


thecompletionstage.Thiswillworkasinputfornextplanningprocessfromthe
previousplanperiod.
Remote Sensing and GIS technologies should be used to speed up the plan
formulationprocess.Largeamountofspatialandattributedatacanbeprocessed
through these platforms and alternate concepts of planning settlements can be
preparedinshortertimespan.ThedataavailablewiththeNRSC,SRSAC,Bhuvan
GeoportalandNUIScanbeutilisedfortheplanpreparation(referChapter7for
methodology).
Other elements like planning legislation, development promotion rules and
urbandesignfeaturesshouldalsobeincorporatedtopreparealternatives,which
willbefurtherdetailedastheproposedplan.
Green areas and related noneconomic activities to be preferably proposed on
Governmentlandtoavoidlossofeconomicbenefitoftheprivatelandowners.In
case such activities are proposed on privately owned land, the local authority
preparing the plan should provide a fair compensation as per law, to the land
owner.

2.1.4.3. SelectionamongAlternatives
Thenextlevelofplanformulationrequiresevaluationofallthealternativestoreach
oneselectedalternativethatwouldbeelaboratedtoprepareplanforthesettlement.
Atthisstage,focusedgroupdiscussionsorselectedrepresentativesdiscussioncanbe
arrangedasappropriate.Usuallyevaluationofalternativesresultintoanothernewly
developedconcept,whichderivesthebestfromalltheoptions.

2.1.5.

InclusivePlanning(furthertothesection1.10.8)

InclusivedevelopmentasperceivedbyCentralGovernmentin12 thand13thfiveyear
plansfocusesonbroadbasedimprovementinthelivingstandardsofallresidentsof
the country. 11th five year plans approach was Faster and more inclusive growth
while12thfiveyearplancalledforFaster,moreinclusiveandsustainablegrowth.
Inclusiveplanningmeansinfusionofvaryingaspects,whichleadtogrowthofwhole
societyintodevelopmentprocess,suchasintegratedtrunkinfrastructure,sustainable
development,povertyelevation,decentraliseddecisionmakingwithspecialemphasis
onwomen,elderlyanddisabledfriendlyinfrastructureandfinancialplanning.These
facets of development were not traditionally recognised distinctly. Thus, for overall
developmentofresidentsofhumansettlementsinIndia,inclusivityinplanningmust
befundamentalfeature.

30

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

PlanFormulation

Inclusive development in planning should have focus on the following parameters;


othersuch featurestopromoteinclusivityindevelopmentprocesscanbeidentified
basedontheneedsandrequirementsofsettlementsandtime9:
Inclusivegovernance:entiresystemmustfunctioninamanner,whichisseentobe
fairandinclusive.
InclusiveSustainabledevelopment:Developmentisaqualitativeindicatorrather
than quantitative. Development of human settlements should not be uni
directionalcausingenvironmentaldegradationintheprocess.Todirectgrowthon
sustainablemannerEnvironmentalImpactAssessmentshouldbeessentialpartof
developmentplansandprojects.
Inclusiveaccesstohealthcareandeducation.
For inclusive employment and regionally balanced growth, MSME should be
promotedthroughPlans.
DevelopingcapacitiesofInfrastructure:Infrastructureplaysanimportantrolein
growth and development of cities. It also promotes inclusivity in the society by
meansofeasyaccesstoservices.
Agriculture has been identified as very important for promoting inclusivity.
VariousLaws,PoliciesandGuidelinesmakeprovisionsthatagriculturallyfertile/
multicroppedlandbeacquiredaslastresort.Sameprovisionshouldbefollowed
whileplanningforhumansettlementstoo.
For holistic development of entire population, issues concerning the people
employed in informal sector, besides women, elderly and the disabled must be
includedintheentireprocessofplanpreparation.
The Plan should aim at creation of wealth and employment, in an inclusive and
sustainablemanner.
Water management including flood prevention, groundwater management,
rainwater harvesting, waste water treatment, recycling and reuse to be
encouraged.
Publicspacesarecrucialforpedestrianmovementandaccessiblepublicfacilities
havesignificantimpactonthequalityoflife.

2.1.6. StatutoryObligations
Numerous laws and policies made by the Central and the State Legislature and
Governmentsimpactspatialplans.Missingoutononeormoreofthesecouldcreate
seriousimpedimentforimplementationofthePlanatalaterstage.Therefore,atthe
stage of plan formulation, a study would need to be conducted to list out all
legislationsandtheirimpactontheplanformulationandimplementation,toensure
affirmationwithalltherelevantlaws.

Source: Eleventh Five Year Plan 2007-12 Volume-I; Twelfth Five Year Plan, 2012-17 Volume-I

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

31

PlanFormulation

2.1.7. DecentralisationofPlanApprovalProcess
Following the spirit of the 74th CAA and also recognising the fact that the current
process of approval of urban development plans is time consuming resulting into
delays,itisrecommendedthattheplanapprovalprocessbedecentralisedasfollows:
Table2.2: DecentralisedPlanApprovalProcess
Plan

Approvingauthority

Perspectiveplan

StateGovernment

RegionalPlan

StateGovernment/RegionalDevelopmentAuthority

DevelopmentPlan

MunicipalCorporation/DevelopmentAuthority/MPC

AnnualPlan

MunicipalCouncil/MunicipalCorporation/DevelopmentAuthority

ZonalDevelopmentPlan

MunicipalCorporation/DevelopmentAuthority/MPC

UrbanRevitalisationPlan

MunicipalCorporation/DevelopmentAuthority/MPC

CityDevelopmentPlan
(terminologytobechangedto
CityInvestmentPlan)

Asabove

ComprehensiveMobilityPlan

Asabove

CitySanitationPlan

Asabove

Projects/Research

MunicipalCorporation/DevelopmentAuthority/MPC

OncetheauthorityapprovestheDraftPlan,itcanbeputinpublicdomainasperthe
StateTown&CountryPlanningActforinvitingobjectionsandsuggestionsfromthe
publicandvariousstakeholders.

2.1.8. PeoplesParticipation
Theapproachofplanningshouldbeshiftedfromtopdowntobottomupapproachto
make planning process more inclusive, comprehensive, and sustainable. Greater
public acceptability is desirable, to ensure that plans are relevant. People can
participateinthedevelopmentprocessinthefollowingrealms:
Preplanparticipationindecisionmakinginvisiondevelopment,foridentification
ofdevelopmentpriorities.
Postplan participation before finalisation and implementation of development
programmesandpriorities.
Participationduringimplementationandevaluationofdevelopmentprogrammes
andproject.
Participationandsharingthebenefitsofdevelopment,managingtheassetsetc.
ePlatform and crowd sourcing are coming up as new modes of obtaining feedback
speedily.
Takingintoaccounttheinterest,attitudeandbehaviourofthepeople,roleofurban
development professionals and obligations of local authority, a system of
participatoryplanapproachhasbeensuggestedasunder:

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URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

PlanFormulation

Table2.3: ParticipatoryPlanningApproach
PlanningProcessSteps
Determininggoalsandobjectives
Datacollection
Designofcriteriaandstandards

Citizens&Citizen
Representative(s)

Urbandevelopment
professional(s)

Official(s)

Developingalternativeplans

Choosinganalternative

Modificationofplan

PlanApproval

Implementation

Monitoring

/O

Maintenance

/O

Detaileddesignofselectedplan

Feedback
=Majorrole,O=Facilitatingorsupportiverole

Source:CommunityPlanningAssistanceProgram,ArizonaDepartmentofCommerceandUDPFIGuidelines,1996.

The suggested indirect participation of the people is ensured through elected


representatives in the Municipal Council / Corporation and Ward committees. The
direct participation can be through individuals, citizens, neighbourhood, business,
consumerandothersuchgroups.
Thereareseveralmechanismsandavenuesforpeoplesparticipationavailabletoday,
fewofthesehavebeenpresentedbelow.Suchmechanismsandavenuescanbeused
to bring wider and more interactive participation of public in planning and
developmentalprocess10:
Community Design Charrettesiv(see endnote): It is a multipleday interactive
meetings, workshops and site walks/visits that fosters diverse and community
sourcedideas;
Advisory Committees: Committees made up of representatives guide planning
efforts over an extended period of time while regularly meeting during the
planningprocess;
LowCostDemonstrationsandTransformations: Use of blocks and day to day
objectstocreatealowcostmodelofproposalsforvisualunderstanding.Relatively
inexpensive temporary transformations are made to test the project and
experiencechanges.
FocusGroups:Allowsmallgroupsofstakeholderstoprovidetheirknowledgeofa
project area and discuss their concerns and issues with local authority staff,
planningconsultantsetc.
Other: Citizens report card, participatory mapping and participatory budgeting
etc.

10

Modification of - Participation Tools for Better Community Planning by Local Government Commission & The California
Endowment

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

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PlanFormulation

2.1.9. PlanModification
Once the plan is formulated, a draft is to be submitted to the State Government for
comments.Afterincorporatingcommentsintheplan,DraftPlanispublishedtoinvite
Objections and Suggestions (O&S) from the public. The process of inviting O&S
leading to final notification should be based on the provisions of the State Town &
CountryPlanningAct.

2.1.9.1. InbetweentheperiodofPlanformulationtofinalisation
Currently there is no legal provision by many of the States to control or record
landuse change in the period between preparation of Existing landuse map and
Gazette Notification of the approved Proposed landuse plan. The conversion of the
landuseisdoneaccordingtotheprovisionsofTownandCountryPlanningActand
Urban Development Act of States. The process and time frame varies from State to
State.
TheStateofKeralahasprovisiontomonitorlandusechangebetweenthementioned
periods of planning. According to the Kerala T&CP Ordinance, 2013, Interim
Development Order may be published by the local authority with the objective to
controltheinterimdevelopmentoflandincludedinanyplanningareanotified.The
expressionInterimDevelopmentmeansdevelopmentduringtheperiodbetweenthe
date of notification of intention to prepare a plan and the date of coming into
operation of the plan. Such orders must be approved by DPC or MPC. Further, the
planpreparationtimeshouldbeadequatetosupportInterimDevelopmentorder.

34

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

P
PlanFormu
ulation

Figu
ure2.4PlanM
ModificationP
Process

2.1
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dMonito
oringofP
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AR
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atSStatelevelsshouldbeeestablished
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and
dRegionalD
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n related
evaaluationparrametersco
ouldbeadd
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DPFIGuidelin
nes,2014.MiinistryofUrb
banDevelopment
URD

35

PlanFormulation
Table2.4: ParametersfortheEvaluationofPlans
S.No. EvaluationParameters

QuantitativebenchmarksagainstthePlantobeevaluated

Comparisonwiththeprojected
population

Comparisonofpopulationprojectedandthepresentpopulation

Comparisonofexistinglanduse
withtheplannedlanduse

Percentagedeviationfromtheplannedlanduseofthemajorand
minorchanges

Upwardtrendofeconomy

ContributionofsectorsofeconomyinGDPofthecity

Carryingcapacityofthedevelopedareavisavisperpersonland
availability

PerformanceofindividualsectorsespeciallyMSME
PerformanceofcityGDPincomparisontoState/NationalGDP
Workforceparticipationratio
Workersclassification
Incomegenerationandparticipation
Femaleemploymentratio
VerticalmovementofthepopulationfromBelowPovertyLine
orlowerincomegroupsofthepopulation
4

Fundsinvested

Percentageshareofexpenditurevisavisthephaseand/or
projectlifebudget
Numberofproposedprojectscompleted

5
6

Achievementsoftargetsin
Infrastructuredevelopment

ComparisonagainstbenchmarksprovidedbyNationalAgencies

DirectionofgrowthvsPlanned
growth

NumberofplannedTPSchemesorZonesdeveloped

Changeintheratioofinfrastructurecoverage
NumberofNonAgriculturalconversions

The basic objective of the review/ evaluation would be to assess the progress and
identify area of success, failure and conflicts to guide/correct the future course of
action.Thisisanimportantstepinthedynamicplanningprocess,whichhithertohas
not been effectively utilised. This activity should be made mandatory under the
respectiveT&CPActs.
Thefollowingsectionsprovidemoredetailsofvariousstagesofthisprocess.

2.1.11. PlanMonitoringParameters
TheplanmonitoringparametersshouldbestandardisedbyUrban/RegionalPlanning
DevelopmentRegulatoryAuthorityforthirdpartyevaluationandmonitoringreport
to be submitted annually. The key aspects of monitoring (apart from Table2.4) are
suggestedas:
Institutionalsetupoftheauthorityinplace(parametermayincludeadequate
staffandrequiredqualifications,health&safetynormsfollowed)
Changeinjurisdictionoftheplannedarea(parametermayincludeextentofthe
area)
Changeindensity(parametersmayincludepopulationdensity,builtupdensity)
Infrastructure development (parameter may include actual infrastructure
worksvisavistheproposedtargetsorbenchmarks)
Decongestion(parametermayincludereducedtraveltime)

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URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

PlanFormulation

Investments(parametermayincludeproposedinvestmentsundervariousheads
andactuals)
Public Participation (parameters may include formulation of citizens charter
anditsfunctioning)
Indicatorsofsuccessandindicatorsoffailures
MonitoringofperformanceisdetailedinAnnualPlangiveninsection2.2.6.

2.1.12. Evaluation&RevisionofPlans
The Perspective Plan, Regional Plan, Development Plan, Local Area Plan, Special
PurposePlanincludingtheComprehensiveMobilityPlanandCitySanitationPlanare
prepared usually for duration of 20 years, though some States have attempted even
for 30 years. However, in the context of fast evolving social, economic and
technologicaldevelopments,itwouldbedesirabletoreviewtheseplansregularly,at
theintervalof5yearsorso.Suchreviewsshouldalsoincorporatethechangesinlegal
frameworkandgovernmentpolicies,asarenotifiedfromtimetotime.However,care
shouldbetakenthattheprocessofrevisiondoesnottaketoolongandiscompleted
within6to10months.

AsregardsAnnualPlans,therewouldnormallybenoneedtoundertakeanyreview
per se. However, a review of previous years annual plan should be included in the
exercise of annual plan preparation. Performance of the projects/schemes
implemented by the local authority, as contained in the annual plan of the previous
yearshouldbereviewedintermsofachievementsofthephysicalandfiscaltargets.
This would ensure a continuous monitoring and review of actions taken by local
authority.Resultsofthereviewshouldprovideinputforperpetrationofnextannual
plan. The monitoring of the plans/projects should be regular so that time taken in
reviewandformulationofannualplanisminimised.

The Projects / Research should be reviewed even during the project/research


period, to ensure that the data sources, research methodology and analysis are
realisticanddonotsufferfrominfirmities.

2.2.

ContentsofPlans

The approved plan should consist of a report, supplemented by the existing and
proposed landuse plans. The Report should include list of tables, list of illustrations
andannexureswhichshouldbeappropriatelyreferenced.Moreimportantly,theaims
and objectives, scope of work, limitations and methodological framework should be
highlighted.
Thecontentsofvariousplanscouldbeasfollows:

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

37

PlanFormulation

2.2.1. PerspectivePlan
ThePerspectivePlanshouldbedrivenbythevisionandmissionoftheexercisebeing
undertaken.Whereasthevisionmayrefertotheendstate,themissionshouldclearly
focus on the steps to be undertaken to achieve the end state. At the same time, the
Perspective Plan must take into cognizance the relevant policies and statutes of the
Central and State Governments and projects/ schemes being implemented at
National, State, District, Region and Town levels. Based on the foregoing analysis,
clear strategies should be worked out for urban and regional planning and
development including for the periurban areas, environmental protection, heritage
conservationandthelinkagesbetweentheseaspects.
Surveys and analysisform the coreissue both in terms of spatialandattribute data
sets.Basedonthisanalysis,alternativestrategiesfordevelopmentmaybeworkedout
andthemostappropriatestrategyfordevelopmentindicatedfordetailingoutfurther.
Accordingly,thecontentsofaperspectiveplanshallbroadlyencompassthefollowing:

ExistingScenarioinoverallterms.
Projectedrequirementsforthehorizonyearbasedonthetotalquantumofland
availableandthatcanactuallybeusedfordevelopment.
Specific planning studies related to setting, linkages both socioeconomic and
physical, and likely challenges. Inaddition climatological studies,identification
ofareaspronetohazards,environmentallysensitivezones.
Population projection for the horizon year based on past trends and other
statisticalmethodstoarriveatassignedpopulationforthehorizonyear.
Economyandemploymentlevels,bothexistingandprojected.
Shelterincludingshortfallsinvariouscategoriesofhousingstockandthetotal
requirement
Transportationanalysis of the existing network, projected requirement based
ondetailedODsurveys.
Institutional uses both existing and required for the horizon year in terms of
education,health, sociocultural, religious, and distributive services like police,
fire,telecometc.
Infrastructure in terms of water, underground sewerage, drainage, and solid
wastemanagement.Visionshouldincludeanoverviewofnewtechnologiesand
thewaytodevelopandimplement.
Useofalternativesourcesofenergythroughnewtechnology.
Resourcebasemonetaryresourcesrequiredtoimplementplanproposalsvisa
visfinancialhealthofthelocalbody/implementingagencies.
Manpowerresourcesbothexistingandproposedasperrequirement.

Given the extent of the planning area and the assigned population to be
accommodated, physical proposals may be drawn up driven by transportation and
activitynodes.

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URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

PlanFormulation

It is important to ensure that projects/schemes are identified at this level itself


includingtheircostingandmodalitiesforimplementation.

2.2.2. ContentsofRegionalPlan
RegionalPlanistobepreparedfortheareaidentifiedasformalorfunctionalregion,
whichcouldbestate/interstate/district/interdistrict,investmentregionorspecial
area. If region so identified is interstate, all such states will need to prepare sub
regionalplansfortheirrespectiveareas.Foraregionalplanforanormalregion,the
followingkeycontentstobeincluded:
1. IntroductionoftheRegion
2. Analysisofregionalresources
3. Projectedrequirements
4. Majorproposalsandprojects
5. ImplementationPlan
ForRegionalPlanningforanInvestmentRegionorSpecialRegion,delineationofthe
regiontobeincludedintheabovegivencontents(referChapter4fordetails).

IntroductionoftheRegion

AbouttheRegion
Constitutedareas:Region,Subregion,Functionalareas,Growthcentresetc.
RatioofUrbanandruraldevelopment
RegionMorphology

AnalysisofRegionalResources&ProjectRequirements
1. Physicalsetting
Administrativeprofile
ConnectivityandEconomiclinkages
2. GeographyoftheRegion
Topography
Geology&Geomorphology
Hydrology(SurfaceandGroundwater)
Climate
Minerals&Resourcemapping
StudyofStateLandUtilisationPolicy
3. Demography(RegionandSubregionwise)
Populationanditsdistribution,
Populationdensity
Agesexcompositionandliteracyrate(trendanalysis)
Growthofpopulation(naturalandmigratory)
Populationprojectionbasedonscenarios(referChapter7)
4. Settlementpattern
UrbanandRuralsettlement
Periurbanareasandanalysisofexistingkeydevelopments
Hierarchyofsettlements(referChapter4)
Densityofsettlements

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

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PlanFormulation
5. Transportation
Modeoftransportationbyroad,rail,air,waterasthecasemaybe
Networkofroads,railways,waterwaysandtheirinterrelationshipwithmajoractivitynodes
Trafficvolume
Patternofmovement
TransportCorridors&Terminals
6. PhysicalandSocioEconomiclinkages
SocialInfrastructure
Education
Healthcare(multispecialityhospitals,healthcentres)
Recreational
Religious
Gapassessmentandrequirementfortheprojectedpopulation
PhysicalInfrastructure
Water
Energy
Drainage,sanitationandrefuseandsolidwastedisposal
Communication
Policeprotection,fireprotection
DisasterManagementcell
Cremationandgraveyards
Gapassessmentandrequirementfortheprojectedpopulation
Heritage&Tourism
FlowofTourist(seasonwiseandoriginwise)
MappingofNaturalheritageandManmadeheritage
Tourisminfrastructureanalysisandgapassessment
EconomicactivityandFiscalpolicy
MajorEconomicsectors
Distributionofworkforceinformalandinformalsector
Workforceparticipationratio
Occupationalstructure
Economicnodes
Shelter
Housingscenario
Housingstock&supply
Housingneedassessmentincludingtypologies
Lowcosthousing
Nightshelters
Slumsettlements
7. Environment
Agroclimaticzone
Ecosensitive zones Protected or restricted areas such as National parks and Wildlife
sanctuariesandecosensitivebuffersaroundit
Rivers,waterbodiesandwetland
Groundwater
Coastal/Hillzone,ifany
Green&Forestcover
UrbanHeatIsland
Biodiversity
EnvironmentallySensitiveareasHazardpronezonessuchasearthquake,floods/flashfloods,
highwinds,cyclone,fire,landslide,tsunami,vulnerabilityandriskassessmentoftheregion.

40

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

PlanFormulation

Pollutionlevelsofwater,soil,land,air
OtherthreattoNaturalenvironment

MajorProposalsandProjects
1. Regionalpolicy&Developmentstrategy:
Policyforzonesofdevelopment
Growthpoles&Satellitetownships:strategyofdevelopmentofsettlementsystem
RecommendationsonUrbancentrejurisdictionchanges,ifany
DevelopmentcorridorsandTODzones
Economicactivityandfiscalpolicy
Major economic thrust sectors & its identified markets (focus on encouraging economic
activitiesforformalandinformalforwomenempowerment)
2. RegionallanduseandDevelopmentControls:
Landuse proposal: builtup area, agriculture, protected areas, waste lands, water bodies etc.
conformingwithStateLandUtilisationPolicyandStatePerspectivePlan
Proposedhierarchyofsettlements:PrioritytownsandCountermagnetareas
Majoreconomichubsandindustrialestates/parksforclusterdevelopment
DevelopmentControlRegulationsforvariousregionaluses
3. Regionalinfrastructure:
Mobility:TransportationproposalatRegionallevel(including locationsforintegratedfreight
complexes,multimodalhubsamongothers)
Majorproposedinstitutionalareasandpolicyonitslocationinperiurbanareas
Proposals for other infrastructures for water supply, sanitation, decentralised treatment and
forhealth,educationatregionallevel(proposaltoensurethatfacilitiesandinfrastructureare
easilyaccessibletofemalepopulationanddifferentlyabled/physicallychallenged/disabled).
Earmarkspacesandnormsforserviceslikecommunication(postalandtelephone),protection
(police,fire)andothersatregionallevel
Preferredlocationsforpowergeneratingactivities
Preferredlocationsandnormsforregionallandfillsite.Strategytominimizewastegeneration
byencouragingZeroWastedisposal.
4. DisasterRiskMitigationmeasures:asperNDMAguidelines(referChapter6)
5. Tourism:locationsforpromotion(evenifseasonal)andproposedcircuitsincludingstrategiesto
promotegreenmobility(walking,cycling,publictransport)fortourism.
6. NewandModifiedPolicies:
AlignmentwithStatePoliciesforEnvironmental,LandUtilisationPolicyetc.
PlanforSlumfreeCity
RationalizationofFloorAreaRatio(FAR)forvillages/transitionaltowns
PolicyonTribalSettlements
ProposalsforMSMEclustersorrecommendationsforseparatestudies
Policyandactionplanfordecentralisation/dispersalofhazardousandpollutingindustriesand
allocationofsuitablelandforindustriesclusters
Policyandprioritiesforinformalresidentialareas/slumsandunauthorisedcolonies.
OtherIssuesthatneedNewPolicies,Incentivesanddisincentives.

ImplementationPlan
Implementationstrategiesfortheregionforlandandresourcemobilisation
Coordination of local bodies and authorities and integrated management
structurefortheregion
Estimation of the Fiscal requirement phasewise and source of fund. Specifying
projectstobetakenupunderPPP

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

41

PlanFormulation
Capacity building for manpower and preparation of its work plan as per State
policy
Prioritiesofthedevelopmentalprojectsandfurtherdetailingofplans
Frameworkofmonitoringanditsmechanism

2.2.3. ContentsofDevelopmentPlan
This part recommends the contents of Development Plan document, which would
includethewrittendocumentaswellasthemapshowingthespatialplanandother
supporting charts and diagrams. Major heads and subheads to serve as a guide for
formulationofdevelopmentplanofanurbancentrearegivenbelow.
Contents of Development Plan should be formulated in accordance with statutory
provisions of the relevant Act. With the view of saving time and also developing a
participatory system of planning, necessary information from secondary sources
shouldbeutilised,asfaraspracticableandprimarysurveysshouldbeconductedonly
whenitisunavoidable.Conceivedwithintheframeworkoftheperspectiveplanand
adjustedaspertheRegionalDistrictPlan,aDevelopmentalPlanistobepreparedfor
aperiodof2030years.WhilepreparingDevelopmentPlan,specialattentionmustbe
paidonsafety,securityandparticipationofwomen,theelderly,andothersegments
ofsocietyrequiringspecialneeds.
TheDevelopmentplanshouldcontainthefollowingmajorheads:
1. ExistingConditionsandDevelopmentIssues
2. AssessmentofDeficienciesandProjectedRequirements
3. VisionandMission
4. DevelopmentProposals
5. ImplementationPlan
The details of each of the major subheads of Developmental Plan are given in the
followingsections:

2.2.3.1. AnalysisofExistingScenarioandDevelopmentIssues
1.

Background:
Location,regionalsettingandconnectivity
Briefhistoryofdevelopmentofthetown
Cityinfluenceanditscharacteristicsincludingsettlementpattern,ruralurbanrelationshipand
fringeareadevelopments
PhysicalsettingTopography,Climate,Soil(profileandcondition),Geology&Geomorphology,
Lithology,NeoTectonics,MicroSeismiczonesandHydrology,Subsurfaceaquifersystems

2. DemographicProfile:
Existingpopulationanddistribution
Populationgrowthanditscompositionof
Naturalgrowth
Migrationpattern/
Jurisdictionalchanges

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PlanFormulation

Floatingpopulation
Agesexcompositionandliteracyrate(trendanalysis)
Workforceparticipation
Populationdensity(netandgross)
HouseholdcharacteristicsHouseholdsizes

3. LandProfile:
Jurisdictionchangesandeffortsofplanneddevelopment
Existinglandusemapwithrevenueleveldetails(mapscaleasperTable7.7)
Developableandnondevelopablearea
Periurbanareasandurbanvillages,ifany
Existingzoninganddevelopmentwithinzonedarea(includinginnercityarea)
Builtfloorspace,floorspacepermitted
ParticularsincludingVendingzones,Heritage(sites,buildingsandareas)
Landdevelopmentandmanagement(Central&StateGovernmentland)
4. EconomicProfile:
Primary:
Agriculture,horticulture&forestry
Sericultureand/orFishing
Mining&quarrying
Secondary:
Manufacturinglarge,mediumandclustersofMSME
Householdindustries
Construction
Tertiary:
Trade(wholesale/retailtrade)
Tourism,HotelsandRestaurants
Transport,StorageandCommunication
FinancialservicessuchasBanking,Insuranceetc.
RealestateandBusinessservices
PublicAdministration
Othersservices
Informalsectorasinformaltrade,commerce.
Workforce&Occupationalpattern(Employmentdatatobeanalysedgenderwise&agewise)
Employmentgeneration/Majorworkareas
5. InfrastructureProfile:
Transportation:
Modeoftransportationbyroad,rail,air,waterasthecasemaybe.
Networkofroads,railways,waterwaysandtheirinterrelationshipwithmajoractivitynodes
TransportCorridors&Terminals.
Transintracitytransportationfacility
Pedestrianandbicycle
Networkofcitylevelnonmotorizedroutesandzones
Goodsmovementsystem
Transportationlanduseintegration
Parking
Signageandwayfindings
Facilitieslike:
Education:schools,technicalinstitutes,universities,
Healthcare:Dispensary,healthcentres,hospitals
Recreationalspaces,ParksandOpenspaces

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

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PlanFormulation
Religiousspaces
Socioculturalfacilities
PhysicalInfrastructure:(benchmarks)
Water supply: network, existingdemand and supply scenario, water transmission, reservoirs
anddistribution,rainwaterharvesting
Energy: existing demand and supply scenario, transmission and distribution network,
renewableenergy
Drainage, Sanitation and Solid waste disposal: existing demand and supply scenario,
generationandcollectionsystem,transportation,treatment,recyclingandreuseofwaste
TransportandCommunication
Policeprotection,Fireprotection
Cremationandgraveyards
Disastermanagementcentre
6. EnvironmentalProfile
Ecosensitive zone Protected or restricted areas such as National parks and Wildlife
sanctuariesandecosensitivebuffersaroundit
River,Waterbodiesandwetlands
Coastal/Hillzone,ifany
Green&Forestcover
Pollutionlevelsair,water,noise,soilpollution
DisasterManagement
Hazardpronezonessuchasearthquake,floods/flashfloods,highwinds,cyclone,fire,land
slide,tsunami
Disastermappingvulnerabilityandriskassessmentoftheregion

Allenvironmentallysensitiveareas
7. Shelter(bothformalandinformal)
Housingscenario
Housingstock&supply
Mappingofslums,squattersettlements/JJclusters,otherinformalsettlements
Housingsupplymechanism,
Housingneedassessmentincludingtypologies
Lowcosthousing
AffordableHousing
RentalHousing
Nightshelters
Publichousing
Slumsettlements
Squattersettlement
8. Administrativeprofile:
Legalframework
Institutionalframework&manpower
Fiscal:Sourcesofrevenue,streamsofexpenditureexistingandrequired
Majorpolicyissues
Keyissuesingovernance
GrievanceRedress
Citylevelreforms
9. Maps&Plans:
Existinglanduse/utilisationplan
Historicalcitygrowthmap
Infrastructuremaps
Environmentallysensitivezonesmap

44

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PlanFormulation

Disastermaps
10. Gapanalysis:
Based on the existing conditions and the projected requirements of the planning area, a gap
analysisissuggestedtobedoneandissuesbeidentified.

2.2.3.2. ProjectedRequirements
Assessmentofprojectedrequirementsshouldbeforaperiodoftwentytothirtyyears
anditshouldfurtherbeclassifiedunderperiodsof5yearinlinewithStatefiveyear
plans.Suchclassificationwouldhelpinpreparationofannualplansandbudget.
1. Population
Projected population: should be guided by environmental and infrastructure (especially
drinking water) sustainabilityand holdingcapacityofthe city. Dispersalof economicactivity
mayalsoguidepopulationprojection
Floatingpopulation,agesexcomposition,literacy
2. Economicbaseandemployment
Hierarchyofcommercialareas,dispersalofcommercialactivityandrelatedactivities
Dispersalofindustries,environmentalrestrictiononindustrialdevelopment
Urbanpovertyanditsalleviation.
Workforce,employmentindifferentsectorsofeconomy:formalandinformalsectors
Proposedhierarchyoftradeandcommercearea
3. Shelter
Informalsectorhousing,slumupgradationandresettlementstrategy
Housingneedandrequirement
4. Transportation
Greenmobilitystrategywithmultimodalintegrationstrategy
Mass transportation system and its integration with activity nodes/facility centres and land
usepattern
Proposednetworkofcitylevelnonmotorizedroutesandzones
Traveldemandforecast,Roadlength,Hierarchyofroads,Transportterminals
Projectionofparkingrequirements
NeedforAirport,seaport(asthecasemaybe)
5. SocialInfrastructure
Education:preschools,schools,technicalinstitutes,universities
Healthcare:Dispensary,healthcentres,hospitals
Recreational:Parksandopenspaces,themebasedparks
Religious
Sociocultural:museum,culturalcentres
Cremation/Burialgrounds
6. PhysicalInfrastructure
Water:projectedwaterdemand,watertreatmentplant
Sewerage:estimationofgenerationandtreatmentcapacity
PowerdemandandsupplygapwithoptionsfortransitiontorenewableenergyandSmartGrid
electricity
Drainage:estimationincaseofchangeinjurisdiction,developableareaormajorchangeinland
useshare
Gapassessment&projectionofotherutilities
7. Landuserequirementfor
Residentialareas
Commercialareas
Manufacturingarea

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

45

PlanFormulation
Publicandsemipublic
Parks,PlaygroundsandOpenSpaces
TransportandCommunication
Specialareas
Agriculture
Waterbodies
8. AssessmentofDisastermanagementinfrastructureto meet the requirement of prescribed
intheDistrictDisasterManagementPlan

2.2.3.3. DevelopmentofVision
The plan, at this stage is to formulate Vision based on existing conditions and
development issues and stakeholder consultation. Goals and objectives related to
dispersal of activities, environmental and infrastructure sustainability, mass
transportation and informal activities, Information and Communication Technology,
womenandpoorersectionstobeincorporatedifnotalreadyincluded.
It should consist of the guiding planning principles for the plan formulation. Like
whetherthecitydevelopmentstrategyisforCompactcity/Greencity/Densecities.
Also,ifitisaTouristcity,Heritagecity,Educationalhub,Industrialcityetc.

2.2.3.4. DevelopmentProposals
Theproposalsubheadsareenlistedas:
1. LandusePlan:
Hierarchy:Conceptofhierarchyofplanningunitsandspatialdevelopmentofvariousactivity
nodes,facilitycentresandnetworkofroads
Proposedlanduseplan(scaleoftheplanasperTable7.7)
Zoning regulationsfor proposed land use categories (refer Chapter9 for detailsfor the land
useclassification)including:
Residentialareas
Commercialareas
Manufacturingarea
Publicandsemipublic
Parks,PlaygroundsandOpenSpaces
TransportandCommunication
Specialareas
Oldbuiltup(core)area
Heritageandconservationareas
Scenicvalueareas
Disasterproneareas/Ecosensitivearea
Primaryactivities
Waterbodies
2. ComprehensiveMobilityPlan:
Masstransportationsystemandlandusesinterfaces.
TODdevelopmentwithpriorityforNMVaroundnodes
IntegrationofproposedComprehensiveMobilityPlan

46

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

PlanFormulation

3. InfrastructurePlan/UtilityPlan:
Layout of plan of trunk infrastructure of each infrastructure and utility at the scale of the
proposedlanduseplan
4. SpecialAreaPlanning:
Plan for Renewal and redevelopment areas or recommendation for the further detailing of
UrbanRedevelopmentPlanfortheearmarkedarea
ProvisionsforHeritageandconservationareas
RegulationsfortheHazardzoneandprotectedareas
Proposalsfordevelopmentofwomenandvulnerablepopulation
5. DevelopmentPromotionRules/regulations
To regulate and develop landuse as mooted under the Development Plan, development promotion
rules/regulationsshouldbementionedinthissection.
6. Annexures:
Detailedscaledmapsofprevailingsituation
DetailedscaledmapsofexistingLanduse
DetailedscaledmapsofproposedLanduse
Detailedscaledmapsofproposedinfrastructureplansandsocialservices
DetailedscaledmapsofproposedSpecialpurposeplans

2.2.3.5. ImplementationPlan
Following inputs from preceding stages and prevailing Statutes, a seamless plan
implementationschedulemustbepreparedforDevelopmentPlan. Itshouldcontain
roles and responsibilities of all stakeholders, resource mobilisation framework and
phasewiseimplementationscheduleforplannedprojectactivities.Thekeyaspectsto
becoveredintheImplementationframeworkshouldbeinlinewithaims,objectives
and prioritised projects and schemes. Implementation framework may include the
following:
Prioritiesofprojectsandresearch
Phasingofdevelopmentalactivities
Proposalforlandresourcemobilisation
InvestmentStrategyandPromotion
Institutionalsetup
1. Priorities: Classify various projects identified as a part of development proposals by
priorityasunder
Essentials(toppriority)
Necessary(2ndpriority)
Acceptableanddesirable(3rdpriority)
Deferrable(4thpriority)
Projectsandresearchshouldbeidentifiedbyphasesandimplementingagencies(includingprivate
andcorporatesectors)tobegivenaspertheinstitutionalsetup.
2. Phasing:DevelopmentPlanshouldadvisablybeinphasesof5yearstocoincidewiththeState
FiveYearPlans.Thetargetssetforeachphasecanbeassessedasthemidtermreviewagainst
the achievements atthe end of each phase. ForGreenfield area phasing could include a Zero
periodforapprovals,institutionalsetup,initiallandpoolingandrevisitinganystrategy.
3. Proposal for land resource mobilisation: Implementation mechanism detailing approaches
for land polling and development in lines with the suggested mechanism in the State
PerspectivePlan
4. InvestmentStrategy:Proposalsforfiscalresourcemobilisationincluding:

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

47

PlanFormulation
Internalrevenue
Grants&Aids
Institutionalfinance
Marketborrowing
Privatesectorfinance
5. InstitutionalSetupto clearly provide Stakeholders role and responsibility and organisation
chart.

2.2.4. ContentsofLocalAreaPlan
OncetheDevelopmentplanisprepared,itsproposalscanbefurtherimplementedby
preparingLocalAreaPlan.ThisplancanbeeitherZonalDevelopmentPlanorLocal
AreaSchemeandthesecanhavethefollowingcontents:

2.2.4.1. ContentsofZonalDevelopmentPlan
1. Introduction
A brief introduction to the city comprising its regional setting, functional character growth
trends.
Developmentplan/MasterPlancontext
InterdependenceofZonesonotherpartsofthecity
2. SiteBackground&Analysis
Landusedistributionandanalysis
Populationanddensity
Builtuparea,character,extentanddelineation
Transportation:Circulationnetwork,trafficflow(peopleandgoods)andterminalfacilities
Physicalandsocialinfrastructure
Landownership
Slopeanalysis
Microzoninghazardmapping
Greencover:parks/openspaces,forest,orchards,greenbelts,etc.
Sitepotentialsandconstraints
Securitymapping:specifyingrelativelysafeandunsafeareas,streetsetc.
Typesofhousingsubsystems:lowcosthousing,affordablehousing
3. ConceptualFramework
Planningparameter
Planningconcept&hierarchytillcommunitylevel
Projectedrequirements
Urbandesignframework
4. Proposalsanddevelopmentstrategy
Landuseplan(scaleofplanasperTable7.7)
Proposedcirculationsystem
Proposalsforphysicalinfrastructure
Proposalsforcommunityfacilities
Strategyfornewdevelopment,redevelopmentandimprovement
Proposalforintegratinganddevelopingurbanvillages
Proposalsforinformalsector
Strategyforrehabilitation/regularizationofunauthorizedcolonies
Strategyformaintenanceofservices
Provisionforfacilitatingphysicallychallengedanddisabledinurbandevelopment

48

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

PlanFormulation

Proposals regarding vending zones: Transitoriented markets and market streets can be
pedestrianizedoronlyNMVsandbusesbepermittedinvendingzones.
5. ConservationandImprovementofEnvironment
ConservationandImprovementoflandprofile
Proposalsforconservationandimprovementofriversstreams,watersheds.
ConservationandImprovementofgreencoverandlandscape
Conservationofheritageareas/zones
Energyefficientandenvironmentallysustainabledevelopment
Provisionforrainwaterharvesting&commoninfrastructureatLAPlevel
Integrationofproposalsregardingairwaterandnoisepollutioncontrol
Security mapping: Focusing on provision of appropriate street furniture including lighting,
spacingofpolicebooths.Considerationisrecommendedforprovidingsecurityforwomen
6. ComplianceofGovernmentPolicies
StateLandUtilisationPolicy
StatePerspectivePlanand/orStateUrbanisationPolicy
StateUrbanHousingorAffordablePolicy
TownshipandIntegratedTownshipPolicy
RainwaterHarvestingPolicy
EnergyPolicy
DisasterManagementPolicy
IndustrialandServiceSectorInvestmentPolicy
BarrierfreeEnvironmentforPhysicallyDisabled
InformationTechnologyPolicy
TourismPolicy
OtherPolicies
7. ZoningRegulations
Definitionsofvarioususezonepremises
Userestrictions(usespermitted,conditionallypermittedandusesprohibited)
Proposalformixedlanduses
Strategyfornonconforminglanduses
Strategyforhazardzoneandregulations
Proposalsformeetingwomensneeds:mixedusedevelopmentwithfocusonstreetactivities/
TOD/spaceforstreetvendors/encourageareastobeactiveatvarioustimesofdayandnight
8. DevelopmentRegulations
Buildingregulationsandbuildingbyelaws
UrbanDesignofmajorhubs,ifrequired
ArchitecturalControl,ifnecessary
Specific development controls for heritage areas and other special areas traditional areas as
definedbythelocalauthoritiesifanymaybeprovided
9. ResourceMobilizationandImplementation
InstitutionalsetupforImplementation
PhysicalInfrastructuredevelopmentcostincludingannualand5yearphasing
ResourceMobilizationforimplementationthroughpublicprivateandothersectors
10. Implementationframework
Phasingandprioritizationofdevelopment
DevelopmentManagement
11. Annexures:
Detailedscaledmapsofprevailingsituation
DetailedscaledmapsofexistingLanduse
DetailedscaledmapsofproposedLanduse
Detailedscaledmapsofproposedlocationofinfrastructureandsocialservices

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

49

PlanFormulation

Detailedscaledmapsofvendingzonesintheplannedlocalarea

Anyotherproposalnecessaryforthedevelopmentofthezoneorwardorarea.

2.2.4.2. SpecificContentsofUrbanRedevelopment/RenewalPlan
Urban redevelopment or renewal plans have following distinct contents, apart from
thelocalareaplanscontentsasprovidedintheprecedingsection:
1. Developmentgaps&projectedrequirements
2. CityRevitalisationStrategy
3. Developmentproposals:Typologyoftheurbandevelopmenttransportation,infrastructure,
congestionareasrevitalisation,heritageresources,utilisationofGovernmentproperties
4. RestructuringofInstitutionalsetup,ifrequired
5. Annexure
6. Local Area Plan (Ward Plans) shall be aggregated at the Zonal Development Plan Level
coterminouswiththeAdministrativeDivisions/BoundariesandZonalDevelopmentPlansshall
beaggregatedattheDevelopmentplanlevel.

2.2.5. Contents of Specific Purpose Plan (e.g. City Development


PlansformulatedforaccessingfundsunderJNNURM)
A specific purpose plans should draw upon and align with the objectives of the
programmes etc. under which it is to be drawn. The CDP under JnNURM offers an
example. The objectives of JnNURM was developing physical infrastructure for
achieving MDGs and realising full potential of cities and making them engine of
growthoftheeconomy.Missionhadobjectivesfocusingonintegrateddevelopmentof
infrastructure,ensuringadequatefunds,promotingurbanreforms,provisionofbasic
servicestothepooretc.PreparingCDPisakeystrategytoachievingobjectivesofthe
Mission. Developmental Plan provides comprehensive proposals for socioeconomic
andspatialdevelopmentofurbancentrebutincreasingpopulationandspatialextent
of the cities has raised the need for urban planning. As a result various special
purposeplanshavecomeuptofillthegapandtocaterthespecialisedplanningneeds
ofdifferentaspectsofcity.11

2.2.5.1. Contents of City Development Plan (may be renamed as City


InvestmentPlan)
CDPistheperspectiveandvisiondocument,whichgivesexistingconditionofthecity,
setsoutdirectionofchangethroughvision,providesthrustareasandstrategies,and
investment framework to follow for successful implementation of plan. 12 It is
suggested that the terminology of City Development Plan be renamed as City
Investment Plan to avoid confusion as in many statesstatutory plans are named as
DevelopmentPlan.
1. Introduction

11

JnNURM: Formulation of CDP, JnNURM: Overview.

12

Ibid.

50

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

PlanFormulation

Background
ConceptsandprinciplesofCityDevelopmentPlan

2. CityProfile
Location
Geography
Profileofcity
3. Cityvisionanddevelopmentofgoalsandstrategies
ApproachandVisionandmissionstatement
Developmentofgoalsandstrategies
4. DemographicProfile
Demographictrends
SpatialspreadandPopulationdensity
Compositionofpopulationgrowth
Natural
Migrationpattern
Jurisdictionalchanges
LiteracyrateandGenderratio
SocialcompositionandIncomedistribution
Populationprojection
5. LandManagementandUrbanGrowth
Existingcityassessment
Morphologicaldevelopmentofcity
Existinglanduse
Unauthorized&unorganizedcolonies
Urbanvillages
Industrialdevelopment
Ecologicallysensitiveareas
Landdevelopmentandmanagement
Effortsofplanneddevelopment
6. Innercity
Innercityarea
Problemsofinnercity
7. EconomicProfile
Economicprofile
Primarysector
Secondarysector
Tertiarysector
Formalandinformalsector
Workforceparticipation
Occupationaldistributionandstructure
GDPandpercapitaincome
Directionsofgrowth
8. FinancialProfile
Reviewoftheexistingfiscalandfinancialstatus
Statusofcurrentassetsandliabilities
Overviewoffinancesoflocalauthorityanddepartments
Intergovernmenttransferinthefinancesinlocalauthority
Sourcesofrevenueandexpenditurestream
9. Infrastructure
Physicalinfrastructure

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

51

PlanFormulation
Citywatersupplysystem
Seweragesystem
Stormwaterdrainage
Roadnetworkandtransportsystem
Solidwastemanagement
Electricity
SocialInfrastructure
Education
Healthfacilities
Otheramenities
Recreationalspaces
10. EnvironmentProfile
Waterquality
Airquality
Noisepollution
Landpollution
11. DisasterManagement
Existingsituation
Disasterpreventionandmanagementplan
Investmentestimates
Trainingandotherprograms
Informationmanagementsystem
Implementationplan
12. UrbanPoorandSlum
Povertyprofile
Socioeconomicprofileofpoor
Povertyalleviationprogrammes
Slums/JJclusters
Squattersettlements/JJclusters
Slumdevelopmentpolices&strategies
Issuesofslums/JJclusters
13. ConservationandHeritageManagement
Inventoryofheritageresources
Legalframework
14. GovernanceandInstitutionalArrangement
Legalframework
Institutionalframework
Keyissuesingovernance
GrievanceRedress
Citylevelreforms
15. CommunityConsultation
Citystakeholdersprofile
Women
Peopleemployedininformalsector
Youths
SeniorCitizens
RWAs
NGOsetcetera
Sectorwiseviewpointofcommunities
Stakeholdersworkshop
16. SWOTAnalysis

52

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

PlanFormulation

17. InvestmentFramework
Sectorwiseinvestmentoptions
Summaryofcosts
18. CityInvestmentPlan
ACIPprovidesanestimateofthelevelofinvestmentthatwillbeneededtoimplementtheCDP.Itisan
estimate and provides an order of investment, arrived at by using financial norms or standards for
serviceprovisionandupgradationordirectlyestimatingthecostofimplementingareformagenda.A
linked aspect is to consider options and strategies for financing the vision as contained in the CDP.
Thesemaycover:
Watersupply
Seweragesystem
Roadnetwork&Transportationsystem
Stormwaterdrainagesystem
Solidwastemanagement
Heritageconservationandmanagement
Urbanenvironment
Urbangovernance
Otherdevelopmentprojects
Urbanslumsandpoor
Summaryofprojectinvestmentplan
Financing options of the local body could be sourced from its own resources, Central/ State
Governmentgrantsandloans,marketborrowings,capitalmarket,FDI,PPPetc.
19. InstitutionalReforms
Reviewofissuesingovernance
Measuresforgoodgovernance
Institutionalreforms
Municipalaccounting
eGovernance
Povertyreduction
Otherreforms

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

53

PlanF
Formulation
Figure2.5: ProcessoffPreparingCityDevelopm
mentPlan

Source: Jn
nNURMCDPT
Toolkit

2.2.5.2. ContentsofCom
mprehensiiveMobiliityPlan13
Increasin
ng populattion of urban centress has resulted in trafffic problem
ms. CMP is the
keydocu
umentprov
vidingratio
onaleforth
hetransporrtationpro
oposalsund
derJnNURM
M.It
draws itts rationalee and base from CDP,, Master Pllan and Co
omprehensiive Traffic and
Transport Studies (CTTS). It provides the
t longteerm vision of mobilityy patterns and
focuseso
onintegrattionofland
duseandtrransportan
ndimproveementofth
hemobilityand
accessibilityofpeo
opleandfaacilities.CM
MPreviewssthefutureelanduse p
patternsin
nthe

13

Guideliness and Toolkit for Urban Transpo


ort Development.

54

URDPFIG
Guidelines,2
2014.MinistrryofUrbanD
Developmentt

PlanFormulation

Master Plan from the mobility optimization point of view and selects a preferred
patternoflandusetransportintegrationifnecessary.14
1. Existingsituation
Introduction
ObjectiveoftheCMP
ScopeoftheCMP
CityProfile
Generalbackground
Socioeconomicprofile
Legalframeworkandstandards
Institutionalandfinancialsituation
Environmentalandsocialconditions
ReviewofLandUseSystem
Existingreportsanddocuments
Landusepatternsanddevelopmenttrends
Landusedevelopmentpoliciesandstrategies
Identificationofissues
ExistingTransportSystems
Existingstudies,reportsandproposals
ExistingRoadNetworkandexistingtransportationinfrastructure
Publictransportsystems
Urbangoodsmovement
Trafficsafetyandenforcement
Otherrelevantissues
AnalysisofExistingTrafficPattern/TransportSituation
TrafficsurveysincludingTrafficVolume,OriginDestination,TrafficMovement,etc.(refer
Chapter8fordetails)
Analysisoftravelcharacteristics
Analysisofvehiculartrafficandbottlenecks
Analysisofsocialconsideration
Developmentofbaseyeartransportdemandmodel
IdentificationofIssues
Comparativeanalysisofurbantransportenvironment

2. Developmentofurbanlanduseandtransportstrategy
DevelopmentofVisionsandGoals
Visionstatement
Urbantransportdevelopmentstrategies
Goalssetting
DevelopmentofAlternativeUrbanGrowthScenarios
Urbangrowthscenariosinthemasterplan
Developmentofurbangrowthscenarios&evaluation
FutureTransportNetworkScenarios
Roadnetworkscenarios
Publictransportdevelopmentsplitscenarios
DevelopmentofUrbanLandUseandTransportStrategy
Evaluationofurbangrowthandtransportnetworkscenarios

14

Comprehensive Mobility Plans: Preparation Toolkit; Guidelines and Toolkits for Urban Transport development in Medium
Sized Cities in India.

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

55

PlanFormulation
3. Plansandprojects
PublicTransportImprovementPlan
Busserviceimprovementplan
MRTdevelopmentplans,ifrequired
Trunkandfeederpublictransportnetwork
ITSapplication
RoadNetworkDevelopmentPlan
Hierarchicalroadnetwork
Arterialroadconstruction/improvement
Secondaryroadconstruction/improvement
Intersectionsandflyovers
Railwaycrossingandunderpass
NMVFacilityImprovementPlan
StrategyforNMTfacilityimprovement
Pedestrianfacilityimprovement
NMVfacilityimprovement(bicycles,rickshaws)
IntermodalFacilities
Busterminals
BusRailinterchange
Parkandridefacilities
Freightterminals
RegulatoryandInstitutionalMeasures
UnifiedMetropolitanTransportAuthorityandTrafficandTransportationcellforsmalland
mediumsizetowns
Trafficimpactassessmentmechanism
RegulatorychangesrequiredfortheintroductionofTDMmeasures
Trafficsafetyregulations
Parkingregulations
FiscalMeasures
Farepolicyforpublictransportationandparking
Subsidypolicyforpublictransportoperators
Taxationonprivatevehiclesandpublictransportvehicles
Potentialforroadcongestioncharging
MobilityImprovementMeasuresandNationalUrbanTransportationPolicyObjectives
Introduction
SummaryofNUTPobjectivesandtheproposedmeasures
Socialandenvironmentalconsiderations

4. Implementationprograms
Implementation program should provide detailed process of implementing the proposal along with
timeframe,financingoptionsandimplementingagenciesforeachproject.
ImplementationPrograms
Listofmobilityimprovementprojectsandmeasureslisttobepreparedbyreviewingall
theexistingandongoingprojectsalongwithverybriefsummaryofeach.
Selection of priority projects/measures while considering timeframe of measures, a
selection process should be developed to screen prime candidates based on their
importanceandconstraintstoimplementation.
Implementation agencies/organizations for each project implementing agency /
organisation should be identified and considering existing implementation capacity, new
agenciescouldbeproposed.

56

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

P
PlanFormu
ulation

Finan
ncing option
ns financing options could be from Local Governmen
nt, Central
Goveernment, priv
vate sector financing
f
(orr PPP) and in
nternational developmen
nt partners
(donoragencies).Inaddition,thefinancialshareofthelocalbodysh
houldalsobeclarified.
Implementationp
programsfo
ollowedbyaboveexamin
nationstheim
mplementatio
onprogram
shou
uldbesummaarized.Anim
mplementation
nprogramcaanbeprepareedbasedonttimeframe
ofeaachproject,w
whichwillind
dicatearealissticschedule forimplemeentingallreco
ommended
projeectsandmeassures.
5 Annexure
5.
es
Surveydata
Detailsoftrafficdemaandmodelling
ProposallPlans
Projectp
profilesheets
Figu
ure2.6: CityMobilisation
nPlanningProcess

Sourrce: Guidelin
nesandToolk
kitforUrbanT
TransportDeevelopment

DPFIGuidelin
nes,2014.MiinistryofUrb
banDevelopment
URD

57

PlanFormulation

2.2.5.3. ContentsofCitySanitationPlan15
Unprecedented growth of urban population in India has resulted in several
infrastructuralissues.Sanitationinfrastructureisimportanttokeepcitieshealthyand
liveable.TheNationalUrbanSanitationPolicy(NUSP)waspreparedwiththevisionof
makingallIndiancitiestotallysanitized,healthyandliveableforallcitizensespecially
the urban poor. The CSP is a vision document on sanitation with 20 to 25 years
horizon with short term town level action plans for 35 years to achieve sanitation
goals. CSP provides for the preparation of City Sanitation Task Force, stakeholder
mapping, situation analysis, current deficiency assessment, prioritising of areas,
institutional capacity and financial mapping.16The key contents of CSP are listed as
under:
1. Introduction
Background
ObjectivesofCityWideSanitationPlan
CitySanitationPlanning:Process,detailedstepsandlimitations
ActivityUpdateonCSP
VerificationofMoUDchecklist

2. ProfileoftheCity
Introduction
Locationandregionallinkages
Climate
Topography
BriefHistory
RegionalImportance
Economy
Demography
Populationprojections
Populationdensity
SexRatio
Literacy
Wardwisepopulationdistributionandgrowthpotential
HousingScenarioOwnershipStatus
Slumsandsquattersettlements
ExistingLanduse
MunicipalGovernance

3. EnvironmentalSanitationAnAssessment
SanitationSituationAnalysis
Introduction
Householdsanitation
Slumsanitation
Opendefecationareas
Communitytoilets
Publictoilets

15
16

Manual on Preparing CSP


National Urban Sanitation Policy.

58

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

PlanFormulation

4.

5.

Schoolsanitation
Wastewatertreatmentinfrastructure
Septagemanagement
Servicelevelbenchmarkingindicators
Wastewaterprojections
StormWaterDrainageSystem
Introduction
Existingdrainagenetwork
Coverage
Outfalls
Existingdrainageconditions
Localfloodingareas/lowlyingareas
Stormwaterdrainagepeakrunoffcalculations
Standardizedservicelevelindicators
SolidWasteManagement
Primarycollectionandcoverage
Streetsweeping
Wastegeneration&segregationquantityandcharacteristics
Secondarycollection
Transportation
Treatment&disposal
Institutionalsetup&Healthofsanitaryworkers
Operation&Maintenance(O&M)
Servicelevelbenchmarkingindicators
Futuredemandandgap
WaterSupply
Sourceofwater
Existingtransmission,distributionandstoragecapacities
Servicecoverage
Standardizedservicelevelindicators
Futuredemandandgap

InstitutionalCapacityandFinance:
Existinginstitutionalframework:
DetailsofexistingStatelawsrelatedtoslumsapplicabletothecity
Institutionsengagedinslumimprovementi.e.SlumClearanceBoard,ULBs,DistrictUrban
DevelopmentAgency(DUDA),StateUrbanDevelopmentAgency(SUDA),HousingBoards,
Development Authorities, District Collectorate, NGO, CDS / Neighbourhood societys,
assessmentoforganizationalcapacities.
Community participation arrangements (Identification of city level Lead NGOs) and the
existingcommunitymobilizationanddevelopmentstructure
FinancialCapacityAssessmentofLocalBody

SanitationSituationwithrespecttoNationalRankingParameter
Sanitation situation with respect to national sanitation ranking parameters: To promote
sanitationinIndiancities,NationalRatingandAwardSchemeforSanitationforIndiancities,
wasimplementedunderNationalUrbanSanitationPolicybyMoUD.Citiesareratedbasedon
setofobjectiveindicatorsofoutputs,processesandoutcomes.

6. CityWideSanitation
Introduction

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

59

PlanFormulation

VisionandCityWideSanitationPlanning
Visionstatement
PrinciplesofCSP
Assumptions,normsandunitscosts
Variousoccurrencesofissuesversusconsequences
SubsectorStrategies
Opendefecationfreestatusbyensuringaccesstoall(includingpoorandslumdwellersas
wellasvisitingpopulation)
Excretadisposalandwastewatermanagement
Improvementofintegratedsolidwastemanagement
Improvementofstormwatermanagement
EnablingandSustainingstrategies
Awarenessraising,hygienepromotionandcommunityparticipation
Institutionalarrangementandresponsibility
MonitoringandEvaluation
Monitoringandreview
Launchingrewardscheme
Incentivesanddisincentives

60

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

P
PlanFormu
ulation

Figu
ure2.7: CitySanitationPllanningProceess

Sourrce: CSPMan
nualNUSP.

2.2.5.4. Con
ntentsofSlumRed
developmentPlan17
Inp
pursuanceo
ofGovernm
mentofInd
diasvisionforSlumF
FreeIndia,RajivAwaasYojana
wass launched
d in 2011 under wh
hich Slum Redevelop
pment Plan
n is preparred. RAY
env
visagestwo
ostepimplementation
nstrategy i.e.preparaationofSlu
umfreeCittyPlanof
Actiion(SFCPo
oA)andpreeparationo
ofprojectsfforselected
dslum.RAY
Yprovidesfinancial

17

Ra
ajiv Awas Yojana
a Guidelines.

DPFIGuidelin
nes,2014.MiinistryofUrb
banDevelopment
URD

61

PlanFormulation
supporttoStates/UTs/UrbanLocalBodies(ULBs)/CentralGovernmentAgenciesfor
providinghousingandimprovementofbasiccivicinfrastructureandsocialamenities
ineachselectedslums.

1.

2.

62

PreparationforSFCPoA(SlumFreeCityPlanofAction)
ConductingStakeholderWorkshopsandmeetingstopreparethegroundforbeginningthe
processesandsurveysrequiredunderSFCPoA.
PreparationofaCityprofile
Reviewofexistingpoliciesandprogrammesrelatedtoslumimprovementandhousing.

Curativestrategy
Assessmentofpresentstatusofslums
Preparationofamunicipalinformationbaseforallslums
Categorizationofslumsbasedontenabilityanalysis
Prioritizationoftenableslumsthroughprioritymatrix
Prioritizationofuntenableandsemitenableslums
FormulationofSlumInterventionStrategies
DetailedAnalysisofallPrioritisedSlums
Formulationofsluminterventionstrategiesforallprioritisedslums

Preventivestrategy
EstimatingUrbanPoorHousingShortage&IdentifyingSupplyandDemandconstraints.
Estimatingpresentandfuturehousingshortagefortheurbanpoor
Identificationofsupplyanddemandconstraintsinhousing
IdentifyingSupplyandDemandSideReformsandFramingFutureSupplyStrategy
Identifying policy reforms (Not applicable for smaller cities less than 3 lakh population
includedunderRAYimplementationphase)
Framingfuturesupplystrategy
DiscussingandsharingfindingswithstakeholdersguidelinesforpreparationforSlumFree
CityPlanofAction

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

P
PlanFormu
ulation

Figu
ure2.8: Slum
mFreeCityPllanofActionProcess

Sourrce:RAYGuid
delinesSFCPo
oA.
3. Investme
3
entplan
FramingInvestmentR
Requirementts&FinancinggPlan
Estim
mationofInveestmentRequ
uirements
Finan
ncialPlanningforImplem
mentationofS
SlumImproveementandPrreventionStraategy
FormulattingaCreditPlan
Revieewofexistingghousingfinanceoptionsfortheurban
npoor
Revieewofthecreditprofileofurbanpoor
4. FinalisatiionofSFCPo
4
oA
FramingInstitutionalArrangemen
nts
Preparationofind
dicativeimpllementationm
modeanddeefinitionofro
olesandresponsibilities
ofinsstitutionsforrimplementation
FinalizationofSlumF
FreeCityPlan
nofAction

DPFIGuidelin
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banDevelopment
URD

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PlanFormulation

2.2.5.5. DisasterManagementPlan(DMP)
The Disaster Management Plan is to be prepared on the lines of proposals made by
National Disaster Management Authority. Chapter 6 on Sustainability Guidelines
providesdetailedcontentsforDMPatStateandDistrictlevel.
OtherspecificpurposeplansTourismMasterPlanandHeritageConservationPlanto
bepreparedasrequiredbytheStateGovernmentand/orLocalAuthorityforspecific
purposes, but within the framework of the Development Plan or Regional Plan (for
therespectivescaleofpreparationatcityleveloratdistrictlevel).

2.2.6. ContentsofAnnualPlan
This section provides the contents of Annual plan prepared in the framework of an
approved development plan by the local authority. It is an important document for
the local authority as its aggregation at the district planning committee or
metropolitanplanningcommitteelevelwillgeneratethedistrictormetropolitanarea
annual plan which when further aggregated at State level will form its consolidated
annual plan. The State annual plan would indicate the State and Central funds for
different sectors, which finally will result in the allocation of funds to the local
authorities.Theannualplanofthelocalauthoritywillalsohelpinformulationofits
annualbudgetandmonitoringtheperformanceannually.
Asannualplanandbudgetareinterlinkeditisimportantthatprecedingannualplan
beevaluatedbeforethenextfinancialyear,sothatthefollowingplanwillhaveinputs
frompreviousplanandinvestmentsfornewplancanbeincorporatedinbudget.The
contents of annual plan of a local authority, as given in the following sections, are
applicabletoallsizesofurbancentres.

2.2.6.1. RevieworEvaluationofPrecedingAnnualPlan
Reviewoflastyearsperformance
Thereviewoftheperformanceoftheprecedingyearshouldincludebothphysicaland
fiscal achievements. It should cover all the components of the development plan as
containedinthelastyearsannualplanandhighlightforeachcomponent:

Thephysicaltargetset,suchasexpressway,trunkinfrastructurelines
Thestatusattheendoftheannualplanandthelevelofphysicalperformancebypercentageof
targetsachieved
Thefiscalallocationsmadevisavisproposed
Themoneyspentandleveloffiscalperformancebypercentageofmoneyspent

Thereviewshouldalsopresentananalysisofperformancecomponentwise,highlighting:
Areaswherethelocalauthorityhadaveryhighdegreeofperformance.

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Areas where the local authority had a very low degree of performance and reasons for such
performanceaswellasthewaysandmeanstocorrectthecourseofaction.
A further analysis of the performance by source of funds should also be presented. It should
includephysicalandfiscalperformanceoftheprojectsimplementedthroughfundsfrom:
Centralassistance
Centralandstateassistance
Stateassistance
Nationalfundingagencies
Internationalassistanceorfundingagencies
Localauthorityresources
PPP
Privatesectorfunds
Finally,specifytheareas/actionsthatrequireattentionwithparticularreferenceto:
Finance
Capacityandskillupgradation
Administrativeandlegalissues
Changesinpolicies,programmesorpriorities

MechanismsofreviewofAnnualPlansPerformance:
Preparationofapertchartineachannualplan,whichshallbereviewedinthenextyeartorate
theperformance.
The physicalandfiscalperformance to be assessedon the targetachieved on quarterlyorat
leasthalfyearlybasis.Thiswillensuredistributionofdevelopmentandactivitiesthroughout
theyearandnotattheendoftheannualperiod.
Key performance indicators (KPI)to be proposed in the Annual plan for its evaluation in the
followingyear.Thiswillensurethequalityandwillbeapplicationspecific.
Itissuggestedtoconsiderdisasters,hazardsandActofGod,ifany,whilereviewingtheannual
planperformance

2.2.6.2. TheAnnualPlan
BriefIntroduction:
A brief introduction of the urban centre as indicated in its Development Plan. The
objectiveinwritingthisintroductionistomaketheannualplanselfcontainedandits
sectionshouldbeasbriefaspossible.
AimsandObjectives:
Takingthereviewofthepreviousyearsannualplanandtheproposalsofthedevelopmentplaninto
account,annualplanidprepared.Thisplanshouldprovide:
Aimsandobjectivesofdevelopmentduringtheyear
Priorities
Fiscalrequirementsandphysicaltargets:
Suchaplanshouldprovideimplementationofeachcomponentoftheplan:
Thefundsrequired;and
Thephysicaltargetstobeachievedduringtheyear
Fiscalresourcemobilisationplan:

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Theresourcemobilisationplanshouldpresentthemannerofmobilisationofresourcerequiredfor
implementationoftheannualplan,specifyingthefundsproposedtobemobilisedthrough:
Localauthorityresources
PPP
Institutionalfinancing
Marketborrowing
Privatesectorfunds
Stateassistance
Centralstateassistance
Centralassistance
Landassembly:
Estimatethetotallandrequiredbythedevelopmentcomponentsandpresentthemannerofassembly
oflandbythelocalauthorityincludingassembly.
Capacitybuildingandskillupgradation
Thissectionshouldincorporate
Appointmentofstaff,bothtechnicalandadministrative
Trainingofstaff
Strengtheningoftheurbanplanningdepartment
Consultancypractice
OtherProposals:
Dependinguponthespecificneedsandlocalarearequirementsprovideotherproposalsalso.

2.2.7. ContentsofProjects/Schemes
Thefollowingistherecommendedlistofcontentsofplansofprojectsforexecution
onsite.Dependinguponthelocalrequirementsoftheapprovingorfundingagency,
thesemaybemodified.Thesecontentsareapplicabletoallplansofprojectsforall
sizeofsettlements.
Location
Locationandotherphysicalcharacteristicsofthesiteifitisalreadyavailable
Identificationofpossiblesites,ifnotalreadyavailable,and:
Evaluationofalternativelocation;
Selectionofpreferredlocation;and
Physicalcharacteristicsofthepreferredsite.
SitePlanning
Aims and objectives and schedule of area requirements as per provision of the development
plan.
Alternativeconceptsoflayout,theirevaluationandselectionofapreferredconcept.
Layoutbaseduponthepreferredconcept.
Planning and design of infrastructure (water supply, sewage, drainage, electricity, road
networkandotherinfrastructures).
Detaileddrawings
In case of further contracting of projects detailed drawings shall be provided for estimating cost,
workingdrawingfordesignandprocurementspurposes.

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EnvironmentImpactAssessment
As per the Guidelines issues by MoEF, Environment Impact Assessment of the project may be
undertakenasanindependentexercise.
SpatialImpactAssessment
Incaseoflargeproject,aspatialassessmentoftheprojectmaybeundertaken,ifnecessary.
Assessmentshouldinclude:
ImpactoftheprojectonadditionaldemandforhousingwithspecificreferencetoEWS&LIG
sectionsofthesocietywhowouldsquatneartheprojectsiteifnopropercareistakeninthis
context
Impactonthedirectionofthegrowthofthesettlement
Impactonthecommercialandotherancillaryindustrialactivities
Impactonresettlementofthepopulationduetocompulsorylandacquisition
Impact on city level infrastructure specially roads, bridges, transportation system, water
supply,seweragetreatmentplant,electricitygenerationandsupply
Impactoncitylevelfacilities
FinancingPlan
Costrecoverystrategy
Financingterms
Financingplan
Sourcesoffinance
Proportion,formandnatureoffunds
Proportion,formsandnatureoffinancingbyvariousparticipatingagenciesandlocal
authority
Interestratesandtermsforborrowedfunds
Cashflowandrepaymentschedule
ProjectAdministrationandOrganisation
Projectadministrationagency
Majoradministrativerequirements
Advertisement
Processingofapplication
Collectionofdues
Systemofallotmentofplots/units
Supervision
Monitoring
Generalmanagement
Requirementofmanpower
Executingagency
LegalSupport/Constraints(ifany)
Landassemblylaws.
Landtenurelaws.
Developmentpromotionlaws/regulations

Thesesectionsmaynotformpartofthedocumentsneededatthetimeofapprovalof
privatesectorprojectbythelocalauthority.
All plans to be formulated in accordance with statutory provisions of the
relevantAct.

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3 ResourceMobilizationforPlanImplementation
3.1.

Introduction

Land, finance and manpower are the three main resources for planning and
development of urban and regional centres. As a basic principle, allocation of these
resourcesamongvariouscompetinglandusesmustbesuchthatithelpsinachieving
anoptimallevelofeconomicefficiencywithinclusionandequity18.
In case of spatial development and various development programmes, the
government has been normally considered as the sole source for finance and
ownership.However,intherecentyearstheroleofprivatesectorinthedevelopment
process has been duly recognized. As a general policy on resource mobilization, it
wouldbedesirabletohaveapropermixofpublicandprivatesectorsparticipation,
bothplayingasymbioticroleinsuchawaythatthepublicinfrastructureprogrammes
are implemented with the strength of public authority and efficiency of the private
entrepreneur.ThisshouldbetheframeworkforPPP.Theroleofpeopleisalsobeing
recognized,leadingtodevelopmentofthePPPPmodel.
Thischapterfocusesonthefiscalresourcemobilization,land resourcemobilization,
goodgovernanceandmanpowerresourcesmobilizationstrategies fordevelopment.
The local authorities,chief town planners, city commissioners could select the most
appropriatemodelandcombinationdependinguponthecontextualpossibilities.

3.2.

Land

Land is the medium on which the entire superstructure of human settlement is


createdandunderwhichalotofinfrastructurefindtheirplace.Planningfortheuseof
land leads to socioeconomic and physical development of urban and rural areas.
However, it is a scarce commodity as its supply is limited and it cannot be mass
created.

3.2.1. LandasaResource
The (Draft) National Land Utilization Policy, 2013 states that land is required for
developmentofessentialinfrastructureandforurbanization,whileatthesametime
thereisalso a need to protect land underenvironmentally sensitive zones and land
which provides ecosystem services. Farmers livelihood options and food security
issues make it imperative to protect land for agriculture. Further, the need to
preserve natural, cultural and historical areas requires land protection. It is,
therefore, most essential to ensure that utilization of the available land is judicious
and in the best interest of the community through the instrument of Development
Plans.

18

Technology and capacity to handle the various resources can also be defined as a resource.

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3.2.2. LandEconomics
Land value depends on demand and supply of land. The value increases as the
demandexceedsthesupply,whichisthegeneralcase,owingtolimitedsupplyofland
againstitgrowingdemandinthewakeofurbangrowthanddevelopment.TheRight
to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and
Resettlement Act, 2013(RFCTLARR Act, 2013), defines land so as to include the
benefits that arise out of land, and things attached to the earth or permanently
fastened to anything attached to the earth19. The Act also requires that the market
value of land be calculated as the minimum land value specified under the Indian
Stamp Act, 1899 for the registration of sale deeds in the area, where the land is
located, or the average of the sale price for similar type of land located in the
immediateareasadjoiningthelandbeingacquired.Itistobe ascertainedfromfifty
percentofthesaledeedsregisteredduringtheprecedingthreeyears,wherehigher
pricehasbeenpaid.Thisapproachissuggestedfordeterminingthemarketvalueof
landforacquisition.
The Land Acquisition Act of 1894 was made mainly to facilitate the government to
procure privately held land for the purpose of developing public infrastructure and
also for companies. After 120 years, this Act was replaced by the RFCTLARR Act,
2013. The Act has provided for fair compensation to those whose land is acquired
permanentlyortemporarily,whilebringinginenhancedtransparencytotheprocess
ofacquisitionofland.

3.2.3. LandAssembly
Landassemblyanddevelopmentmechanismareundertakenforachievingoptimum
socialuseofurbanlandandtoensureadequateavailabilityoflandtopublicauthority
andindividuals.PublicPrivateParticipationisachievedinlanddevelopmentthrough
various techniques. Mainly, land assembly techniques prevent concentration of land
in few hands and promote its efficient social and economic allocation. Some of the
land assembly techniques also promote flexibility in land utilization in response to
changes resulting from growing city. The various mechanisms to assemble and/or
developlandareenlistedbelow:
LandAcquisition:bulklandacquisitionbyStateandbyprivateinitiatives.
Land Pooling: land pooling approach and redistribution scheme, popularly known as
TownPlanningschemes.
Land Reservations: the concept of Accommodation Reservation which allows the land
ownertodevelopthesitesreservedforanamenity.
Transferable Development Rights: a technique of land development which separates
thedevelopmentpotentialofalandparcelforuseelsewhere.

19

Appendix B of Volume II B provides definition for land and associated terms.

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Guided Land Development: this model uses the provision of infrastructure as an


instrumenttoguideurbandevelopmentinpartnershipwithlandownerswithoutpooling
anyland.

3.2.3.1. LandAcquisition
LandAcquisitionpopularlymeanstheacquisitionoflandfordefinedpublicpurpose
byagovernmentagencyfromindividuallandowners,asauthorizedbythelaw,after
paying a governmentfixed compensation to cover losses incurred by landowners
fromsurrenderingtheirland.Thelandacquisitionprocesscanbeundertakenbythe
State or through private initiatives. As of now, most of the land acquisition is to be
processed as per the RFCTLARR, 2013. Some models of land acquisition are as
follows:
BulklandacquisitionmethodasaStateInitiative:Inthismethod,MasterPlanispreparedforthe
entire area encompassing different land uses and involving various activities. Land is developed in
accordancetotheplanningnormsforvarioususes/activities.Bulklandisacquiredfromfarmersbythe
developmentagencyandcompensationispaidtofarmers/ownersbasedontheprovisionofprevailing
act.
BulklandacquisitionmethodwithPrivateInitiative:To defray the cost of land acquisition some
stategovernmentsandULBshavedevelopedmodelsinwhichprivatesectoracquirelandbydirectly
paying compensation to the affected families. A variety of models are in existence per which land is
acquiredforplanneddevelopmentwithprivatepartnership.
Haryana Guided Land Development Model: In this model, the private developer can acquire land
directlyfromfarmersatmarketpriceandatthesametime,itpermitsalandownertoassumetherole
ofacolonizer.Thismodelprovidesfixedtimeperiodof5yearstoutilizethatlandacquired(initially2
years, then extension of 3 years, if required)and the developer is expected to complete the projects
withinthisperiod.Majorhighlightsofthismodelarethatthedifficultiesanddelaysinlandacquisition
are avoided and pressure on government to pay compensation is reduced, overall enhancing
investments.
Ghaziabad Joint Venture Model: As per approach followed by Ghaziabad Development Authority
(GDA), a joint venture (JV) is formed between the GDA and the builders/developers/cooperative
societiesthroughopenbid(basedontechnicalandfinancialcapabilities).Twentypercentoftheplots
developedaretobereservedforEWS/LIGandthecostingandallottingofsocialfacilitybydeveloper
hastobedoneasperthegovernmentregulations.Thebalanceofthelandistobesoldbythedeveloper
atprofit.Fortheentireprocess,thedevelopmentauthorityactsonlyasafacilitator.Projectdurationis
specifiedintheJVagreementandpenaltyisimposedifdeveloperrequirestimeextension,thusmaking
surethatlandisutilizedwithinthestipulatedtimeperiod.
Hyderabad Differential Compensation Models: In Hyderabad, the land acquisition technique has
beenmodifiedintotwodifferentmodels,inwhichwhileacquiringlandforpublicandprivateprojects,
differentlevelofcompensationsarearrivedat,theseare

ModelI:Whenlandisacquiredforprojectsmainlyforpublicpurpose suchasroads,power
generationanddistribution,irrigation,schools,welfarehousing,environmentalprojectsetc.,
appropriatecompensationispaidtolandownersbyconsultingthem.

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Model II: When land is acquired for projects such as SEZ, Industrial Estates, Satellite
townshipsandotherswherevalueadditionenhancesthelandpricessubstantially,mainlyfor
thirdpartyuse,compensationisnormallyworkedoutonprofitsharingbasis,whichisintwo
parts,namely

BasicValue(GovernmentRate)ofLand
%EquitySharinginSPV/%ofNetDevelopedArea/BuiltSpace

CIDCO Model of Land Development in Navi Mumbai follows the technique of land banking for land
assembly.Thecompensationtolandownersisdonebythewayofmonetaryandlandcompensation.
ButinVasaiVirarsubregion,CIDCOundertookthelandassemblybyobtainingpowerofattorneyfrom
landownersoroutrightpurchaseoffreeholdlandslocatedclosetoeachotherbyprivatedevelopersor
builder. The promoter is solely responsible for providing and maintaining infrastructure for
consolidatedlandparcel.

3.2.3.2. LandPooling
In Town Planning or Plot Reconstitution Scheme, the land is pooled and its
developmentisfinancedwiththeinvolvementoflandownerswithoutcompulsorily
acquiringland.Thislandassemblytechniquehelpstoprovideplotsforbasicservices
inaplannedlayoutfromtheoriginalhaphazardarrangement.Costsincurredbythe
developmentalauthorityfordevelopmentandforinfrastructure arerecoveredfrom
the sale of few of the final land plots reserved by the authority and betterment
charges levied on landowners. The reconstituted plots are allotted to the land
ownersinproportiontotheiroriginallandholdings.
TheschemewasfirstintroducedintheMaharashtraRegionalandTownPlanningAct,
1966andlaterinGujaratTownPlanning&UrbanDevelopmentAct,1976andisnow
widely appreciated model of land assembly. Another deviation of the land pooling
mechanismhasbeenrecentlyintroducedbytheDelhiDevelopmentAuthority(DDA),
whereinDDAfacilitateddevelopersandlandownerstopoollandfordevelopment.
Thetownplanningschemeisreferredaslandacquisitionwithouttearsandhasthe
followingkeyadvantages:
Infrastructureisprovidedincoordinatedway.
Partialcostisrecoveredthroughbettermentcharges.
Land for public and community purposes including green & open spaces is
acquiredwithoutdirectexpanses.
Communitybenefitsthroughunifiedplanning.
Landownersharestheprojectcostandbenefitsbyincreasedpropertyprices.
However,theLandPoolingSchemesuffersfromcertaindifficulties,suchas:
Delayinprocessofpreparation,approval,arbitrationandimplementation,mainly
duetolitigations.
Thereareissuesrelatedtocostrecovery.

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There is also inadequate public participation in such schemes. To overcome the


drawbacksofTPscheme,somesuggestionsareenlistedbelow:
Division of scheme into planning and financial part, which has been done in the
Gujaratmodel.
Appointment of an arbitrator and a project planner by local authority to modify
the plan after initial preparation, who would undertake active consultation with
originalstakeholderspreandpostplanpreparation.
The contribution, which is based upon the estimated value of land assuming full
development as per the scheme, should be replaced by estimated cost of the
scheme.
ProvisionofTransferableDevelopmentRightsinlieuofcompensationtooriginal
plotholderscanbeconsidered.
Land pooling schemes to be prepared only for the areas included in current
developmentplan.
Land development for Schedule6 areas: Some Northeast states have areas covered under the
Schedule6oftheConstitution.Insuchareas,landdevelopmentandplanningarenotdirectlyunderthe
control of the State government but vests with the Autonomous District Councils and mainly under
community ownership. Therefore, communities can be involved in development process of the
settlementsasitmaybeviableandeasierapproach.

3.2.3.3. LandReservations
The concept of Accommodation Reservation allows the landowners to develop the
sites reserved for an amenity in the development plan using full permissible Floor
SpaceIndex(FSI)/FloorAreaRatio(FAR)ontheplot,subjecttoagreeingtoentrust
and hand over the builtup area of such amenity to the local authority free of all
encumbrances and accept full FAR/FSI as compensation in lieu thereof. The area
utilized for the amenity would not form part of FAR/FSI calculation. Reservations
such as retail markets, dispensaries, etc. can be implemented in this way wherein
local authority is not required to acquire the land by incurring expenditure on
payment of compensation. In case of reservations like shopping centres etc., the
ownercanbeallowedtodeveloptheseonagreeingtogiveatleastupto25%ofthe
shopstothelocalauthorityforthepurposeofrehabilitationofthedisplacedpersons
onpaymentofcostofconstruction.
Incaseofroadwidening/newconstruction,thelocalauthoritycangrantadditional
FSIon100%ofthearearequiredforthepurpose,providedtheownersurrendersthe
land for widening or construction of new roads to the local authority free of all
encumbrancesandaccepttheadditionalFAR/FSIasthecompensationinlieuthereof.
This mechanism has considerably relieved local authorities from incurring huge
expensesforthepurposeofacquisitionofsuchlands.Themodelcanbeexploredfor
othernoneconomicactivitiessuchasopenspaces,publicutilitiesamongothers.

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The concept of accommodation reservation has been incorporated in the
DevelopmentControlRulesoftheMumbaiMunicipalCorporation.

3.2.3.4. TransferableDevelopmentRights(TDR)
TDRisatechniqueoflanddevelopment,whichseparatesthedevelopmentpotential
ofaparticularparceloflandfromitandallowsitsuseelsewherewithinthedefined
zones of the city. It allows the owner to sell the development rights of a particular
parceloflandtoanother.ThisentitlementisoverandabovetheusualFSIavailable
for receiving plot in accordance with the prevailing laws and regulations, which
entitlesalandownertoconstructadditionalbuiltupareaonhisexistingbuildingor
vacantland.
TDR is taken away from the zone and it is tradable which makes it different from
AccommodationReservation.Thisisalsogenerallyusedforredevelopmentofinner
city zones and for reconstruction/ redevelopment and has been tried out in
numerous cities/ States including Bengaluru, Chennai, Mumbai and Rajasthan.
However it has its prospects and consequences as experienced from the
implementation in various cities. For instance, unbridled pooling of TDRs could
damagetheurbanform,TODstrategies,qualityofpublicspaces,etc.Henceitshould
be used carefully within a predefined spatial framework.States like Karnataka and
Rajasthanhavemadeprovisionstomitigatesucheffects.

3.2.3.5. GuidedLandDevelopment
Guided Land Development model uses the provision ofinfrastructure as instrument
toguideurbandevelopment.Thisisdoneinpartnershipwithlandownerswhopay
for the cost of providing services to their land and in return donate land for public
infrastructure and a payment as betterment levy. This model, also proposed by the
UnitedNationsEconomic&SocialCommissionforAsia&Pacific(UNESCAP),hasbeen
forguidingtheconversionofprivatelyownedlandintheurbanperiphery.Itusesa
combination of traditional government role of providing infrastructure and the
enforcement of land subdivision regulations. The key advantage of the approach is
that it is less costly than outright land acquisition and more equitable than land
banking.
The principle behind guided land subdivision is that the government agency
proactivelyselectsthedirectionwhereitfeelsurbandevelopmentshouldtakeplace
and provides infrastructure in those areas. This acts as an incentive to encourage
developertoinvestintheplannedareaselectedbythegovernmentagency.Thecost
effectiveness of guided land development approach results from the fact that land
development is planned, designed and implemented with the landowners of the
designated area, who donate land for roads and right of way for infrastructure and
public spaces, as well as pay a betterment levy to meet the costs of the project. To
financethescheme,aloanisinitiallytakentobuildtheinfrastructure,whichispaid

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frombettermentleviesprovidedbylandownerseitheronannualinstallmentsorin
lumpsumuponsaleofland.Theinfrastructureisprovidedbythegovernmentagency
uptothesite.Individuallandownersaresupposedtosubdividetheirlandforvarious
developmentsandlaytheonsiteservices.
But guided land is often fraught with difficulties on the ground. First, as the model
depends on the consent of the landowners it cannot be applied in areas with
fragmentedlandownership,lackofownerswillandconsensus.Second,collectionof
betterment levies may not be feasible by small landholders and lead to default of
payment.

3.2.4. InclusiveLandDevelopment
Most cities in developing countries suffer from land market distortions caused by
poor land development and management policies including poor planning, slow
provisionofinfrastructureandservices,poorlandinformationsystems,cumbersome
and slow land transaction procedures, as well as under regulation of private land
development, leading to unplanned or ribbon/corridor development of land in the
urbanperiphery.Theurbanpoorsuffermostfromadysfunctionalcity.Distortionsin
thelandmarketsallowlandspeculation,whichoftenpricesthepooroutoftheformal
land markets and into the informal land markets, which are exemplified by slums,
squattersettlementsandillegalsubdivisions,mainlyintheperipheryofcities.This
leads to longer commuting time and costs, poor living conditions, in adequate
infrastructure and services, adversely affecting the health and financial condition
especiallyofthepoor,therebyentrenchingthecycleofpoverty.
Landandhousinghavespecialsignificanceforthepoor.Oftenforpoor,ahouseisnot
justashelter,butisalsoaplaceforincomegeneration.Urbansettlementsofthepoor
intheregionarecharacterizedbyhomebasedworkshopsfromwhichthepoorearn
their incomes. Though slum, squatter and illegal settlements are often used
interchangeably but they are different from each other and denote different
characteristicsofthesettlement.
Slums are legal but substandard settlements, with a lack of adequate services and
overcrowding.
Squatteraresettlementswherelandhasbeenoccupiedillegally.Theyareoftenfoundon
marginalorenvironmentallyhazardouslands,suchasclosetorailwaytracks,alongrivers
and canals etc. They are also found on government land or land whose ownership is
unclear.
While squatter settlements are spontaneous and unorganized, illegal settlements are
planned and organized. These usually occur in cities where the government owns large
tractsofvacantland,withlowopportunitycost.

3.2.4.1. InclusionofPoorintotheFormalLand/HousingMarket
Experience has shown that bringing the poor into the formal land and housing
marketsneedsatwoprongedstrategy:increasingthechoicesavailableonthesupply
sideandincreasingaffordabilityonthedemandside.

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1.

2.

Increasingsupplyoflandforthepoorincludesfollowing:

SitesandServices:Itprovidesthetargetgroupwithaplotandbasicinfrastructure,such
aswater,roadsandsanitationfacilities.

Illegal settlements regularization/upgrading: Settlement upgrading provides existing


settlementdwellerslandtenure,aswellas,basicinfrastructure.

Landsharing:Landownerandthelandoccupantsreachanagreementwherebytheland
owner develops the economically most attractive part of the plot and the dwellers build
housesontheotherpartwithfullorlimitedlandownership.

Siteswithoutservicesincrementaldevelopment: The approach includes mechanisms


wherebygroupsofhouseholdsareencouragedtoorganizethemselves,accumulatefunds
andprovideinfrastructuregradually.

Private developers to provide a percentage of FAR (DDA norms provides 15%) for EWS
housingtobehandedovertoLB/Authorityatpredeterminedprice.

Reservation for service population including domestic help, cleaners, drivers, other
smallscaleandinformalservicesshouldbemade(DDAnormin50%).

Thestrategyofincreasingeffectivedemandforlandforthepoorhasfollowingschemeswhich
canbeusedtoprovidebettersheltertotheurbanpoor:

Community organization: Organized communities of the poor can afford housing and
theyalsonegotiatewithgovernmentsandotherstakeholdersmoreeffectively.

Increasing savings and providing access to finance: Communitybased savingsand


creditschemespreserveorganizedcommunitiesandincreaseaccesstofinance.

Improving income opportunities by providing access to the Central and State level
schemes for employment (like Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana, Urban Wage /Self
EmploymentProgramme,WomenSelfhelpProgramme)andvocationaltrainings(likeSkill
TrainingforEmploymentPromotion).

(Source:UNESCAPUrbanLandPolicyfortheUninitiated,DDANormsandothersources.)

3.3.

FiscalResourceMobilisation

Localbodiesplayanimportantroleinprovidingsocial,civic,physicalandeconomic
infrastructureservicestothepublic.Municipalfinancesarecriticalininitiatingmany
urban and local governance projects, as financial resources strategic management
plays a vital role in ensuring longterm sustainability of local services and
infrastructure. With the introduction of 73rd& 74thCAA, local governments role and
responsibilities have been increasing continuously. To realize these responsibilities
local governments require steady flow and efficient management of financial
resources. However, as the traditional system of funding on basis of plan and
budgetary allocations will be reduced, the local authorities will have to devise
innovative methods of resource mobilization through fiscal instruments and
accessing the market. The subsidies will need to be rationalized and urban
development plans and projects need to be designed as commercially viable. A
generallifecycleofaprojectisdepictedinFigure3.1.

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anningApp
proach

Figu
ure3.1: ProjectLifeCycle

Also
otheestimatiionofprojecttcostistobeaccuratelycaalculatedinclludingcontin
ngencies.Theeimportant
head
dforprojectccostcalculatiionare:
1. CapitalInvestment(Caapex),includiing
1
Landcosst
Common
ninfrastructu
urecost,likeroads,watersupplyetc.
Projectsspecificinfrasstructurecosstliketollplaza,bridges
Buildinggandcivilcosst
Interestduringconsttruction
2 Workingccapitalmargiin(alsoincideentalexpensees)
2.
3 Operation
3.
nsandMainteenancecost(ss)(O&M),inccluding
Salary&
&Wages
Recurrin
ngrawmaterrialcost
Repair&
&Maintenancce
Administration&Oveerheads
Marketin
ngexpenses
Projectsspecificoperaatingexpensees

Req
quirement offinance intheprojjectlifecyccleisforim
mplementaationandthenlater
for operation andmanaggement.Th
hefirstactiivityisraissingfunds inbulkto initiatea
project. Once construction is oveer, the lateer stage off operation
n and maintenance
requires steaady flow from
f
revenue sourcces. Howev
ver, only well planned and
imp
plemented infrastructtureprojectsgenerateerevenueiincomeforrlocalauthoritiesin
form
m of fees and
a chargees. Figure 3.1
3 depictss general life cycle of a projectt. Various
inno
ovative an
nd traditional approaaches for financing developmeental activ
vities are
avaailablethesedaysand
danattemp
pttoprepaareacomprehensive listhasbeenmade,
asp
presentedinFigures3.2&3.3below.

DPFIGuidelin
nes,2014.MiinistryofUrb
banDevelopment
URD

77

UrbanPlanningA
Approach
Figure3.2: FundingSources

Figu
ure3.3: Reveenuesources

3.3.1. Traditional an
nd Inn
novative approaches for Fisscal
ResourrceMobiilisation
Diverse optionsof thesourceefinancearreavailableefordevelo
opmentalp
projects.Th
hese
tradition
nalandinnovativesou
urcesoffin
nancingpro
ojectsatStaateandULB
Blevelthro
ough
fundingandrevenu
uesourcesaredetaileedbelow:
a.

Taxes:StateGov
vernmentautthoriseslocallgovernmentsbylaw,to collecttaxess.Taxesarem
major
sourrceofrevenu
ueofUrbanL
LocalBodies. Propertytaxx,profession taxandadveertisementtaxare
majo
orsourcesoffrevenueinlo
ocalgovernm
ments.

b.

Chargesandfee
es:Localbodiieslevycharggesandfeesfortheserviccesprovided tocitizens.T
These
charrges,forwateersupply,sollidwasteman
nagement,paarkingandotthersuchservicestocoveerthe
costtofundertakiingtheprovissionofservicces.

c.

Gran
ntsandSubssidies:Granttsandsubsidiesaregenerrallygivenby
yCentralGoveernmenttoState/
Locaal Government or State to Local Goveernment for developmentt and provisiion of services to
citizzens.

d.

Pub
blic Private Partnership
p: PPP is an
n agreementt between public
p
and p
private entity
y for
prov
vidingserviceesorinfrastrructuretocitizens.Ithelpsmunicipalaauthoritiesto
oshedsome ofits
funcctionsandevo
olvealternativeinstitutionalarrangem
mentforthep
performanceofsuchfuncttions.

e.

Loan
nsfromfina
ancialinstitu
utions:Publiccandprivateeorganisation
nscometogetthertopoolffunds
from
mpublicandiinvestingitin
nfinancialassets.Suchloaansareforlongterm.

f.

Fun
nding by Bila
ateral and Multilateral
M
Agencies: These
T
are deevelopmentaal agencies which
w
prov
vide soft loan
ns for infrastructural pro
ojects. Almosst all such lo
oans are back
ked by soverreign
guarranteeandtaakelongprocesstoaccess.

g.

Fore
eign Direct Investment:: FDI is direect investmen
nt from company or entiity into a forreign
coun
ntry.

h.

PooledFinanceDevelopme
entFund(PF
FDF)Scheme
eofGovernm
mentofIndiia:PFDFis meant
m
toprovidecredittenhancemeentgrantsto enableULBsstoaccessm
marketborrow
wingstofacillitate
deveelopmentofm
municipalinffrastructure.

i.

Mun
nicipal Bond
ds and Debe
entures: Mun
nicipal bondss and debenttures are issu
ued by ULBss and
Infraastructure Fu
unds, to gen
neral public or
o specific in
nstitutional investors
i
to raise finance for
deveelopingphysiicalinfrastructure.

78

URDPFIG
Guidelines,2
2014.MinistrryofUrbanD
Developmentt

UrbanPlanningApproach

3.3.1.1. Taxes(Propertytaxes,Vacantdevelopedlandtax)
The municipal entities derive their tax powers from the laws enacted by the State
legislatures. The sources of revenue both tax and nontax are delegated to them
under these laws as obligatory and discretionary taxes. However, the municipal
bodiesareatthelibertytolevyataxandmayormaynotlevyalltheentitledtaxes.
In order to match the functional domain of municipal bodies with tax power, it is
imperative to devolve additional tax powers to municipalities and to provide for
transfer of new functions to them as proposed in 73 rd & 74th CAA, along with the
requisite funds which currently are under the purview of State Government
Departments.
Inadditiontotaxes,stategovernmentsalsoprovideauthority tolocalbodiestolevy
surcharge on some taxes to generate additional fund to meet its requirements.
Following is the list of taxes and surcharges that local bodies can levy to generate
revenue.
Taxes:

Propertytaxonlandsandbuildings:reformingthepropertytaxentailsbringinginamendment
ofinherentRentControlLawseitherfordelinkingitspresentdepressingeffectonrentalvalueor
forpermittinglegallytheperiodicalrevisionofstandardrent.TheModelRentControlActofMoUD
provides for refurbishing of standard rent and its periodical revision. This, if adopted by all the
states,willgoalongwayinrestoringthebaseofthistaxwithsomerelationshipwiththemarket
value.

StampDuty:Thistaxisleviedonthoseinstrumentsordocumentsoftransactionswhensellingand
buyingproperty.TheproceedsinregardwiththisdutygodirectlytoStateinwhichtheindividuals
arelevied.ItcanalsobesharedwithLocalBodies.

TaxonLand/Propertyvaluesincrement:It is common phenomenon that land values keep on


increasing over the years not because of any individual effort but due to implementation of
developmentschemes.Landvaluesincrementmayalsobeduetoeconomicphenomenonofrisein
generalprices.Thebasicobjectiveoflandvalueincrementtaxesistocapturesomeofthisincrease
forthebenefitofthecommunity.

Water tax: The Municipality can levy a water tax on any land or residential building or non
residentialbuildingasapercentageofpropertytaxasspecifiedbyregulations.

Firetax:TheMunicipalitycanlevyafiretaxonanybuildingasapercentageofpropertytaxasmay
bespecifiedbyregulations.

Taxoncongregations:Itisataxleviedperheadorpervehicleforprovidingmunicipalservicesto
personsorvehiclesvisitingthemunicipalareaforthepurposeoftourismorinconnectionwithany
congregation of whatever nature, including pilgrimage, fair, festival, circus or yatra, within a
municipalareaforpersonsorvehiclesassemblingwithinthemunicipalareaforthepurpose.

Taxonpilgrimsandtourists.

Taxondeficitinparkingspacesinanynonresidentialbuilding: This tax ison thedeficits in


the provision for parking spaces required for different types of vehicles in any nonresidential
building.

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Advertisement Tax: Such tax can be levied for the exhibition or display of any advertisement
(otherthaninnewspaper)topublicviewinanymanner.

Vehicletax:Itisataxonpurchasingvehiclesandusingroads.

ProfessionTax:Professiontaxisleviedbymunicipalauthorityonindividual,company,business
ownersormerchantsItisleviedontheincomeearnedbywayoftrade,profession,employmentor
business.

DomesticServantsTax:Thistaxispayablebyemployerondomesticservants.

Vacantlandtax:Insomeurbanplaces,thelandiskeptvacantwithoutanyusebytheownerfora
periodoftime.Ataxispayableonvacantlandtoincentivizeitsdevelopmentorsaletothosewho
havetheinterestandaccesstoresourcestodevelopit.Itis recommendedtolevythistaxasper
applicableFARratherthanavailedFAR.

Octroi:Thistaxisleviedontheentryofgoodsintoalocalareaforconsumption,use,orsale.Many
StateshavereplacedoctroibyentrytaxleviedandcollectedbytheStateGovernment,butshared
withtheLocalBodies.

Other taxes: The municipalities can also levy any other tax, which the state legislature has the
powertolevy,subjecttothepriorapprovalofthestategovernment.

Surcharges:
SomeStatesprovidefor levy ofsurcharge onState taxes, to bepassed onto the local bodies,though
someeconomistsfindsuchsurchargestobedistortionary.Examplesare

Surcharge on stamp duty: The Municipality can levy a surcharge on the transfer of lands and
buildingssituatedwithinthemunicipalareaasapercentageofstampdutyleviedonsuchtransfer.

Surchargeonentertainmenttax:Itisasurchargeonanytaxleviedbythestategovernmenton
anyentertainmentoramusementwithinthemunicipalarea.

Surchargeonelectricityconsumption:Itisasurchargeonconsumptionofelectricitywithinthe
municipalarea.

Surchargeonpetroleumproducts:Stategovernmentslevysalestaxonpetroleumproductsand
additionalsurchargetocoverthefinancialdemandsoflocalbodies.

Tolls:
Toll is a form of tax, typically implemented to help recover the cost of road construction and
maintenance.

Roads&Bridges:AMunicipalauthoritycanestablishatollbaronanypublicstreetorbridgein
themunicipalareaandlevyatollatsuchtollbaronvehicles,overandabovethevehicletax,for
specifiedreason.

Ferries: Where a ferry plies between two points on a watercourse and either one or both the
points are situated within a municipal area, State Government can declare such ferry to be a
municipalferryandlevytollortax.

Heavytrucks: It is a toll on heavy goods or passenger motor vehicles, plying on a public street.
Thisistocontrolheavypassengermotorvehiclesmovementintherestrictedhoursofthedayand
intherestrictedareas.

Toll collection on navigation channels: The State Government can levy tolls for use of any
navigablechannel,whichpassesthroughthelimitsofamunicipalareainlieuofthemaintenanceof
navigationchannel.

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Table3.1: ListofvariousTaxes,Surcharges,Charges,FeesandTollsasmaybeleviedforUrban&
InfrastructureDevelopment
Heads

SourcesofRevenue

Taxes

Propertytaxonlands Water
andbuildings

Vehiclesand
other
conveyance

ElectricityCess

Conservancy

Property:(Lighting,
water,drainage,
generalpurpose,
sanitary)

Drainage

Motorvehicles

Educationcess

Congregation

Profession

Sanitary

NonMotorized
vehicles

Special
educationtax

Saleofcattlein
themarket

Terminal

Pilgrimsand
Tourist

Carriageand
animal

Localbodytax
onentryof
goods

Artisans

Scavenging

Trade

Timber

Animals

Markets

Boats

Dogs

Buildingapplication Garbage
Treatment

Advertisement

Menialdomestic
servants

DogsLatrine

Vacantland
developmenttax

Theatre

Octroi*

Fire
Stampdutyon
transferofproperties
Stampdutyon
transferof
immovable
properties

Electricity

Deficitparkingspace Specialwater
inanynonresidential tax
building
Landaccordingto
circumstances&
property

Latrine

Specialand
general
sanitation

Surcharges

Transferoflandsand Tax/charge/
buildings
feeon
Buildings

Electricity
consumption

Entertainment

Petroleum
products*

Charges

Developmentcharges Watersupply

Drainage

SolidWaste
Management

Sewerage

BettermentLevy

Otherspecific
Services
rendered

Stackingof
materialor
rubbish

Sanctionofbuilding
plans

Building
betterment

Compounding

Hotel/
Restaurant

Carts

Issueofcompletion
certificates

Betterment/
Development
Fee

Warrantfee

Swimmingpool

Carriages

Licensing:
Professionals,
activities

Building
construction

Natureandcost
ofInternet
services

Food
adulteration

Registrationof
DogsandCattles

IssueofBirthand
Deathcertificates

Advertisement Street
Fee

Compounding

Cattlepounds

BirthandDeath
registration

Boats(rental)

Pilgrim

Dangerousand
Offensivetrade
license

Animals

Mutation

FireBrigade

Drainage

Market

Slaughterhouse

Registration

PublicHealth

Lighting

Composting

Scavenging

TradeLicense

Water
Connection

Feeforsaleof
Goods

StockRegistration

Roads

Bridges

Ferries

Heavytrucks

Navigablechannel

Fees

Tolls
Source:

CompilationofStatewiseapplicabletaxesandfeesasin2004.*Taxesandsurchargeswhichmaybeabolished.

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CaseStudy:Canada,BritishColumbia
InBritishColumbiaprovinceofCanada,astudywasundertakentoidentifyastohowtomakebetteruse
oftaxationpowerstoincreasefundingofLocalGovernmentneeds.Variousnewsourcesofrevenueby
way of sharing or negotiating a greater share of existing taxes, developing new taxation tools were
identified.Someoftheinnovativesourcesasidentifiedarediscussedbelowinthreemajorcategories:
Figure3.4: SourcesforFundGeneration

(Source: http://www.thinkcity.ca/node/289)

3.3.1.2. Charges and Fees (Development Charges, Levies, Impact Fees,


nontaxsources,valorisationcharges,servicecharges)
Chargesareafeechargedbyaconsumerslocalbodytorecoverthecostsofspecific
community/physicalservices.Forexample,municipalchargesofwatersupplymaygo
to cover costs of laying water supply infrastructure and water treatment plant in a
city.Bettermentchargesareusuallyimposedonthebeneficiariesoftheimprovement
projects to recover the project cost. Development charge is used for recovering the
costofprovidingnewservicesandinfrastructureinanarea.
The Municipality can levy user chargesforfollowing services provided in theurban
areas:
Provisionofwatersupply,drainageandsewerage
SolidWasteManagement
Parkingofdifferenttypesofvehiclesindifferentareasandfordifferentperiods
Stackingofmaterialsorrubbishonpublicstreetsforconstruction,alteration,repairordemolition
workofanytype
Otherspecificservicesrendered

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UrbanPlanningApproach

Transit Corridors attracts economic activities and concerted development where


provision of additional infrastructure or its augmentation requires additional
financial support. Therefore, such areas call for selffinanced urban infrastructure
projects. Alternative possibilities to raise revenues in these areas can be by tapping
landbasedfinancingsourcesalongdensetransportcorridors,theseoptionscanbe:

HigherConversionchargesespeciallyforcommercialandeconomicallylucrativeactivities.
Higher Development charges or Betterment levy on land uses which put more pressure on
infrastructureImpactfeesorhigherchargesonthepurchaseofextraFSI/FARalongthecorridor
uptoamaximumprescribedbytheauthority.
Overall additional changes and fees such as higher property tax, special water tax (mentioned in
theTable3.1).
Nontax source for the use of particular services, such as Service charges for parking in the TOD
influencezone,firesafetyfacilitiesinthezoneamongothers.

ApartfromtheTODfocusedcharges,theMunicipalitycanlevyfeesandfinesforthe
followingservicesandactivitiestogeneraterevenue:

SanctionofbuildingplansandissueofCompletioncertificates,
Issueofmunicipallicensesforvariousnonresidentialuseoflandsandbuildings,
Licensing of various categories of professionals, activities such as sinking of tubewells, sale of
meat, fish or poultry or premises used for private markets, slaughterhouses, hospitals, animals,
cartsorcarriagesandotheractivities.
Sitesusedforadvertisementsinroads,parkinglots,commerciallocationsandpublicbuilding,
Issueofbirthanddeathcertificates.
Impact Fees: It is a fee imposed on builder, developer on industrialist to compensate the impact
andburdennewprojectisgoingtohaveonsocialandphysical infrastructure(existingandneed
fornew)andenvironment.

3.3.1.3. GrantinaidandSubsidies
Central Finance Commission (CFC) evolves a comprehensive framework for the
distributionofthegrantsinaidbetweenstates,includingthoseforthelocalbodies.
Further, the 13th Finance Commission has introduced other grants namely, general
basic grant, general performance grant and special area basic grant. Similar
provisions are made by the State Finance Commissions. In addition, Planning
Commission recommends Development (or Plan) Grants to States, including for the
localbodies.
A capital grant is usually utilized for capital expenditure like purchase of land,
building, equipment, facilities, etc. The benefits of such expenditure are of an
enduring nature and spread over an extended period of time, such as road
developmentgrant.
The revenue grant is generally utilized for meeting recurring expenditure, the
benefits of which usually expire within the accounting year in which it is incurred.
RevenueGrantsareusuallyinthenatureofasubsidy.Subsidiesareprovideddirectly
or indirectly for the provision of services such as water supply, disposal of sewage,

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transportinganddisposalofwastes,municipaltransport,streetlighting,hospitalsand
schools.

3.3.1.4. PublicPrivatePartnership(PPP)
Oneofthewaystoenhancefiscalcapabilitiesofthemunicipalauthoritiesistoshed
some of their functions and evolve alternative institutional arrangement for the
performance of such functions. Public Private Partnership is such arrangement
betweenagovernment/statutoryentity/governmentownedentityononesideand
a private sector entity on the other. This partnership is for the provision of public
assets or public services, through investments being made and management being
undertakenbytheprivatesectorentity,foraspecifiedperiodoftime.Thereiswell
defined allocation of risk between the private sector and the public entity. The PPP
arrangementensuresthatprivateentityreceivesperformancelinkedpaymentsthat
conformtospecifiedandpredeterminedperformancestandards,measurablebythe
publicentityoritsrepresentative.
PPP models are generally classified in the categories enlisted below and detailed in
section3.3.3:
ManagementContracts
TurnkeyProjects
Lease
Concession
PrivateOwnership

3.3.1.5. LoansfromFinancialInstitution(s)
Afinancialinstitutioniseitherinpublicandprivatesector whichbringsfundsfrom
the public and puts them in financial assets rather than physical property. Such
institutions are made up of different organizations such as banks, trust companies,
insurance companies and investment dealers. Specialized financial institutions e.g.
IDFC,NHB,HUDCOandIL&FSaresomeagencieswhichprovideloansandavarietyof
instrumentsforinfrastructurefinancing.Otherfinancialinstitutionse.g.ICICI,LICof
India, etc. also provide funds for infrastructure projects. These institutions have
accesstofundswhichareforlongerduratione.g.loansfromdevelopmentagencies,
bondsfromopenmarket,foreigninstitutionalinvestors,etc.andarethusabletolend
forrelativelylongerdurationsthanbanks.
CreditRatingoftheULBplaysanimportantrolehere.Thebetterthecreditratingfor
repayment of principal and interest, lower is the rate of interest. Certain financial
institutionsprovidecreditenhancementmechanismstoenhancetheinherentcredit
qualitytoobtainabettercreditratingresultinginlowerinterestrates.Thisfacilityis
now also being extended by MoUD through its Pooled Finance Development Fund
(PFDF) scheme. Institutions may also provide guarantees for funds accessed from
othersources.(Source:MunicipalFinanceImprovementProgrammeJnNURM)

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UrbanPlanningApproach

Bankinginstitutionsalsoprovidefinancetolocalauthorities.Bankloanisarelatively
new avenue and an easier option for finance for Local Bodies, as the banks have
prescribednormsandwelllaiddownprocedures.Thetimeperiodoftheseloansare
short to medium term and generally do not cater to the long tenure needs of
infrastructure projects. Bank loans are available to finance the short term needs of
institutionse.g.workingcapitalloan,bridgeloans,loansagainstpropertyetc.

3.3.1.6. FundingbyBilateral&Multilateralagencies
Bilateral organizations are government agencies or nonprofit organizations of a
country that provide aid to other countries. Bilateral organizations receive funding
from their national governments, and use the funding to aid developing countries.
Fewbilateralagenciesareasfollows:

USAgencyforInternationalDevelopment(USAID)
DepartmentforInternationalDevelopment(DFID;UK)
JapanBankforInternationalCooperation(JBIC)
JapanInternationalCooperationAgency(JICA)
AustralianAidAgency(AusAid)

Multilateral organizations are international organizations whose membership


comprises member governments, who collectively govern the organization and are
theprimarysourceoffunds,whiletheloans/grantsinaidareprovidedforprojectsin
variouscountries.Someexamplesofmultilateralfundingagenciesare:

VariousUnitedNation(UN)bodies
WorldBank
OrganisationforEconomicCooperationandDevelopment(OECD)
AsianDevelopmentBank(ADB)

Bilateral and Multilateral bodies are also known as Development Agencies. These
providesoftloansandgrantsforinfrastructureprojects.Accessingfundsfromthese
agencies is relatively a long process and it requires preparation of various project
documentsindepthplanning,andstudiestoassesscomplianceoftheprojectwith
respect to environment, rehabilitation / resettlement and social safeguard policies,
andpilottestingofnewinitiatives.Asalmostallloanprojectsofbilateralandmulti
lateral agencies are backed by a sovereign guarantee, the Department of Economic
Affairs,MinistryofFinance,GovernmentofIndiaplaysanimportantroleduringthe
entireprocess.Inlinewiththedevelopmentfinancingobjectivesoftheseinstitutions,
projectsfundedbytheseinstitutionsaretypicallyinsectorsthatarenotcommercially
attractive. Local bodies can receive external development assistance from bilateral
and multilateral sources on behalf of the State Governments for State sector
projects/programmes.
(Source:MunicipalFinanceImprovementProgrammeJnNURM)

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3.3.1.7. ForeignDirectInvestment
FundsfromForeignDirectInvestment(FDI)haveemergedasamajorsourceoffunds
ininfrastructuralprojectsinIndiaforinstanceJapans(JapanBankofInternational
Cooperation)FDIsupportindevelopingtheDelhiMumbaiIndustrialCorridor(DMIC).
UnderFDIPolicy2013,almostallthesectorshavebeenopenedfor100percentFDI
except agriculture, mining and petroleum and natural gas, manufacturing, service
sector and financial services. The sectors in which hundred per cent FDI is
permissible are construction (townships, housing and built up infrastructure),
Industrial Parks and Airports with few conditions. Hence FDI support for financial
resourcemobilizationiseasilyavailable,whichcouldbepermittedthroughfinancial
collaborations, joint ventures/technical collaborations, capital market, preferential
allotmentsetc.

3.3.1.8. PooledFinanceDevelopmentFundschemebyGoI
Smallandmediumsizedcitiesfinditdifficulttoraiseresourcesfromthemarketfor
infrastructure projects due to lack of project structuring capabilities and
creditworthiness. The Government of India has launched the Pooled Finance
DevelopmentScheme(PFDS)toenabletheselocalbodiestobridgethisgapthrough
accessing market funds for their infrastructure projects. The scheme is meant to
provide credit enhancement grants to enable local authorities to access market
borrowingsthroughPooledFinanceMunicipalBonds(PFMB)forinvestmentinurban
infrastructureprojects.
PFDSfacilitatesULBsinmunicipalinfrastructurebyhelpingthemaccesscapitaland
financial market for investment in essential projects. It facilitates local bodies in
developing bankable urban infrastructure projects. With appropriate credit
enhancementmeasuresithelpsULBsinreducingthecostofborrowingfrommarket,
ontheotherhandstrengtheningthemunicipalbondmarket.
ThePFDScreatesanincentivestructuretosupporturbanreforms,whichwouldalso
bedrivenbycovenantsoffinancialmarketlenderstoULBs.Theseurbanreformsare
in synergy with urban reform agenda of other central schemes as JnNURM and
UIDSSMT. In order to apply for the grant assistance a State Pooled Finance Entity
(SPFE)isrequiredtobeestablishedineverystate.TheSPFEcouldbeatrustprovided
that the entity is just a pass through vehicle. The Central Government will be
responsible for the funding of these State pooled finance entities through the PFDF.
ThecostofeachprojectoftheMunicipality/ULBswillbeestimated.Seventyfiveper
centofthesecostswillbereimbursedbytheCentralGovernmentandtwentyfiveper
centbytheStateGovernments.

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UrbanPlanningApproach

Otherfundsatthenationallevel,setupbyFinancialInstitutionsandBankshavealso
started providing the much required funds. State level Infrastructure funds (from
supply side) and Pooled Finance Funds (from demand side) have also started
providing funds for infrastructure projects. The examples of such funds are Tamil
NaduUrbanDevelopmentFundandGujaratInfrastructureDevelopmentFundetc.

3.3.1.9. Municipalbonds/debentures
UrbanLocalBodiesandInfrastructurefunds,issuemunicipalbondsanddebentures
togeneralpublicorspecificinstitutionsatfixedrateofinterestandareredeemable
afteraspecificperiod.Municipalbondscaneitherbetaxableortaxfree.Thesebonds
anddebenturescanbelistedonthestockexchangewhichmakesthesecuritieshighly
liquidandmakessecondarymarketavailableforthebondsanddebenturesholders.
NationalStockExchangeandBombayStockExchangeprovideafacilityforlistingof
bondsanddebenturesintheirExchanges.InIndia,theMunicipalbondmarketisstill
in its budding stage. Only large ULBs having buoyant revenue base e.g. Ahmedabad,
BangaloreweresuccessfulinthepastinraisingfundsthroughMunicipalBonds20.
Some national success cases of Local Bodies in raising bonds for infrastructure
projectsaregivenbelow:
Municipal Bonds by Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC) for water supply and sewerage
program,1998:Tofinancethewatersupplyandsewerageprogram,AMCfloatedmunicipalbondsin
January 1998. These were rated AA(SO) specifying having high degree of safety regarding timely
servicingoffinancialobligationsorcarryingverylowcreditrisk.Thesebondswerefloatedforseventy
fivepercentprivateandtwentyfivepercentpublicissues.Thiswasasignificantaccomplishmentat
thegiventime,asitwasthefirstmunicipalbondissueinIndiawithoutastategovernmentguarantee
anditrepresentedthefirststeptowardsfullymarketbasedsystemoflocalgovernmentfinance.
Tamil Nadu Urban Development Fund (TNUDF), 2003: Tamil Nadu Urban Development Fund
issuedbondsforcommerciallyviablewaterandsewerageinfrastructureprojectsbypoolingfourteen
municipalitiesin2003.Aspecialpurposevehicle,theWaterandSanitationPooledFund(WSPF),was
setuptoissuethemunicipalbonds.TheIndoUSAIDProgrammeonFinancialInstitutionsReformand
Expansion (FIRED) supported the efforts of WSPF to structure the bond issue whose proceeds
financed small water and sanitation projects in the fourteen small ULBs. USAID provided a backup
guarantee of fifty per cent of the bonds principal through the Development Credit Authority (DCA)
mechanism.
Greater Bangalore Water & Sewerage Project (8 ULBs), 2005: Government of Karnataka created
debt fund called the Karnataka Water and Sanitation Pooled Fund (KWSPF) and successfully floated
taxfreemunicipalbondsduringJune,2005.ItwasdonefortheGreaterBangaloreWaterSupplyand
SewerageProject(GBWASP).GovernmentofKarnatakawasassistedbyUSAIDunderitsDCAprogram
and provided a guarantee of up to fifty per cent of the principal amount of market borrowing. The
GBWASP was planned to provide water supply to 1.5 million people residing in about 300,000
households.

20

(Source: Indo-US Financial Institutions Reform and Expansion Project - Debt Market Component FIRE(D);

Creative Financing of Urban Infrastructure in India through Market-based Financing and Public-Private
Partnership Options, Chetan and Hitesh Vaidya)

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3.3.1.10. PossibleSourcesofFundingForProjects
Possiblesourcesoffundingvarioustypesofprojects,butnotlimitedto,aretabulated
below:
Table3.2: AlternateSourcesofFundingforProjects
S.No. Projecttype

Indicativesourcestofund

FundingbyBilateral&Multilateralagencies

LargeInfrastructureProjects(atState/
Districtlevel)

ForeignDirectInvestment
PublicPrivatePartnership(PPP)

CityUrbanInfrastructure

CentralGrantinaid&Schemes
PublicPrivatePartnership(PPP)
LoansfromFinancialInstitution(s)(ifshorttomediumterm)
Municipalbonds/debentures

SocialInfrastructure,CapacityBuilding
andPMCProjects

FundingbyBilateral&Multilateralagencies
Municipalbonds/debentures
CentralGrantinaid&Schemes
PublicPrivatePartnership(PPP)/CorporateSocialResponsibility

RealEstateProjects

ForeignDirectInvestment
Municipalbonds/debentures
PublicPrivatePartnership(PPP)
LoansfromFinancialInstitution(s)

3.3.2. Alternative Financial Avenues by Private Sector


Participation
PublicPrivate Partnership (PPP) is a long term contractual agreement between a
publicagency(central,stateorlocal)andaprivatesectorentityforprovidingapublic
asset or service in which the private party bears significant risk and management
responsibility.
The private sector includes consultancy firms, developers, builders and promoters,
cooperative societies, NonGovernmental Organisations (NGOs) and Community
BasedOrganisations(CBOs),cooperativebodies,industrialistsandbusinessmen.
PPPmeansanarrangementbetweenagovernmentorstatutoryentityorgovernment
ownedentityononesideandaprivatesectorentityontheother,fortheprovisionof
public assets and/ or related services for public benefit, through investments being
madebyand/ormanagementundertakenbytheprivatesectorentityforaspecified
timeperiod,wherethereisasubstantialrisksharingwiththeprivatesectorandthe
private sector receives performance linked payments that conform (or are
benchmarked) to specified, predetermined and measurable performance
standards21.

21

(Department of Economic Affairs - DEA, Ministry of Finance, Government of India, 2010)

88

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

UrbanPlanningApproach

3.3.2.1. Conditions/SituationsforPPPSelection
A project may be considered to be implemented as a PPP project when there are
efficiency gains from improved project delivery, operation and management, and
accesstoadvancedtechnologycanoffsettheincidentalcosts,improvementinhuman
resource etc. In fact, many countries have established value for money as the main
criterioninjudgingthemeritsofaPPPoptionforaproject.DecisionforPPPtobean
alternative development mechanism can be selected for a project, if it satisfies the
followingconditionsorissetinthegivensituations:

Enhancethesupplyofmuchneededservices
Doesnotrequireanyimmediatecashspending
Providerelieffromtheburdenofthecostsofdesignandconstruction
Transferofmanyprojectriskstotheprivatesector
Promisebetterprojectdesign,choiceoftechnology,construction,operationandservicedelivery
PPPprojectsareviableessentiallywhenrobustbusinessmodelscanbedeveloped

3.3.2.2. SystemsofParticipation
PPP models vary from shortterm simple management contracts to longterm and
verycomplexBOTform.Dependingupontypeofprojectandrequirementsofpublic
entity any single or combinations could be selected. In such models amount of
investment,risks,obligationsanddurationsvary.Thesemodelsvarymainlyby:

Ownershipofcapitalassets
Responsibilityforinvestment
Assumptionofrisks
Durationofcontract

ThePPPmodelscanbeclassifiedintofollowingbroadcategoriesinorderofgenerally
(butnotalways)increasedinvolvementandassumptionofrisksbytheprivatesector.
Theseareenlistedbelowandarediagrammaticallypresentedinthefigure3.5.

ManagementContracts
TurnkeyProjects
Lease
Concession
PrivateOwnership

1.

ManagementContracts:Itisacontractualagreementbetweengovernmentandprivatesectorfor
themanagementofpublicenterprisepartiallyorcompletelybyprivateparty.

Control of public enterprise remains with the government. While private sector skills are
brought into service design and delivery, operational control, labour management and
equipmentprocurement.
SupplyorServiceContracts:Inthesetypesofcontractssupplyofmaterial,equipmentor servicesis
providedtopublicenterprisebyprivatecounterpart.Themainpurposeofsuchcontractsistoensure
the supply of the relevant service at the desired level of quantity and quality. Example of these
contractsiscateringservicesforpassengersonpublicrailwaysystems.

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

89

UrbanPlanningA
Approach
Maintena
anceManage
ement:Privattepartneris contractedb
bypublicpartnertooperaate,maintain
n,and
manageafacilityorsystemprovidiingaservice. Suchasinprrovisionofw
wastewatertrreatmentserv
vices,
transportprojectsetc.

nalManagem
ment: Publicc partner (Ceentre, State, or
o Local Goveernment agency or autho
ority)
Operation
contractsw
withaprivattepartnertop
provideand//ormaintainaspecificserrvice.

Such contrracts are usseful in major transportt facilities (port or airp


port) when local
manpowerr is limited, in the transsport sector for providin
ng managem
ment servicess like
ticketing, reservation
r
o of urban transport. In
or
n the simpleest type of su
uch contractt, the
private op
perator is paaid a fixed fee for perfforming man
nagerial tasks. More com
mplex
contractsm
mayoffergreeaterincentiv
vesforefficien
ncyimprovem
mentbydefin
ningperform
mance
targetsand
dthefeeisbaasedinparto
ontheirfulfilm
ment.
2.

Turnk
keyprojectss:Itisatraditionalpubliccsectorprocu
urementmod
delforinfrasttructurefacillities.
Theprivatecontraactordesignsandbuildsafacilityforafixedfee,ratteortotalcosst,whichisoneof
thekeeycriteriain selectingtheewinningbid
d.Thecontraactorassumeesrisksinvollvedinthedeesign
andco
onstructionp
phases.Thesscaleofinvesstmentbytheprivatesecctorisgeneraallylowand fora
shortterm.Thisty
ypeofprivateesectorparticipationisalssoknownasDesignBuild
d.

3. Lease
e:Inthiscateegoryofarran
ngement,an operator(theleaseholderr)isresponsibleforoperating
and maintaining
m
t
the
infrastru
ucture facilitty and servicces, generallly without m
making any large
investtment.Theop
peratorretain
nsrevenueco
ollectedfrom
mcustomers/usersoftheffacilityandm
makes
aspeccifiedleasefeeepaymentttothecontractingauthoriity.Fixedfaccilitiesandlandareleased
dout
foralongerperiod
dthanformob
bileassets.
Figure3.5: PPPModeels

Source:

4.

90

PP
PP,MoUDandAGuidebookonP
PPPInfrastructurre,ESCAP,UN

Co
oncessions: In this alterrnative, Government defin
nes and gran
nts specific riights to a prrivate
co
ompanytobu
uildandoperrateafacility
yforafixedp
periodoftimee.TheGovern
nmentmayretain

URDPFIG
Guidelines,2
2014.MinistrryofUrbanD
Developmentt

UrbanPlanningApproach

theultimateownershipofthefacilityand/orrighttosupplytheservices.Typicalconcession
periodsrangebetween5to50years.Concessionsmaybeawardedtoaconcessionaire,under
twotypesofcontractualarrangements:

Franchise:Underafranchisearrangementtheconcessionaireprovidesservicesthatarefully
specifiedbythefranchisingauthority.Commercialrisksarecarriedbyprivatesectorandmay
be required to make investments. This form of private sector participation is historically
popularinprovidingurbanbusorrailservices.

BuildOperateTransfer (BOT): BuildOperateTransfer or its other variants type of


arrangement, the concessionaire undertakes investments and operates the facility for a fixed
period of time after which the ownership reverts back to the public sector. In BOT type of
model the government carries the risk. The various types of BOT combinations are given
below:

DesignBuildFinanceOperate (DBFO): In DBFO approach, the responsibilities for


designing, building, financing, operating and maintaining are bundled together and
transferred to private sector partners. Varying degree of financial responsibilities is
transferredtotheprivatesector.Directuserfeesarethemostcommonrevenuesource.

DesignBuildFinanceOperateMaintenanceTransfer (DBFOMT): DBFOMT model is


the same as a DBFO except that the private sector owns the asset until the end of the
contractwhentheownershipistransferredtothepublicsector.

BuildRehabilitateOperateTransfer(BROT):Aprivatedeveloperbuildsanaddonto
an existing facility or completes a partially built facility and rehabilitates existingassets,
thenoperatesandmaintainsthefacilityatitsownriskforthecontractperiod.

DesignBuildOperateMaintain(DBOM):DBOMmodelisanintegratedpartnershipthat
combinesthedesignandconstructionresponsibilitiesofdesignbuildprocurementswith
operationsandmaintenance.

BuyBuildOperate(BBO): BBO is a form of asset sale that includes a rehabilitation or


expansion of an existing facility. The government sells the asset to the private sector
entity, which then makes the improvements necessary to operate the facility in a
profitablemanner.

BuildOwnOperateandTransfer (BOOT): BOOT is based on the granting of a


concession by the Union/ Government/local authority to the concessionaire, who is
responsible for the construction, financing, operation and maintenance of a facility over
theperiodoftheconcessionbeforefinallytransferringthefullyoperationalfacility.

BuildTransferandOperate (BTO): BTO is a contractual arrangement whereby the


publicsectorcontractsoutthebuildingofaninfrastructurefacilitytoaprivateentitysuch
that the concessionaire builds the facility on a turnkey basis, assuming cost overrun,
delayandspecifiedperformancerisks.

BuildandTransfer(BT): BT is a contractual arrangement whereby the concessionaire


undertakes the financing and construction of a given infrastructure or development
facility and after its completion turns it over to the Government Agency or Local
Governmentunitconcerned.

BOT Annuity: BOT Annuity is the contractual arrangement quite similar to BOT but
returnoninvestmentisnotthroughthelevyandcollectionof userfeedirectlyfromthe
users.Insteadtheowner/GovernmentpaytotheConcessionaire anamountannuallyor
biannually(Annuity)whichhebidsfor.

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

91

UrbanPlanningApproach

5.

BuildLeaseandTransfer:BLTisacontractualarrangementwherebyaconcessionaire
isauthorizedtofinanceandconstructaninfrastructureordevelopmentfacilityandupon
itscompletionturnsitovertothegovernmentagencyorlocalgovernmentunitconcerned
on a lease arrangement for a fixed period after which ownership of the facility is
automaticallytransferredtothegovernmentagencyorlocalgovernmentunitconcerned.

RehabilitateOperateandTransfer(ROT):ROTisacontractualarrangementwhereby
anexistingfacilityisturnedovertotheprivatesectortorefurbish,operateandmaintain
foraconcessionperiod,attheexpiryofwhichthelegaltitletothefacilityisturnedoverto
thegovernment.

RehabilitateOwnandOperate(ROO): ROO is a contractual arrangement whereby an


existingfacilityisturnedovertotheprivatesectortorefurbishandoperatewithnotime
limitationimposedonownership.

Private ownership of assets: In this form of participation, the private sector remains
responsible for design, construction and operation of an infrastructure facility and in some
cases the public sector may relinquish the right ofownership ofassets tothe private sector.
Themainvariantsunderthisformaredescribedbelow

BuildOwnOperate:InBOOtype,theprivatesectorbuilds,ownsandoperatesafacility,
andsellstheproduct/servicetoitsusersorbeneficiaries
Private Finance Initiative: In PFI model, the private sector similar to the BOO model
builds, owns and operates a facility. However, the public sector purchases the services
fromtheprivatesectorthroughalongtermagreement.

Divestiture by license or sale: A private entity buys an equity stake in a stateowned


enterprise. However, the private stakemayormay not imply privatemanagement ofthe
enterprise.

Joint Venture: Joint ventures are alternatives to full privatization in which the
infrastructureiscoownedandoperatedbythepublicsectorandprivateoperators.Under
ajointventure,thepublicandprivatesectorpartnerscaneitherformanewcompanyor
assumejointownershipofanexistingcompanythroughasaleofsharestooneorseveral
privateinvestors.

Table3.3: PossiblerolesofPrivateandPublicsectorsintheurbandevelopmentprocess

Model

MainFeatures

Ownership
ofCapital
Assets
(Public/
Private/
Shared)

Public
Sector
Investment

Investment

Investment
By
Private
Sector

Assumptionof
Risk
(Public/Private
/Shared)

General
Durationof
Contract
(Years)

Public

15

Supplyand
Management
Contracts

Governmentretains
theultimatecontrol
ofthePublic
enterprise

Public

Turnkey
projects

Privatecontractor
designsandbuildsa
facilityforafixedfee,
rateortotalcost

Public

Investment

Private/Public

35

Public

Investment

Private/Public

520

Lease

92

Operatoris
responsiblefor
operatingand
maintainingthe
infrastructurefacility

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

UrbanPlanningApproach

Model

MainFeatures

Ownership
ofCapital
Assets
(Public/
Private/
Shared)

Investment
By
Public
Sector

Private
Sector

Assumptionof
Risk
(Public/Private
/Shared)

General
Durationof
Contract
(Years)

andservices
Concessions

Specificrightsare
grantedby
Governmenttoa
privatecompanyto
buildandoperatea
facilityforafixed
periodoftime

Public
/Private

Investment

Investment

Private/Public

1530

Private
ownershipof
assets

Theprivatesector
builds,ownsand
operatesafacility
andthenpublic
sectorpurchasesthe
servicesfromthe
privatesector
throughalongterm
agreement

Public
/Private

Investment

Private/Public

1020/
Indefinite

Source:PPP,MoUDandAGuidebookonPPPInfrastructure,ESCAP,UN

While the spectrum of models discussed above are possible as individual options,
combinationsarealsopossiblesuchas,aleaseor(partial)privatizationcontractfor
existingfacilitieswhichincorporatesprovisionsforexpansionthroughBuildOperate
Transfer.Infact,manyPPPprojectsofrecenttimesareofcombinationtype.Someof
casestudiesofPublicPrivatePartnershipProjectsinIndiaareenlistedinAppendixC
ofVolumeIIB.

3.3.2.3. ToolkitsforDecisionMakingforPPPs
ToolkitsfordecisionmakingforPPPprojectsareavailableandcouldbeusedbythe
partners to identify, assess, develop, procure and monitor the PPP projects. Such
toolkitsarestructuredtocoverthefulllifecycleofPPPprojects.Thetoolkitsarebuilt
on specific approaches for project procurement; approval etc. currently in place in
IndiatoensurethatitformsarelevantresourceforpractitionersinIndia.
Various toolkits to assist decision making for PPP are provided by Ministry of
Finance22.Someoftheseareasfollows:
1. PPPFamilyIndicatorItgivesastartingindicationofwhichPPPmodefamilytheparticular
projectmightbesuitedto.
2. PPPModeValidationTool It uses a risk allocationanalysisto help decide further whether
theselectedPPPmodeisbestfortheproject.
3. ThePPPSuitabilityFilterIttestshowwellsuitedtheprojectistobeingaPPPandchecksfor
barriersthatmightmakeitdifficulttodotheprojectasaPPP
4. Financial Viability Indicator Model It allows an analysis of the key questions of financial
viabilityoftheprojectandtotesttheseusingwhatif?scenarios.

22

(www.pppinindia.com).

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

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UrbanPlanningApproach
5. ValueformoneyIndicatorToolItprovidesanindicationoftheexpectedrangeofvaluefor
moneyforthepublicsectorfromthePPP.
6. ReadinessFiltersThistoolkitchecksthatalltheimportantstepshavebeenfollowedandthat
theimportantpreparationshavebeenmade,sothattheprojectisreadytomoveontothenext
stepindevelopmentasaPPP.

3.3.2.4. MunicipalAccounts
Reliable municipal accounting system has come to front as cities are approaching
differentsourcesforfundinginfrastructuralprojects.Toaccessbankorbondmarket
soundfinancialmanagementisrequired.Currentlyduetolackofgoodfinancialand
expendituremanagement,ULBsarewastingscarceresources.
With a view to provide better financial management, improved governance,
accountability, and transparency of management, Ministry of Urban Development
aims at implementing municipal accounting reforms as a part of the mandatory
reformagendaundertheJawaharlalNehruNationalUrbanRenewalMission.Hence,
JnNURM reform conditions call for improved municipal accounting, with the
objective of having a modern accounting system based on double entry and accrual
principles,leadingtobetterfinancialmanagement,transparencyandselfreliance,as
amandatoryreformforlocalbodies.
The Ministry of Urban Affairs & Employment (erstwhile Ministry) has introduced
NationalMunicipalAccountingManualwiththeobjectiveofprovidingsupporttothe
state governments in implementing financial management reforms in the ULBs23.
ExistingtrendofMunicipalexpenditurepatternisstudied.

3.3.3. ExistingTrendofExpenditurePattern
Before an attempt is made to evaluate expenditure pattern of ULBs of India, its
imperative to understand expenditure heads. The details of expenditure categories
aregiveninTable3.4.
Table3.4: CategorisationofMunicipalExpenditure
ExpenditureCategory
Establishmentexpenditure
Administrativeexpenditure
Operations&Maintenance
Capitalexpenditure
Other expenditure
Source:

ExpenditureItems
Staffsalaries,Allowances,wages,Pensions&Retirementbenefitsetc.
Rents,rates&Taxes,Officemaintenance,Communications,Books&periodicals,
Printing&stationary,Travelexpenditure,Lawchargesetc.
Power&fuel,Bulkpurchases,Stores,Hirecharges,Repairs&expenditureMaintenance
andInterestpaymentsmadeonloans
Buildings,Watersupply&Sewerage,Energy/lighting,Solidwastemanagement,Roads,
Bridges,Culverts,Causeways,Health&sanitation,Parksandrecreationspaces,etc.,
Principalrepaymentsofloans,Furniture&fittings,Tools&plant,Equipment
Miscellaneous expenses not accounted for in the above

BudgetsofMunicipalCorporations.

As accepted and emphasized by reports of various institutions and committees24,


cities are important for national economic growth, while physical infrastructure is

23

(Source: National Municipal Accounting Training Manual- MoUD, JnNURM Primers-Municipal Accounting,
ULB level Reforms [http://jnnurm.nic.in/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/Mandatory_Primer_2-Mun-Acc.pdf])

24

Rakesh Mohan Committee; The High Powered Expert Committee (HPEC) for Estimating the Investment Requirements for
Urban Infrastructure Services of MoUD; & Urban Infrastructure in India by FICCI.

94

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driving force for urban economies. Thus, for faster and consistent growth of cities,
extensiveinfrastructuredevelopmentisbeingpromotedbycentreasevidentthrough
variousPolicies,ProgrammesandActs.Thisshouldreflectintheexpenditurepattern
of the cities. The development of infrastructure will be reflected in Capital
Expenditure,asexpenditureoninfrastructuredevelopmentfallsunderthelatter.
In ULBs of India, as given in the table below, majority of expenditure goes into
EstablishmentandAdministrationexpenditurehead.Infact,expenditureinO&Mof
existing infrastructure is higherthan for new infrastructure. In absence ofadequate
infrastructurepresentinIndiancities,thesefiguresindicatethatenoughmoneyisnot
being spent on Infrastructure development as required. A positive outcome of the
policies like JnNURM which has been emphasizing infrastructure development in
citiesandprovidingfinanceforsame,isthatgrowthrateofcapitalexpenditureisto
increase.
Table3.5: CompositionandTrendsofMunicipalExpenditure(Rs.inLakh)

S.No
.

Compositionand
Trendsof
Municipal
Expenditure

AverageGrowth
1999
2000

2000
2001

2001
2002

2002
2003

2003
2004

(%oftotal
expenditure)

Establishmentand
administration
expenditure

279,216

330414

329,592

411,432

402550

10.19

Operationand
maintenance
expenditure

107,383

Otherrevenue
expenditure

51,830

56,120

55,954

58,190

56265

Revenue
Expenditure
(1+2+3)

438,429

514,699

527720

634,028

613215

Capital
Expenditure

96,933

OtherExpenditure
(notclassified)

209744

TotalExpenditure
(4+5+6)

745106

5
6
7
Source:

(36.25%)
128165

142174

164406

154400

9.96
(14.43%)
2.17
(5.88%)
9.2
(56.66%)

105,942

119,463

124,817

150424

11.76
(12.37%)

266611

210685

399205

470925

28.4
(31.07%)

887252

857868

1158050

1234564 14.34

MunicipalFinanceinIndia:AnAssessmentbyDepartmentofEconomicAnalysisandPolicy,ReserveBankofIndia,
Mumbai.December27,2007.

It is recommended that the urban settlements need to increase spending on capital


expenditure head intotal Municipal Expenditure which leads to the development of
economyandlivingcondition.

3.3.4. EffectiveFinanceManagement
3.3.4.1. Uniformityofaccountingsystem
UndertheJnNURM,MoUDdecidedtoprovidefinancialresourcestostatesandULBs
thatagreetoundertakefollowingmodernaccountingreforms:

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

95

UrbanPlanningApproach
Budgeting,accounting,internalcontrolsandauditing.
Reengineeringbusinessprocessestoalignwithaccrualbasedaccountingsystem.
Integratefinancialmanagementsystemswithfinancialaccountingsystem.
Staffandbuildingfinancialmanagementcapacity.
To encourage decentralization and improving transparency in the functioning of
municipalities of the country, the Government of India has made initiatives for
improvements in the accounting and budgeting systems, improved record keeping
and maintenance among others. With this objective the Ministry of Urban
Development, initiated to develop a National Municipal Accounts Manual. The
Manual comprehensively details the accounting policies, procedures, guidelines
designedtoensurecorrect,completeandtimelyrecordingofmunicipaltransactions
andproduceaccurateandrelevantfinancialreports.Themanualistobeadoptedand
followed by the various State Governments while drafting their state specific
municipalaccountsmanuals.

3.3.4.2. Efficienttax/chargesadministrationandrecoverymanagement
TaxadministrationandrecoverymechanismsneedtoberevisedinIndiatoimprove
taxcollectionandincreasetherevenueresourcesavailablewithlocalbodiestomeet
its requirements. Enforcement of tax collection needs to be strengthened. For
collection of fees for provision of services, proper techniques should be enforced.
Periodicassessmentandvaluationofpropertiesfortaxrevisionshouldtakeplaceand
forexpandingthetaxbase,propertytaxrollsshouldbeupdatedviaidentificationof
newproperties,computerisingbilling&collection.

3.3.4.3. FiscaltransfermanagementforULBs/RDAs
LackofstructuredfiscaltransfermechanismsfromStatetoULBsisoneofthemajor
reasons of availability of lesser fiscal resources with local authorities. State
Governments and ULBs need to explore the performancebased grants as suggested
by the 13th Central Finance Commission (CFC). State Finance Commissions (SFC)
generally do not have access to good database at the ULB level and there are no
agenciesatthestatelevel,whichcollectandmaintaincomprehensivedatabases.State
Governments should address this issue of creation and maintenance of database of
ULBsratherthandependingondatabasesbasedonsamplesurveys.
Timely constitution of SFC and timely submission of SFC Reports is very important.
ThesystemofprovidinggrantinaidtoULBsiscomplexandtheSFCsshould tryto
introducetheconceptofdevolutionpackagesaftertakingintoconsiderationalltypes
ofrevenuegrantsandtheseshouldbelinkedwithStatesownresources.
SFCsshouldalsoconsidertheideaofperformancebasedorincentivegrantsbasedon
outcomessuchasimprovedservicedelivery,improvedtaxcollectionsandimproved

96

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UrbanPlanningApproach

financial management etc. SFCs could review and link the grants to performance as
suggested by the 13th CFC and reforms under JNNURM. Importantly, the State
GovernmentsshouldgiveaseriousconsiderationtotherecommendationsoftheSFC
Reports and timely issuance of Action Taken Reports (ATR). All State Governments
shouldbuildasystemforpredictabilityandtransparencyofstatetransferstoULBs.
The State Governments should follow the system of electronic transfers to ULBs
ratherthantheconventionaltransfers.
(Source:TrackingCentralFinanceCommissionsandStateFinanceCommissionsGrantstoSelectedStates
andUrbanLocalBodiesinIndia,NIUA.)

3.3.5. CityInfrastructureFund
The infrastructure plays a vital role in the growth and development of cities in the
current context. Keeping in mind the demands and requirements of urban
development,GovernmentofIndiahasalsobeenemphasizingand providingfinance
for development of infrastructure. Following the same line of thought, a City
InfrastructureFundshouldbeestablishedaturbancentresbyanExecutiveorder.It
shouldbeotherthantheBudgetfundanddedicatedonlyfortheUrbanandRegional
Infrastructuredevelopment.
Thefollowingcanbepossiblesourcesoffunding(wholeorpartofit):
1. StampDutyontransactionofrealestateproperty,
2. Capitalgaintaxonrealestateproperty,
3. Landuseconversionfee,
4. Entrytaxonvehiclesinspecialareas(innercity,CBDetc.)ofcities,
5. Part of the TDS on realestate transactions valued over 50 Lakh (now mooted by the Finance
Ministry),
6. VacanttaxonMunicipalFARratherthanvacantland,
7. Tolltax,
8. Partoffundsraisedthroughauctionofstrategicplots,
9. Cessonpurchaseofluxuryvehiclessaycostingabove10lakh,
10. Bettermentlevyonspecialzones(transportcorridorsetc.).
11. Cessonelectricitybillisimposedtocoverthecoststreetlighting,
12. UrbanInfrastructureBonds,
13. Useidlefunds(ProvidentFund,variousTrustsetcetera)tosubscribetotheBonds.
14. LeverageUrbanInfrastructureBondswithlongtermloansfrommultilateraldevelopmentbanks.
15. Landbased financing sources along Transport Corridors tapped through Betterment charges,
Developmentcharges,Impactfees,PricingofFloorSpaceIndex(FSI)aboveacertainlimit.
State of Odisha has developed Odisha Urban Infrastructure Development Fund (OUIDF) to
strengthenrevenuebuoyancyatULBlevel.
InstitutionalframeworkofOUIDFconsistsof:
UrbanLoanFund.
GrantFund.
ProjectDevelopmentFund.
OUIDFhasbeendevelopedasaTrustundertheHousingandUrbanDevelopmentDepartment(HUDD)
withassistancefromKfW(GermanysDevelopmentBank).

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

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UrbanPlanningApproach
The OUIDF seeks to (a) catalyse development of wellstructured pool of bankable projects, (b) build
capacityinappraisalsandresourcemobilizationand(c)spurinstitutionalreformsasaprerequisite
forexternalfinancing.
FocussectorsandprojectsforfundingundertheOUIDFincludethefollowing:
Watersupplyandwatersupplyimprovementschemes,
Undergroundsewerageschemes,
SWM,
Climateadaptionmeasures,
Slumdevelopment,rehabilitation,provisionofbasicamenitiestoinformalsettlements,
Biomedicalwastemanagement,
Developmentandrenovationofbus/trainterminals,
Electriccrematories,
Energyefficientstreetlighting,
Reclamation/preservationofwaterbodies/tanks.
Toraisefinancialsupportunderthefundprojectneedstoclearsetofcriterialike,positiveclimate/
environment impact, financial soundness of ULB, projects which are expected to achieve economic
viabilityafterthreeyearsofgrantsupportamongstothers.
Source:OdishaInfrastructureDevelopmentFund

Similarly,StateofRajasthanhasdevelopedinnovativesources offinancetodevelopinfrastructurein
State.Theexpenditureofthefundisbroadlydividedintotwo
50%onTransport
50%onUrbaninfrastructureandbuildings

3.4.

Governance

TheneweconomicpolicyofGovernmentofIndiahaschangedtheroleofgovernment
from provider to facilitator. With entry of private sector in service provision and
improvingeconomicprofileofIndianeconomy,urbanpublic(basicallybutnotonly)
has started demanding better service provision standards and accountability in the
processofgovernance.HereincomestheroleandconceptofGoodgovernance.Itis
an evolving concept, concerning best practices of decision making for conducting
public affairs and management of public resources. Good governance is responsive
and responsible governance. It is described as accountable, transparent, responsive,
equitable & inclusive, effective & efficient, follows rule of law, participatory and
consensusoriented.Followingarethecharacteristicsofgoodgovernance:

98

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

UrbanPla
anningApp
proach

Figu
ure3.6: CharracteristicsofGoodGoverrnance

Sourcce:

UNESCAP,,GoodGovernan
nceguide:MuniccipalAssociation
nofVictoria

3.4
4.1. ChaaracterissticsofG
GoodGov
vernancee
3.4.1.1. Pub
blicaccou
untability
y
Acccountability
yisakeyrrequiremen
ntofGood Governancceandhasbecomek
keypolicy
prio
orityofthegovernmeent.Ingeneeral,anorgaanizationo
oraninstitu
utionisacccountable
to those
t
who will be affected
a
by its decisio
ons or acttions. Not only goverrnmental
insttitutions but
b also th
he private sector an
nd civil so
ociety orgaanizations must be
acco
ountable to
t the pub
blic and to
o their insstitutional stakehold
ders. Accou
untability
cannotbeenfo
orcedwitho
outtranspaarencyand
dtheruleofflaw.
(Sou
urce:Centrefo
orGoodGoverrnance)

3.4.1.2. Traansparenccy
Traansparency is the basis of Go
ood Goverrnance. Th
his requirees manageement of
gov
vernmentin
nstitutions sothatgovernment officialsan
ndagenciessareaccou
untableto
citizzens.Transsparency iss also esseential for acccountabiliity, peoples participaation and
efficciency. Th
he workingg of the public
p
autthority sho
ould be su
uch that all
a rules,
regu
ulations, decisions sh
hould be in
n the publiic domain. Transpareency is esseential for
purrsuing colleective visio
on of deveelopment, determinin
d
ng the locu
us of accou
untability,
keeepsstakeho
oldersawareofachiev
vementsan
ndprocess..
Emergenceof UnitedNationsConv
ventionagaainstCorrup
ption,activvismandaw
wareness
of civil
c
society
y for transparency, sttrong med
dia leading to increased voice of citizens
and
dparticipattioningov
vernancehaavefurtherremphasizzedtheneeedfortransparency
in governance
g
e. This meeans addreessing corrruption an
nd ensuring accountaability in
form
mulation of
o policies,, implementing proggrammes and
a
deliveering serviices in a
con
nvenient,acccessiblean
ndresponssivemanneerisbecom
minganonnegotiableepriority
forgovernance.

DPFIGuidelin
nes,2014.MiinistryofUrb
banDevelopment
URD

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(Source: Good Governance & Transparency Their Impact on Development by Saladin AlJurf &
TransparencyandGoodGovernanceattheMunicipalLevel:TransparencyInternationalCanada.)

3.4.1.3. CitizenscharterandGrievanceRedress
Oneofthefunctionsofgovernmentistoprovidepublicservicestothecitizensandto
dothesame,governmenti.e.StateandLocalauthorities,Municipalities,Government
departments have to operate efficiently and effectively for reaching its optimum
performance. For the delivery of public services to the citizens at acceptable
performancerequiresgovernmententitiestoactinthepublicinterestatalltimes.It
requires transparency, citizen participation in decision making and public
accountability. Citizens feedback plays an important role in service delivery and its
improvement.
Citizenscharterandgrievanceredressbringsaccountabilityintheprocessofservice
delivery.ACitizens'charterrepresentsthecommitmentofthe organisationtowards
standard, quality and time frame of service delivery, grievance redress mechanism,
transparencyandaccountability.TheconceptofCitizenscharterenshrinesthetrust
betweentheserviceprovideranditsusers.Agrievancecanbedefinedasanysortof
dissatisfaction,whichneedstoberedressedinordertoresultinservicedelivery.
GovernmentofIndiahasintroduced,TheRightofCitizensfortimebounddeliveryof
Goods and Services and Redress of their Grievances Bill, 2011. It confers right on
every individual citizen to time bound delivery of goods and provision for services
and redress of grievances25.The citizen report card is a simple but powerful tool to
provide public agencies with systematic feedback from users of public services. By
collectingfeedbackonthequalityandadequacyofpublicservicesfromactualusers,
CRC provides a rigorous basis and a proactive agenda for communities, civil society
organizationorlocalgovernmentstoengageinadialoguewith serviceprovidersto
improvethedeliveryofpublicservices.
(Source:ImprovingLocalGovernanceandServiceDelivery:CitizenReportCardLearningToolKitADB&
ADBI)

3.4.1.4. Inclusivedevelopment
TheGovernmentofIndiahasputfocusoninclusivedevelopmentinthelasttwoFive
YearDevelopmentplansvisionstatement.Asthetitleimplies,inclusivedevelopment
meansdevelopmentofallthecitizensofanarea.Ifallgroupsofpeoplecontributein
creatingopportunities,sharethebenefitsofdevelopmentandparticipateindecision
making, the development can be inclusive. This requires all groups, but particularly
themostvulnerablehaveopportunitiestoimproveormaintaintheirwellbeing.Here
focus should be given to women, poorer & disadvantaged section of society and
peopleemployedininformalsectorinordertoimpartsocialandeconomicinclusivity.

25

(http://goicharters.nic.in/welcome.html& Study on Reforms and Restructuring Final Report of Meghalaya State Power
Sector)

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3.4.1.5. FollowtheRuleofLaw
Goodgovernancerequiresfairlegalframeworksthatareenforcedimpartially.Italso
requires full protection of human rights, particularly those of minorities. Impartial
enforcement of laws requires an independent judiciary and an impartial and
incorruptible police force. Here, need for a regulatory body is felt for planning and
developmentwithalegalbackingtotakedecisioninsuchaspects.

3.4.1.6. Peoplesparticipation
Good governance is linked to the welfare of citizens. Good governance through
peoples participation ensures development, which is equitable and sustainable.
Peoples participation is not a single stage activity but as suggested in the planning
process, it should be taken up at multiple stages. It should take place preplan and
postplanpreparationatvariousstagesfromdecisionmakingtoimplementationand
then feedback, for ensuring answerability and transparency in the public
governance26.

3.4.1.7. Consensusoriented
There are several actors and as many viewpoints in a society. Good governance
requiresmediationofthedifferentinterestsinsocietytoreachabroadconsensusin
societyonwhatisinthebestinterestofthewholecommunity andhowthiscanbe
achieved. It also requires a broad and longterm perspective on what is needed for
sustainablehumandevelopmentandhowtoachievethegoalsofsuchdevelopment.
This can only result from an understanding of the historical, cultural and social
contexts of a given society or community and brought in the planning system right
fromtheStatePerspectivePlantobeconceivedforimplementationinDevelopment
PlanandSpecialPurposePlans.(Source:UNESCAP)

3.4.2.

EGovernanceReforms

EGovernanceistheapplicationofICTindeliveryofservicestopublicbygovernment.
Itbringsefficiency,effectiveness,transparencyandaccountabilityofinformational&
transactionalexchangeswithingovernment,governmentagenciesofNational,State,
Municipal & Local levels and citizen. It empowers citizens through access & use of
information.InIndiathroughNationaleGovernancePlan(NeGP)boththeUnionand
the State Governments are making efforts to bringinthe latest ICT technologiesfor
administrationandincreasethereachofservicestocitizens.
VisionofNeGPistomakeallGovernmentservicesaccessibletothecommonmanin
his locality, through common service delivery outlets and ensure efficiency,
transparency & reliability of such services at affordable costs to realise the basic
needsofthecommonman.UnderstatemissionmodeprojectsofNeGP,NRLMP,Road

26

(http://peoplesgoals.org/)

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Transport,Agriculture,Municipalities,CommercialTaxes,EPanchayatservices,State
Governmentsareresponsibleforitsimplementation.
Internationalbestpractices:
Singapore: EGovernance in Singapore started with computerisation of civil service
in 1981. Three relationships on which Singapore's eGovernment framework is
centredonareGovernmenttoCitizens(G2C),GovernmenttoBusinesses(G2B)and
Government to Employees (G2E). The objectives of eGovernance are integrated on
acronymCAREindicating:Courtesy,Accessibility,ResponsivenessandEffectiveness.
Five thrust areas of eGovernance in Singapore are: (i) reinventing government, (ii)
delivering integrated electronic services, (iii) being proactive and responsive, (iv)
using IT and Telecommunication to build new capabilities and capacities (v)
innovatingwithITandTelecommunication.
Vancouver: The City of Vancouver has defined Digital Strategy as a broad range of
technologythatenablesnewmethodsofengagementandservicedeliverysupported
by a robust and accessible digital infrastructure and open government ecosystem.
The Vision is to enhance multidirectional digital connections amongst citizens,
employees,businessandgovernment.ThepillarsofdigitalstrategyofVancouvercity
are: engagement and access, digital infrastructure and assets, digital economy and
organizationaldigitalmaturity.
Nationalbestpractices:EGovernancefunctionsandonlineservicesaredetailedin
Table3.6.
Table3.6: SelectiveeGovernmentfunctionsandOnlineServicesinIndia
State

OnlineServices

Gujarat

Publicgrievanceredress,
eGramVishvagram(connectingvillages)
eDhara(computerisationoflandrecordsthrough),
HospitalManagementInformationSystem,
eCity(deliveryofmunicipalservices)

Delhi

Conversionofleaseholdtofreehold,
Bookingofcommunityhall,parks,openspaces,
Samsyanidansewa,
Legalmanagementsystem,
OPDmedicalclaimreimbursement
ReviewofMasterPlanforDelhi2021

Ghaziabad

Vehiclepoolingfacility(registrationforowner),
Systemoffeedbackforpublicdepartments,
Onlinepropertyinformationsystem
Onlinecomplaintsystem

Tiruchirappalli

DuesPayment:propertytax,watercharges,nontax,professionaltax

(underITDepartment,Govt.ofIndia)

BirthandDeathcertificate,
BuildingPlanapproval,
Tradelicense

Source:AMDA:WebsitesofGujaratandTamilNaduGovernment,DDAandGDA.

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3.5.

InstitutionalSetUp

Planning function is a continuous process and the Planning Departments work


continues from plan preparation to plan processing, enforcement, implementation,
plan detailing, review and then plan formulation and so on. The plan formulation,
implementation, monitoring and review exercises must be statutorily prescribed in
the State Acts and completed within the specified timeframe as schedule. In the
contextoftheserequirementsinstitutionalsetuphasavitalrole.

3.5.1. TownandCountryPlanningDepartments:StateLevels
MostoftheStatesinIndiahaveDepartmentofTownandCountryPlanning(T&CP),
under the provisions of State Town and Country Planning Acts. But, not all the
Departments of T&CP are headed by qualified planners. Instead of Chief Town
Planner,theDepartmentsareheadedbyChiefEngineersorAdministratorsandinfew
cases by Senior Town Planners. Thus, despite of qualified manpower T&CP
departmentsatmanystatesareheadedbynonplannerswhichleadtoproblems,like
delayeddecisionmaking,lackofappropriatevisionsandpolicyinplanning,delayin
masterplanpreparation.AreviewofthevariousStatesanddetailedstudybyTCPO
has provided (Table3.7,3.8,3.9&3.10) general manpower requirements at State
DepartmentsofT&CP.
Table3.7: RequiredmanpowerofStateTownPlanningDepartment
Professionals

SubProfessional

Administrative

ChiefTownPlanner

AssistantTownPlanner

DeputyChiefTownPlanner

VillagePlanner

AssistantDirectorofTownPlanning

ExecutiveEngineer

Head Clerk, Accountants, UDC,


LDC, Typists, Stenographers,
Peons, Drivers, Cleaners,
Gardenersandothers

TownPlanner

AssistantEngineer

DeputyTownPlanner

StatisticalAssistant

ResearchAssociates

AssistantConsultingSurveyor

AssistantSociologist

UrbanDesigner

Planner(s)

Architectural/GISDraftsman

AssistantArchitectural/GISDraftsman/
CAD/CAMexpert

PhotographercumDraftsman

QuantitySurveyor

Supervisor

SubOverseers

Source:TCPO

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3.5.2. DistrictPlanningCommittee
StateGovernmentshavebeenempoweredby74thConstitutionalAmendmentActto
constitute District Planning Committee. These committees are to be responsible for
the preparation of District Development Plan. However, even after 2 decades of
amendment,mostofthestateshavenotconstitutedthesecommittees.
In a study done by TCPO in consultation with State Town & Country Planning
Departments and academic institutions, tentative strength of planners required at
different planning levels was deliberated. It was agreed that proportion of town
plannerswouldvaryaccordingtothepopulationandsizeoftheadministrativeunits.
ThemanpowerrequirementofDPCs,asassessed,ispresentedinTable3.8.
Table3.8: NumberofTownPlannersrequiredatDistrictLevel
Designation

Number

ChiefDistrictPlanningOfficer

SeniorDistrictPlanningOfficer

AssociateDistrictPlanningOfficer

AssistantDistrictPlanningOfficer

Total

10

Source:TCPO

3.5.3. Urban Local Bodies (Municipality, Development Authority,


MPC)
In view of growing number of cities and towns the number of town planners at
Metropolitan Planning Committees was assessed to be around 1,200. It was
established that number of town planners may vary city to city depending upon
numberofzones/wardsinthecity.Itwasnormatedthatforevery5lakhpopulation,
1townplannerisrequiredatmetropolitanplanningarea.
Table3.9: NumberofTownPlannersinMetropolitanPlanningArea
Designation

Number

ChiefTownPlanner

AdditionalChiefTownPlanner

SeniorTownPlanner

AssociatePlanner

AssistantPlanner

12

Total

23

Source:TCPO

TheCensusofIndia,2011hasforthefirsttimeclassifiedalargenumberoftownsas
census towns (3,894). These rural settlements have attained urban characteristics
andneedsupportoftownplanners.Itwasassessedthatabout79,000plannerswill
berequiredinsmallandmediumcitiesalone.

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Table3.10: NumberofTownPlannersrequiredfornonmillionpluscities(small&mediumcities)
Designation

Number

ChiefTownPlanner

SeniorTownPlanner

AssociatePlanner

AssistantPlanner

Total

10

Source:TCPO

Thus,theanalysisdonebyTCPO indicatesthat85,000to90,000plannerswouldbe
requiredinthecountryatvariouslevelsofplanningframework,whichroughlyworks
outto1plannerper14,000population.

3.5.4. TeamRequirementforPlanFormulation
Though the number of cities and the necessity of planning in these cities have
increasedbutthequalifiedmanpowerforthepreparationofvariousplanshasbeen
not yet met, as well as no statutory framework has been formed to meet the
manpowerrequirementnormatively.TheTCPOstudyhasconcluded thishasledto
regional variations in planning manpower and hinders regional or national
integration of ideas and rationales of planning standards followed in States. In
addition the use of modern techniques of planning including advancements in IT
systems, Remote Sensing (RS), Geological Information System (GIS) and Global
PositioningSystem(GPS)technologies,useofCAD,CAMisalso fallingbehinddueto
lackoftrainedmanpowerofsuchdisciplinesinplanning.Thuscurrentsituationcalls
for predefined acknowledgement of minimum team requirements for plan
formulation, boosting training of the new planners and provision of adequate
planningschools, capacitybuilding.Itisalso desirabletorevisitthecurricula ofthe
under and postgraduate study courses in town planning to bring in the newer
conceptandtechnologies,includingRS&GISetc.,intoeveryaspectoftownplanning.

3.5.4.1. TeamRequirement
Core Planners team for holistic planning of cities and regions should necessarily
consistof:

Urbanplannerand/orregionalplanner,
Environmentalplanner,
Transportplannersand
Infrastructureplanner.

Apartfromteamofplannerscertainexpertsarealsorequired(asperrequirementof
thestudy)suchas,

Urbandesigner,
Legalexpert,
Economist,
Geographers&Demographer,
Sociologist/Anthropologist,

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Expertinhousingandgoodgovernance,
Heritageconversationexpert,
Tourismexpert,
Urbanpolicyexpert,
Developmentplanner,
Water&Sanitationexpertandothers,
Architecturaldraftsman/GISexpertorassociate.

3.5.4.2. QualifiedPlanner
A qualified planner should preferably be a member of ITPI. A list of institutions
recognized by ITPI is given in Appendix D of Volume IIB. However, to bring
uniformity in the planning profession, Draft Town & Country Planners Registration
Bill,2012hasbeenpreparedbytheTCPO.TheBillalsoprovidesforestablishmentof
aCouncilofTown&CountryPlanning.Thepurposeofsuchcouncilistoregulatethe
quality of educational institutions and qualified professionals in Town and Country
Planning. The Bill has defined "Town and Country Planning" as the profession
responsible for planned development of urban and rural areas and the process
concerned with control of the use of land so as to guide and ensure planned and
orderlydevelopment.
Town and Country Planner is proposed to be a person holding a professional
undergraduate or postgraduate qualification in Town and Country Planning or in
accordance with the nomenclature as specified in the Schedule of the Bill, acquired
from a recognized School, Institution, Department of study / University and
registered with the Council. The Council will prescribe the standards of Town and
Country Planning education. The Council could help ensure that only certified
plannerscarryoutthetaskofurbanandregionalplanning.

3.5.4.3. PolicyOptionsofManpowerMobilisation
Asindicatedabove,therequirementofplannerstoperformthe functionofplanning
and development at district, metropolitan and local area levels is over 85,000.
Currentlythereare3700plannersregisteredwithInstituteof TownPlanners,India
(ITPI),workingindifferentorganizations.Itisthereforesuggestedthat:

Every state should have a PlanningSchool. As of now, NE States, Bihar, Haryana, Himachal
Pradesh,J&K,OrissaandUttarPradeshdonothaveanyrecognizedinstituteofferingcoursesin
TownPlanning.Thisgapneedstobefilledinsoon.

Capacity building for enhancing institutional capacities for plan preparation, effectively
function as institutions of local governance and for improved service delivery. As per the
Toolkit for Comprehensive Capacity Building Programme, JnNURM, 2013, the efforts
shouldfocusesoncreatinganenablingenvironmentatULBleveltoimprovegovernanceand
servicedeliveryfunctions.Further,capacitybuildingtoincludetrainingprogrammes,suchas:
i.

106

Training /awareness programmes to ULB staff and elected representatives, with special
emphasisonthewomenelectedrepresentatives.

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ii. Skill development trainings to ULB/parastatal functionaries to plan and implement


developmentprojects.
iii. Technical and sectoral training programmes for ULB/ parastatal staff in water supply,
solid waste management, roads & bridges, urban transport, sewerage, environment, and
othersectorsrelatedtourbandevelopment/management.

Itisalsodesirabletostrengthenthearrangementsfortrainingandcapacityenhancementof
town planners and urban designers in nongovernment sectors, for which ITPI or similar
bodiescouldactasfacilitators.

3.5.4.4. OutsourcingProfessionalServices
In case of inadequacy in the manpower capacity with the Government bodies for
planning, outsourcing to nongovernmental and private consultancy/ organisation
could be considered as an option. The conditions of engagement of professional
servicesandscaleofprofessionalfeesandchargesareprovidedbyITPI27.Itprovides
professional fees for preparation of different types of plans based on projected
plannedpopulationandalsoaspermanmonths,whichcanbereferredforestimating
thecostofrespectiveplanpreparation.

3.6.

InstitutionalReforms

3.6.1. RegulatoryBodyatStateLevel
ARegulatorybodyUrbanRegionalPlanningandDevelopmentRegulatoryAuthority
atStatelevelshouldbeestablishedthroughstatutorysupport.Theroleofthisbody
shouldbetoregulateandmonitorthefunctioningofdevelopmentbodiesandalsoto
regulate Urban and Regional Development Authorities / Bodies / Agencies28.This
regulatorybodyshouldhavefollowingobjectivestofulfi litsroleandfunctionsinan
envisionedmanner:

AssessandMonitortheoverallUrban/RegionalPlanningintheState.

Observer and Evaluate impacts of planning on other elements of development system, especially
EnvironmentandSocial&BalancedRegionalDevelopment.
QuickentheprocessofapprovalofPlanscoupledwithtransparency.

PromoteanddirectFDIinRealEstateSector.

PrepareStandardmonitoringplanandevaluationparameters

ToserveasaCentralisedSingleWindowforclearanceand

Authority to exam the plan modification request and permit (midterm) landuse changes in the
planwhichmaybeguidedbylargedevelopments,socialinterestandneedforall.

27

Document: Conditions of engagement of professional services and scale of professional fees and charges, ITPI, effective
from December, 2011 available at: http://itpi.org.in/pdfs/DiscussionDraft.pdf.

28

Such arrangements have been introduced in Kerala, where Town & Country Planning Commission under the Kerala Town
& Country Planning Ordinance, 2013 isan apex body to advise the Government and guide and assist the MPCs and DPCs
on matters relating to spatial planning and development.

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3.6.2. GrievanceRedressalSystem
A decentralized grievance redress system should be established in every state upto
theleveloflocaldevelopmentauthority,toprovideredressforcomplaints.
ACitizensChartercouldbeformedintheframeworkoftheActionPlanforEffective
and Responsive Government, 1997 and the Citizen's Charter and the Grievance
RedressBill,2011underconsiderationinParliament.
CentralGovernmentisprovidingbaseforpublicgrievanceunderCitizensCharter,for
which guidelines are also available in the Compilation of Guidelines for Redress of
PublicGrievance,2010oftheD/oAR&PG,whichhasadedicatedwebsiteforcitizens
charter:http://goicharters.nic.in/welcome.html.
To ensure obligation of transparent modification of schemes, including the updated
progress Local Area Planning level, the method of public participation should be
utilised.

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RegionalPlanningApproach

4.1.

NeedofRegionasPlanningUnit

Region is a contiguous geographical area, which has a fair degree of uniformity, in


administration,economiclinkagesornaturalenvironment.Itisrelativelyalargearea,
withhierarchyofsettlementsandvaryinglandscape.
UrbanisationhasacceleratedinthepastfewdecadeswhileplanninginIndiahasbeen
largely limited to urban settlements and the space between cities and their
surroundings has been growing in an unplanned haphazard manner. Centrifugal
forces attract huge volume of migrant population to urban centres, which has
rendered short the planning efforts of local bodies. The resultant biases in
demographyhavealsohadnegativeimplicationsinthedevelopmentatthesourceof
migration. Thus, urban centres & its surrounding settlements have twoway
interrelationshipintermsofcauseandeffectofmanyelements.Accordingly,planning
asanexerciseshouldnotbeexclusivelylimitedtourbansettlementsbutaregioncan
be identified to have holistic development of growth promoting centres and
surrounding subsequent hierarchy of settlements. This should facilitate optimal
planning and development of infrastructure in cities along with the adjoining rural
areasandstrengthentheeconomiclinksintheregion.
The paradigm of regional development has evolved through the years after
Independence. Most important ones are district planning, metropolitan planning,
watershedmanagementandspecialareadevelopment.ThePlanningCommissionhas
also developed methods for regionalisation and policy guidance for preparation of
developmentplansforregions.Anumberofsuchcasestudieshavebeentakenupby
the State Governments for development of special regions. Considering the
importanceofregionalplanningatthedistrictlevelandwith theviewtointegrating
theurbanandregionaldevelopment,theDPCandMPCwerecreatedthroughthe73rd
and74thCAA.

4.2.

AspectsofRegionalPlanning

The preliminary aspects of regional planning may constitute the following, which
highlighttheadvantagesoftheapproach:
1. SustainabilitySustainabilityleadstobalanceinRegionalDevelopmentwhichimpliesefficient
use of available resources and opportunities for development in all parts of the region.
Sustainabilityofregionalplanningdependsupon:
i.
Management of major environmental inputs namely water (both surface and ground),
minerals, maintenance of green cover, protection of sensitive environmental areas and
linkingareaswithspecialopportunitiesfordevelopmentlikereligious,archaeologicaletc.
ii. Balancedandequitablespatialandeconomicdevelopmentoftheregion
iii. EffectiveUseoflocalresourcesincludingculturalresourcessuchasart&crafts.
iv. OptimisationofregionalmultimodalmobilityandTOD.

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Sustainability based regional development can provide solutions for elevation of urban poverty,
minimisation of urban sprawl and managing migration, which are majorly outcomes of lack of
regionalplanning.
2. EnvironmentSomeofthemajorenvironmentalconcernsthatcanbeaddressedbyregional
planningapproacharethefollowing:
i.
Controlofpollutionspeciallywaterpollution,useandmaintenanceofthewatercourses.
ii. Maintenanceofgreencover,forestsandecofragileareas.
iii. Controlandregulationofactivitieswhichhaveimpactonenvironment.
Whileplanning,theenvironmentallysensitiveareasshouldbeidentifiedwhicharenonconducive
for development. Such areas should be either protected or developed while following relevant
standards.
3. Disaster Management The impact of natural disasters is exaggerated by unscientific plus
unplanned development. Regional development should promote efficient response and
preparednesstodisasterssuchasfloods,landslides,landsubsistence,fireandearthquake.The
Disaster Management Act, 2005 makes it mandatory to prepare Disaster Management Plan at
State and District level. Integration of hazard (micro) zoning in planning activities is more
facilitative and responding at regional level which can be integrated with the provisions of
NDMA. Zoning hazards and its holistic approach can be achieved largely at the regional level
scaleorbetteratcitylevel.Thus,regionalplanningisthesolutiontointegratedresponse.

4. PromotingBalancedDevelopmentImbalanceddevelopmentofthecountryduetomissing
regional planning approach to bring development in urbanrural settlements simultaneously
has led to lopsided development in favour of urban settlements. As a result centripetal and
centrifugalforcesofhumanmovementhavecometoworkwithintensityintheurbanpartsof
thecountry.Lackofintegratedspatialplanningspeciallyintheinfluenceareaofmetropolitan
cities has led to rural push. Migration across administrative boundaries to the cities without
adequate functional infrastructure to support the population puts pressure on the
administrativedepartments.Ontheotherhandtheareasfromwhereoutmigrationtakesplace
suffer with imbalance growth. Thus, an integrated planning approach is required to provide
administrative solution for provision of sustainable infrastructure in the region and vision
developmentoftheperiurbanareas&countermagnets.

5. Inclusivity Regional planning can bring inclusivity in broader area by preparing plan after
considering issues, strengths and prospects of a large spatial unit. Regional disparities
especially periurban areas surrounding large cities and metropolitans present contrasting
conditionsbothphysicallyandsocialeconomically.Regionalplanningcanefficientlytacklethe
problem arising out of the transition of rural area into periurban and urban areas. Inclusive
developmentprinciplescanbridgethegappresentintermsofregionaldisparityinIndia.

4.3.

PlanningRegionsinIndia

The increasing need of urbanisation further aggravated by the rural push factors is
directlyaffectingthequalityoflifeandenvironment.Suchareasshallnotbemerely
left to the factors of natural growth and can be identified for Regional Planning. A
regionisaflexibleconceptandcanbereferredtoasacontinuousandlocalisedarea
intermediatebetweenNationalandUrbanlevels.
The District Planning Committees is to be the single decision making committee,
whichcanaddresstotheissuesofplanningintheDistrict.InmanyStates,DPCsare

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not constituted, however, in some of them, the Town and Country Planning Acts
providesalegalframeworkforconstitutionofRegionalDevelopmentAuthorities.For
example,theBombayMetropolitanRegionDevelopmentAuthorityAct,1974makesit
mandatory to constitute the Metropolitan Regional Development Authority for the
planninganddevelopmentofMumbaimetropolitancity.
Whenever functional areas cut across different State boundaries there may be
problemsofcoordinationinadministration.Ideallyinsuchcases,aunifiedRDA(for
thisspecifiedregion)maybeinstitutedwithrepresentationfromeachoftheState.
Inthepresentscenario,Indianmetropolitancitieshaveplanneddevelopment,which
partially satisfies the aim of the 73rd& 74th CAA, however, incomplete adherence of
the Act has resulted into lack of holistic planning. Thus, it is required that state
governmentsamendrespectiveStateTownandCountryPlanningActsandprovidea
structureofregionalplanningwithappropriateadministrativestructuretocarryout
itspreparationandimplementation.
Such regions are holistic from administrative point of view and there are little
chances of conflict when there is a single administrative unit. The present planning
systemforonlyurbansettlementshasdevelopedislandsofgrowthcentres,creating
vast disparity. Planning for district as a region is the approach in which country as
whole can be covered in planning exercise leaving no intermediate space. Thus, for
convenience of administration of regions and entire coverage of country under
planneddevelopmentthestructureofregionalplanningshouldbefollowed.
The 12th Five Year Plan has emphasised on regional development particularly DPC
compositiontocontrolandregulateunplanneddevelopmentbeyondtheurbanareas
i.e.urbansprawl/scatter.TheStateT&CPActsprovidestatutorysetupforurbanand
regional planning and development. In many States, Special Area Planning Acts,
similartoRegionalPlanning,arealsoinplace.
Transportlinkagesplayanintegralroleinthegrowthofurbannodes.Asmovement
ofgoods,servicesandalignmentofinfrastructurefollowthetransportnetworkwhile
the human settlement and economic activities generally follow the transport lines.
Lately, Government of India has recognised the potential of transport corridors as
instrument of imparting economic push to large region and thus has been
implementingprogrammes,whicharespreadacrossalargeregionlike,DelhiMumbai
Industrial Corridor (DMIC) Programme. The objective of DMIC project is to expand
India'smanufacturingandservicebaseanddevelopDMICasa"GlobalManufacturing
andTradingHub".Theprojectwillprovideamajorimpetustoplannedurbanization
inIndiawithmanufacturingasthekeydriver.29.
The National Highway Development Programme (NHDP) was launched in 2000 to
upgrade and strengthen National Highways and one of the advantages identified
undertheNHDPisallrounddevelopmentofareas.Othertransportorientedregional

29

http://www.dmicdc.com

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

111

UrbanPlanningA
Approach
corridorrs conceptu
ualised aree the Easteern and Western
W
Freeight Corriidors. Keep
ping
thesedeevelopmenttsinmind,TransitOrrientedDev
velopmentt(TOD)app
proachtop
plan
anddeveelopregion
nscanbead
dopted.
There arre other ty
ypes of reggions as well, which have homo
ogeneity aand linkagees in
terms off investment, tourism
m and natu
ural enviro
onment. In India, ow
wing to its vast
stretchaandheterogeneity,multiple/diffferenttypo
ologiesofrregionscou
uldbeadop
pted
for plan
nned development. The
T
regional plannin
ng approacch is suggeested in th
hese
guidelineesforplann
nedandsu
ustainabled
developmen
ntofthehu
umansettleements.
Theplan
nningregionsinIndiahavebeen
ncategoriseedas:
Figure4.1: CategorisaationofRegio
onsinIndianContext

Source:

Co
ompilationfrom73rd&74thCAA,SStateAdministrativesetupsandregionalplannin
ngcasesinIndia

4.3.1. DistricttasaPlaanningR
Region
India haas 640 disttricts and according to Censuss of India, 2011, 67%
% districts are
urbaniseed upto 50
0% out of which
w
apprroximately
y 7% have crossed th
he line of 40%
4
urbanisaation. New
w Delhi, Central
C
Deelhi, Kolkaata, Mumb
bai, Mumb
bai Suburban,
Hyderab
bad, Chenn
nai, Yanam and Mahee (in Pudu
ucherry) arre 9 distriicts which are

112

URDPFIG
Guidelines,2
2014.MinistrryofUrbanD
Developmentt

UrbanPlanningApproach

100% urbanized. However, there are many other districts which have ruralurban
character and have a fast rate of urbanisation. Therefore, the urban trend of these
districts should be planned. Efforts to direct urbanisation of such districts will
synchronizethegrowthofcitieswithgoalsofnationaldevelopment.
District as a unit is a holistic concept which administratively provides a strong
foundationforplanning.Thehierarchyofsettlementsandnaturalresourcesavailable
inrelativelylargerregionareotheradditionalreasonswhich makedistrictaunitof
planningmorelogicalpremise.

4.3.1.1. NeedforAdministrativeStructure
Administrative structure to guide planning at district level is important. The 74th
ConstitutionalAmendmentActprovidesthattheStateLegislatureshouldprovidefor
the composition of District Planning Committee (DPC) given that there shall be
elected representatives of Panchayats and municipalities in committee in
proportionate ratio. For this, State Governments are required to amend existing or
enactnewlawstointroduceDPCinplanningadministrationstructure.

4.3.1.2. ProcessofplanningatDistrictlevel
InIndia,planningprocessforadministrativeareasequaltoorbiggerthandistricthas
beenattempted.
Kerala: The State of Kerala has provision for DPC and MPC. Its methodology of District plan
preparation provides for a decentralised planning process by initiating preparation of an Integrated
District Development Plan (IDDP) along with Local Development Plans (LDP) for every local
governmentinthedistrictinanintegratedmanner.TheIntegratedDistrictDevelopmentPlan(IDDP)
aimsforanintegrateddraftdevelopmentplanwithdueregardtocommoninterestsofPanchayatsand
municipalities(asshowninFigure4.2)toplanforspatialandsharingofresources:bothnaturaland
manmade.TheIDDPincludesplanningofspecialareassuchastribalareas,coastalareas,economically
backward areas, areas for establishment of new towns etc. Also, there are provisions of Joint area
planning in case the area comprises more than one Municipal Corporation, Municipal Council, Town
PanchayatorvillagePanchayat,eitherinfullorinpart.
Draft IDDP should be prepared for the district incorporating suggestions of LSGs. The Draft IDDP
preparedshallbeaninputfortheidentificationofdevelopmentissuesandsettingupofdevelopment
goals and objectives of each LSG and thus becomes the frame within which the Draft LDPs are
prepared. Based on suggestions and proposals of the Draft LDPs, the Draft IDDP is modified and
finalised. Once the draft IDDP is approved by the DPC and sanctioned by the State Government, the
DraftLDPsshallbemodifiedandfinalised.

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

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UrbanPlanningApproach
Figure4.2: PlanPreparationProcessofKerala

Source:

TheKeralaTownandCountryPlanningOrdinance2013

Goa:TheStateofGoahaspreparedGoaRegionalPlan,2021.ThebasicapproachforpreparationofGoa
Regional Plan has been protectionof environmentallysensitive area ofthe Stateby introducingEco
SensitiveZonesandplanningdetailsatvillagePanchayatslevel.TheRegionalPlangivesamicrolevel
planning of the State of Goa with the village Panchayats as the planning units. Multiple level
consultative process has been undertaken in preparation of the plan. A decentralised approach was
adopted in which a vision document was prepared for the State and was shared with the local
bodies/villages.PlanspreparedatgrassrootlevelwerecompiledathigherlevelstoprepareDraftState
Regional Plan. Another round of public participation ensured inclusiveness. The approach has been
presentedinthefollowingdiagram.

114

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

UrbanPla
anningApp
proach

Figu
ure4.3: Plan
nPreparation
nProcessinth
heStateofGo
oa

Sourcce:

GoaRegion
nalPlan,2021

TheeStatesof Keralaand
dGoahave attempted
dsuccessfu
ullythepreeparationo
ofDistrict
th
orR
RegionalPllansbyado
opting74 CAA.WhileeKeralahaasprepared
dDistrictP
Plans,Goa
hasprepared Statelevel RegionalP
Plan(butbasedontheetwodistrrictplans)d
duetoits
sizee. Both thee states have adoptted decentralised approach as prescribeed in the
Con
nstitution of
o India an
nd have focused on public participation. The appro
oach and
metthodology of these tw
wo States is
i influenceed by the size and seettlement structure
s
and
dhierarchy
ypresentin
ntheStates.
APlanningprocessatdiistrictlevellforthelarrgerStatessofIndiaw
wouldrequ
uiremuch
morre complexx procedurre to integgrate botto
omup and
d top down approach. Hence
con
nsideringth
heabovem
mentionedccasestudieesandkeep
pinginview
wtheconsttraintsof
larggesizeStates,aDistricctRegionallPlanningssimplifiedaapproachisgiveninF
Fig4.4.
Plan
npreparationprocessforregionalplanm
muststartw
withpreparrationofSttatelevel
Perrspective Plan
P
alongg with preplan intteractive consultatio
c
ns of gov
vernment
dep
partments, elected representat
r
tives, stakeholders, NGOs and
d Selfhelp
p groups.
Outtcomeofsu
uchconsulttationsisaPerspectiv
vePlanwhichwillbevvisiondocu
umentfor
the entireStatteeitherby
ytheState PlanningB
Board,StateeTownPlaanningCom
mmission,
dStateTow
wn&CounttryPlanningDepartm
mentorbySStateUrban
nisationCo
ommittee,
and
such
haseffortsstakenbyK
KeralaandRajasthanrecently.
PerrspectivePllanmustin
ncludetheL
LUZsfrom theStateL
LandUtilisaationPolicy
y.Incase
the State Land
d Utilisatio
on Policy iss not prepared, Persp
pective Plaan should delineate
d
Statteintodevelopable,p
prohibitedaandrestricctedzones. Forthiscllassification
n,variety
ofp
parametersscouldbeu
usedbasedondevelop
pmentapproachofth
hestate.Som
meofthe

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banDevelopment
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115

UrbanPlanningApproach
parameters have been shared below but this is only suggestive list, which must be
madeexhaustivewhilepreparingplanatstatelevel:

Ecosensitivezonesofthestate,
Boundariesofalltheurbanandruralsettlementsofthestate,
Mappingoftransportandcommunicationnetworks,
Mappingofnaturalfeatures,
Industrial,miningandrelatedarea,
DisasterZonation
Allmaps/plansmustbepreparedonGISplatformandgeoreferenced.

The State Perspective plan should be distributed to the Districts as a reference for
preparation of further plans at district level. At the stage of Perspective Plan
preparation, the mapping scale, time lines and roles and responsibilities for the
preparation of district plan preparation should be decided which will bring clarity
and uniformity in mapping and plan preparation process. District administration
shouldproceedwithdistributingtheplansandmapsat talukalevelandfromtaluka
level to village Panchayats. The Draft Development plan should then be prepared at
each village Panchayat level with public participation. Here, capacity building and
technicalknowhowwouldneedtobepercolatedfromthetopadministrativesetups
and supporting institutional arrangements. The training to the selected people or
peoples representatives must be provided along with trained officials through the
plan preparation process. Similar process must be followed in settlements of urban
hierarchy. Once the plan process at grass root level is over, these plans should be
compiledfirstattalukaleveloratitsurbancounterpartsbyDevelopmentAuthority/
MunicipalCorporationtoformulatethedraftDistrictRegionalPlan.
TheDraftDistrictRegionalPlanthenmustbeputonpublicforumforobjectionsand
suggestions to impart transparency in the plan process. To meet the purpose of the
district plan, interchangeable options and conflict of interest would need to be
answered in the regional plan. Once the process of public participation is over and
withtheapprovalofStatelegislature,thefinalRegionalPlanshouldbeuploadedon
relevantwebsitesforfuturereferenceanduse.

Table4.1:Institutionalresponsibilities
AdministrativeUnit

InstitutionalBody

District

DPC/ZilaParishad

Taluka

BlockDevelopmentLevel/Town&CountryPlanningDepartment

VillageLevel

Panchayat/GramSabha

Metropolitan&Megapolis

MPC/DevelopmentAuthority/MunicipalCorporation

Large&MediumTowns

DevelopmentAuthority/Municipality/UrbanLocalBody

SmallTowns

NagarPalika/MunicipalCouncil/StateT&CPDepartment

Ward

WardCommittee

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anningApp
proach

Figu
ure4.4: Prop
posedDistrictPlanningPrrocess

Source:Compilatio
onfrom73rdan
nd74thCAA,Sta
ateAdministra
ativeSetupand
dRegionalPlanningexamplessofKerala
and
dGoa

4.3
3.2. VarrioussetttlementtsinRegion
In delineation
d
n of the planning
p
reegions therre can be certain leevels of settlement,
exisstingorplaannedwhicchgivespeccialstructu
uretoaregion.Thegrrowthnodeesaround
whiich the flow
ws are acttive and intense shalll be the no
odal centree. The nodal centre
cou
uldactasth
hehighest echelonin
nthehierarrchyofthe settlemen
nts.Thismaayhavea
unipolar (meetropolitan city), bipo
olar (such as twin citties) or mu
ultipolar structure.
s
Thee other setttlements within
w
the region shaall be directly or ind
directly fun
nctionally
link
kedtothisccentre.Theeycanbe:
1 CounterM
1.
Magnets: Th
he counter magnets
m
are potential
p
and growing sub
b nodal centrres located
outoftheedirectfuncttionallylinkedareasofth
hegrowthnode/nodalceentresinthe region,e.g.
Hissar, Gw
walior, Patialla and Kota etc
e incontexxtofNCR. The main objecctive of devellopmentof

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banDevelopment
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117

UrbanPlanningApproach

i.
ii.
2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

the counter magnets is to prevent undesirable concentration of growth impulses in the nodal
centres and to disperse the same to counter magnets for more balanced development of the
region.Thecountermagnetareasmayplaytwodistinctiveroles:
Asinterceptorsofmigratoryflowsintothenodalcentre
Asregionalgrowthcentres,thiswouldbeabletoachieveabalancedpatternofurbanisation
intheregionoveraperiodoftime.
SatelliteTowns:ASatelliteTownisone,whichislocatednearorwithinreasonabledistance,
wellconnectedbytransportationrouteofthegrowthnodeorametropolitancity,e.g.Gurgaon
andNoida(Delhi),NaviMumbai(Mumbai)andSaltLakeCity(Kolkata)etc.TheSatellitetowns
are dependent on the growth node largely for employment. If developed well, satellite towns
offergreatscopedoeprovidingeconomicgrowthandemployment forthebenefitofthemain
city,subjecttoefficienttransportconnectivity.
Priority Towns: Priority towns are the potential towns for investment and development;
identified on the basis of their interaerial relationship with the regional nodal centre. For
integrated development of the identified region, identification of the priority towns and
planningfortheirdevelopmentshouldbedone.
GrowthCentres/Points:Settlementswithgrowthpotentialandspecialadvantageoflocation
withintheregioncanbeclassifiedasgrowthcentres/growthpoints/servicevillageinorderof
hierarchyfromhightolowwhileplanningforsettlementstructurewithintheregion.
Peri Urban Areas: Periurban areas are zones of transition from rural to urban land uses
locatedbetweentheouterlimitsofurbanandregionalcentersandtheruralenvironment.The
boundaries of periurban areas are porous and transitory as urban development extends into
rural,agriculturalandindustrialland.Periurbanareasmightincludevaluableprotectedareas,
forested hills, preserved woodlands, prime agricultural lands and important wetlands, which
mayrequireconservation.Irrespectiveofhowtheboundariesmove,therewillalwaysbeperi
urban zones. These areas if planned properly can provide essential life support services for
urbanresidents.Inpreparation ofdevelopmentplansformetropolitancities,theareamaybe
takenas58kmsaroundexistingcities,saythosewithmorethan3lakhpopulationtocoverthe
urbanspill.30
Urban Agglomeration: Census, 2011 defines an urban agglomeration (UA) as a continuous
urban spread constituting a town and its adjoining outgrowths, or two or more physically
contiguous towns together with or without outgrowths of such towns. An UA must consist of
atleast a statutory town and its total population (i.e. all the constituents put together) should
not be less than 20,000. In varying local conditions, there were similar other combinations
which have been treated as urban agglomerations satisfying the basic condition of contiguity.
Examples:GreaterMumbaiUA,DelhiUA,etc.
Out Growth: Census 2011, defines Out Growths (OG) as a viable unit such as a village or a
hamlet or an enumeration block made up of such village or hamlet and clearly identifiable in
terms of its boundaries and location. Some of the examples are railway colony, university
campus,portarea,militarycamps,etc.,whichhavecomeupnearastatutorytownoutsideits
statutory limits but within the revenue limits of a village or villages contiguous to the town.
While determining the outgrowth of a town, it has been ensured that it possesses the urban
featuresintermsofinfrastructureandamenitiessuchaspuccaroads,electricity,taps,drainage
systemfordisposalofwastewateretc.educationalinstitutions,postoffices,medicalfacilities,
banksetc.andphysicallycontiguouswiththecoretownofthe UA.Examples:CentralRailway
Colony(OG),TriveniNagar(N.E.C.S.W.)(OG),etc.
SpatialPriorityUrbanRegions(SPURs):NationalCommissiononUrbanisation,1988witha
visionary approach to future urbanisation in India, identified 329 urban centres all over the
country as Generators of Economic Momentum (GEMs) where development activities should

30

Working group on urban strategic planning, p 33.

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URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

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converge, based on which the upcoming Metropolitan regions could be forecasted. The
Commission also identified 49 Spatial Priority Urban Regions (SPURs). SPURs were based on
observedtrendsofgrowthandCommissionsassessmentofgrowthpotential,integrationwith
national transport network, optimising investments and opportunities already in a particular
region.SuchanattemptofregionalplanningpanIndiawasthefirstofitskindandevolvedfrom
theideaofexpandingplannedurbanregions.

4.4.

MetropolitanPlanningRegion

Metropolitanareaisalargeurbansettlement,whichhaspopulationfrom10lakhand
above.Theaerialextentofsuchsettlementsishugeandoftenspreadacrossmultiple
districts.Indiahas53metropolitancitiesperCensus,2011.Manyofthesecitieshave
alreadybeencoveredbymetropolitanplanningordevelopmentauthorities,suchas
Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad and Guwahati.
FormulationofMetropolitansAuthoritieswasconceivedwiththeideaofinitiatingthe
integratedplanninganddevelopmentofthemajorcitiesandtheirsurroundingareas.
Constitution requires the States to constitute Metropolitan Planning Committees
throughStatelegislature.VariousStatesWestBengal,Maharashtra,AndhraPradesh
have issued procedures for formulation of Metropolitan Planning Committee (MPC)
and metropolitan areas like Kolkata, Mumbai, Nagpur, Pune have MPCs. However,
only Kolkata MPC has prepared a Metropolitan Development Plan (MDP). This has
beenreferredasalessontoguidetheMPCformulationandintegrationintheexisting
scenario.

4.4.1. MetropolitanAdministrativesetups
Asmajorcitiesincreaseinsize,MunicipalBodiesoftenturnouttobeinadequateto
meet the requirements. Thus, the need for Metropolitan Regional Development
Authority(MRDA)Actswasfelt,toregulateadesignatedjurisdictioncoveringurban
and periurban areas. The authorities formed under these acts perform functions in
close coordination with the State agencies, apart from the already core Municipal
Corporations. MRDAs perform the function of integrated spatial planning and
inducing coordination among the numerous authorities and institutions operating
in/for the region, thus facilitating the planned growth in a smooth urbanrural
continuumframework.ExamplesareBengaluru,Chennai,Kolkata,Mumbaietc.

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119

UrbanPlanningA
Approach
Figure4.5: FrameworrkforKolkataaMetropolitaanPlanningC
Committee

Source:

Ko
olkataMetropoliitanPlanningCom
mmittee

4.4.2. TransittOrienteed(Urbaan)Deveelopmentt(TOD)
In India,, the conceept of TOD
D to plan an
nd develop
p cities / regions
r
hass been used in
variousccities,fewo
ofwhicharreNationallCapitalReegion,HydeerabadMettropolitanA
Area
andAhm
medabadUrrbanDevellopmentAu
uthority(A
AUDA).InN
NCR,transp
portoption
nsof
metro raail, ring railway and ring road has been used to gu
uide urban
n developm
ment.
Hyderab
bad Metrop
politan Developmentt Authority
y has prep
pared TOD
D developm
ment
planfor cityusing metrocorridors,MM
MTS,potenttialBRTS/L
LRTandou
uterringroad.
AUDAhaasdevelopedBRTSco
orridor,rin
ngroadto guidedeveelopmentaalongtransp
port
corridorrs.Hyderab
badMetrop
politanDev
velopmentA
Authority (HMDA)haasdevelopeda
TransitO
OrientedDevelopmen
ntplantod
developmetropolitanarea(theccasestudyiisas
follows)..

120

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Guidelines,2
2014.MinistrryofUrbanD
Developmentt

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anningApp
proach

Case
eStudy:HMD
DA:TransitOrientedDe
evelopment(
(TOD)

ApproachandMeethodology:H
HMDAconceivedTODplaantobecomp
patiblewithM
MasterPlan.Integrated
tran
nsit network was propossed with focu
us to integraate employm
ment generating nodes with
w
transit
netw
work.Influen
ncezonealon
ngtransitnetw
workwereid
dentifiedanddetaileddevvelopmentcontrolrules,
FAR
Randlanduseeinsuchareaasaredecided
d.

TOD
Dzones,speciialfeaturesoffsuchzonesaandthefaciliitatingauthorritieshavebeeenrecogniseedinthe
Hyderabadmetro
opolitanregion.FeaturesofTODZonesare:
Mixedlandu
usezoning,
Incentivizedhigherdensitydevelopmeent,
Expeditedbu
uildingpermiits,
Decreasingp
parkingrequirement
Affordableho
A
ousing,
Integrationo
ofemploymen
ntandtransitt,
Alternatives
A
topersonalissedvehicleow
wnership.

Themethodfollowedforplanningand
ddevelopmeentunderTO
ODapproach
hisgivenbeelow:

Sourcce:HyderabadM
MetropolitanDeveelopmentAuthorrity

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4.4.3. Planningforperiurbanarea
Periurban is the zone which is within the planning area limits but outside the
urbanisationlimitofthemunicipalcorporation/authorityormetropolitanplanning
committee or authority. Integration of the plans of such settlements can be done
throughtwoapproaches.
The plans can be prepared by the developmental body in consultation with the
village authority and implemented jointly by the village authority and/or
developmentalbody,
Village bodies may prepare the plan and such plans will be compiled and made
partofoveralldevelopmentalplanoftheregionbydevelopmentalbody.
Since,periurbanareaisnotwelldefinedinallthestates,identificationandplanning
ofperiurbanarea(outsidemunicipallimits)isimportantinthecontextofurbanand
rural development. Also the States till now have not clearly defined what should
constituteperiurbanareasandthereforeachangeintheActsinthiscontextissurely
calledfor.HoweverperiurbanareahasbeenincludedinplanningareasofMaster/
Development plans which invariably go beyond the municipal boundary. In some
state like in Andhra Pradesh, Mandal committees are empowered to prepare land
conversion and development of periurban areas. Nonetheless this aspect of urban
andruraldevelopmentneedsspeciallegalandpolicyefforts.31
To holistically approach the legal and planning issues for periurban areas, it is
suggestedbytheMinistryofUrbanDevelopmenttotheStatestoavoidmultiplicityof
the authorities and simultaneously allow coordination. In a regional authority, the
urbanagglomerationshouldberecognisedastheurbancentre,whilethesmalltowns
and service villages should be within the overarching boundary of the Metropolitan
regions to coexist. Where planning, the power to plan landuse should be
decentralised to local authorities, apart from some regional resource management
suchasmanagementofwaterandpreservationofecosensitiveareas.
Astheregionalandmetropolitanareaplanningintendstobringsuchareainplanning
framework it is only logical that development norms of urban area are adopted for
periurban area too because of its heavy bias towards urban character. In addition,
provision for institutional requirements for example specialised hospitals and
educationandresearchcentresintheperiurbanareasaretobeallowedasperthe
RegionalPlan.

31

Note:UttarPradesh Government has followed forlongyearsdelineationof planning areabytheauthorityon thebasisof 8


kmsfromthemunicipalboundary.Thisnormisnotbacked/supportedbyanyrationality.Addingtoit,theplanningareaso
designatedundertheTownandCountryPlanningActunderthesection143,conversionoflandusefromrural/agricultureto
nonagriculture was permitted by the competent authority (District Collector). The conversion of land use as per the Act,
section143couldbedonefordevelopmentabadi.Thishascreatedconfusionforplanningurbanextension.In2013,theUP
governmentmodifiedtheActandexcludedabadifromthesection143.Thisimpliesthatanytypeoflanduseproposedsuch
landuseconversion,landlordsmustadheretothedevelopment controlrules,regulationsandbyelawsspecifiedunderthe
MasterPlan.

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LowincomehabitatplanningnormsofNationalBuildingCode,2005aresuggestedto
befollowedinperiurbanareas.Thestatesmaydevelopfurtherspecificguidelinesfor
suchsettlementsbasedontheirgrowthtrendandeconomicbase.Lowincomehabitat
planningnormsareasfollowing:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Plotsize:Minimum80sq.m.
Density:Maximum60plotsperha
Minimumfrontage:6m
GroundCoverage:33%(subjecttoamaximumof50%)
FAR:Maximum200
Openspaces:1.21haopenspaceforavillagewith200houses.
Ifrequired,facilitieslikebranchesofcooperativebank,afertilizerdepot,aveterinaryhospital,
marketplaceandabranchofthecooperativeconsumerstorebesidesfacilitiesforeducational
andhealthcareshouldbeavailablewithinamaximumdistanceof5kmfromanysettlement.
8. ProposedRoadHierarchy:
Table4.2: RoadHierarchyforperiurbanareasinlinewithlowincomehabitatplanningnorms
RoadType

RoadDescription

Roadwidth

Function/Remarks

R1

Roadwhichconnectsvillagetonearby
areas

9m

Widestroad

R2

Roadwhichtakemajortraffictovillage

6m

Aminvillageroadswithdrainonbothsidesto
facilitatedrainagesystemofthevillage

R3

InternalVillageroad

4.5m

R4

InternalVillageroad

3m

Source:

Othervillageroads
Villagelanes

NBC

9. Communityfacilities:
- Acommunityhall/baraatghar
- RuraldevelopmentcentreshallincludePanchayatghar,aMahilaKendrathatmayalsoserveas
avocationaltrainingcentre
- School,healthcentre,postoffice,policepost,shopping,workshedsfortheartisans,telephone
facilities,shouldbeestablished.
- Theconceptofaidedselfhelpshallbeensuredforactiveparticipationoftheprospectiveusers
and association in the construction and development of dwelling units and other community
buildings.
10. WhenspecificallyplanningforanIndustrialarea;servicevillages,hamletsandruralsettlements
tobeprovidedwithabufferof100300metersfortheexpansionofthesettlements,forhealth&
safeguardpointofview(aftercalculatingtheinducedgrowthrate).

4.4.4. VillagePlanning
PlanningatgrassrootlevelincludesvillagePanchayatinruralsettingsofbothDistrict
PlanningandMetropolitanPlanningregion.Planspreparedatgrassrootlevelmust
becompiledathigheradministrativeunitseitherthroughtalukasorvillagesfallingin
urban areas and finally compiled draft plan is prepared at appropriate level. Use of
cadastral maps at village area planning level is important and the revenue
department which is custodian of cadastral maps has to play the critical role in
providing,reliableandauthenticlanddatabase.
States are advised to provide technical support to village Panchayat for providing
supportinplanningprocess.Lowerliteracylevelsinruralareascanbehindranceto

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123

UrbanPlanningApproach
the planning process or can result in faulty planning or socialeconomic bias. The
State governments can provide conditional planning powers to village Panchayats.
State can provide planning function to village Panchayatswhen the performance at
grassrootlevelisgoodinfollowingparameters:

Literacy,
Womensparticipationindecisionmaking,womenempowerment,
Handlingofdevelopmentfundsasinpastrecords,
Transparencyinfundshandling,
Inclusionofvulnerablegroupsandyouthsindecisionmaking.

Case study: Goa Institutional set-up Study


IntheStateofGoatofacilitatetheprocessofRegionalplanningthreetierstructurewasprepared.At
highestlevelisStateLevelCommittee,atlowestlevelisVillagePanchayatandTalukaLevelTaskForce
at intermediate level. The State of Goa has prepared Draft Regional Plan for Goa, 2021 through this
threetierstructure.
State Level Committee (SLC): This committee had 10 members and presided by CM and Minister
(TCP). SLC supervised the process of Public participation, coordinated with Taluka level technical
team (TLTT), explained the Revised Regional Plan for Goa, 2021 and its features to TLTT. It also
preparedaquestionnaireandalistofparametersonwhichcomments/suggestionsweresoughtfrom
villagePanchayats.
TalukaLevelTechnicalCommittee(TLTC):Thiscommitteecomprisingof7memberswasheadedby
Town Planner/Dy. Town Planner to headed Committee of concernedtaluka. TLTC took the Revised
Regional Plan for Goa2021 to the respective village Panchayats and municipalities, under its
jurisdiction.ItarrangedforthevenueofmeetingatrespectivevillagePanchayatsandmunicipalitiesto
explain the plan. Committee also assisted the village Panchayats and municipalities by visiting the
Village Panchayats/municipalitiesinphasedmannerandsupervisedthepublicparticipationprocess.
The suggestions from all village Panchayats and municipalities were collected and classified in
categoriesandsubmittedtoStateLevelCommittee.
Localbodylevelteam/committee:These bodies had to mark all the existing (up to 6 meters) and
proposedroadsinthevillage,identifiedresources/services,waterbodies,heritagesites,missingwater
bodies,nalhas,heritagesites,settlements,industrialareas,publicutilitiesandservicesetconthemap
withthehelpofTLTC.
Source:GoaRegionalPlan,2021

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4.5.

InvestmentPlanningRegions

Investment Regions/ Zones are generally areas which show potential for
developmentduetoeconomicforces.Theseareasfaceproblemofuncontrolledland
confiscation and holding by the private entities. Due to lack of policies or plan to
controldevelopmentinsuchplaceshaphazarddevelopmentofcommercial,industrial
activities and human settlement takes place along transportation nodes and routes.
Urbanisationintheecosensitiveareastakesplaceandnaturalresourcesaremisused
in the process of unplanned growth. Thus, the planning efforts of the investment
regions must be undertaken at the earliest to realise the scope of economic
developmentwiththeglobalvision.
Government of India has started the process of developing investment zones across
the country. DMIC, Chennai Bangalore Economic Corridor and BangaloreMumbai
Economic Corridor are examples of such efforts. While these investment zones are
interState and backed by Central government, States have also started envisaging
suchinvestmentregionsandhavebroughtlegislationstosupportthesame.TheState
of Gujarat has enacted Special Investment Region (SIR) Act, 2009. The Act is an
initiativetodevelopinvestmentzonesandencourageindustrialactivitiesintheState.
UnderthisAct,minimumarearequirementforanSIRis100sq.km.Fortypercentof
the area of such zones shall be for industrial activities. This is an example of intra
Stateinvestmentregion,whichcanbeinterdistrictorintradistrict.

4.5.1. ApproachofPlanPreparation
Unlike the district and metropolitan region planning which has administrative
boundaries, planning of investment region involves a strategic decision making
process beginning from delineation of the region boundary; identifying the region
which has the potential to attract investment and can lead to an economic
development.
Amongtheseveraltechniquestodelineatearegion,fewhavebeenelaboratedinthe
subsequent section. These techniques use parameters based on which area is
demarcated.Incaseofdevelopmentofnodes,thedelineationshouldbebasedonthe
potential of development/ investment that the node can attract, while the corridor
developmentshalldependuponitshinterland.Thedelineationofinvestmentregion
shouldfollowthestepsgivenbelow:

Identification of infrastructure gaps and planning for providing last mile connectivity either at
regionalorsubregionallevelasthecasemaybe.
Identificationofmainthrustsectorsforinvestment.
Identificationofgrowthdriversandpotentialgrowthcentres
Marketassessmentprimary,secondaryandtertiary
Prefeasibilityoftheproposals

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Basedontheevaluationofresources,thrustareasshouldbeidentifiedfortheregions
economic development and overcome the bottlenecks. For such regions to be
investmentfriendly,marketanalysistechniquestoarriveattheviabilityoftheregion
in terms of generating investment and feasibility of thrust areas in terms of
technicality. For Indian investment regions to compete in the International market
and attract foreign investment, the state of art infrastructure facilities must be
developedrapidly.
Withthisvision,theeconomicprofileoftheregionshouldbeenvisagedandrealistic
investmentgoalscouldbetargeted.Atthegivenstageofinvestmentregionplanning,
a broad spatial plan, along with indicative land use shall be proposed for
conceptualising the region as a whole. Here, planners must pay attention to major
roads,trunkinfrastructure,tappingpointsforpower,waterandcarefullymodifying
localdrainagepattern.
Theapproachoftheplanpreparationshouldbefollowedbyencapsulatingthevision
fortheInvestmentregion,whichshouldbecomethepartandparcelorthebasisfor
preparationofthePerspectiveplanfortheregion.

4.5.1.1. AspectsofInvestmentRegionPlanning
Theplanningprocessshouldincludethefollowingkeyelementsessentialtopromote
growthandbalanceddevelopmentoftheregion,namely:

Thepolicyinrelationtolanduseandtheallocationoflandfordifferentuses.
Identificationofthepotentialnodesandcountermagnets(ifrequiredfordecongestion)forfuture
andproposalsfordevelopment.
Integratedtransportpolicy,administrationpolicy,lawandordermachinery.
Plan for regional infrastructure linkages, a dedicated and sustainable connectivity across the
corridorandhinterland.
Policyforeconomicdevelopment.
Fundflowfordevelopment.
Indicationoftheareaswhichrequireimmediatedevelopmentas"priorityareas".
Rolesandresponsibilitiesofvariousstakeholders.
Housingandshelterdevelopment.
Protectionofenvironmentallyandecologicallysensitiveareasandconservationofheritage.
Sustainabledevelopmentofresourcesincludingagricultureandruraldevelopment.
The perspective plan should define the influence zone ofthe corridor ordefine the rationality of
selectionincaseofanode.
Monitoringsystemsandsocialauditmechanismstoensureeffectiveimplementationoftheplan.

4.5.2. CriteriaforDelineationofRegion
Regions can be classified based on many criteria but while delineating region for
planningpurposetheforwardandbackwardlinkagesoftheparametersmustbekept
in mind and relevant parameters be selected for the delineation process. Some

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criteria for delineating the Planning Regions are presented below but list can be
expandedbasedonrequirementsonplanningapproachandregionsspecifications:
Table4.3: CriteriaforDelineationofRegion
S.No.

Parameters

Indicators

Environmentandlandsuitability

Soilcover&fertility,
Topography,Geology,Geomorphology,Lithology&Drainage
Surfacewaterbody&Groundwatertable,
Green&forestcover,
Bufferareas,
Agriculturecoverandintensityofproduction
Hazardouszone
Otherenvironmentallysensitiveareas

Demographic,QualityofLife

Populationgrowthrate:percentageincreaseinpopulation,
Urbanism:percentageofurbanpopulationtototalpopulation
Migration:numberofpersonsmigratingtonodalpoint,
Density:populationperHa,
Aspectofliteracy,
Othersocioeconomicaspects,

Flows

Goods:Volumeofgoodstraffic:
Supplyofrawmaterials,
Saleoffinishedgoods,
Supplyofperishablegoodslikevegetables,milk,egg,meat,etc.
People:Passengertraffic:
Floatingpopulation
Laboursupply
Culturalaffinity:shopping,majorrecreational,
Finance:bankingfacilities
Infrastructurelinks:Supplyandmanagementofservicessuchaswater
supply,wastewaterandsolidwastetreatmentwithfocusonrecycling
andreuse.
Drainagechannels,irrigationchannels,powerhouseetc.
Information:locationofinstitutes,movementofstudentsandscholars,
Telephonecallsetc.

Economicandinvestments

Economic:
Localeconomicactivity,
Wholesaletrade,
Majorexistingdevelopments,
Largeinvestmentproposalsfordevelopments
Workers:Percentageofnonagriculturalworkerstototalworkers,
Landownershipandlanduses

Others

Contiguityofareas,
Integrateddevelopment,
Adjustmentofboundarieswithotherplanningareas,
Manageablesizeoftheregionfromplanningpointofview.

Source:

VariousSourcesincludingReadingMaterialonPlanningTechniquesbyJHAnsariandMahavir.

It is recommended that the planning region should have a nodal point, either
developed or developable to satisfy the organisational needs of the region. The
homogeneous region identified should be adjusted to the nearest administrative
boundary,suchasvillageboundary,talukaordistrict.

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4.5.2.1. Techniquesfordelineation
The criteria mentioned above are to be analysed by the following suggested
techniquesforareadelineation:
1. Weighted Index Number Method: This method helps to determine a homogeneous region
within certain variations/ deviation limits. For example, delineation of a region based on
literacy rate may be limited within the area having specific mean literacy rate with not more
thanoneastandarddeviation.Theapproachusedinthismethodis:
i. Identificationofthecriteriasuchasliteracyrate,unemploymentrate,watershed,contours
etc.
ii. Determinationofweightstotherespectivecriteria
iii. Determinationofhomogeneitylimitssuchasstandarddeviation.
2. FlowAnalysis:The flow analysis identifies the direction and intensity of flows and builds up
functionalrelationshipbetweenthedominantcentreandthesurroundingsatellitetowns.The
flows show decreasing intensity as it becomes more distant from the main centre, hence
identifyingthesphereofinfluenceofthemaincentre.Theflowscanbeplottedonlineargraphs
fromwhichfollowinginformationcanbeobtained:
i. Mostintense(Primary)andlessintense(Secondary)flowsintoandoutofeachcentre
ii. Hierarchyofnodesprovidingtheformandextentoffunctionalrelationshipswithinanarea.
Theflowanalysisinvolvesgroupingtogetheroflocalunitswhichdisplaysaconsiderabledegree
ofinterdependence.
3. Gravitational Analysis: This technique identifies the potential flows between centres rather
than the actual flows. This model suggests that the interaction between the two centres is
directly proportional to the mass of the centres and inversely proportional to the distance
between the centres. The variables used to measure mass and distance depend upon the
problem and data availability. The mass can be represented by variables such as population,
employment,income,expenditureetc.anddistancecanberepresentedbydistanceinphysical
termsi.e.km,time,priceetc.Mathematicallythiscanberepresentedas:
Tij=[pipj/d2ij]
WhereTijisthegravitationalforcebetweentownsiandjandPiandPj arethemassesofthetwo
centresanddijisthedistancebetweenthem.
Bycalculatingthepotentialforthecentresinastudyarea,contourlinesofequalpotentialcanbe
plottedonamap,illustratingtherelativeattractivenessandsphereofinfluenceofvariouscentres.

4.6.

SpecialAreaPlanningRegions

Specialareadevelopmentplanningimpliesprudentuseofalltheavailableresources
to ensure optimum and sustained development of the region, towards improving
qualityoflifeofthepeopleandtomeetgrowingdemandsofincreasingpopulation.It
is also imperative to maintain the fragile balance between development and
conservationpracticesthroughidentificationoftheproblemareasandpreparationof
locationspecificdevelopmentplans.
Thespecialareasrequiringconservationdevelopmentapproachcouldbe:

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4.6.1. Ecosensitiveareas
Ecosensitiveareaisadesignationprovidedtoareawhichhasverydiverseyetfragile
ecosystem.WesternGhatsisoneoftheecologicallysensitiveareasinthecountry.The
GovernmentofIndiahadtakenasteptoconserveanddevelopthisregionsustainably.
For this GoI constituted WesternGhatsEcologyExpertPanel which submitted its
report in year 2011. Western Ghats is a region which is defined by its geological
characteristics, biological landscape, richness in florafauna species, spatial
heterogeneity, high conservation value and ecological sensitivity. Human activities
had deteriorating ecological impacts on the region due to which the committee was
constituted to give recommendations for its conservation. The committee has given
recommendations for protection of Western Ghats, few of which have been shared
below:

Riverbasinlevelplanninganddecentralisedmanagementofwaterresources
SustainablestrategyoflivestockdevelopmentfortheWesternGhats
Convertteaestatestoorganicproductionwiththeintegrationofanimalhusbandry
Promotesystemsofprovidingincentivestolocalpeopleforconservationefforts
StrengtheningtheRuralDevelopmentdepartmentonissuesrelatedtonontimberforestproduce
Promoteindustriesandservicesthatinvolvedematerializatione.g.ecommerce,teleconferencing
Promote education hubs and special incentives should be given to agrobased fruit and food
processingindustries
The Zoning Atlas for siting of Industries should be used as a tool for decisionmaking at various
levelsforindustry,regulatoryauthoritiesandthegeneralpublic
Exclusionofminingfromecologicallysensitiveareas/zonesetc

Thebasicunitofdevelopmentofecosensitiveareascanbeawatershed,whichisa
manageable hydrological unit and covers the entire area starting from the highest
point of the area to the outlet of the stream. The efficient development planning
requiresanoverlayofvariousthematiclayersofthespatialandnonspatialdata.The
watershed management approach is a suitable planning platform for conservation
andsustainabledevelopmentofalltheresourcesspeciallylandandwater.
Thedevelopmentapproachshallconsistofthefollowingsteps:
a.
b.
c.

Identificationandacquisitionofthespatialandnonspatialdata
Identification of the formal region on the basis of homogeneity of demographic and economic
characteristicsandsharingofnaturalresources
Creationofthethematiclayers,overlayandinterpretationfordevelopinganintegratedapproach
forconservationanddevelopment

4.6.2. Socioeconomicsensitiveareas
These are areas which lack amenities due to an imbalance in the economic
development of the region/ nearby region and standard of living of the residing
population.Suchareasalsoencounterhighrateofsocialstresses.

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Thereareculturallysensitiveareasliketribalareaswhichlackeventhebasicsocial
amenitiesofhealthandeducationasmostlytheyarenotcoveredinthejurisdictional
areas of the administrative offices. Schedule 6 of Constitution of India gives the
provision for the tribal areas in the northeast states of India. This schedule gives
provisions for the administration of tribal areas in the States of Assam, Meghalaya,
Tripura and Mizoram. In such cases, planning and land development is not directly
under the control of the State, but rests with the Autonomous District Councils,
formedinthedistrictsaspertheconstitution.
However, the Regional Council of an autonomous region or District Council for an
autonomousdistrictofthesestateshavethepowertomakelawswithrespecttothe
allotment,occupationoruse,orthesettingapart,ofland,otherthananylandwhichis
areservedforestforthepurposesofagricultureorgrazingorforresidentialorother
nonagriculturalpurposesorforanyotherpurposelikelytopromotetheinterestsof
theinhabitantsofanyvillageortown.

4.7.

LanduseclassificationforRegionalPlanning

1. Urbanisable Zone: In Regional Plan, the areas under existing development and those
earmarkedforfuturedevelopmentshallbetermedasUZone.Thiszoneisenvisagedatthree
levelsU1,U2&U3.

U1 zone shall primarily cover the existing areas where more intensive urban
developmentandeconomicactivityareexpectedinfuture.

U2 zone shall cover the new town areas/ satellite towns/counter magnet/growth
centreswhereurbandevelopmentandeconomicactivityisexpectedorproposed.

U3 zone shall be zone outside the existing or proposed urban zones, which have
potentialforurbandevelopmentsuchaslandsaroundmajorroadsandcorridors,railway
stations etc. No formal development plan may be prepared for U3 zone but the
developmentshallberegulatedonthebasisofroadwidthsand developmentpromotion
regulations.
In U Zone all residential, commercial, light and service industry, public and semipublic
buildings, transport zones and recreational area may be permitted depending upon the
compatibilityoftheuses.
2. IndustrialZone:Theareasearmarkedforindustrialuseserviceandlightindustry,extensive
andheavyindustry,specialindustrialzoneordevelopmentofSIR,ITzonesetc.shallbetermed
asIZone.

3. TransportandCommunicationZone:Theareasearmarkedfortransportandcommunication
useshallbetermedasTZone.ThiszonecanbesubdividedintoRoads/BRTS:T1,Railway/
MRTS:T2,Airport:T3,Seaports/Dockyard/Dryports:T4,Busdepots/truckterminalsand
freightcomplexes:T5andTransmissionandCommunicationT6.

4. PrimaryActivityZone:The areas earmarked for primary activity use shall be termed as PA


Zone. This zone can be sub divided into Agriculture: PA1, Forest: PA2, Poultry and dairy
farming:PA3,andBrickkilnandextractiveareas:PA4.

5. OpenAreaZone:TheareasearmarkedforleavingopenshallbetermedasOZone.Thiszone
canbesubdividedintoRecreationArea:O1,GreenBufferZone:O2.Greenbufferzoneshallbe
provided,soastorestricttheperiurbanareasfromunauthoriseddevelopment.Forperiurban

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areas special regulations and development control regulations shall be determined in the
developmentplans.

6. Protective and Eco Sensitive Zone: The areas earmarked as Protective and Ecosensitive
Areas shall be termed as E Zone. This zone may comprise of Water bodies: E1, Special
recreation zone/ protective areas such as sanctuaries/ reserve forests: E2, Forest Zone: E3,
CoastalZone:E4andUndevelopableusezone:E5.Undevelopableusezoneshallbeidentified
as Earthquake/ landslide prone, cliffs and environmentally hazardous area, areas adjacent to
fault lines, areas withslope higher than 45, areasadjacenttomajor drainage lines and other
areas identified by State Disaster Management Authority and all environmentally sensitive
areas.

7. SpecialAreaZone:Inadditiontotheabovelistedzones,zonesmayalsobespecifiedkeepingin
view the special characteristic of such areas/pockets. Such areas shall be termed as S Zone.
Thiszonemaycompriseofoldbuiltupareaswitharchitecturalorhistoricalimportance:S1,
areasofscenicvalue:S2whichneedtobepreservedwithoutspoolingthecharacterbyputting
up various kinds of structures, the area restricted for development by Government: S3, or it
may be area under other uses/ spot zones: S4. Therefore, it is necessary that use/activity
permissibilityinspecialareasshouldbecarefullythoughtofinthedevelopmentplanwhenitis
beingformulated.

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Table4.4: SimplifiedRegionalLanduseClassification
LevelI

LevelII

AN

UseZone

AN

UseZone

1.

UrbanisableZone

11

U1

ExistingZone

12

U2

NewAreaZone

13

U3

PotentialforUrbanDevelopmentZones

2.

IndustrialZone

3.

Transportation&
CommunicationZone

31

T1

Roads/BRTS

32

T2

Railways/MRTS

33

T3

Airport

34

T4

Seaports,DockyardsandDryports

35

T5

BusDepots/TruckTerminalsandfreight
Complexes

36

T6

TransmissionandCommunication

4.

PA

PrimaryActivity
Zone

41

PA1

Agriculture

42

PA2

PoultryandDairyFarming

43

PA3

RuralSettlements

44

PA4

BrickKilnandExtractiveAreas

5.

OpenAreaZone

51

O1

RecreationArea

52

O2

Greenbufferzone

6.

ProtectiveandEco
sensitiveZone

61

E1

WaterBodies

62

E2

SpecialrecreationZone/ProtectiveAreassuchas
sanctuaries/reserveforests

63

E3

ForestZone

64

E4

CoastalZone

65

E5

UndevelopableUseZone

7.

SpecialAreaZone

71

S1

HeritageandConservationAreas

72

S2

ScenicValueAreas&TourismZone

73

S3

GovernmentRestrictedArea(suchasDefence)

74

S4

OtherUses/SpotZone*

Source:VariousRegionalPlans(NCRPB,MMRDA,HMDA).

N=NumericCode

;AN=AlphaNumericCode

Note: *Theprocessofchanging/relaxing/modifyinglanduseofpartorSpotofazoneinaparticularlanduseis
termedasSpot Zoning.SpotZoningcanbe doneforcomparativelysmallerareainaparticularlandusezonein
suchawaythatitdoesnotaffecttheoverallPlan.

4.8.

CompositionofthePlanningCommittees

Traditionally, the planning bodies in India have remained nominated, starting with
theChairpersonandincludingthemembers.Attimes,inthenameofdemocratisation,
aservingorformerLegislatorismadetheChairperson.Also,thetechnicalexpertise
availablewiththePlanningBodiesneedstobeaugmented,inviewofthefloodingof
the environment with technological tools and techniques that can make spatial
planning far more realistic, speedy and transparent. Accordingly, in the changing
socioeconomic environment, it would be desirable to consider introducing greater

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democracy a well as subject matter expertise in the composition of the Planning


Authoritiesatalllevels.
There is also this perception that Planning bodies are increasingly doubling up as
DevelopmentAuthoritiesand,intheprocess,theysufferfromconflictofinterestand
besides, the development functions get overwhelming attention to the detriment of
theplanningfunctions.TheMunicipalitiesandPanchayatsfallinginthejurisdictionof
the Development Authorities (DAs) have been complaining of all the financial and
regulatory cream being skimmed off by the DAs, leaving only the rubbish removal
task and unpleasant authority (like property tax collection) with the Municipalities
andPanchayats.
Toaddresssuchconcerns,somebroadsuggestionsaregivenbelow.
District/MetropolitanPlanningCommitteesandRegionalPlanningBoards:The
DPCsandMPCsmaybeconstitutedasperthebroadframeworkindicatedinthe74th
CAA.However,itissuggestedthattheDPC/MPCshouldnotbeunwieldyinsizeand
thetotalnumberofmembers,includingtheChairpersonandthenominatedmembers,
should not exceed 30. Subject matter experts (3 to 4), from the fields of spatial
planning, agriculture, climate issues, and finance should be nominated as members.
The members should be authorised to elect among themselves a Chairman, Vice
ChairmenandChairmenofSubjectCommittees.WherevertheDistrict/Regioninclude
cantonmentareas,theHeadoftheCantonmentBoardmayalsobe madeamember.
TheStatelevelHeadsofrelevantCentralandStateGovernmentorganisationsmaybe
invitedfromtimetotime,asperfeltneed.
For interstate regions, such as the NCR, Parliament would have to make a law, in
consultation with the States concerned, for constitution of the Regional Planning
Board(RPB).Concomitantly,theStateLaws,includingtheT&CP Acts,wouldneedto
be amended suitably, to mandate the alignment of the Local Area Plans with the
RegionalPlans.TheonusofsuchalignmentshouldremainwiththeStateGovernment
concerned by way of self certification and there should be no need for mandating
formal approval of the Local Area Plans by the RPB. The Chief Ministers of the
participating States should, by rotation, be made the Chairperson of the RPB. This
wouldbeinlinewiththefederalprinciples.Inthealternative,aMinisteroftheUnion
may be the Chairman of the Inter State RPB. For the area of region falling in the
respective States, there should be State Regional Planning Board, to carry out the
regionalplaninfinerdetailsinthesubregions.

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Figure4.6: PlanningBoardforInterStateRegions

InterStateRegion
PlanningBoard

Representativesfrom
SubRegionState1

StateRegional
PlanningBoard

Representativesfrom
SubRegionState2

StateRegional
PlanningBoard

Representativesfrom
SubRegionStaten

StateRegional
PlanningBoard

Regional Development Authorities and Improvement Trusts: The broad


principles for composition and functioning indicated above for the DPCs and MPCs
maybesuitablyadoptedfortheRegionalDevelopmentAuthoritiesandImprovement
Trustsaswell.TheDevelopmentAuthoritiesshouldpreferablynotbecombiningthe
planning, regulatory and development functions all in one. All the resources
generatedbywayoffeesetc.inapprovaloflayoutsshouldbesharablewiththelocal
bodies (Panchayats and Municipalities) besides using it partly for development of
regionalinfrastructure.

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5.1.

Introduction

The location, site and situation significantly contribute to growth and function of a
settlement. Location and surroundings could have positive and negative impact on
settlement development. However, careful planning should be able to use well the
advantagesthatthelocationofatownprovides.Particularlylocationinthecontextof
waterfront of sea, river and large lakes provides special resources, which can be
effectivelyusedfordevelopmentofthetown.Similarly,thetownlocatedonthehills
provideotherspecialopportunitiesfordevelopment.Anyappraisalofthevalueand
importance of a particular site must involve a knowledge of its historical past,
evolutionandlandmarksofchange.
The growth of clusters of urban settlements is more frequently found around large
metropolisesandresultsinwhataresometimescalledcityregions.Oftentheseare
made up of small towns and villages, which have been enormously expanded as a
result of national policy on dispersal of economic activities away from the
metropolises. The small and medium towns in these city regions are related to one
another by the functions, which they perform. Site condition in the hilly and
mountainousregionsmayoccupysiteinRidges,Valleys,Riverterraces,Confluences,
Rolling Meadows and in cases linear settlement growth along the major
transportationroutesorattheentrancetospecifichillregion.

5.2.

Guidelines for Study on Location, Site and situation of


Settlement

5.2.1. Location
Locationattributestobeconsideredinaplanningexercise:
a) Location in terms of latitude and longitude, population size and area and connectivity with
othersettlementsetc.
b) Nodal significance in the national or regional transport and communication network, power
networkandindustrialdevelopmentetc.
c) Location in terms of agricultural produce collection and distribution centre, agroindustries
linkedtolocalmarkets,irrigationnetwork,agriculturalextensionservicesetc.
d) Significanceofthelocationinecologicalterms,relatedtoimportantecologicalnetworks
e) StatusthatthesettlementinhierarchyintheStateortheRegion
f) Roleandstatusofthecity/towninthenationaldeliverysystemsofsocialservices;
g) Relativesignificanceoflocationsofcity/towninproximitytoaMetropolitan/Megapolis:
i. Nodalsignificance
ii. Presenceofhighproductiveeconomicactivities
iii. Presenceoflargescalemarket

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5.2.2. Site
Siteattributestobestudiedforplanningexercise:
a) Conditionsofsite:lowlying,swamp,ordryland,ridge,onariverbankorcanalside.Withinthe
townflat,slopping(inwhichdirection),undulatinggentleslope,moderateslope,steepslope.
b) Value and importance of the site and its historical past, that is, when the nucleus was
established.
c) Analysethefactorsresponsiblefordeterminingthesite:
i. Inalluvialplains
ii. Inhillyandmountainousregions
iii. Inaridregions
iv. Intheareasofterritorialrulership
v. In the areas around some localised physical resources, mining settlements,
manufacturingtowns,resorttowns
vi. Aroundlargemetropolis
d) Climateanditsinfluenceondailylife,construction,rangeofcropsandhowthecityactivities
havemodifiedthenaturalclimate,particularlyinthebuiltuparea.
e) Analysis of climate type, variations in temperature, wind velocity and wind directions in
different parts of the city; study of the climate with reference to summer, rainy and winter
seasons.
f) Limitingandthefavourablefactorsofsiteinthespreadandgrowthofthecity/town.

5.2.3. Situation
Thefollowingtobeconsideredforsituationanalysis:
a) The endowment of the situation (wider setting) for the subsequent growth in size of the
city/townandfortheenhancementofitsfunctions
b) Theimportantandinterrelatedaspectsofsituation,namely,
i. Physicalconfiguration
ii. Routepatterns
iii. Theextentoftheterritorytowhichtheurbanfunctionsarerelated
c) Suggestmeasurestoretardorevenovercometheweakeningoftheoriginalvalueofthesite
andsituation.

5.2.4. Hinterland
The endowment of the hinterland is another factor on which growth of an urban
centre rests. An urban centre, for example, can establish a mutually interacting
relationship with its hinterland if the hinterland has a variety and extent of natural
resourcesintermsofbothagricultureandeconomicpotentials.Acitysgrowthmay
beconsistentandstablemainlybecauseitseconomicbaseiscloselylinkedwiththat
ofitshinterland.Itisalsoconceivablethatthecitycanbe aninstrumentnotmerely
for effectively utilising the existing potential of its hinterland but also of increasing
thehinterlandspotentialitself.Thedevelopmentoftheregionaleconomyhelpsthe
growthofsmalltowns,whichintheprocessbecomethemainservicecentresfortheir
hinterlands.

Therefore, considerable attention should be given to the delimitation, functionality,


socialandeconomiclinktoaparticularurbansettlement.Thearealinkedsociallyand

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economically to an urban settlement has been given various names, such as


Hinterland, Upland, Urban Field, Sphere of Influence, Zones of Influence,
Tributary Area, or Catchment Area. The immediate hinterland of a large city,
whichisdirectlyundertheinfluenceoftheagglomeration,istheperiurbanarea.

Location, Site, Situation and Hinterland may be studied using Geospatial techniques
ontheaspectslikeHydroGeologicalanalysis,TemperatureChangeanalysis,Network
analysis,Proximityanalysis,LandSuitabilityanalysis,UrbanGrowthanalysis,etc.

5.2.4.1. Periurbanarea
The area influenced by a town is not a twodimensional feature, not a sphere, nor
does itnecessarily formacontinuous zone. Flowof goods, servicesandinformation
into and out of a town/city, most modern urban settlements and their immediate
hinterlandsareeconomicallyinterdependent,ratherthanonebeingatributarytothe
other.Ananalysisoftheruralareaservedbyacity/towngivessomeindicationofthe
relation between city and the urbanrural mix (the periurban area), which is of
practical application in examining the provision of goods and services in an urban
centre. However, as mentioned in the Regional planning chapter, Periurbanisthe
zone which is within the planning area limits but outside the limit of the
municipal corporation / authority or metropolitan planning committee or
authority.
As smaller towns fall within the areas served by larger metropolitan regions, the
delimitationofurbanzonesofinfluencealsoshedslightonthemannerinwhichacity
at a particular level in the urban hierarchy provides specialist services for the
surrounding population and settlements (such as service towns, satellite towns or
service villages). Finally, very large cities extend a particularly intensive influence
over the areas around them; so much so that these can be well defined periurban
areas. Delimitation of periurban areas is directly influenced by accessibility as of
highways and/or prime economic investments. With rapid urbanisation conditions,
theperiurbanzoneisdynamic.Henceperiurbanlimitsundergoalterationssubject
tohighstressforurbangrowthandthereforealwaysinfasttransition.
In examining zone of influence, one commonly adopted method is to establish on a
map the areas served by employment, shopping, entertainment, education, health
servicesandsoon.Thismethodofanalysisisapplicabletocitiesandtownsatalllevel
in urban hierarchy.Ata higher level in urban hierarchy the criteria used reflect the
distinctivefunctionsoflargersettlementsandemployinformationlike:

Theareaservedbythecitysservicesandamenitieslikewatersupply,electricity,gassupplyand
telephone, health services, educational, cultural, recreational elements, security services such as
policeandfirebrigades,postalservices,mainlythelocaldeliveryareasandpostalzones;banking
andinsurancefacilities,thecirculationofitsdailynewspapers.

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Flowofwholesaleproducts,tripgeneration,intensityandspeedofmovementshouldbetakeninto
consideration.
Other reflective elements, which may be considered, are land use ratio of nonagricultural to
agriculturalpopulation,densitytrendsinpopulationgrowth,settlementpattern,growthofbuiltup
areasandpatternofcommunication.

Inrespecttoatypicalindustrialtown,itsperiurbanareamaybemuchmorerestrictedthanthatofthe
other types of town. An intrusive industrial town may well not have the full range of urban services
appropriate of its size. These missing functions will be supplied from other centres, thus making its
zoneofinfluencelessclearlydefined.
Temporal data provided by Satellite imageries may be used for the delineation of Urban Zones of
influence. All maps for urban areas like utility maps, infrastructure maps, growth maps, vegetation
maps,transportmaps,etc.maybepreparedusinghighresolutionsatellitedata.Itwillbeclearthatthe
analysisofurbanzonesofinfluenceismostappropriateforthosecitieswhosedominantroleisthatof
servingasacentralplace,althoughmostsettlementsofanyreasonablesizewillhavethisamongtheir
variousfunctions.

5.2.4.2. LeapfrogDevelopmentandUrbanSprawl
Leapfrog development refers to the occurrence of urban settlement in places
separatedfrom denser areas by open spaceand land under agricultural production.
Thisdevelopmenthasjumpedlandunavailableforsuchdevelopmentbecauseitis
held by the state, by other private owners, or because it is under the control of
traditional authorities. This type of development may take the form of upmarket
residential and business park development, or it may take the form of lowcost
housingprojectsorinformalsettlementswhichmaybeimplemented,orwhichmay
occurasaconsequenceofrapidurbanization32.
Urbansprawlreferstourbangrowth;alongtransportationroutesinlinearformwith
oneorafewpropertydepthaswidthonbothsidesoftheroad,takingadvantageof
accessibility, flow of goods and services. These urban developments have higher
infrastructuresystemscostsuchaswatersupply,powersupply,whichoftenhaveto
belongextendedfromthenearestservingareas.LandAssembly/LandManagement
Techniques using geospatial techniques may be used for effective utilization of land
andthuschecktheurbansprawl.
Municipal Planning & Management should apply careful control over change of
agriculturallandfornonagriculturaluses.Theseconversions arecommonlyseenin
periurban areas and are neither covered under Municipal laws not under any
planning regulations as the location is outside the limits of municipality or even a
planningauthority.
Often,sporadicandscatteredconversionscreateproblemsforfutureplannedurban
development, where many of these are done for speculation purposes to gain high

32

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capitalreturnsfromlandlots.Thoughthelawsrequirethelandrevenueauthorities
to take the advice of State Town Planning Department about viability before
permittingconversions,butduetoabsenceofanyapprovedlanduseplanandweak
structureofTownPlanningDepartment,thisstepisrarelytakenoreveniftakenitis
hardlyeffectivefromplanningperspective.Suchhaphazardurbansprawlneedstobe
curbedandregulationsshouldbeinplacetodiscourageunplannedgrowth,whichcan
beachievedthroughtheRegionalPlanningApproach(seeChapter4).

5.2.5. Accessibility
Accessibilityisthedominantfactorinfluencingthelocation,growthandfunctionsof
urbancentres.Itistocombineatleastthreeelements:thelocationofaplacewithina
region (in general, centrally located places are more accessible); the form of the
transport system; and accessibility within the area of the activities: access to
employment opportunities, access to population, access to educational or health
facilities,etc.GreenmobilityandTODdemandafocusonbetteraccessibilitybynon
motorisedmobilityandpublictransport.
Urban settlements tend to grow on transport routes only at specific places,
particularlyatjunctionsandbreakofbulkpoints,whereoneformofthetransportis
changed for another. Hence settlements whose locations are guided by transport
routesarefoundnotonlyattheendoftheseroutes,butalsoalongthem.Thenumber
ofroutes,whichcometogetherataparticularpoint,isimportant,butthedegreeto
whichpassengersandgoodsareinterchangedismoreimportant.
Theguidelinesforthestudyofaccessibilityareasunder
Establishtheroleof:
i. Longdistance regional/interregional transportation in determining the locations of the
city/town;
ii. Boththelongdistanceaswellaslocalandintraurbantransportationinthegrowthofsizeof
thecity/town;
iii. Interurbanandintraurbantransportationinaffectingurbanstructure.
iv. NonMotorised Transport and Transit Oriented Development in defining intraurban
transportationandurbanstructure.
v. Interregionaleasyaccessbydifferentmodes;
vi. Good mobility within city/town due to construction of tunnel results in the development of
new areas with commercial, industrial and residential activities, which leads to population
increaseintheentireurbanarea.

5.2.6. SocioEconomicProfile
Cityisnotaloneacharacteristicofitsphysicalorlocationalforms;itspopulationand
its characteristics determine the social processes that set the City culture. Socio
economic classwise distribution of the population is a key indicator of the social
parameters in a settlement. In case of existing settlement, the pattern of population
on the basis of socioeconomic levels can be studied for planningto understand the
services and facilities. On the contrary, it is useful for the greenfield sites, where

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zoningcanbeproposedbasedontheincomeofthesettlingpopulationclass,higher,
middleorlow.Spatialplanisusuallyinfluencedbylivingandworkplacesofdifferent
ofpopulationclasses.
This principle of Urban Strategic Planning33should in consonance with the income
distribution structure of the city region with the urban poor located near public
transport nodes/links and specially providing space for the urban poor in
master/development plans for living, selling and working at city, zone and local
levels.
Overall,thesocialindicatorsallowtheplannertounderstandthecity,linkitwiththe
cityspatialformanditsbehaviourpattern.Inshort,unlikethetraditionalapproachto
zoning, social parameters can be used for creating zones and its functions. This can
directly point at the urban facilities such as bus services, dedicated transportation
corridors,facilitiesofsocialinfrastructureandphysicalinfrastructure.

5.3.

DistributionofLandUse

5.3.1. DevelopedAreaAverageDensities
For the purpose of these guidelines, the densities mentioned in this section are the
Gross Population Densities defined as person per unit area (in hectares) for
developed area only. The calculation includes population of the settlement on the
developedlandofthesettlement.
Fixationofdensitynormsshouldbebasedoncarryingcapacityanalysisfocusingon
parameters space per person, access to facilities, available piped water per capita,
mobility and safety factors. The task should be settlement specific. However, for
overallplanningapproachdensityrangesaresuggestedinTable5.1.
Table5.1: DevelopedAreaAverageDensities
SettlementType

PersonsperHectare(pph)in
PlainAreas

HillAreas

SmallTowns

75125

4575

MediumTown

100150

6090

LargeCities

125175

6090

MetropolitanCities

125175

100150

Morethan200

Megapolis
Source:RevisedbasedonUDPFIGuidelines.

Thesearesuggestivepopulationdensitiesasperthesettlementsize.However,while
planning for compact and TOD development, these densities should be modified to
suit the requirement and should be based on carrying capacity analysis. Developed
areadensitiessuggestedaboveisusefultocalculatetotaldevelopedarearequirement

33

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at city level, when thetarget populationfor the city isgiven. Whenused alongwith
thesuggestednormsfordifferentlanduse,areacanalsobecalculated.

5.3.2. ProposedLanduseStructureofUrbanCentres
TheproposedlandusestructureforurbancentresisindicatedinTable5.2:
Table5.2: LanduseStructureforDevelopableAreainUrbanCentres
PercentageofDevelopedArea
S.No. LanduseCategory*

Small

Medium

LargeCities

Metropolitan
Cities&
Megapolis

Residential

4550

4348

3639

3638

Commercial

23

46

56

56

Industrial

810

79

78

78

Pub.&SemiPublic

68

68

1012

1012

Recreational

1214

1214

1416

1416

Transport&Communication

1012

1012

1214

1214

Agriculture,Waterbodiesand
Specialareas

Balance

Balance

Balance

Balance

TotalDevelopedArea

100

100

100

100

Source:

RevisedbasedonUDPFIGuidelines,1996

Note:
1. It would be desirable to fix the recommended Landuse share for essential uses (Residential,
Transportation and Recreational) while the proportion for other uses may be flexible. Actual
land use percentage in a given city case should be calculated based on local conditions and
needs.
2. Zoning regulations given in Table 9.1 Simplified land use classification to be followed in
consistencywiththelandusestructuregiveninthetableabove.
3. *Land occupied under Special Areas (refer Table 9.1 for uses) to be included in the land use
categories16giveninthetableabove,unlesslargespecialareastobeconsideredasaseparate
entityforplanning,suchascantonmentareas.
4. *However,toproposethemixedlanduseofacitypercentageshareofresidential,commercial
andindustriallandusetobeadjustedproportionallyasplannedbythelocalauthority.Mixed
landuseshouldbeeithernonindustrialorientedorindustrialmixoriented(referTable9.1for
uses).
5. The adjustment in the residential, commercial and industrial land use (dominant use) to be
basedonthelandareaproposedformixedlandusezoneandreductionofrespectiveproposed
mixed land use(s). Appropriate reduction in residential, commercial or industrial uses and
adjustmentsinotherusestobemadesothatthetotallandusebecomes100%.Themixeduse
oflandtobeenvisagedatvisiondevelopmentstageoftheplanformulation.
6. Detailed study is to be undertaken on the corelation of and effects of FAR/Densities in our
towns(bothsmalltownsandmetropolitancities)andguidelinestobeadoptedfortheoptimal
useofland.
Specificattentionneededonareasinsection5.4Urbanplanningapproach.

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5.4.

UrbanPlanningApproach

Though urban development increasingly accounts for a large share in the National
economy, huge gap between the need of infrastructure services and available
resourcestillremainsunbridgedasamajorconcern.Itadverselyeffectsprovisionof
employment, mobility and lifestyle of large sections of citys population. Challenges
like environmental sustainability, changing but stressed lifestyle put pressure on
mobility and health. In order to reduce pressure on land and response to climate
changeimpact,alternativeapproachesofcityplanningandbuildingistheneedofthe
hour.
Suchsolutionslayinkeepingthecitycompactbymixingusesoflandtoanoptimum
level, decreasing trip generation and high population density making mass rapid
transit systems technically and economically viable. Aspect to be encouraged by
urban planners are walk to work best designed pedestrian safety, protection of
naturalfeaturesandenvironmentallysensitiveareas,alongwithfindingnewsource
offinancialresourcesforcitydevelopment.
To moderate and eventually curb the environmental impacts of urbanisation,
sustainable ways of planning are required. Urban centres by its conventional form
play a significant role in mounting urban heat island. Green city modules such as
street orientation in lines with sun direction, prevailing wind direction and use of
heatrepellingmaterialnotonlyhelpreducetheimpact,butalsoslowdownthegas
emissionsfromartificialcoolingsystems.Furthergreenspaceswithintheurbanset
upensurecoolingeffectandbetterpublicinteractionspaces,apartfrompsychological
supportsinreducinghumanstresslevels.
Bothcompactcityandgreencityapproachshouldhelptoreleaselandforopenspace
and recreational use purposes, reducing pollution levels, decentralising waste
handling,encouragingpublictransportationandsimplifyinglandusesegregation.
Totechnicallymeetthedemandoftheurbancentresinmakingitcosteffectiveandin
optimumutilisationofavailableresourcestoanyoftheurban planningapproaches,
InformationCommunicationTechnology(ICT)hasemergedasasolution.Smartcity
concept facilities better living experience for human kind, declining dependency on
contingencies by using ICT enable development of smart communities, providing a
communication web that connects buildings, energy and mobility devices such as
Electric Vehicles (EV) by using bidirectional information exchange. 3D City Models
may be used to facilitate orientation of views in terms of scale and spatial position
and planning other urban utilities. Digital modelling can also be used to create
decision support tools that help to reduce the environmental impact of planning
decisions,forfloodriskpreventionandforcostbenefitanalysis.

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The following sections cover the key benefits of compact city, green city and smart
cityapproachesanditsaspectsinplanning.

5.4.1. GreenCity
Green cities are those where economic growth and development is fostering, that
reducenegativeenvironmentalexternalities,theimpactonnaturalresourcesandthe
pressure on ecosystem services. These cities have significant synergies between
environmental and economic objectives. A clean or effective production and
consumption of facilities related to movement of people and goods, waste
management and recycling, pollution prevention, treatment, energy, abatement,
design,construction,maintenance,resourceextraction,agriculture,naturalresource
managementandotherenvironmentalservices,aretheprimecomponentofagreen
city.

5.4.1.1. KeyBenefitsofGreencity

Effective Land Use: Green cities promote effective land use and get rid of urban sprawl by
encouraging compact mixeduse developments. Higher urban densities are promoted without
affectingthequalityoflife.
Habitat Prevention and Restoration: These cities aim to prevent damage to the natural
landscape, productivity of agricultural land, biodiversity and natural habitat. Such green spaces
improvethequalityofairandcanopycoversreducesnoiselevel.
Efficient Transportation Management: Green city increases opportunities for nonmotorised
movement, bicycling, pedestrian friendly network, reduction in the number of automobile trips,
promotingpublictransportationanduseofvehicleswithalternativefuels.
EffectiveUseofResources:Limitstheusageofresourcesbyincorporatingefficientsystems,like:
WaterEfficiency:GreencityincludesR3(reducerecyclereuse)strategiesandcansavepotable
watertoanextentof3040%includingwaterharvesting.
Energy Efficiency: Onsite power generation using various renewable energy technologies and
other clean fuels can significantly reduce the load on grid power supply. There can be energy
savingtothetuneof2030%.
Waste Management: Waste management in Green Cities are well planned which takes into
account waste reduction initiatives by planning and implementation of efficient and effective
systemsforcollection,transportation,treatment,recyclingandreuseordisposalofmunicipalsolid
waste.Also,Wastetoenergyisakeycomponentofgreencity.
OtherBenefits:Reducedmaintenancecosts,resourceconsumption,wastegenerationalongwith
highermarketabilityandspeedyenvironmentalclearanceapprovals.

5.4.1.2. GreencityPlanningComponents
SiteSelectionandPlanning
Green city development in India is a new effort. West Bengal Government and
MaharashtraGovernmenthaverecentlytakeninitiatives.Greencityinitiativesshould
onpublicallyownedlandwithminimumsitedisturbanceshouldbepreferredduring
siteselectionincaseofaGreenfieldtownship.Priorityshouldbegiventothealready
developedlandinordertoachievegreenredevelopment.

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LandUse&TransportationPlanningguidelinesforgreencities
1. Urbansprawliscontrolledbypracticinghigherdensitydevelopment
2. Greencitiesshouldmajorlyusepublictransportationtoreducefossilfuelconsumption&vehicular
emissions.Theproximitiesofbasictransportationmodeshouldbeinwalkabledistance.
a.
EcofriendlytransportationservicesshouldbepreferredwhichrunsonCNG,biofuels,solar
batteryetc.Thus,NonMotorisedTransport(NMT)andIntelligentTransportSystem(ITS)34
shouldbeencouraged.
b.
Requirements:
i. Rail Station Proximity: Locate a city project within 1/2mile (800meter) walking
distance as far as possible (measured from a station building entrance) of an existing or
plannedcommuterrail,lightrailorsubwaystation.
ii. BusStopProximity:Locateacityprojectwithin1/4mile(400meter)walkingdistance
as far as possible (measured from a main building entrance) of 1 or more stops for 2 or
morepublic,campus,orprivatebuslinesusablebybuildingoccupants.
iii. PublicTransportationProximity:Locatetheprojectwithinmile(400meter)walking
distanceasfaraspossiblefromthebusstop.Rideshareoptionsshouldbepromotedwhich
includepassengerferryterminals,vansandIPT,suchasrickshaws,thatareauthorizedby
thelocaltransitauthorityandthatmeetthedefinitionofpublictransportation.
3. About2535%oftotalareashouldbeearmarkedasrecreationalandopenspaceswithintheGreen
Cityinadditiontoenvironmentalsensitiveareas,whichmustbeprotected.
4. Locatebasicamenitieswithinwalkabledistancestoreducedependencyonautomobiles
a.
Basic amenities like ATM, Parking, Convenience shopping, religious facilities, crche etc.
shouldbewithin600800meters.
b.
Amenities such as School, Medical Clinic, Community hall with sports facilities, Restaurant
etc.within1.62km.
5. Provide a nonindustrial mixed land use by including at least 34 developments like Offices,
Hospitals,Retails,Recreationalareas,etc.
6. Economic sustainability and resilience are important aspects of green cities. Provide good
connectivityandaccessibilitybygreenmobility.ProvisionofTODtocreateeconomicopportunities
andfacilitiesaroundmultimodalnodesofinfrastructure.
7. Theneedofdifferentlyabled/physicallychallenged/disabledpeopleshouldalsobeadequately
addressed.
InfrastructureResourceManagement
Greencitiesarerequiredtobedevelopedasaselfsustainedentityi.e.theplacewheretheresources
canbeutilizedinarecycledandreusableapproach,sothatthedependencyoverthecivicbodiescanbe
minimized.
Addressing water supply: It should be mandatory for a green city to practice the rainwater
harvestingtoenhancegroundwatertablethoughrechargingandreducemunicipalwaterdemand.Asa
whole,watersupplyshouldcomplywiththeR3 (ReduceRecycleReuse)35conceptinordertoaddress
thewaterrelatedissues.Greywaterreuseshallbeinbuiltintheinfrastructuresetup(referChapter8
fordetails).
Efficientenergy:Greencitiesshallmajorlyemphasizeonnonconventionalsourcesofenergy,atleast
10% of citys peak electricity load36. Solar energy, Wastetoenergy, Landfill Gas Energy and Wind
energyaresomeofthealternativesourcesthatcanbeintegratedwiththegreencitydevelopmentto
reducetheloadongridpower.Furtherattemptsshouldbemadetoguideandchannelprevailingwind

GreenModule,AstudyofWestBengal.
Ibid.
36PasadenaGreenCityReport.
34
35

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anningApp
proach

thro
ough sensitive design of roads,
r
related
d plantation and mainten
nance of buillding lines. This
T
should
redu
uceheatislan
ndformationandalsomak
kemobilityin
ncludingcycliingandwalkiingeasier.
Wasstereduction
n:Theaimsh
houldbetoaachieveZeroWastetolandfills.Userrfriendlyreccyclingand
com
mposting proggrams should
d be implemeented with th
he goal to reeduce at leasst 20% per capita
c
solid
wasttedisposalto
olandfill.Useeofecofriendlymaterialss(e.g.heatreepellentmateerial)arereco
ommended
inclu
udinguseofh
hollowAACB
Blocksforbettterinsulation
ns.

Ca
ase study: Vancouver,
V
the Greenes
st City
Va
ancouveristtheworld'sm
mostliveableecityasperttheEconomisstmagazine.IIt'sprovedto
obenotonly
ythe
mostliveable,b
butalsoCanaada'smodelfforusingreneewableenerggysources.
93%ofVan
ncouverseleectricityisgen
neratedfrom
mrenewablessources.
TheCityhaasimplementtedthegreen
nestbuildingcodeinNorth
hAmerica.
TheCityhaasshiftedinv
vestmenttow
walking,cycllingandtransitinfrastrucctureinstead
dofbuildingn
new
roads.
Vancouverrhasthesmalllestpercapiitacarbonfoo
otprintofany
ycityinNorth
hAmerica.
By 2020, reduce
r
wastee heading to
o landfills or incinerator by 40% and
d over 50% of commuterr by
walking,biikingorpubliictransport.

Sourcce:GreenestCityActionPlan,CityyofVancouver

Micrroclimatech
hange37
Greeencitiescanb
beplannedin
naccordancewiththemiccroclimate.Co
onditionsofw
wind,sun,rad
diationand
hum
midity experieenced at a paarticular locaation around
d the built mass contribute to microclimate and
undeerstandingofthesecan createenergy
c
yefficientlan
ndscapesfor buildingsandcomfortablledwelling
units.
Prop
perpracticesthataffectm
microclimateccanreduceprressureonarrtificialtempeeraturereduccingpower
conssumptionand
dultimatelyG
GHGemission
ns,whichisexplainedbelo
ow:
1 StreetOrrientation:SStreet geomettry and orien
1.
ntation influeences the am
mount of solar radiation
receivedb
bystreetsurfaces,aswellasthepotentialforcoollingofthewh
holeurbansy
ystem.The
streets caan be orienteed (as mentiioned earlierr) parallel to
o prevailing w
wind directio
on for free
airflowin
nwarmclimaates.Preferab
bly,thestreettorientation inIndiancon
ntextshould beEW,as
thebuildiingswillbeo
orientedNS,thustherew
willbeeasierrseasonalsolarcontrolasthewalls
areprotecctedinthesu
ummerandexxposedintheewinter.

37

MNRE,SolarEnergy
y,Chapter2

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2. Waterbodies:Sincewaterhasarelativelyhighlatentheatofvaporisation,itabsorbsalarge
amountofheatfromthesurroundingairforevaporation,whichcoolstheair.Thewindpattern
atasiteisalsoinfluencedbythepresenceofwaterbody.Therefore,waterbodiessuchaslakes,
pondsorfountainsshouldbeprovided.
3. Openspaces&Vegetation:Open spaces such as courtyards can be designed, that can act as
heatsinks.Grasscoverandshadingwhichgivescoolingeffect.Plantsadsorbradiationsandcool
the environment. Planting a deciduous plant (e.g. Mulberry, Champa) on East and West side
provides shade from intense and glazing morning and evening sun in summers, cut off hot
breeze,andalsoallowsolarradiationsinwinterastheyshedtheleavesinthatperiod.
4. Semiperviousgroundcover:Semiperviouspavingwhichallowpercolationofwaterintothe
undergroundwatertable.
5. GreenBuildings:A green building is one, which uses less water, optimises energy efficiency,
conservesnaturalresources,generateslesswasteandprovideshealthierspacesforoccupants,
as compared to a conventional building. As an added benefit, green design measures reduce
operating costs, enhance building marketability, increase worker productivity and reduce
potentialhealthimpactsresultingfromindoorairqualityproblems.
6. SolarPassiveDesign38:Passive solar design refers to the use of the suns energy for heating
and cooling of living spaces. In this approach, the building itself or some element of it takes
advantageofnaturalenergycharacteristicsinmaterialsandaircreatedbyexposuretothesun.
Thekeyfeatureslieswithsolarpassivedesignare:Orientationofbuilding,Sunshades,Window
design, double glazed windows, Building insulation, Roof treatment, Evaporative cooling,
Landscaping, Surface to volume ratio, Passive heating, Earth air tunnel, Solar chimney, and
Windtower.
7. Green Roof: Green roofs are roofs that have a layer of living plants on top of the standard
structure and waterproofing elements. It helps in reducing Urban Heat Island Effect and also
delays stormwater runoff. It also reduced energy consumption. Thus, adaption of this
technologythroughoutthecitywillincreasethegreenarea;henceareaswithconstructioncan
alsobeconvertedtogreenarea.

Fordevelopmentofgreenbuildings,thenormsassuggestedbyMoE&Fandvarious
bodies such as LEED, IGBC or GRIHA may be applicable depending upon the
requirements.
An effective design of green city for its various components can even reduce crime.
Greencitiespromotefeaturesthatmaximizevisibilityofpeople,openspacesinand
around the campuses and building entrances looking over the streets and parking
areas,pedestrianfriendlysidewalks,whichallowsnaturalsurveillance.

5.4.1.3. Redevelopmentofbrownfieldsites
Priorityshallbegiventoredevelopmentofcontaminatedanddensesites,whichare
environmentally degraded or demographically saturated. Focus should be on green
redevelopmentofsuchsite,whichcanimprovetheoverallconditionofexistingsites.
Thus, it is advisable to prefer redevelopment on brownfield sites than fresh
developmentonagreenfieldsiteuntilabsolutelyessential.Insuchacase,brownfield

38

TERI with support of MNRE

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anningApp
proach

redevelopmen
nt makes efficient
e
usse of existing infrastrructure. T
The process for the
deccisionandaactionsisgiiveninthefigurebelo
ow:
Figu
ure5.1: Way
ytowardsGreeenRedevelo
opment

5.4
4.2. Com
mpactcitty
Urb
ban sprawl is a resulttant of an everexpan
e
nding city jurisdiction
j
n due to ab
bsence of
com
mpactdevelopmentpractices.Th
hishasressultedinun
ndesirable extension ofurban
infrrastructuree, encroacchment off valuablee agricultu
ural land,, raising cost of
dev
velopmentaandalsoincreasingcaarbon,wateerandenerrgyfootprin
nts.
Con
ncept of Compact
C
C
City
revolves aroun
nd highdeensity devvelopment without
com
mpromisinggthequalittyoflifeof thepeoplee.Citiesbassedoncom
mpactappro
oachmay
orm
maynotinccorporateaalldimensiionsofagrreencityap
pproach,sttatedunderrsection
5.4.1. This ap
pproach larrgely solvees the prob
blem of extternalities such as friction on
space (congesstion), trav
vel time deelays and lo
osses in ecconomic prroductivity
y, air and
watterpollutio
on,solidwaastecollecttionanddissposal.Theeoptimumdensityred
ducesthe
capital and operating
o
c
costs
of providing
p
public
p
infrrastructure and serv
vices and
imp
provesoverrallaccessibility.

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Approach
Figure5.2: CompactC
CitysConceptandApproaach

Source:Vario
oussourcesinclu
udingFactSheett,UNESCAP,MIL
LUNET,Practitio
onersGuide,200
06etc.

As shown
n in the figurre above, th
he efficient densification
d
and effective intensification needs to
t be
balancediinordertomaintaintheliveabilityofp
people.

5.4.2.1. KeyBen
nefitsofC
Compactccity
Thebeneefitsofthecompactciityapproacchare:

Efficieentuseofland
dandurbanccontainment
Increaaseinthenum
mberofridershipforecon
nomicallyviab
bleMRTS
Enviro
onmentproteectionbylow
weringtheclim
maticchangeemissions
Protecctionofecolo
ogicaldiversitty,countrysid
deandlandfo
oragriculturee
Efficieentdeliveryo
ofutilityserviicesinmore denselypopu
ulatedareas.Duetotheeconomiesofscale
in sup
pplying energgy, water and
d treating waaste, it is less costly to deliver
d
urban utility service in
39
compaactcitiesthan
ninsuburban
nareas
Increaasedsocialintteractionlead
dingtosafety
yagainstcrim
me
Lesstrravellingdisttancesthatsaavestime,mo
oneyandfuelconsumption
npercapita
Impro
ovedpublicheealthbybetteerwaterandairquality,aandbywalkin
ngandjoggingg

Theappro
oachofcomp
pactcitydeveelopmentisg
givenbelow::

5.4.2.2. TransittOriented
dDevelop
pment
TransitO
OrientedDevelopmen
ntisacomp
pact&integgratedtran
nsportation
ndevelopm
ment,
which sh
hould be in
ncorporated in Comp
pact Cities. It is defineed as, anyy developm
ment,
macro or micro th
hat is focussed around
d a transit node, and facilitates and comp
plete
easeofaaccesstoth
hetransitfaacility,therrebyinduciingpeopletopreferto
owalkand
duse
publictrransportationoverpersonalmod
desoftranssport.40
TOD pro
ovides opp
portunitiess by accesss to high
hquality public
p
tran
nsportation
n by
enhancin
ngconnectivityandcontributinggtoattracttiveandwaalkabledisttancesthro
ough

39

FactSheet,UNESCAP.

40

DraftUTTIIPECGuidelines,,2012.

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densification.TODIdeallandusemixandmixedlandusedevelopment(withDensity)
andtheTransitmodefunctionatvariouscitydestinationsare indicativelyexplained
intheTable5.3.Highdensity,mixeduseandinterconnectedstreetnetworksreduce
percapitavehiculartrips.Thiscanbeachievedthroughabalancedmixofjob,housing
andmarketsalongMRTScorridors.
Table5.3: TransitOrientedDevelopmentMatrix
TOD

IdealLandusemixandmixedlanduse
development(withDensity)

Transitmodefunction

CoreArea

Residential:HighIntensity

BicycleLanes

Commercial/Office:MediumIntensity

PedestrianNetworks

MixedUse

Intermediatetransportationsupportedby
nonmotorisedvehicles

Supportingretails&services
CommercialZones

LimitedParkingLots

Employment(commercial,office,industrial,
institutional):HighIntensity

ParkingLots,ifrequired

Supportingretail&services:MediumDensity

BicycleLanes

Residential:Minimal

PedestrianNetworks
BRTandBusStops
Intermediatetransportationsupportedby
motorisedvehicles

Neighbourhood

PeriurbanArea

Residential:MediumIntensity

PedestrianNetworks

Employment(commercial,office,industrial,
institutional):MediumIntensity

BicycleLanes

Supportingretails&services

Intermediatetransportationsupportbynon
motorisedvehicles

Commercial:HighIntensityalongTOD

ConsiderableMultilevelParkingAreas

Residential:MediumIntensityininnerregion

Transitiontohigherdensityandgreatermix
ofusesclosetothetransitsource

MixedUseincludingcompatibleinstitutional
use

GreenInterconnectedPedestrianNetwork

BRTandBusStops
ConsiderableMultilevelParkingAreas

Source:TransitOrientedDevelopmentPolicyGuideline,Calgary,2004.

As a whole, TOD encourages use of nonmotorized transportation, directs compact


highdensity developments, intensifies underutilized urban areas through
redevelopment, leads to lower infrastructure costs and increases public safety,
mobilityoptionsandhealthbenefits.

5.4.2.3. IntensiveUseofland
Theintensivelanduseofferscitiesthepossibilityof(re)developmentofurbanareas
for a number of functions that, in combination, can offer residents, workers and
visitors high quality services. This concept can be subdivided into three types with
combinationsasshowninFigure5.3.

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UrbanPlanningA
Approach
Figure5.3: TypesofIn
ntenseLandUse

Source:

MILUNET,PractitiionersGuide,20
006

MixedL
LandUse:M
Mixeduse developmeent is the practice
p
of
f allowing m
more than one
typeofu
useinabuiildingorseetofbuildin
ngswhich canbeaco
ombination
nofresiden
ntial,
commercial, industrial, officee, institutio
onal or oth
her land uses.
u
It is p
presumed that
mixedlaandusesyieldssocioeconomicb
benefitsan
ndthereforrehasapositiveeffeccton
housingandcommercialvalues.
Goodmixedusecaanbedefineedasafineelygrainedmixofprim
maryland uses,nameelya
varietyo
ofhousingaandworkp
placeswith housingprredominan
nt,closelyin
ntegratedw
with
allotherrsupportsservices,wiithinconveenientwalk
kingdistan
nceofthem
majorityoffthe
homes.((Murrain1993:86).Ittisalsorefferredasceellulardeveelopment.M
Mixeduseiisto
be carefu
fully alloweed along with
w the com
mpatible usse only.Th
he mixed u
use of land and
the dom
minant usee thereof should be referred
d from Ch
hapter 9 on Simpliified
Developm
mentProm
motionRegu
ulations.
Theapprroachesforrpromotin
ngmixedussedevelopmentcanb
bebyincreasinginten
nsity
of land use,
u increasing diverssity of land
d use or in
ntegrating segregated
s
uses. The key
paramettersforinteegrationofdifferentu
usescanbe:

Thefu
unctionaland
dphysicalinteegrationofdifferentusessuchasResidential,Comm
mercialRettail&
serviceandPublicSemiPublic.
Integrration of thrree or more significant revenue pro
oducing usess Industriaal, Commerccial
Wholeesale,Retail&
&serviceandPublicSemiPublicofficces

Inanurbaanspace,mixxedusedevelopmentcanb
beplannedaatselectedloccationswith idealmix,suchas
a)Cityorttowncentresscomprisingthecommerccialandcivic coreoftown
nandcities,b
b)Innercityaareas
andc)Perriurbanlocattionsandgreeenfieldsitessinurbanfrin
ngesasalso indicatedin Table5.3.M
Mixed
layerdevelopment/M
Multifunctionallanduse
e:

Mixed laayer develo


opment is based on the princiipal of high intensityy with verttical
integratiion. It is un
nder the category of
f multifuncttional land
d use and aalso termed as
Layerin
ngDevelopm
ment.
Vertical integration
n has many
y benefits to offer to
o cities as a
a whole. Beenefits incllude
energyssaving pottential, reduction in
n unnecesssary jourrneys, imp
proves oveerall
accessibilityandso
ocialinclusiionpossibiilitiesofferedbycomb
bininghoussing,shopp
ping,
work, trransport, recreation,
r
culture and
a
social functionss within o
one area. This
T

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combinationalsohelpstoutilizethefullpotentialofanurbansite,leavingsufficient
open spaces for a greener surrounding. A mixeduse highrise development
diversifies the use of space within a single building structure, which in turn saves
horizontaltravelling,andhenceadditionallandrequirement.
Mixedlayerdevelopmentprovides(re)developmentopportunities thateasetheway
towardsCompactCities.Thisconceptshouldbepreferredforabandonedsiteswithin
the city instead of building on greenfield sites on the edge of town. Therefore,
brownfield sites can be redeveloped to offer a higher building density by layering
different functions on top of each other. The land use structure and densities given
earlier in this chapter is not applicable for mixed layer development. Such planned
areasareproposedtohavehighaveragedensityupto8001000pph,withlargeopen
spaces and interblock margins. Typically, this form of vertical integration land use
development has commercial/retail on the street level with offices and recreational
commercial on the top levels, while the intermediate levels are for residential, well
developed open spaces, institutional. Case study of Sky City, China, is a worldclass
example,whichisexplainedbelow.
Figure5.4: CaseStudyofChinaSkyCity

Source:Sky City, China.

Highrisedevelopmentmaylimittheaccessoflighttothelowerstoreysandtherefore
demands slender buildings or appropriate setbacks from the boundary wall. The

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recommendations of the Expert Advisory Committee (EAC) for highrise buildings
are:

The height of the building should be linked with the width of the road on which the proposed
buildingistobelocated;
Also the distance of Fire Station from the building so that in case of emergency, the Fire Tender
mayreachintheshortestpossibletime.

The EAC also recommended thatthe provisions andthe guidelines, as applicable, of


theStateDepartmentsandNational/StateDisasterManagementAuthorityshouldbe
strictlyfollowed41.
Multifunctionaluseintime:

Apublicspaceorabuildingcanhavedifferentfunctionsatdifferenttimeperiods.For
exampleuseofspacesevenbuildingscanbeusedinshiftsinadayallowingdifferent
typesofusesindifferentshifts.
School playground, which can be utilized by the students during school hours and
later in evening wherever possible, can be used for sports training and practice
purposesorpublicstadiumwhichcanbeseasonallyusedasfairgrounds.Suchareas
canbeconsideredespeciallyinsmallsizetownswhereinfrastructureandfundsare
limited.

5.4.3. SmartCity
A smart city uses information, communication and technology to enhance its
liveability, workability and sustainability. A smart city is buildup by key basic
functions:Informationcollection,communicating,andcrunching(analysing).Thetwo
basicstepstowardsSmartcityare:
1. DATACreatedbythealreadyimplementedinformationtechnology.SomeoftheIndiancitieshave
createdacornucopiaofdatainpastfewdecades,whichcanformthebasisforthedevelopmentofa
Smartcity.
2. DIGITAL DNA (BUILT ENVIRONMENT DATA)Data collected by building departments,
engineeringdepartments,landdepartment,planningdepartment,taxdepartmentanddepartment
ofpostalservices.Indiaisstillfindingitsfootprintsinthisregard.

Inviewofrapidurbanisationandhighcongregationofpopulationinlargecities,itis
imperativetomakeuseofadvancesintechnology,capabilitytomakecitiessaferand
protect cities from cybercrime and also augment the quality of governance with
higherlevelsoftransparencyandaccountability.Suchcities,whichtakeadvantageof
advancedtechnology,arecalledasSmartCities.

41

MoEF Office Memorandum, Guidelines for High Rise Buildings, 2012.

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5.4.3.1. ImportantInsights
ThefollowingfigureprovidestheimportantinsightsofSmartCityapplicationglobally.
Figure5.5: ImportantinsightsofSMARTcityapplicationglobally

Source:

VarioussourcesincludingSmartCitiesReadinessGuide,RICSSmartCities.

5.4.3.2. UniversalTargetstoachieveSmartcitydevelopment
There are mandatory targets that must be accomplished in order to propel on the
smartcitypath,thesearetermedasUniversalaseachofthemappliestoeverycity
responsibility.TheCheckSheet(ImplementationProgress)reflectsthestrongand
the weak points in the existing city infrastructure. Status of this matrix reflects the
preparednessofthecitytobeaSmartcityandhelpsinprioritizingthepointsonthe
basisofthestatus(progress)inordertodriveonthepathofdevelopmenttowards
beingaSmartcity.

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UrbanPlanningApproach
Figure5.6: TheUniversalTargets

Source:

SmartCitiesReadinessGuide.

TheessentialelementsoffocusinaSmartcityinclude:

5.4.3.3. Smartgridconcept
Asmartgridisamodernizedelectricalgridthatusesanalogueordigitalinformation
and communications technology to gather and act on information, such as
information about the behaviours of suppliers and consumers, in an automated
fashion to improve the efficiency, reliability, economics, and sustainability of the
productionanddistributionofelectricity.MeteringandSmartpowergenerationsare
thetwobasicstepstakeninthedirectionofhandlingpowerincities.
a.

b.

SmartmeterSmartmetershelputilitiestobetterdetectandmanageoutages.Smartmeters
coupledwithadvancedmeteringinfrastructure(AMI)helpstopinpointproblemsinthegrid,
allowingdeterminationoffaultsandfailuresinnotime42.
Smart power generator Smart power generation is a concept of matching electricity
productionwithdemandusingmultiplegenerators,alternativelytobufferthepeakandhigh
demandforloadbalancing.Thesegeneratorsaredesignedonsmarttechnologiestooperate
efficientlyatchosenload43.

5.4.3.4. SmartTransportationConcept
Thesmarttransportationreferstotheintegrationofinformationandcommunication
technologieswithtransportinfrastructuretoimproveeconomicperformance,safety,

42

AU.S.DepartmentofEnergystudyshowedthatrealtimepricinginformationprovidedbythesmartmeterhelpedconsumers
reducetheirelectricitycosts10%onaverageandtheirpeakconsumptionby15%.

43

Source:GE:Smartgridtechnologyguide.

154

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

UrbanPla
anningApp
proach

mob
bility and time sav
ving of thee citizens. The abov
ve can bee accompliished by
inco
orporatingthefollowingtechnollogiesinth
heexistingsstructure:
a
a.

b
b.

c.

DigitallviewterminalsThesetterminalspro
ovideusersw
withanintelliigentnavigattionsystem
that op
ptimizes thee best routess, alternativee destination
ns, efficient movement by
b a well
inform
medguidancefromtheterm
minal.Forexample,theen
ntirecity'sbu
uslines,theirrstops,and
dropo
offandpicku
uptimesared
displayedon theterminalsalongwith satellitestreeetviewsof
locations,suchasofrestaurantssandotherto
ouristattractiions.Coordin
natesforbank
ks,schools,
hospitaals, and real estate are also
a
featured for the citizzens to deterrmine bestsu
uited route
betweeendestination
ns.
Intellig
gentroads It includes setting
s
up of sensor techn
nologies in th
he pavementts and over
thebridges,whichccanbecombinedwiththeedatacollecttedfrommovvingvehicles toprovide
operators, mainten
nance autho
orities and road
r
users with rapid warning of
f emerging
problem
ms.
TrafficcPredictionToolItpred
dictstrafficflo
owsoverpresetduration
ns(10,15,30,45and60
minutees)bystimulaations.Withtthesepredicttions,trafficccontrollerscaananticipateandbetter
managetheflowoftraffictopreventcongesttionandsavetime.

Oth
hersmartap
pplicationssintheinteelligentTraansportatio
onsystemm
mayconsisttof:

Optimiseddy
ynamicsignallling
A
Automaticpa
arkingsystem
m,
A
AdvancedDr
riverAssistan
nceSystems((ADAS),
Satelliteappllicationforem
mergencyhan
ndling,trafficcalerts,roadsafetyandin
ncidentpreveention
A
Automatedtr
ransportsysttems.
Ca
aseStudy:M
Malta,WorldsfirstSmarttIsland
Maltaisagrou
upofsmallisslands50milestothesou
uthofSicily. Smartmeterrsareinstalledinthe
islland for both
h electric and
d water custo
omers. Thesee smart meteers records th
he data automatically
an
ndsendsthe databackto
otheofficefo
orbilling.Sm
martmetersaalsoactastheeanalysisinsstrument
th
hatlocatepro
oblemsandd
determinewh
henandwhethertoexpan
ndthegrid.T
Thenewsmaartwater
grrid has increaased theft deetection, and has also inttroduced new
wpricingop
ptionsforcu
ustomers
th
hatrewardco
onservation
n.
Figure5.7: Malta:WorldsfirstSmartIsland

Source:

SmartC
CitiesCouncilReadinessGuide

Th
he goal of Sm
mart City Maalta is to put everything a
a hightech company
c
neeeds to succeeed in one
place, includin
ng stateoftheart ICT infr
frastructure along
a
with a host of IT, m
media and prroduction
seervices.

DPFIGuidelin
nes,2014.MiinistryofUrb
banDevelopment
URD

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5.4.3.5. ApplicationofBuiltEnvironmentData
The built environment data of the city is captured by the different departments to
develop a blue print of the city and its attributes for virtual representation of the
physicalcity.ThisdataformstheDNAforthesmartcity.Itincludes:
Demographicdistribution
Landuses
Transportationandotherinfrastructureframework
Forestsandparks
Generalurbanplan
Space and organization plan: This data when linked with the Information communication and
technology develops the digital DNA, which forms the basis for the Smart city. The software and
servicelayersforthebuiltenvironmentdatacancontainthefollowinglayers44:
Data layer: that presents all the information, which is required, produced and collected in the
smartcity.
Servicelayer:Thisincorporatesalltheparticulareservicesbeingofferedbythesmartcity.
Infrastructure layer: that contains network, information systems and other facilities, which
contributetoeServicedeployment.
User layer: that concerns all eservice endusers and the stakeholders of a smart city for
dialoguingandindecisionmaking.Theparticipationincludes:
Thelocalstakeholderswhosupervisethesmartcity,anddesign
Thosewhooffereservicesand
Theenduserswhoconsumethesmartcitysservices

5.4.3.6. Urbanplanningandsmartcityinterrelations
Ontheattributesdiscussedintheprecedingsection,variouseserviceportfolioscan
beofferedinamodernsmartcity,someofwhichhavebeenmentionedbelow:
Table5.4: eServicesofaSmartcity
eServices

eGovernment

Publiccomplaints,showingadministrativeprocedure,bringingtransparencyin
governance.

edemocracy

Performingdialogue,consultation,pollingandvotingofissuesofcity.

eBusiness

Supportsbusinessinstallation.

ehealthandTelecare

Distantsupportandservicestoelderly,civilianswithdiseases,disabled

elearning

Distantlearningopportunities,trainingmaterialtothestudents.

eSecurity

Supportspublicsafetyviaamberalertnotifications,schoolmonitoringandnatural
hazardmanagement

Environmentalservices

Informationaboutrecycling,guidehouseholdsandenterprisesinwaste/energy/water
management

IntelligentTransportation

Offerstoolsfortrafficmonitoring,measurementandoptimization.

Communicationservices

Broadbandconnectivity,digitalTV

Source:CompiledfromUrbanPlanning&SmartCities:InterrelationsandReciprocities,LeonidasG.Anthopoulos.

44Source:UrbanPlanningandSmartCities:InterrelationsandReciprocities,LeonidasG.Anthopoulos.

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5.5.

CityTypology

Urbanisation over centuries and evolving city morphology has given shape to the
presentdaycitiesinIndia.Mostpostindependencecitieshaveemergedfromplanned
directionsandyethaveexperiencedpopulationexplosion.Citiesalsohavebenefited
from planning based on Government schemes and programmes. However, the
functions of the urban centres have takennatural course to its maturity, without or
with intended interventions. These are the consequences of response of human
settlementandinteractionofsocieties.Focusonplanningevenapplicationoflanduse
standardsanddevelopmentcontrolscouldvarydependinguponthetypologyofthe
cities.
Situationofthecity:Situationofthecityistheprimefactortobeconsideredwhile
planning.Citysituationisestablishedonitsgrowthinsize, physicalconfigurationor
routepatternandlargelywithitsfunction.Cities,besidesmultifunctional,canbealso
definedonthebasisoftheprimeeconomicactivityand/orevolutionofthecity.Such
cities with typical location, situation and functions need focused approach while
planning,toaddresstheassociatedissues.Someofsuchkindsare:

Hillcities,
Innercities/walledcities,
Industrialcities,
Religiouscities,
Tourismcities,
Heritagecities,
Portcities,
Medicities(townships),
Sportscities(townships)

Site and situation specific solutions: These cities, owning to its nature of
development and population, and either permanent, new settlers or floating
population,havespecificfunctionsandthereforehaveassociatedissues.Someofthe
genericonesare:

Lackofalternativeeconomicactivities,
Stagnationofcitygrowth,
Strictsegregationofclassesbyprofessionandincome,
Highcrimerate,
Lackofpublicspaces,
Lackofrecreationalactivities,
Lackofeducationalfacilitiesforlowincomeclass/poor,
Significantratioofbachelorpopulation,
Lackofgenderspecifichealthfacilitiesandotherfacilities,
Investmentorientedland/propertyownership,
Others:pressureonpublicutilities,lackofsocialguidanceincaseofexposuretoculturalvariation
etc.

Suchas,incaseofindustrialcitiesortownship,specificdrawbacksareobservedlike
lack of recreational activities, lack of alternative economic opportunities, and social
activities. These townships are limited to work home relationship and lack

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recreationalactivitiesandtherefore,thereisaneedtofocusonprovidingdedicated
publicspacesforpopulationtointeractinsuchcities/towns.
Similarly, other city typologies also have specific issues to be addressed for which
approach can be defined while preparing plans. Mix of economic activities such as
serviceindustriesandsocialactivitiesshouldbepromotedtoencouragetheavenues
forwholesomedevelopment.
Increasedrateofcrimeasobservedinsomeindustrialandporttownisprimarilydue
to segregation of population income classes, lack of recreational activities, lack of
educationalfacilitiesforlowincomeclass,andtosomeextentduetohighproportion
maleworkerslivingwithoutfamiliesandalsolargenumberofbachelorpopulation.
Thereforetopromotesustainabilityofcities,itssituationintermsofitsfunctionand
itssocialbehaviourshallbeaddressed.Suchcasesneedemphasisoncomplimentary
requirements of the city, besides its prime economic activity and physical
infrastructure for holistic development of the city. Some of the complementary
activitiesaresuggestedbelow

Promotionofserviceindustries,
Educationalfacilitieswithemphasisontechnicalinstitutes
TODmixofinstitutionalandadministrativelanduse,
Socialinfrastructure,targetingneedsofspecificstrataofpopulation
Recreationalfacilities,alsothemebasedfacilities
Heritageandreligiousactivitiestobepromotedformixingofeconomicbaseandpopulation
Earmarkedspacesfortheurbanpoor/informalsectorresidentsortheiractivities45.

5.5.1. Hillcity
The National Building Code defines hilly areas as Any area above 600 m in height
frommeansealevel,oranyareawithaverageslopeof30,consideringthesensitive
andfragileecosystemofhillsandmountains.However,theStateGovernmentsmay
identifyandnotifyareastobecoveredunderHillyArea,whichneedtobedealtwith
specialconsideration,whendevelopmentalactivitiesaretakingup.
Hillyareashavefragileecosystems,whichneedtobeconserved.Thereforeplanning
and development strategies for hilly areas shall have to be designed with added
sensitivityandsoundlanduseplanningandsettlementplanning.

5.5.1.1. AssociatedIssues
Hilly areas have a sensitive ecosystem consisting of mountains, rivers and valleys,
several lineaments and some of them even experience extreme weather conditions.
These varied natural features also make hilly areas a suitable place for tourist
destination,thuscreatingapullforcommercialdevelopmentandurbanisation.Also,
many rivers originate from the Northern Himalayan range, thus the areas attract

45

AlsoSuggestedinStrategypaperonmasterplanformulation,inclusiveplanning,prioritizationforhousingandpedestrian
movement,2010

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development of hydro power plants, which directly or indirectly have shown great
impactontheriverhydrologyandbiodiversity.
ThecommonissuesassociatedwithplanninginHillyareasare:
Hilly areas in Himalayas and Northeast experience heavy rainfall, which makes the shallow soil,
cover highly susceptible to erosion (such as in Darjeeling) 46. These conditions necessitate
conserving the precious soil cover during monsoons and harvesting irrigation water for dry
months.Inotherareasheavyrainfallcausesdeepweatheringofsedimentaryrockandrapidand
activeerosionofweatheredmaterialsfromsteepslopes.
Thereareissueswithrespecttomobilityandconnectivityduetosteepslopesanddifficultterrain.
Alsogeographicallyyoungerhillareaswithhighseismicactivitiesmakesettlementsvulnerableto
disaster risks. In such areas regulating construction activity is of prime importance in planning.
Adherencetoseismiccodespecifictoseismicdesignofbuildingsistobemademandatoryforplan
approvalinhillareas.
In hilly areas, remarkable variations in culture and practices(including in many places tribal
culture and rich craft skill) exists between the settlements even within short distances as
comparedtothoseinplainareas47
Asterrainplaysacrucialroleinthehillyareas,settlementsaretobeondefinitehabitablelands
onlyandthus,itscarryingcapacityneedstobedeterminedforadequateplanning.
Theplanningstatusofhillyareas,inthepresentstate,isuncontrolledcreatinghaphazardgrowth
due to need for urbanisation, industrialisation (such as quarrying and hydro power generation)
and intrusion of commercial activities (such as tourism industry) on the limited land cover,
typicallyalonghillroutes.Thesetrendshasledtoencroachmentonforestlandandpreciousgreen
cover, construction on unsuitable lands and development at higher level of ridges, thereby
disturbingthenaturalecosystemandmakingtheareasmorevulnerabletodisasters.
The impacts on infrastructure are traffic chaos, inefficient service infrastructure and congestion in
primelocations,inadequatesocialinfrastructure.
The impacts on the environment are loss of hill and forests, degradation of stream system, landslide
and erosion, increase in natural hazard as earthquake, landslide and manmade hazards such as air
pollutionandroadwaynoise.

5.5.1.2. StrategiesforDevelopment
Hilly areas have various factors, which necessitate a thrust on adoption of an
integrated planning approach for conservation, preservation and planned
development.
Strategy1:LandConservationandOptimisation:
1) Environment Inventory/ Impact Assessment: For planning of the new settlements or
workingoutthestrategiesforthegrowthoftheexistingsettlements,itisnecessarytoconduct
detailedenvironmentalinventory/impactassessment.Theinventorywouldinvolvegeological
investigations,slopeanalysis,soil,floraandfaunaanalysis,climaticinventories,vulnerability
to natural disasters (such as earthquakes, landslides, floods etc.), etc. In addition to this the
aesthetic factors, cultural, architectural and historical heritage, scenic/ landscape value shall
alsobetakenintoconsideration.

46

PlanningCommissionReportofTaskGrouponProblemsinHillyhabitations.

47

ReportoftheEvaluationStudyonHillareaDevelopmentprogrammeinAssamandWestBengal,PlanningCommission,June
2010.

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2) Identification of Developable Area: Identification of developed area is calculated by
deducting the natural ecological area from the entire township jurisdiction. Jurisdiction may
belargetocontrolthesurroundingareas.Theclassificationoflandusesshouldbegivenonly
for developed area, while the rest of the ecological area shall be for conservation or
restoration.

HillTownDevelopableArea=HilltownjurisdictionareaNaturalEcologicalArea.

3) Landuseoptimisation:Keepinginviewthescarcityofgoodbuildablelandandalsothehigh
costoftheconstruction,itisnecessarytooptimizetheuseoflandbycalculationofcarrying
capacityandlandsuitabilityanalysis.Greenbuildingapproachshouldbeadoptedsuchasuse
ofcosteffectiveandappropriatebuildingmaterialsandtechnologies.
Strategy2:SustainabledevelopmentbasedonWatershedManagement:
Awatershed,alsocalledadrainagebasinorcatchmentarea,isdefinedasanareainwhichallwater
flowing into it goes to a common outlet. People and livestock are the integral part of watershed and
theiractivitiesaffecttheproductivestatusofwatershedsandviceversa.Fromthehydrologicalpointof
view, the different phasesof hydrological cycle in awatershed are dependenton the various natural
featuresandhumanactivities.Inhillyareasorwhereintensiveagriculturedevelopmentisplanned,the
sizeofwatershedrelativelypreferredissmall.48Watershedmanagements,i.e.riverbasinmanagement
alsoisimportantinthecontextofregionalplanningbothintermsofasasourceofwaterandsources
ofdisasterrisklikefloodetc.
DuringtheTenthFiveYearPlanofGovernmentofIndia,emphasiswasonwatersheddevelopmentand
ecologicalrestoration/preservationforthehillareasofAssamandWestBengal.InthesixthFiveYear
Plan, the Planning Commission had suggested achieving a balance between beneficiaryoriented and
infrastructural development programmes, keeping in view the vital importance of ecological
restorationandconservation.Thiscanbeachievedthrough49:
Betterwaterandlanduseandcontrolofsoilerosionthroughwatershedmanagement,
Afforestation, silvipasture development and replacement of annual crops with perennial shrubs
and trees and plantation crops in steep slopes and development of other high valuelow volume
cropslinkedwithprocessingandmarketing.
Rural and small industries and electronic and precision instruments industries can also be
promotedtakingadvantageoffavourableweatherconditions.
To understand watershed system data from latest and authentic sources to be collected (details
provided in Chapter 7), simulation models may be used to analyse (drainage pattern modification)
scenariosbeforeDevelopmentPlanPreparationandbuildingregulations.

48

http://oar.icrisat.org/3914/1/1._Watershed_Management_Concept.pdf.

49

http://planningcommission.nic.in/plans/planrel/fiveyr/6th/6planch25.html.

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5.5.1.3. ProposedLanduseStructureofHillTowns
Theproposedlandusestructureforhilltownsare:
Table5.5: Landusestructureforhilltowns
PercentageofDevelopedArea
LanduseCategory

Small

Medium

Large&Metropolitan
Cities

Residential

5055

4852

4548

Commercial

23

23

45

Industrial

34

45

46

Pub.&SemiPublic

810

810

1214

Recreational

1518

1518

1618

56

56

68

Balance

Balance

Balance

Transport&
Communication
Ecological
Source:

UDPFIGuidelines,1996.

Theecologicalarea(nondevelopablearea)giveninthetableaboveforHilltownsis
applicableforthehilltownjurisdictiondevelopableareaonly.Hilltowndevelopable
areashallbeconsideredasarea hilltownjurisdictionminusnaturalecologicalarea.
Where, nondevelopable area is defined as Earthquake/landslide prone, cliffs and
environmentallyhazardousarea,areasadjacenttofaultlines,areaswithslopehigher
than45o,floodplainandareasadjacenttomajordrainagelinesforgeneralguidance
and all environmentally sensitive areas. Land suitability analysis should be an
importanttoolinfirstprincipalapproachfordecidingonlanduseproportions.

5.5.1.4. Aspectsofplanning50
Theimportantaspectstobeconsideredinplanningforthehillyareasaresuggestedasbelow:
1. Thehillsidewithlessthan30slopeareingeneralstable.Therefore,buildingsites(temporaryor
permanent) should in general be located on hillside with not more than 30 45 slope. In areas
wheremostofthelandisabove30degreeslope,spatialregulationsshouldcontrolconstruction
activityonslopesabove30degreewithmaximumof45providedthatappropriatetechnologyis
used.
2. Themaximumheightofthebuildingtobefixed,suchasinStatesofMeghalayamaximumbuilding
heightpermittedis15metersonhills.
3. Flatlandisnormallynotavailableinhillyregions.Thehousesarerequiredtobeconstructedon
partiallyslopinglandmadeavailablebycutandfill.Itshallbenecessarytoprotectthehouseby
buildingretainingwalls/breastwallstoavoidlandslidesoccurringattimeofearthquakesorheavy
rains.
4. Cutslopeswithheightlessthan5mortwotothreestoreyheightsofresidentialbuildingsarein
general stable. For higher cut slopes special investigation should be carried out and details of
protectionworksshouldbeworkedoutandimplemented.
5. Site development in hilly regions consumes about 30 to 40 per cent of total cost of building
complex,thereforethefollowinginvestigationsshallbedonetoobtainthefollowinggeotechnical
parameters:

50

NBC, 2005 & IS 14243, 1995 b.

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a.

Type of Soil Rock: Weathered or intact, dip of bedding planes, drainage conditions, shear
planes,materialbetweenthejoints,tensioncracks,typeofplantation,verticalityoftrunksof
the trees etc. Cliff sides and spur faces need to be protected with appropriate technology
includingwherenettingwithtablesand/orblowingofRCCalongthewalls.
b.
Thicknessofoverburden,natureofsoilstrata,detailsofsoilmatrixetc.
c.
Estimationofshearparametersoftheinsitusoilmass,whichwillgovernthefailure.
d.
Drainage pattern of the area and permeability tests in the area to see the Drainage
conditions.
e.
Specificslipzonesinthearea,ifany.
6. Roadsandpaths:StreetorientationshallpreferablybeEastWesttoallowformaximumSouthsun
toenterthebuildings.Thestreetshallbewideenoughtoensurethatthebuildingsononesidedo
notshadethoseontheotherside.HillRoadManual(IRC:SP: 481998)shouldbereferredtofor
detailedguidelinesforplanningroadsinHillyAreas.
7. ProvisionsforLandslideHazardMitigation,SeismicMicrozonationandmitigationofLiquefaction
hazardshouldbeintegrated.
SpecificaspectsforNewHillTowns:
1. Thenewhilltownswillhavetofollowthebasicprinciplesofhillarchitectureincludinguseoflocal
building materials, slanting roofs, seismic bands in structures etc. so that they merge in cultural
landscapeoftheirregions.
2. Travellingtimefromnearesttowntothenewtownshipshouldbeatleastonehouror20Km.
3. Thenewtownshouldbeselfsufficientininfrastructureanditsareashouldideallynotbelessthan
40hectares.
4. Provisionoffacilitiesforadditional(and/orfloating)populationshouldbemade.
SpecificaspectsforBuildingsinHillyarea:
1. Aminimumclearanceof1.5mshouldbeprovidedbetweentoeofboundarywallandbuildingwall.
2. Ontheuphillsideofthebuildingonaslopingsite,thenaturalflowofthewatershallbediverted
awayfromthefoundations.
3. Theslopeofgroundallaroundbuildingshouldbenotlessthan1:50builtinsuchawaythatrain
waterdoesnotfindwaytoingressingroundexcessivelyandmovesawayquicklytosurfacedrains
orawayonadjoininghillsurfacetowardsnaturalstreams.
4. Aminimumof0.75mwideapronshouldbeprovidedallaroundthebuildingtoprevententryof
waterintofoundation.
5. Stepped terrace development and stepped storeyed building construction may be adopted for
offices,schoolsandotherbuildingcomplexes51becauseoffollowingadvantages:
a. Itresultsinleasthillcutting,disturbancetohillstabilityandalsoinleastdeforestation.
b. Cost of site development works, slope protection and other protection works is reduced
considerably.
c. Leastloadcomesonvalleyside,sodangeroffoundationfailuresisavoided.
6. Buildings to be provided with good drainage facilities to prevent excessive saturation of sub
surfaceformations.Constructionshouldnotobstructexistingsurfacedrainagecourses.
7. Buildings shall be located on the south slope of a hill or mountain for better exposure to solar
radiation. Atthe same time, locatingthebuilding on the leeward side mayminimize exposure to
coldwinds.
8. Appropriate solar passive methods, such as orientation, doubleglazing, trombe walls and solar
collectors,tobeadoptedtoachieveclimaticcomfortwithlittleuseofconventionalenergy.

51

(Refer conditions of development from IS 14243 Part 2: 1995 for details )

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5.5.2. PlanningforInnercity
Walled cities, old city, often central zones, which are also generally the core area of
the settlements, are referred as inner cities. These city parts have been the melting
pot for cultures with a history. Some of the old cities have been historically an
important trading centre, owing to its regional prominence, strategic location and
tradelinks.However,owingtoitsprosperity,someofthecitieswereunderthethreat
ofplunderandloot,whichreshapedthecityformoverthecenturies(asalsowalled
cities).Thesecitiesaremarkedbykeyfeatures,suchas,narrowroads(gullies),dense
builtup,oftenmixeduseofland,smallplotsizesoccupying100%groundforbuilt
up, social homogeneity, limited public spaces, which are usually congested
developments,incomparisontothemoderndaycities.

5.5.2.1. AssociatedIssues
Commonissuesassociatedwiththeinnercities:

Outmigrationoflocalresidentsandreleaseofresidentialspacesforcommercialuse,
Dilapidated buildings (as building owners only repair their buildings, while little or no
reconstructionistakesplace)andvacantproperties,
Narrowroadsnotplannedforvehicularmovement,
Unorganizedonstreetparkingatvariouslocations,
Noprominentpublictransportsystempresentinthecity,
Presenceofcottageorhouseholdindustriesandpollutingindustries
Prominenceofonstreetencroachmentsforinformalmarkets&hawkers,
Due to shift from residential to commercial land use, emergence of warehouses, godowns,
workshopsorothernoncompatibleactivities,
Oldwatersupplydistributionnetworkandinnonmetricsizes,difficulttomaintain
Repeatedexcavationofroadsdamagingtheundergroundutilitiesanddisturbedroadlevels
Overalllackofsocialinfrastructurefacilitiescomparedtothedensityoftheinnercities
Outcrop of Slum like conditions in the open areas surrounding historical properties or on old
recreationalopenspaces

5.5.2.2. AlternativestrategiesforRedevelopmentandRegeneration
Redevelopmentandregenerationaretheprimeplanningaspectsofinnercities.The
spacenormsanddevelopmentcontrolrulesthataregenerallyapplicabletoothercity
areas are normally not applicable to inner cities. The two alternatives for the
redevelopmentofaninnercity/oldcityarebasedonthestrategyofrevivalorinsitu
development.Theseare:
Alternative1ModificationinBuiltup:Inthisapproach,theresidentialbuiltupisadjustedwiththe
plot size and height from urban renewal point of view. The building density is redefined, usually by
increasingthepermissibleFAR/FSIaspermissiblebytheavailableinfrastructure.Itallowsthemarket
forces to reconstruct and redevelop the core city areas. The urban local authority may provide
supportinginfrastructurethroughbettermentlevyorcharges.Thistoolofredevelopmentisinpractise
in major cities like, Hyderabad and in some parts of the old Delhi (Shahajahanabad). Abutting road
width, plot sizes, accessibility and land use regulates the increased building height. This entails
amalgamationofplots.

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Thisalternativecanbeappliedfortheentireinnercityoritcouldbelimitedtoanidentifiedareasuch
as along the transport corridors as in the case of Old Delhi (Shahajahanabad) wherein a 500 meter
influencezoneofmetrorailispermittedwithasuitableenhancedFAR.52.
An added advantage of this alternative is amalgamation of residential units. To improve the
morphology of the core city, increase in unit size of the residential plots is also often necessary,
especiallywhereverysmallunitsarepresent.HigherFSI,for mediumsizeplots,evenmarginallywill
lead to amalgamation of small and very small plots by market forces. This will improve the urban
design and density of residential areas. However amalgamation of plots is to be carried out in lines
with regulations, which is to be defined based on the study of the area by the local authority. The
redevelopmentprojectofeastKidwaiNagar,NewDelhiisamongthefirstinitiativesasavisionproject
ofMinistryofUrbanDevelopment.
Alternative 2 Insitu Development: In order to conserve the characteristics of the inner city, this
alternative is adopted to maintain and revive the old city by different mechanisms. Unlike the
alternative1,insitudevelopmentmaintainstheheightandthebuildingfootprint,bycarefullyusing
TransferableDevelopmentRights(TDR).Thisalternativeisusedwheretheredevelopmentstrategyis
to maintain and encourage the heritage of the city and its housing morphology, as in the case of
Ahmedabad, where Tradable Development Rights are provided for the notified Structures, Buildings
andPrecinctsintheformofTradableRightCertificatebycompetentauthority.Howevertheauthority
controlsotheractivitiessuchas:
The Permissible Uses for the Heritage Areas and other buildings on the basis of its plot size and
floor.
Amalgamationand/orSubdivisionnotbepermittedintheZone,
The owners of these heritage structures and buildings are required to conserve the following
originalaspectsoftheirBuildings:
AllFaades
BuildingFootprint
CharacterofOpenSpacessuchascourtyards,khadki,streets,etc.
Theinsitudevelopmentalsodoesnotencourageroadwideninguntilnecessary,asitaimstopreserve
the building faade. Therefore parking spaces are created through community initiatives and by
consultative process. In case if it is not feasible to provide the required parking within the existing
buildingasperRegulations,theCompetentAuthoritymayrecoverfeesfordeficitparkingtodevelop
onstreetparking/parkinglots/parkingstructuresasapartofParkingManagementPlan.
The conceptof AccommodationReservation may be introducedfor social infrastructure whereby for
theprovisionofessentialpublicfacilitiestobehandedovertothelocalbody/government,theowner
ofpropertyisgivenfullpermissibleFARonthecomponentofpublicfacility.Vacantpropertiesshould
bepreferredforthispurpose.
The two alternatives of redevelopment to be chosen carefully and a combination of the two may be
usedforsuitablesubzonesinaninnercity.Howevertheredevelopmentstrategyistocoverthekey
aspecti.e.positivegrowthforthecitytobealiveableareaandalsoasaworkspace.Thereforeinmost
oftheIndianinnercities,mixedlanduseistoberecognisedaspermissibleandthereafterorganised,as
thecityisplannedontheconceptofwork&livewithinheritedbenefitofreducedtraveltrips.Theland
usestructuregiveninTable5.2couldbemodifiedandadjustedformixedlanduseasplannedbythe
local authority. To achieve this, regeneration is to be a part of the redevelopment, including socio
economic development, maintaining and encouraging commercial lifeline of the inner city for its
revival.

52

Source:ITPIarticlebyA.K.Jain,Commissioner(Planning),DelhiDevelopmentAuthority.

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5.5.2.3. AspectsofRevival
Whileplanning,plannersfacetheproblemsassociatedwithroadlevels,lyingofnew
pipelines,parkinginresidentialareas,decongestion,firesafetyissues,requirementof
roadwideningandloseofheritagefaade,provisionoflandforsocialinfrastructure
andsometimesreplanningundergroundinfrastructure.Corecityrevivalisbasedon
conservation,promotionandsolution.Thesecanbe:
1. OutShifting of polluting, noxious and hazardous trades / industries and delimitation of non
residentialnoncompatibleactivitywithpriority,
2. To decongest the inner city, proposal can be to develop counter centres in the form of
IntegratedFreightComplexesattheperipherallocationornewindustrialarea,
3. Iconic developments along the historically valuable areas and if space allows encourage city
levelrecreationalareastocreateapullfactortowardstheoldcity,
4. AnewsetofdevelopmentcontrolsforMixedUse,enhancedFARandTDRapplicability.Mixed
usetobemaintainedwithregulationsontheroadwidth,plotsizesanddensity,
5. Conservationandrestorationofhistoricalbuildings.ProvisionsforFARandTaxincentivesfor
thosewhohavetomaintainthearchitecturalcontrols,
6. Revival of cities by alternative public transport system technically modified for the road
networkandasperthetripgeneration,
7. Forparking,multilevelparkingisoneofthesolutionsforidentifiedresidentialpedestrian,
8. Incaseofnewdevelopmentorredevelopment,stiltparkingtobemandatory,
9. Adding street furniture can enhance street design. This is to facilitate public space for
communityinteractionandpromotepedestrianmovement,
10. In congested and bottle neck areas, solutions such as one ways and multilevel parking to be
adopted,
11. Alternativesolutionsofuseofsmallerfirehydrantsforverynarrowroadsforthefiresafety,
12. Tomeetthesocialinfrastructure requirement,reducingspacenormsupto5060%incaseof
spacenonavailabilityinthecorecity.Inordertocompensatefortheshortfallinvarioustypes
andlevelsoffacilitiesintheexistingbuiltuparea,suchfacilitiesmaybeprovidedincontiguous
/proximitytosectorsofnewdevelopment.
13. Multifunctionalusesshouldbeproposedtoencourageoptimumutilisationofexistingbuiltup
infrastructure.
14. ULBs to initiate developing database of the buildings, with attributes such as its age, height,
heritagevalue,revenuecollectionandotherpointsasdesirable.

5.5.3. Industrialcity
Citieswithmajorthrustinmanufacturingandproductionareindustrialcities.Sucha
focus on manufacturing was initially in the beginning five year plans after
independence, when the focus was on heavy iron and steel manufacturing.
Industrialisation again boosted after liberalisation in 1991 and encouraged
developingclustersforexportin2005bytheSEZAct,2005,whichprovidesforthe
establishment,developmentandmanagementoftheSpecialEconomicZonesforthe
promotion of exports. There were also schemes proposed for promotion of cluster/
park development by respective Ministries, while Small Scale Industry (SSI) was
definedunderMicro,Small&MediumEnterprises(MSMED)Act,2006.
Lately,GovernmentofIndiahasalsoannouncedtheNationalManufacturingPolicyin
year 2011 with the objective to enhance the share of manufacturing in GDP and

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increasing employment. Under the National Manufacturing Policy, the New
InvestmentandManufacturingZones(NIMZ)guidelineswasclearedbytheCabinetin
2011.

5.5.3.1. Associatedissues
Thefollowingarethekeyconcernsforindustrialareaplanning:

Industrialcitiesaremarkedbyhighintensityofnoiselevelsandairpollutionlevels,whichmakes
unsuitableforresidential.Also,improperdischargesofliquidandsolidindustrialwaste/effluents
areconcernsforhealth.Thesehazardproneactivitieshaveadirectimpactonresidentialareas,
Movementofheavytrafficfortransportationofrawmaterialandfinishedgoods,largeshareofthe
trafficloadontheroads(highways)&rail,
Lackofsupportinginfrastructuresuchaslogistics,warehousing,
Industriesfacepowerproblemswithrespecttounscheduledcuts,whichaffectstheproductivity,
especially in the continuous process plants. In order to make up for production loss, industries
havetooperateDGsetswhicheventuallyincreasetheoverallproductioncostandairpollution,
Lack of emergency facilities for fire safety and accidents, including medical infrastructure and
healthcare,
AbsenceofintegrationwithresearchanddevelopmentandICTinfrastructureinIndianindustrial
cities,
Unplannedinfrastructureprovisionsforvariousutilities,bothundergroundandonsurface,
Limitedspaceforindustrialplots,allowingnoexpansioninfuture.

Otherissuesassociatedwithindustrialtownshipare:
Issuesofcompatibilitybetweenprocessingandnonprocessingareas,
Lackofalternativeeconomicactivitiesleadingtostagnationofcitygrowth,
Someoftheindustrialtownsalsoshowhighrateofcrime.Thisisprimarilyduetosegregationof
classes, lack of recreational activities, lack of educational facilities for labour class, and to some
extentduetoaportionofthepopulationisbachelor,
Ignoranceonthepublictransportationintheindustrialareasforlabourandmanageriallabour,
Lackofhousingforconstructionlabour,whocontinuetolivewithinandadjacenttotheindustrial
citiesforyearsandlackofhousingrequirementsforlowincomelabourandinformalemployment.

5.5.3.2. Planningstrategies
Sitelocationoftheindustrialcityistheprimeaspectofitsplanning.Thesitingcriteriashallsatisfythe
environmental requirements mentioned by Ministry of Environment and Forest, which is with
sufficientbuffers,distancefromalargesizetownandagriculturalland(referChapter6forspecifics).
Land suitability analysis to be done for identifying zones for placing hazardous industrial (uses
including air polluting units and wind directions), other manufacturing industrial, compatible uses
alongsurfacewaterbodies,hamletsandsettlementsandplacingofnonprocessingareas.Forlocating
industrial zone, preference to areas with easy connectivity, provision for logistics and areas with
existingindustriestobegiven,alsowinddirectionstobeconsidered.
Zoningforprocessingandnonprocessingareasisrecommendedintheratioof40:60(especiallyin
SEZ).Thelanduseregulationshavetokeepinviewtherequirementsofboththeseareasaccordingto
the activities envisaged. Due to the health concerns and safeguards, provision of green buffers of
minimumof500metersbetweencompatibleandnoncompatibleshallbewelldefinedwhilezoning(as
giveninChapter6).

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Processingarea:maybecompriseofthefollowingactivities:
Industries/manufacturing;
Ancillary&MSMEs;
RetailTradeandcommerce;
Godownsandwarehousing;
Utilitycorridor;
Portandportrelatedactivities;
Airportandrelateduses,rail,roadandinlandwaterwayandspacesforparkingetc.;
Publicutilitiesandanyotheressentialservices;
Incidentalandotheractivitiesforsafetyandsecurity;andessentialresidentialforthesame;
Governmentaluse/activitiestomanagetheproperfunctioningofsuchprocessingareas.
InformationTechnologyandEnabledServices;
Within the processing areas, space for informal commercial, service industries and parking as per
industrialrequirementtobepaidattention.FordevelopmentofvarioustypesofparkslikeITparks,
Plastic parks, Biotechnology parks, Food parks, Agro park, etc. the policy and norms issued by
respective departments and guidelines available to be considered for planning. In absence of such
handholdingprovisions,casestudiesofthespecificindustrialsectortobereferred.
Clusterdevelopment:A cluster approach may be taken to optimise use or resources and minimise
costofproduction.Forexample,allworkrelatedtocomputers,IT,Communicationcanbehousedina
cluster at the outskirts of processing area to minimise heavy transportation within the city. Small
clustersrelatedtoITandcommunicationcanalsobeaccommodatedwithinthenonprocessingareaat
uniformdistanceforeasyreachofavailabilityofallservicesintime.
Nonprocessing areas: Areas other than processing area are to be planned for various uses and
activities, mainly as an industrial township including residential, commercial, recreational and
activitiesrelatedtosocialinfrastructurelikeeducation,healthcare,andsocioculturalfacilities.
Social infrastructure: The overall quantum of social infrastructure to be provided in the industrial
townshipmaybedividedintotwolevelsoffacilities,includingIndustrialcitylevelFacilitiesandLocal
LevelFacilities.
Landuse:Anindustrialtownshipshouldprovideforajudiciousmixoflanduses/activitiesinsucha
way that it is not dependant on the neighbouring or other city. The norms and standards for
distributionoflandusemaybeasunder53.

5.5.3.3. ProposedLanduseStructureofIndustrialtowns
Table5.6: LandusestructureforIndustrialtowns54
Sl.No.

LanduseCategory

PercentageofDevelopableArea

Residential

2025

Commercial

34

Industrial

PublicandSemiPublic

Recreational

1215

TransportandCommunication(includinglogistics)

1012

Waterbodies&Specialareas

Total

3035
68

Balance
100

Note:Theabovelandusedistributionisindicative,andmayvaryasperthesizeofSEZ,industrialtown,clusterdevelopment.

53
54

DraftSEZGuidelinesstudybyTCPOpresentedtotheParliamentStandingCommittee.
Ibid.

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5.5.3.4. Aspectsofplanning
The industrial town should primarily be a modern stateoftheart township having
worldclass infrastructure 55 , high quality living, working and entertainment
provisions, which are particularly suited to the flexible uses and space demands of
moderntechnologyandknowledgebasedactivities.
Infrastructure:
a.
AllindustriestoberesponsiblefortreatingtheeffluentgeneratedaspertheCPCBregulations,
for small and medium size industries infrastructure of Common Effluent Treatment Plants
(CETP) to be planned. Special care to be taken in cases where the effluent after treatment is
dischargedintoawaterbody.
b.
Solid waste disposal to be as per CPCB/SPCB regulation, specifically for hazardous waste
disposal,
c.
Tomeetthepowersupplypressure,alternativesourceofenergytobeexploredinthesiteand
situationtomeetthedomesticandcommercialdemandwithintheregion.
d.
Logistics and Parking requirement of industrial area as per the industrial area demand. The
transportationinfrastructure,includingRoWandspeeddesigntobeasperthenormsgivenin
thetransportationsectionofthisguideline.
e.
To ensure safety from hightension power line, reduce disruption and for increasing life,
infrastructure lines are to be well designed within the Row for infrastructure corridors, by
allocatingRightofUseasperregulationsofeachfacility.
Nonprocessingareas:
a.
To bring harmony in the society, integration of residential sectors (informal/low income
group/managerial staff/ pocketsof highincomegroup) shall be planned to reduce friction and
encourage interaction socially and economically. The locations of low income group to be in
proximity to the industrial and commercial areas to facilitate easy movement and reduce
pressureonpublictransportation.
b.
Publictransportationshallprimarilytargetintegrationofresidentialareaswithindustrialzone.
c.
Incaseofgreenfieldindustrialsites,fortheexpansionofexistinghamletsandsmallsettlement,a
buffer to be governed by respective authority (to be marked on the development plan after
calculatingtheinducedgrowthrate).Suchbuffersshallbeestablishedforrecreational,livestock
support and social infrastructure for the developments of the hamlets. Similarly buffers along
riversintheindustrialareasshallbewellprotectedfromanywaterpollutionbyallowingriver
frontdevelopmentswithrecreationalactivitiesbutwithoutpermanentdevelopments.
Spacenorms:
After liberalisation in 1991, several changes have taken place in the manufacturing and service
industries.Amongwhichthekeyshiftisfromlabourintensivetocapitalintensive.Hencethespacefor
industrial allocation is shrinking, while in service sector the work space norms are altering with the
FDIinIT/BPOsector.Workersspacenormsaretobeproposedbasedonthelatesttechnologiesused,
scaleofdevelopmentandinvestmentplanned.Theworkforceratioisasgivenbelow56:
1) Work force participation can be considered more than 75% of the total population in
industrialtowns,incasetheWorkForceParticipationRate(WFPR)isnotavailable.
2) TheIndustrialworkersdensitycanbe:100pphto125pph

55Worldclassinfrastructurewouldconsistof24X7hourwatersupply,uninterruptedpowersupply,efficientandpollution
freetransportandmodernsolidwastemanagement,seweragetreatmentandcommunicationsystems.

56

Source:BasedonUDPFIGuidelines,1996

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The ratio of employment to land allocation should be case to case specifically for the sector of
investment. With the advancing technology, the investment intensive developments will be altering
theemploymentandspaceratio.
Safeguards:
a.
Disaster management Plan for the industrial towns to be prepared at initial stages of planning
and integrated with the Development Plan. In case of hazardous industrial, an evaluation plan
shall be designed within the transportation network, to ensure evaluation by high speed
designedroads.
b.
Health care facilities and emergency services to be decentralised and located in the processing
andnonprocessingareasboth.
c.
Specificallyfirestationstobelocatedonthecornerplotgivingdirectaccesstosubarterialroads.
d.
Localwaterholesandrainwaterharvestingtankstobelinkedwithpressuredhosesasabackup
tofireextinguisher.

5.5.4. Heritage/Religious/Tourismcity
Heritage areas and cities with historical and tangible / intangible cultural values;
preserved, conserved and evolved by social interactions and changing economic
factorshavegivenshapetotourisminthesecities.TheWorldHeritageOrganisation,
Ministry of Culture, Ministry of Tourism have laid focus on the conservation,
restorationandpromotionofculturalheritage.Amongthesehistoricalcities,pilgrim
destinationsandcentresofreligiousvalueshaveemergedwithbroadbaseeconomic
activityoftourism.Closeobservationofthesecitiesrevelsthatthesecitieswerenot
designed for large population influx. Many of the religious towns with pilgrim
destination in India are located on the fronts of water bodies or in the fragile
ecosystems, (such as in the Himalayan ranges) where the balance between human
activities and the nature is sensitive issue. It is crucial to include the ecosensitive
area mapping, evaluation of carrying capacity (refer Chapter 7 for details) and
provisionofecotourisminplanningforsuchtowns.
Plannedtourismisamajorcontributortocitieseconomy.Tourismsectorprovidesa
high multiplier in employment generation. Tourist cities economy may almost be
totallybasedontourism.
As evolved from the Tourism 2020 Vision, UNWTO 2002, cities or places of high
populationdensitywheretripsaretakenbytravellersforleisureandrecreationcan
bereferredastourismcities.Besides,theheritageandreligiouscities,asmentioned
before,tourism cities/regions have developed from natural tourism, sports tourism,
adventuretourism,ruraltourism,andwellnesstourism,amongothers.TheNational
TourismPolicy,2002,MinistryofTourismrestsontheprincipleof:

Institutional framework may be based on participation between Government and the private
sector.Governmenttoprovidelegislativeframeworktoregulatetourismtradeandprivatesector
totourismrelatedactivities,
The deep rooted relationship of tourism and culture to be realised, and promotion of cultural
tourism should be encouraged focusing culture related (craft, art, performing art, living style as)
saleableproductsfortourist.
Greater emphasis on Ecotourism, focusing on natural landscapes and other environmental
featuresandalsovirgintraditionalruralenvironmentetc.

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Specialthrust may be impartedto rural tourismandtourism in small settlements, where sizable


assetsofourculturalandnaturalwealthexist.

Linking heritage, build and nature with tourism is important. Heritage sites both
global(worldheritagesites)andnaturalaretobeidentifiedandprotected.Suchareas
should be integrated with rest of the development based on rules and regulations
specified by World Heritage Centre, Archaeological Survey of India and State
Governments.Protectionofsitesofhistoricalvalueotherthanofficiallydesignatedat
local area level may be identified and integrated in the Regional/ Development /
LAPs.

5.5.4.1. Associatedissue
Someoftheissuesassociatedwithheritagecities,religiouscitiesandcitiesoftourism
potentialare:

Influxofthefloatingpopulationortourists,
Assessmentofareasofinfluenceoftourism/pilgrimage,
Pressureonfragile/sensitivetourismzonesandonecotourismsitesinthetouristcircuits,
Seasonalvariationofthelocaleconomicbase,
Unclearinfrastructureestimations&planningestimationsforthetourismtownsduetofluctuation
inthepopulationtobeserved,
Transportplanningissuesassociatedwithterrain,slopesandundulatedsystems,
Priorityfornonmotorisedtransportandpublictransport.
Conservationandimprovementoflandprofile,areasofscenicvalueandutilizationofsitefeatures
forstrengtheningtheambience,
Issuesinsolidwastemanagementespeciallyinreligious/pilgrimtowns,
Street vending activities in the popular religious and tourist sites and measures for their
rehabilitation,
Lack of documentation of heritage buildings and areas and application of general architectural
controlinhistoricalareas,
SupportinginvestmentinheritageassetsandgeneratingreturnsbyULBsorbyprivatesector,
Lack of social guidance in case of exposure to cultural variation, specifically in international
tourismdestination,etal.

5.5.4.2. PlanningStrategy
Atourismcityplanningstrategyistobebroadlybasedontheunderstanding

ForNatureinitsmanyforms,itsmountains,streams,sylvansurroundings;
ItsCultureasmanifestintheart,architecture,templesandpilgrimtowns;
ItsHistoryasseeninthearchaeologyofthetangibleandintangibleoutputsofanearlierera.

On 10th November 2011, UNESCOs General Conference adopted the new


recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape by acclamation, as an additional
tooltointegratepoliciesandpracticesofconservationofthebuiltenvironmentinto
thewidergoalsofurbandevelopmentinrespectoftheinheritedvaluesandtraditions
of different cultural contexts. The UNESCO General Conference recommended its
Member States to take the appropriate steps to facilitate its implementation and
further recommended that Member States and relevant local authorities identify

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within their specific contexts the critical steps to implement the Historic Urban
Landscapeapproach,whichmayincludethefollowing:

To undertake comprehensive surveys and mapping of the citys natural, cultural and human
resources;
Toreachconsensususingparticipatoryplanningandstakeholderconsultationsonwhatvaluesto
protect for transmission to future generations and to determine the attributes that carry these
values;
To assess vulnerability of these attributes to socioeconomic stresses and impacts of climate
change;
To integrate urban heritage values and their vulnerability status into a wider framework of city
development, which shall provide indications of areas of heritage sensitivity that require careful
attentiontoplanning,designandimplementationofdevelopmentprojects;
Toprioritizeactionsforconservationanddevelopment;
To establish the appropriate partnerships and local management frameworks for each of the
identified projects for conservation and development, as well as to develop mechanisms for the
coordinationofthevariousactivitiesbetweendifferentactors,bothpublicandprivate.

Through adopted strategies, such as of UNESCOs new Recommendation on the


Historic Urban Landscape, the local conservation approach is to be defined by the
local authority in lines with the broader prevailing policies in India. However
applicationofconservation,preservationandpromotionisnottobeequallytreated.
Withdetailedmapping,documentationandanalysis,zonesoftreatmentandextendof
tourism may be identified for sustainable development. Figure 5.8 explains the
integratedapproachtotourismcity/regionplanning.
HighValuezone:Thecorezoneofheritage,religiousoroftourismvalueisthehigh
value zone. This may consist of Natural Heritage or Built Heritage or both. Ethnic
value of the zone is of the highest level and is meant for preservation. The carrying
capacityofthisvaluezoneisthekeytothetourismpotentialofthecity.
Figure5.8: IntegratedapproachtoTourismCity/RegionPlanning

Natives Zone: This can be called as the residential zone of the locals or the
settlement.Thiszoneusuallyoverlapswiththehighvaluezone,asmentionedearlier,
due to social interactions and economic relationships. The economic benefits of
tourismaremeasurableinthenativezoneandimprovementinthequalityoflifeof
thelocalpopulationcanbeachievedthroughplanneddevelopment.Thiszoneisfor
conservation of the culture, valuable architecture, and for promotion of local
economy.Thiszoneissuggestedforinnovativestrategiestoprovidethecitywitha

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consistent image and therefore provide significant revenue and added value to its
residents.
Newinfrastructurezone:Thecityperipheryorouterzoneisthenewdevelopment
zone. This outer zone is for the new development to comeup to meet the tourism
requirements for the promotion of tourism and for city growth. By understanding
market trends through market analysis, demand and needs of the tourist is to be
assessed for the Tourism Product Development57such as experientialshopping,
festivals, emotionalcultural and historic resources, hospitality, physical
infrastructure, natural resources, restaurants, accommodation. In doing so, tourist
attraction spots and areas should be first made easily accessible. Depending on the
quality of such tourist area, certain experience based tourist trails can be planned
with adequate support of logistics. These new developments should be integrated
withtheinnertwozones.
The investment in this zone can draw from the various tourism infrastructure
development schemes by the State. Promotion of tourism as an economic activity,
alternative economic base including thrust in institutional & commercial
developmentsistobeadoptedinthiszone&ifallowableinNativesZonetoo.
Incaseoftourismregions/circuits,thenewinfrastructurezonemaybewidespread
andcanbeconsideredastherestoftheareaoftheregion/circuitoutsidehighvalue
zoneandnativeszone.Atourismcircuitwillhavevariousnucleusofhighvaluezone
beddedbythethreadofconnectivity.
Networks: The integration of the zones is to be strong with networks. Networks to
connect zones for accessibility between the two outer zones i.e. new infrastructure
zoneandnativeszoneshallhavestronglinkages,whilefromecosensitiveapproach;
the High Value zone shall have limited access (if possible pedestrian). For the
protection of the (built and natural) heritage from the adverse impacts of tourism,
adoption of greener tourism in this zone is the key. For improving external
connectivity up to the tourist city/ nodes inthe touristcircuit, alternative modes of
transportationshouldbepromoted.
Simplepracticalstepstoreduceadverseimpactontheenvironmentandpromotethe
benefits of tourism are through zoning. Local consultative approach to be taken for
tourismbasedlivelihooddevelopment,physicalinfrastructure,transportandtourists,
heritageandtourismconservation,environmentandtourism,anyother.However,a
generalisedlandusestructureisproposedbelow.

57

Tourism Product Development is a key factor in the overall experience demanded by tourists visiting cities or other types of
destinations. Understanding market trends through market analysis will help create a strategy that will match tourists
needs and demands.

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5.5.4.3. Proposed Land use Structure of Heritage/ Religious/ Tourism


city
Table5.7: LandusestructureforHeritage/Religious/TourismCity
Sl.No.

LanduseCategory

PercentageofDevelopableArea

Residential

3540

Commercial

57

Industrial

PublicandSemiPublic

1012

45

TransportandCommunication

1214

Recreational&waterbodies

1012

Specialareas(includingheritageandreligiousareas)

710

Total

100

Source: Modified based on the Proposed Land use Structure for Urban Centers and analysis of various case studies (including
Agra,Puri,Rameshwar,Hampi,Bodhgayaetc.)
Note:Theabovelandusedistributionisindicative,whichmayvaryasperthesizeofcityandtheeconomicbase.

5.5.4.4. Aspectsofpreservation,conservation&promotion
1. Inline,withtheobjectivesoftheMinistryofCulture,(RFD201314),planningforheritagecitiesto
includesafeguardofvariousformsofIntangibleCulturalHeritageandpromoteresearchthrough
financialsupporttoartistes,scholarsandculturalorganizationsandManagenationalmonuments
(Tangible Heritage) of India through Archaeological Survey of India, State Governments,
Universities,LocalBodies.
2. Special attention to be paid while planning for religious settlements along the river fronts and
waterbodies,whereemphasisistobelaidonconservationofwaterbodies,reductionofpollution
(due to incompatible activities), improper solid waste management and no alteration of the
watershedsystemofthearea.
3. Fortheapplicationoftheconservation,preservationandpromotioninvariouszonesoftreatment
andflowoftourist,thevariousplanningaspectscanbeadopted:
a.

Development plan should include historic & religious zones as special zones where all
Developmentshouldbepermittedbythecompetentauthority.
b.
Development controls to be based on ground realities with a separate section on urban
designapproach(suchasfaadecontrols)forimprovingaestheticsofthetownatlarge,
c.
Standardisation of Urban Design in the preservation and conservation zone including:
Typical elevation of the houses, Building height, Elevation colour theme, Building material
(Maintain and encouraging local building material use), Typical styles for column, bracket,
balcony,motifs.Whiletheusableareainsideshouldbefreefromregulation.
d.
Visibility of historical monuments and faade of the core zone to be maintained and
implementation of the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites & Remains Act, 2010
(AMASR).
e.
Signagestobespecifiedandpreferablyaestheticallyfitted,(asgiveninShimlaMasterPlan)
4. FormationofaHeritageConservationCommitteewithintheMunicipality/DevelopmentAuthority
fortheheritagecitiesissuggestedasanimplementationagencyforHeritagerelatedpoliciesand
plans.ThecelltoessentiallyconsistofPlanners,Conservationarchitects,Archaeologist,Structure
(retrofitting) engineer, urban designer, Property evaluator, representative from ASI, members
from revenue department, town planning department and local representatives (councillor). Its
roles&responsibilitymayinclude:
a.
StrictimplementationofCentral&StateGovernmentpolicies
b.
CarryoutHeritagerelatedstudies&surveys,categorisingheritagepropertiesandmapping

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c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.

Formulatespecialheritageguidelines
Formulate & implement Heritage related Development Control regulations and make
revisionsfortheregulatedzoneaspertheAMASRAct,2010
Anyheritagerelatednotificationandfines
Equipmentandinfrastructureformaintenanceoftheheritagebuildingstobeacquiredand
maintained
Conductingworkshops,awarenessprogramsandculturalactivities
Supportheritagepropertyownersinrepairandmaintenanceandsuggestionsforretrofitting
ofoldstructures

5. Thetourismplanmayalsoinclude:
a.
PromotionofHeritagewalkwayandRiverfrontwalkway,
b.
Landscaping&Upgradationofavailableopenspaces
c.
Revivalofurbanwaterbodies
d.
Seasonal tourism events such as Fair and Festivals to be organised as per the approved
GuidelinesforFinancialAssistancetoStateGovernment/UnionTerritoryAdministrations
forOrganizingFairandFestivalsandTourismrelatedEvents.
e.
Alternative modes of transportation to be encouraged in the tourism plan. Key nodes on
transportationnetworkstohaveTouristInformationCentre/kiosk.
f.
Marketing strategies of the tourism destinations to be welldefined including generating
revenuetothelocalpopulation,apartfromemploymentgenerationestimations.Onaverage,
Employment generation by tourism industry as direct and indirect is suggested for hotel
industry(perroom)bytheTourismPolicyis:
i. Directemployment:2persons
ii. Indirectemployment:3persons

5.5.5. Portcity
Acoastalcitywhoseseafrontisdominatedbyportandwhichhascomeintoexistence
primarily due to port activities is referred to as a Port City. Such cities represent
exceptional developmental potential due to their maritime identity. Coastal features
remarkably notable within the highlow tide line mark are mudflats, salt pans,
estuaries, creeks, mangroves, coral reefs, geomorphological features with patches
undersandandbeaches;scrubs,plantations,forestsandsometimeshorticulture.On
theotherhand,easyaccesstolargewaterbodyoftheportleadstodevelopmentof
coastal infrastructure, fishing activities, salt manufacturing, presence of industries
and even power plants, which provide an advantage to the City development by
means of bearing the benefits of its location. Besides the coastal advantages, these
sitesareconnectedtothehinterlandbyrailandroads.

5.5.5.1. Associatedissue
Thechallengeinthemanagementofsuchacityliesinthebalanceddevelopmentof
portactivities,environmentalprotectionandurbanisation.Keyissuesassociatedwith
portcityplanningare:

Challengetosustaintheportcitysactivitieswhiletransformingintomajoreconomiccentres.Some
oftheportshaveintensifiedportactivities,whichhaveresultedinincreasingpressureonlandfor
urbanisation.
Development of compatible land uses, activity areas and integration of port, industries, logistics
facilitiesandtheresidentialzones,withtheprovisionofadequategreenbufferandconnectivity.

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DecentraliseddevelopmentthroughprovisionofselfcontainedzoneswithinthePortCityregion.
Preservationofecologicallyfragileareas,waterbodiesandtheirbasins,CRZandforests.
IdentificationandplanningfortheCoastalRegulationsZoneandlandundertheHighTidelinesper
theCRZregulationsandmajoruseoftheavailablewaterfront.
Attemptsalongtheportlandtoreclaimlandimpactingthemarineecology.
Lackofalternativeeconomicactivitiesleadingtostagnationofcitygrowth.
Someoftheporttownsalsoshowhighrateofcrime.Thisisprimarilyduetosegregationofclasses;
lackofrecreationalactivities,lackofeducationalfacilitiesforlabourclass,andtosomeextentdue
toaconsiderablepercentageofthepopulationisbachelor.

5.5.5.2. Planningstrategy
Aportandacityusuallyhavetwodistinctentities,theportoperationalareaandthe
civilcity.Thesetwoentitiesmaybedifferentlyadministeredandmanaged,however,
undertheIndianPortAct(IPA),1908;thePortTrustisthenodalagencyfortheport
operationalareaand,attimesthecivilcitytoo.Insomecasesportcitymayhavethe
administrationunderthemunicipallaw,henceplanningforportcitymusttakeinto
accounttheconditionsofIPA1908.Planningfortheportforwhichthejurisdictional
areaiswelldefinedistobedonebythePortTrust.Whileplanningforthecivilcity
may be done by the Port Trust or by the Town and Country Planning Department/
relevantbodyoftheState.
Agrowthmodelingeneralisobservedforportcity,whichevolvesfromharbourtoa
heavy manufacturing base, eventually leading to a commercial growth centre. The
pressure on land impacts its demographic profile and land values. Also, industrial
development requires supporting residential development. Often ancillary and
service industries, warehousing facilities, logistic sector, truck and heavy vehicle
parkingareasbegincroppinguparoundtheindustrialdevelopment.Thisisthestage
wheretheunplannedproliferationofdevelopmentalactivitiesstartandastrongneed
forplanninginterventionisfelt.Slowlythesurroundinglandsrealestatevaluerises
andcommercialdevelopmentintensifies.Asaresultworkerpopulationincreasesand
forward linkages are established as services like institutional development,
development of financial institutions, corporate offices, BPO amongst others. As the
quality of infrastructure and service improves, eventually the tourism sector also
grows.
International and Indian port cities, viz, Mumbai, Vishakhapatnam, Shanghai and
Singapore reflect presence of industrial manufacturing base and other key
componentssuchascitysizeandpopulationdensity.LandusepatternofLosAngeles
and Vishakhapatnam, amongst others have inspired the planning for the non
industrial components of institutional support system and commercial economic
base.

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Figure5.9: MumbaiPortCityAnalysis

Source:

MMRDA.

ThestrategytoaccommodatealltheselfcontainedzoneswithinthePortCityregion
islargelydependentonthegeographicalandtopographicalpatternsofeachportcity.
However there are some fundamental similarities in the arrangements in their land
usepattern,whichhavebeendepictedinthefollowingdiagram.
Figure5.10:SuggestedPortcityPlanningStrategy

Source:

VariousPortcitycasestudiesreferred.

Port&Industries:Portsbringinavarietyoftradeandtheirancillaryactivitiestothe
immediate hinterland. Freight handling and industrial activities have inseparable
linkageswiththeport.

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The industrial and residential zones generally form two distinct parts of the port
cities with industries and manufacturing units clustering together in the area
immediatelysurroundingports.Withintheindustrialregion,theheavyandthelight
industries tend to be separated as well with the light industries being set up away
fromtheportbutwellconnectedwithtransportlines.InmanysituationsSEZscome
uprightaroundtheporttoattractindustryandformthemainurbancentreofthese
port cities. However, shipbuilding and saltpans are economic activities, which come
upalongthewaterfront.
Residential&Support:PortTrustcanallowthedevelopmentofresidentialbuilding
fortheemployeesoftheBoard,withinoroutsidethelimitsofportastheboardmay
considernecessary58.Migratorypopulationincreasesthedemandforhousinginthe
portvicinity,whichcreatesalargeportionofthelandusesharetoberesidentialand
commercialactivities.
Residences are generally planned in the port hinterland with strong connectivity.
Alongwithresidences,plannededucational/institutionalandcommercialareascome
up with a view to cater the urban population. Here it is important to note that the
commercial and institutional developments are as a complimentary requirement of
thethrusteconomicsectorsandthusneedtobeintegratedwiththeport&industries.
To avoid stagnation of port city growth, alternative avenues and economic
opportunitiesshallbeadoptedaskeystrategytakingadvantageoftheagglomeration
economy and accessto basic logistics, like transport, power and water. Institutional
infrastructurebaseprovidesskilledandsemiskilledlabourasperthedemandandas
a consequence, share of institutional requirement in port cities is slightly on the
higher side. With higher end services being provided, an institutional framework is
establishedthatprovidesahighlyeducatedandmotivatedworkforce.
Transportation: There would be two aspects for the development of transport
infrastructure in port cities. Firstly, the aspect of infrastructure development is the
establishment of interstate rail lines and airports that are created to accommodate
theeasymovementofcargoasthecapabilityofportincreasewiththesettingupof
moreindustries.
Secondisdevelopmentofapublictransportnetwork,whichinmostcasesconsistsof
raillinesaswellasmassrapidtransitservice.Thiscomesuptocaterthemovementof
the residential population to the commercial and industrial zones and forms the
backbone of the expansion and growth of the city. Also, the areas around these
TransportCorridorsgaininlandvaluesandvariouskindsofmixedusedevelopments
develop around it including commercial, institutional, theme developments,
investmentareas,andhospitalityandtourismactivitiesamongstothers.
A seamless transport infrastructure network should be developed throughout port
trustandlocalauthorityarea.Worksforroads,railways,bridges,andtunnelscanbe

58

MajorPortTrustAct,1963.

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executed within or without the limits of the port by the sanction of the Board of
Trustees.59
Environment and Sustainability: Marine ecosystems of the coast are very rich in
speciesdiversityandabundance.Itisseeninmanyoftheportcitiesacrosstheworld
that once industry and residence has been established, port cities set up
environmentalreservesandforestregionsandfishcultureareasbeginfocussingon
sustainabledevelopmentevenattractingtourism.Economicactivitiesrequiringwater
frontandconservationofthisfrontundercoastalregulationzoneshaveacombating
demand for the sensitive land. However, port trusts have power to carry out the
activitieslikereclaiming,excavating,enclosing,andraising anypartoftheforeshore
oftheportorportapproachestocarrytheportactivitiesproperly.60
This zone can be regulated through provision of buffers and protected areas
surrounded with compatible land uses of recreational, institutional and sparse
residential areas. Recreational zone can be developed with beaches, creek
development,parks,streetshoppingetc.toaccommodateurbanleisureactivitiesby
carefullyintegratingtheseaedgewiththecitybywelldevelopedpedestrianpaths.
Qualityoflife:Asmoreworkersbegintosettle,anurban,cosmopolitanenvironment
isgeneratedwhichattractsthecommercialandservicesectors totheseportaswell
as recreational areas. The development of these service sectors attracts a different
population of workers, service providers, henceforth emphasising on the need of
educationalfacilitieswithtechnicalinstitutes.
Forinteractionofthevariousclassesofthesociety,thelivingandrecreationalareas
aretobeintegratedandhencetheopenspacesandamenitiestobedecentralisedand
inclusivelyplannedforpublicintegration.Here,socialinfrastructurecantargetneeds
ofspecificstrataofpopulationtoensureimprovedqualityoflifeandeventuallysocial
security.
Maritime boards of the country in respective States are making effort to plan these
citiesasmultifunctionalandsustainable.Theideaistoprovideforinfrastructureto
attract&accommodateurbanpopulationandtoregulatedevelopmentinandaround
theseports.

59

Ibid.

60

Ibid.

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5.5.5.3. ProposedLanduseStructureofPortcity
Table5.8summarisesthelandusestructureforatypicalportcity
Table5.8: LandusestructureforPortCity
Sl.No.

LanduseCategory

PercentageofDevelopableArea

Residential

Commercial

Industrial(includingPort)

PublicandSemiPublic

Recreational(includingwaterfrontactivities)

1520

TransportandCommunication(includinglogistics)

1518

Primaryactivities&Waterbodies
Total

2024
34
2025
68

Balance
100

Source: Modified based on the Proposed Land use Structure for Urban Centers and analysis of various case studies, including
Singapore,Shanghai,LosAngeles,Vishakhapatnam,Chennai,Mumbai,Surat,Rotterdametc.
Note:Theabovelandusedistributionisindicative andincludinggreen,openspaces, waterfront activitiesarea,butexcluding
CRZareasandnondevelopableareas.

5.5.5.4. AspectsofPlanning
1. Planning of the port and its surrounding area to be based on the harbour

structure, port infrastructure, cargo capacity, facilities including jetties &


wharfs, Godown facilities and on the understanding of its backward& forward
linkages of the commodities of import and export. The following port
supportinginfrastructurecouldbeconsideredinaportcityasperrequirement:
i.
Encourage logistics infrastructure development by private or by the ULBs
to generate revenue. Logistics as a backward linkage benefits from port
&otherindustriesandgeneratesdirectandindirectemployment.
ii.
Separateraillinesandcargo/freighthandlingjunctionstobesituatedalong
theportanditsindustries.
iii.
Aerodrome,ifexisting,canbeextendedtocommercialoperationsaswell.
iv.
Duringplanning,provisionforpipelinesinfrastructureinand aroundport
citytobegivenattention
v.
Innovative and feasible alternatives of water supply infrastructure, using
techniquessuchasdesalination,reverseosmosistobeconsidered.
vi.
Appropriate disposal system for industrial effluents, sewerage and solid
waste.
vii. Area identification for Cyclone Shelters in view of cyclone proneness and
HazardLinedemarcation.
2. Sectors with focus on local raw material available from the natural resource
base have due advantage to bring benefit to the local economy. The areas
marked as high cropping intensity should be left as green/agriculture. Also,
Shipbuildingindustrytobeallowed/consideredalongthecoastalfront.
3. Institutional development is complementary and key support to port city
industrial development for sectors such as port & logistics. Skilled labour is

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required and crucial in light engineering for technical inputs. Similarly semi
skilled manpower is prime logistics requirement. Development centres for
skilledandsemiskilllabourshallbedevelopedasapartofinstitutionalfacility.
OfficespacesandInformationTechnologyisasupportsystemrequiredforhigh
endandvalueadditionintheentireindustrialzone.Besidesthis,Marinemining
& biotechnology may benefit from research & development. R& D can be
divertedtoaddvaluetoagriculture,pharmaceuticalsetc.also.
4. The National Environmental Policy, 2006 suggests actions to conserve coastal
resourcesexplicitlyconsidersealevelriseandvulnerabilityofcoastalareasto
climate change and geological events, in coastal management plans, as well as
infrastructureplanningandconstructionnorms.
Adopt a comprehensive approach to Integrated Coastal Management by addressing
linkages between coastal areas, wetlands, and river systems, in relevant policies,
regulation,andprograms.
Environmentrisksandmitigationplantobetakenintoconsiderationwhileplanning
theportcitydevelopment.
Sustainabilityoftheportisreflectedfromitsplanningasperlocalweatherconditions
andforEcologicallySensitiveAreas&Protectedareassuchas CRZ,MarineNational
parkandsanctuaries,specificallytakingintoconsiderationtheclimatechange.
Portcitydesignisgenerallyingridformation.Thisisduetoalignmentwiththewind
flow directions in the coastal areas as sea breezes and helps to reduce pressure of
cyclonicwinds,apartfromtheinfluenceofmangrovesonthecyclone.
5. In case of older cities where ports were set up many years ago, the aim is to
attain sustainable growth of the city by decongesting city centres while at the
sametimeallowinggreatergrowthinthecommercialandindustrialsectorsby
connecting these cities to smaller towns, suburbs and decentralized hubs of
activity.
Apartfromcoastalports,IndiaalsohasDryportsInlandContainerDepots(ICD)and
Container freight Stations (CFS) are alternatively called Dry Ports. ICD and CFS
provide warehousing space, temporary storage and handling equipment for import
and export load, as well as empty containers. Rail network should be provided for
strongconnectivitybetweentheportcitiesanddryports.

5.5.6. IntegratedTownship
Integrated Township can be defined as clusters of planned housing and commercial
businesses with associated infrastructure such as roads, schools, hospitals,
convenience shopping, water treatment plants and drainage & sewage facilities.
Integratedtownshipsmajorlyemphasiseoncreatingselfcontainedsettlementswith
workliveplay concept by integrating selected economic activities in
manufacturing/service/businesscategories.

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Integrated townships have more open areas with suitable economic size capable of
supporting businesses and homes, with adequate physical and social infrastructure.
Yet, these should be compact enough to enable high quality living environments
where it is possible to walktowork / school or take public transport for other
activities. Such townships are expected to offer the same or more comforts and
facilities as available in main city. Over that, it provides relief from congestion and
trafficbottlenecks.
Strategically,integratedtownshipsshouldbedesignedtohavezeroimpactintermsof
waste management and be adequately selfsufficient in terms of facilities for
education, health and other aspects of social welfare. Therefore, for sustainable
infrastructureandcontinuedoperationandmaintenance,newservicesectorssuchas
facilities management and integrated waste management shall be promoted in
IntegratedTownships.
States like Maharashtra and Rajasthan have policy (township policy) under which
new townships are being developed by private developers within the city limits on
UrbanisablelandundertheDevelopmentplan/Masterplanofthecity.Theminimum
areaofsuchtownshipsis100acresinMaharashtraand10hectaresinRajasthan.
Government of India has permitted Foreign Direct Investment up to 100% for
development of integrated townships including housing, commercial premises,
hotels,resorts,cityandregionallevelurbaninfrastructurefacilitiessuchasroadsand
bridges, mass rapid transit systems and manufacture of building materials.
Developmentoflandandprovidingalliedinfrastructurewillformanintegratedpart
of township's development. 61 Many States in India, following initiatives by
MaharashtraandRajasthan,havemadeattempttopreparepoliciesorschemesforthe
development of integrated townships. The brief based on study of relevant
policy/schemesofthreeStatesisbeingpresentedbelow.

5.5.6.1. StateIntegratedTownshipPolicies
To provide a framework for the development of townships and to regulate the
functionsoftheparticipantsinsuchdevelopments,theGovernmentshouldformulate
an Integrated Township policy / scheme, as has been done by the Governments of
Gujarat 62 , Himachal Pradesh 63 , Rajasthan 64 and Uttar Pradesh 65 . Such policies
institutionalise the role of the state government, developers and other state level
agenciesintheprocessofdevelopingIntegratedTownships.
Rajasthan:

61

GuidelinesforFDIinDevelopmentofIntegratedTownship,DIPPPressNote,2002.

62

GujaratIntegratedTownshipPolicy,2008(GUDC).

63

HimachalPradeshIntegratedTownshipScheme(Draft).

64

RajasthanTownshipPolicy,2010.

65

IntegratedTownshipPolicy,Housing&UrbanPlanningDepartment,GovernmentofUttarPradesh.

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The salient features of the Guidelines for developing Integrated Township provided by State of
Rajasthan66hasbeenlistedbelow:
Minimumareaforintegratedtownshipshallbe10hectares,
Thelocalauthorityshallacquirelandandmayallotfortownshipprojectstodevelopers,
Localauthoritieswoulddevelopsectorparksonthelinesofsectorroadsasperzonalplans,
Roadconnectivityshallbeensuredbythedeveloperandnoroadshallbelessthan40ft.,
FARfortheentiregrossareaofschemeshallbe1.2,67
Industrial Township shall have Facilities/Services/Open/Road area as 35%, further breakup of
whichisfacilitiesarea10%,openarea5%,areaunderroads20%
StreetLights:Thedistancebetweenpolesshouldnotbemorethan30meters,
ItismandatoryforthedevelopertoestablishandoperateSTPinthetownshipalongwithrecycling
oftreatedwastewater,
Horticulture&Plantation:Treesofheightsmorethanfivefeetshouldbeplantedwithminimumof
30treesperacreofthegrossarea,
Intownshipschemeslocalauthoritywillconstructcommunitywaterharvestingstructuresand
allwateroutletsanddrainageswillbeconnectedtothisstructure.Thisshallbestrictlyenforcedby
theLocalAuthority,
Thedesignofthetownshipshallaimatwaterandenergyconservation.

RajasthanTownshipPolicy,2010hasprovidedfollowingcategoriesofschemesfor
developingdifferenttypeoftownships:
Table5.9: RajasthanTownshipPolicy:TypesofTownships
TypesofTownships

Arearequirement

TownshipScheme

Morethan20hectares.

MiniTownshipScheme

Morethan10hectaresandupto20hectares

SpecialTownships(likeEducationalTownship,
IndustrialTownship,I.T.Township

SpecialTownships(likeEducationalTownship,Industrial
Township,I.T.Township)
Minimumareaof10hectaresinRIICO68industrialareas
insmalltowns.

Mixedlanduseonlandofclosed/sickunitsinsmall
towns

AffordablehousingprojectsonlandofsickorunviableunitsinindustrialareasofRIICOorelsewhere.
Source:

RajasthanTownshipPolicy,2010.

HimachalPradesh:
ThesalientfeaturesofHimachalPradeshIntegratedTownshipScheme69are:
More than 40 hectare of land in hilly terrain and above in 50 hectare in plains mandatory for
developingIntegratedTownships,
SpecialTownships(likeEducationalTownship,IndustrialTownship,I.T.Townshipetc.),withmore
than40hectaresofland,
TheTownshipshallnotincludelandundertheforest,waterbodies,landfallingwithin100mfrom
(havingtheleveltheHFL)theHFL(HighFloodLevel)ofthemajorlakes,damslandfallingwithin
200mfromtheofficialboundaryofhistoricalmonumentsandplacesofarchaeologicalimportance,
archaeologicalmonuments,heritageprecincts,otherrestrictedareas.
The Township scheme shall have a minimum of 15 meter approach road from any National
Highway, State Highway, Major District Road, Other District Road or any other road area
network/sectorroads/masterplanroads.

66

Notification,2007,GovernmentofRajasthan.

67

However,theindividualplotscanbeallowedmaximumFARasperBuildingRegulationbutnotexceeding2.4.

68

RajasthanStateIndustrialDevelopmentandInvestmentCorporation.

69

HimachalPradeshIntegratedTownshipScheme.

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Forglobaltownship,FARfortheentiregrossareaofschemeshallbe1.75.70

Policies at national level also provided guidelines for the Integrated Townships, as National Urban
Housing and Habitat Policy states that, Integrated Townships should generally be located on
comparativelydegradedlandexcludingprimeagriculturalareasgrowingmorethanonecropwiththe
helpofassuredirrigation.Also,theseshouldbelocatedatareasonabledistancefrommediumorlarge
towns.71Hence,massrapidtransportcorridorsshallbedevelopedbetweenexistingmediumandlarge
towns and new greenfield towns so that the relationship between industry and commerce is
developedtoanoptimumlevel.
Gujarat:
GovernmentofGujarathasproposedtoprovideprimarilyfivetypesofsupportactivitiesthroughthe
GujaratIntegratedTownshipPolicy,2008(GUDC)forfacilitatingtodevelopIntegratedTownshipsin
theState,whichareasfollows:
Provisionoftrunkinfrastructureandprocurementofland,
Establishment of a Green Channel for statutory clearances related to land, development
permissions,environmentalclearances,
Specialbenefits(tourism,education,healthprojects)underthepolicy,
Ratingofdevelopersandprojectstobemandatedbythegovernment.
Gujarat Integrated Township Policy has provided detailed town planning norms on land use
classification.Broadpercentagesoflandareaundereachusesubcategoryintheproposedtownship
are defined in the policy document. The land use categories prescribed in table below may be the
predominantuseoftheland,thus,thedocumentalsospecifieslanduseswhicharepermittedandthose
whicharenotpermittedinthelandusezone.Thecolourcodingdifferentiatesthemandatoryfromthe
recommendednorms.

70
71

However,theindividualplotscanbeallowedmaximumFARasperBuildingRegulationbutnotexceeding2.4.
National Urban Housing and Habitat Policy, 2007.

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Table5.10: SpaceAllocation/LandUseMix:PermittedunderGujaratIntegratedTownshipPolicy,2008
MinimumLandAreabyUseSubCategory
UseCategory
NO
Description
Name
1 Technology
Parks

Measurable
Parameter

Value

SuchasParksof
ITITES.
Biotechnology,
Apparel,Gems&
Jewelleryand
otherR&D
Institutionswith
AncillaryHousing
2 Education
Suchcomplexesof
Based
schools/colleges/
Townships Universities/resea
rchcentreswith
Hostelsand
AncillaryHousing
3 Medical/Healt Suchascomplexes
hcare
ofhospitals/
Townships healthresorts/
medicalcolleges/
medicalresearch
facilitieswith
Hostelsand
AncillaryHousing
4 Tourism
Related
Infrastructure

Proportionof
totalBuiltUp
Areausedfor
Economic
Activity

70%or
more

60%or
more

Proportionof
totalBuiltUp
Areausedfor
healthCare
facilities

60%or
more

Proportionof
totalBuiltUp
Areausedfor
Economic
Activity

70%or
more

5 Logistics
Parks

Proportionof
totalBuiltUp
Areausedfor
commercial
activity

70%or
more

Includesalllarge
scalelogistics
(freighthandling)
andtrading
activities
(wholesaleor
retail)with
ancillaryactivities
suchasoffice
complexes,

Whatdoes
thevalue
include?

Institutio
Functiona
Residential
Commercial Institutiona nal(Social Indust
Commercial
Road
lOpen
forEWS
forEWS
l
infrastruc rial
Spaces
ture)
Residential, 30%ofthe 10%ofland
5%ofland
1%of

10%ofthe 10%ofthe
Commercial, developed under
under
developed
developed developed
Institutional landarea
residential
commercial
landarea
landarea landarea
and
development
development
Industrial
tobe
tobe
areaas
allocated
allocated
specified
Residential

Residential 15%ofthe 10%ofland 5%ofthe


and
developed under
developed
Institutional landarea
residential landarea
development
tobe
allocated
Residential 15%ofthe 10%ofland 5%ofthe
and
developed under
developed
Institutional landarea
residential landarea
development
tobe
allocated

5%ofland
under
commercial
development
tobe
allocated
5%ofland
under
commercial
development
tobe
allocated

1%of

developed
landarea

10%ofthe 10%ofthe
developed developed
landarea landarea

1%of

developed
landarea

10%ofthe 10%ofthe
developed developed
landarea landarea

Commercial, 20%ofthe 10%ofland


Institutional, developed under
Residential landarea
residential
development
tobe
allocated
Commercial, 20%ofthe 10%ofland
Industrial,
developed under
Residential landarea
residential
development
tobe
allocated

5%ofland
under
commercial
development
tobe
allocated
5%ofland 5%ofthe
under
developed
commercial landarea
development
tobe
allocated

1%of

developed
landarea

10%ofthe 10%ofthe
developed developed
landarea landarea

1%ofthe
developed
landarea

10%ofthe 10%ofthe
developed developed
landarea landarea

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MinimumLandAreabyUseSubCategory
UseCategory
NO
Description
Name

6 Residential

7 MixedUse
Townships

Source:

entertainment
complexesand
AncillaryHousing
WhereHousingis
developedas
servicedplotsor
constructed
DwellingUnits
andiscontiguous
toanaccessible
economicactivity
Arealsoeligible

Measurable
Parameter

Proportionof
totalBuiltUp
Areausedfor
Dwelling
Units

Value

80%or
more

Whatdoes
thevalue
include?

Institutio
Residential
Commercial Institutiona nal(Social Indust
Residential
Commercial
Road
forEWS
forEWS
l
infrastruc rial
ture)

Residential

10%ofland 10%ofthe
under
developed
residential landarea
development
tobe
allocated

5%ofland 5%of the 5%ofthe


under
developed developed
commercial landarea landarea
development
tobe
allocated

10%ofthe 10%ofthe
developed developed
landarea landarea

10%ofland 10%ofthe
under
developed
residential landarea
development
tobe
allocated

5%ofland
under
commercial
development
tobe
allocated

10%ofthe 10%ofthe
developed developed
landarea landarea

1%ofthe
developed
landarea

Functiona
lOpen
Spaces

GujaratIntegratedTownshipPolicy,2008.

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5.5.7. PlanningforAffordableHousing
Provisionforaffordablehousingisacriticalprovisioninthecontextofsustainable
development. Affordable housing implies that the cost of the housing should be
affordabletothedisposalincomeoflowincomegroup,EWSandthepoor.Thecost
ofhousinghastwomajorcomponentslandandconstructionofhouses.Invariably
inlargecitieslandcostundesirablyisboostedmakinghousingcostunaffordablefor
the majority. Therefore, the critical policy in planning has to relate to adequate
supply of land, commensurate to the needs of the majority, not for demand of the
minority. This requires strong policy interventions to control rise of land price,
speculation and more importantly to increase supply of land for buildings in the
market. Some State initiatives have made efforts in policy and planning and
preventioninordertoaffordablehousingandthisinvolvesenactingregulationsof
reservationinhousingsupplyforEWSandthepoor.
CaseStudy:AffordableHousingNorms,Rajasthan
Sustainable human development cannot be achieved without adequate & affordable housing to the
vulnerable population residing in the evergrowing urban settlements currently. Affordable shelter
forthemassesorcreationofproductiveandresponsivehousingisacomplexamalgamofahostof
factors, which need to be tackled at all levels and in a synchronized manner. Department of Urban
Development, Housing and Local Self Government, Government of Rajasthan has developed
Affordable Housing Policy, 2009 after studying and dovetailing various housing schemes of
GovernmentofIndia.Withthehelpofthepolicyframeworkandtheinbuiltincentivesitisaimedto
motivatevariousagencies,includingprivatedeveloperstotakeupconstructionofaffordablehousing
forEWS/LIGcategoriesinvariousurbancentresofRajasthan.UnderthesaidPolicy,fivemodelsfor
developingAffordableHousinghavebeenadvanced.
ModelNo1:MandatoryProvisions
Table5.11: ProportionofPlots/Houses/FlatsinTownships/GroupHousingSchemes
S.No.

EWS/LIG

MIGAcategory

RajasthanHousingBoard

50%

20%

AllUrbanLocalBodies

25%

20%

Privatedevelopers

15%

Source:

AffordableHousingPolicy,2009,RajasthanGovernment

ModelNo2:Privatedevelopersonlandownedbythem
DeveloperstotakeupconstructionofEWS/LIGflatsonminimum40%ofthetotalland.
ThebuiltupEWS/LIGflatstobehandedovertoAvasVikasLimitedatpredeterminedprices.
SeveralincentivesareofferedlikedoubleofthenormalFAR,TDRfacility,waiverofEDC,Building
plan approval fee, conversion charges, 10% of the total land allowed for commercial use, fast
trackapproval
ModelNo3:Privatedevelopersonacquiredland
The land would be made available to the developer on payment of compensation (Land
Acquisitioncost+10%Administrationcharges).AllotherparametersasperModelNo.2.

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ModelNo4:PrivatedevelopersonGovernmentland
EarmarkedGovernmentlandtobeofferedfreeofcosttothedeveloperselectedthroughanopen
biddingprocess.ThedeveloperofferingthemaximumnumberofEWS/LIGflatsfreeofcosttothe
ULBwouldbeawardedtheproject.Atleast50%housesshouldbeofEWScategory.

The developer shall be free to use the remaining land as per his choice for residential purpose
with10%forcommercialuse.AllotherparametersasperModelNo.2.

ModelNo5:SlumHousing
ThemodelisbasedonvariousschemesapprovedbyGovernmentofIndiaandalsoonthelinesof
"MumbaiModel"ofslumredevelopmentwithprivatesectorparticipation.

The Policy document also provides for the tentative land use breakup, ground
coverage,timeperiodforfinishingproject,additionalFARandUseofTDRasaresult
ofadditionalFAR.
Integrated Townships developing in the periphery ofcities leadtoformation
ofenclavesoncecitygrowsandonceperipheralareaisaccommodatedincity
planning area. These enclaves can be assimilated with the city character and
structurebyrealisingneedsofthemaincity,promotingrequiredactivitiesin
thetownshipsanddevelopingpoliciestoaccommodateneedsofdevelopment.

5.5.8. MediCity
Theconceptofmodernmedicalcitiesorspecialhealthcarefacilitiesasbeeninplace
for some time, but has gained renewed interest, particularly in rapidly developing
economies.Theconceptofamedicityorhealthcitydefinesaclusterofhospitals,a
holistichealthcarecentre;alargehospitalsprawledacrossacresofland.Medicity
can be a new township or a zone of a city, where medical facilities are provided
releasingpressurefromthemaincityortopromotemedicaltourismattractingnew
sourcesofeconomicgrowth.
Medicities have been designed to be comprehensive in scope and incorporate
advancedtechnologiesandmedicalpractices.Thescaleandscopeofmedicalcities
usually demands an advanced level of care, both in technology and approaches to
createanattractivedestinationforcaretoensurethehighlevelofpatientvolumes
requiredtosupportsuchalargesetup.

5.5.8.1. Prerequisites
Incertaincircumstances,Medicitiesevolveinmetropolitancities.Therearemany
prerequisitesforthedevelopmentofMedicities,as:

Volume and demand: Medicities will always require a significant amount of patient volume
fromthelocalpopulationinadditiontothehumanresourcesandcommunityinfrastructurethat
acitysettingprovides.
Specialinfrastructure:Medicalcareandassociatedinfrastructureistobeprovidedinaplanned
manner. Medicities require highly specialised provisions for medical waste handling especially
hazardousbiowaste,accessibility,specialcaresystems,areareservationsandinfrastructure.

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Accessibility: Wellconnected site is required for Medicity development to provide ease in


accessibility. Parking provisions in a medicity is need based demand, focusing on institutional
setups.Accessibilityintoandaroundthemedicityshouldbehighlyfocusedontheaccessibility
ofdifferentlyabled/physicallychallenged/disabled.
Attractiveness: Medical cities need to offer several attractive attributes to attract foreign or
nonlocal patients to overcome the competition, having special care, area reservation, and
infrastructure facilities. Hotels, beautiful landscaping and country club, in order to attract and
promotemedicaltourism,shouldcomplementthemedicity.
Multiplefunctions:Medicitiesdevelopinginisolationdonotreachthematuritystage.Medical
citiesshouldalsoincorporatesubstantialnonmedicalservicestosupportthestaff,patientsand
visitors.Clearapproachandeffectiveforecastingmaynotbeeasyinsuchacase.
Poor management of health care waste potentially exposes health care workers, waste
handlers, patients and the community at large to infection, toxic effects and injuries, and risks
pollutingtheenvironment.Itisessentialthatallmedicalwastematerialsgeneratedfrommedical
cityaresegregatedatthepointofgeneration,appropriatelytreatedanddisposedofsafely.Bio
MedicalWaste(ManagementandHandling)Rules,2011ofMoEForlatestsuchguidelines,must
befollowedinMedicities(tobemonitoredbyCPCB/SPCBaspertheirregulations).

5.5.8.2. Planningstrategy
Medicitieshavetheabilitytosupportservicesthatarehighlyspecialized,services
that often struggle to see sufficient volume to support a business case. Medicities
need to have a strong higher and medical educational system and complete and
stable infrastructure to become an ideal location for specialisation. Due to the
interplay of economies of scale, the Medicity creates an interesting and
opportunistic intersection with medical tourism as mentioned earlier. For those
organizations providing medical tourism services, this integration extends beyond
theimmediatecommunityintotheglobalhealthcaredeliverysystem.

5.5.8.3. AspectsofPlanning
Since the most critical issue in Medicity is handling of hazardous medical waste,
essential facilities for the maintenance of Medicity has been prescribed by WHO,
theseare:

Effective waste reduction and waste segregation, ensuring that only appropriate wastes are
incinerated;
Siting incinerators away from populated areas or areas where food is grown, thus minimizing
exposuresandtherebyrisks;
A properly engineered design, ensuring that combustion conditions are appropriate, e.g.,
sufficientresidencetimeandtemperaturestominimizeproductsofincompletecombustion;
Construction following detailed dimensional plans, thus avoiding flaws that can lead to
incompletedestructionofwaste,higheremissions,andprematurefailureoftheincinerator.

ApartfromthewastehandlingoftheMedicity,thekeyaspectsofplanningare:
1. Access:Oneoftheprimarysuccessfactorsforproperhealthcaredesignisconvenientandeasy
access to and from the facility. This includes simple wayfinding, safe and weatherprotected
vehicular dropoffs, and convenient access to parking. Such access is often at odds with urban
planningtrends, which attempt to minimize the impactof vehiculartransportation in favour of
morepedestrianorientedbuildings.

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2. Transportationfacilitieslikebusroutes,metrorail,bicycling,andheliportsaresubstantialnon
medicalservicestosupportthestaff,patientsandvisitors.
3. ParkingDemands:Accesstopublictransportationandhousingwithinwalkingdistancecreates
opportunitiesforstaffandcertainpatientsandvisitorstoavoidvehicularcommutingaltogether.
Thisreducesthepollutingimpactofautomobilesandcanminimizethesizeofrequiredparking
facilities. It should be noted, however, that even with these reductions, hospitals would still
generally create a much higher parking demand per square foot than a typical urban office
building.72
4. Natural Environment: Environment Studies have concluded that a natural environment is
essential to create a genuine stateoftheart healing environment and reducing stress. Key
sustainabledesignelementssuchasroofgardens,courtyardspacescanminimizesthebuildings
heatisland effect, reduces demand on storm water systems, improves surrounding air quality,
andreducesnoisepollution.
5. Institutional: Integration of Medicity with research and development centres for biomedical
research,medicalcolleges,trainingcentresarenecessary.Also,financialsupportunitsshouldbe
created such as banks, ATM facilities, information centres, money transfers and exchange and
insurancecompanyoutlets.
6. CommercialSpace:Amixedusecommunityisdesirableinthisareabecauseofitsproximityto
the emerging Medical City. Therefore, Planned Development shall be encouraged, including a
mixtureofresidentialusetypes,hotel,retail/commercial,officeandairportsupport,commerce,
conservationandrecreationaluses.

Medicalcityshouldencompasstheconceptofselfsustainablecities/townships,ina
way as an ecocity is designed with consideration of environmental impact. They
shouldhavecleandisposalofwaste,wastetoenergy,renewableenergy,sustainable
transportationanddrainagesystem,zeroenergybuilding,greenroof,etc.

5.5.9. Sportscity
Sports City defines a large developed area with all kind of sports infrastructure
facility to support organising and hosting different sports activities in a city.
BasicallyitisaconceptofCitywithinCitywhichprovidesaregularseriesofsports
venues,sportsacademies,providingaplatformforyouthdevelopment,recreational
sports facilities, residential and commercial developments, together with all the
related amenities. The purposebuilt city is supported by service facilities like
schools, medical facilities for sportsmen and residents, hotels, community centres
andentertainmentvenue.Andeventuallyalltheeventsofsportscitytranslatetheir
activityintoeconomicgenerationforaneconomicallysustainablesportcity.

5.5.9.1. Associatedissue
Assportscityemergesasanewlydevelopedcityonthefringeorneartotheexisting
oroldcitysotheassociatedissuesaredifferentfromtheparentcity.Followingare
someoftheissuesassociatedwithsportscity:

Largevacantlandisrequiredfordevelopingsportscityfordevelopmentofsportsinfrastructure
andsupportingservices.Thisrequiredlandisonlyavailableneartotheparentcity,ifplannedin
advance.

72

CaseStudiesinDesignExcellenceforMidSizedUrban/InnerSuburbanMedicalCenters,byAIAPotomacValley

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Hugeandregularinvestmentforinfrastructuredevelopmentisabigchallengetosustainsports
cities. Major sports events are not held on a high frequency so maintenance and sustainability
duringleantimeisachallenge
Worldclassmoderninfrastructureandequipmentonlycanactasapullfactorofsportspersons
to come, participate and stay for long. Apart from development of sports complexes other
development including residential, commercial and logistic facilities (store houses) are to be
integrated.
Assportscitiesliesonoutskirtsofthecity,lackofconnectivityleadstoisolationofthesportcity.
Further,ifthesportscitylacksalternativeeconomicactivities,apartfromsportevent,itleadsto
stagnationofcitygrowth.

Apartfromsportscity,ithasbeenwidelyacceptedthatavailabilityoffacilitiesfor
sportsandgamesandrecreationisanessentialpartofhealthysociallife.Nowithas
been considered as an important parameter in determining the quality of human
development. Sports play a vital role in overall development of youth. As per the
latest All India Educational Survey conducted by the National Council for
Educational Research and Training (NCERT) more than 50 per cent of one million
plus schools in the country lackplayground facility.This problem is moreacutein
the urban areas where playing fields are facing serious threat from competing
demandsonopenspacesduetothelowpriorityattachedtoit.

5.5.9.2. Planningstrategy
The various factors associated with Sports city planning are strategic location,
sportsinfrastructure,supportinginstitutionalinfrastructure andmostimportantly,
skilledmanpowerinthesector.
InIndia,citiesandtownshipslikeGreaterNoidaSportsCity,MohaliSportsComplex
has emerged as a sports city. Now, New Raipur, almost 20 km from Raipur city is
developing as a new sports city by the Naya Raipur Development Authority in
easternpartofIndia.
Initial development of the sports city are to focus on infrastructure development,
specific to sports, recreation and connectivity to national level urban centres and
alsointernational.Successofthecityliesintheinstitutionalbackingtoprovidefor
highly specialised skill development, research and development and application of
evolving technologies in the field. To overcome the challenge of huge investments,
sports tourism, is among the alternative sources to sustain sports cities. The
management of such cities/townships shall strategies these with hospitality,
commercials,recreationalandentertainmentvenuesandproportionofitslanduse
upto1520%tobededicatedforsuchuses73.

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EvolvedfromGujaratIntegratedTownshipPolicy,2008.

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CaseStudy:NayaRaipurSportsCity
Totalarea: Proposeddevelopment is on130 acres, with itsprime use divided into recreational
andresidentialzoneasmentionedintheMasterPlanofNayaRaipur,2031.
Land use & Infrastructure: The project is conceived as an integrated development featuring
residential and commercial real estate components of the Greenfield capital city, complemented
byvarioussportsfacilitiesofinternationalstandards.Coreactivitiesofthetwoareasisproposed
to be well segregated, however, the supporting infrastructure and amenities to facilitate all the
prerequisitesforluxurylifestyleandawellequippedbaseforsportsrequirementsareintegrated.
Inclusiveplanning: As per the stipulations of NRDA, 10% of the total housing units need to be
developed as LIG and 15% of the total number of housing units need to be developed as EWS
housing.
Residential Zone: The core concept of this component is to be an integrated neighbourhood
development with easy access to social amenities and facilities like healthcare, education,
shopping,leisureandentertainment,sports.
Sports Zone: It is the prime focus area for development of sports city for providing sports
complexfororganisinggames,trainingcentre,practicevenueandcompetitionbasedenvironment
of sports at both national and international level. The sports zone would offer a wide range of
indoorandoutdoorsportsfacilities,mainlycomprisinganaquaticcentreandindoorstadiumtobe
development components. Sports centre, accommodation facilities for players along with other
support infrastructure such as food courts, restaurants, and open spaces form optional sports
components.
Otherfacilitieswouldbeparkingspace,publicutilitiesandamenities,hospitalandprimaryhealth
centreandshoppingcentreforlocalresidents.

5.5.9.3. AspectsofPlanning
Themajorplanningaspectsofthesportscityaredevelopmentofsportscomplexes,
training centres, medical facilities, good connectivity, residential and commercial
zones.Thefollowingsupportinginfrastructureshouldbeconsideredforsportcity:

Goodconnectivitywiththeexistingcitiesbyroadandrailfacilities.
Provisions for all basic infrastructures like water supply, storm water drainage and sewerage,
andiflocationallows,integratewiththeparentcity,inordertodrawbenefitsfromthecommon
infrastructure.
Share of open spaces and recreational land use to be significantly high and hence provision of
waterharvestingsystemforavailablelargeopenspacesinthesportscitytobemandatory.
Alternativeusesoftheopenspacetogeneraterevenueduringleanperiod.
To regulate the development activity of sports city an integrated institutional development is
requiredwithlocalbodiesandthesportsauthority.
To promote Sports Tourism, Sports City to boast major entertainment venues, community
centres,hotelsandalltherelatedamenitiesexpected

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It should be noted that the projections and allocation of infrastructure provisions
and space standards of a Sports city are different. Such as the per capita water
supply requirement should be planned for higher amount compared to the other
cities. Since it is a City within City, the building regulations in the development
planfortheseareastobeindividuallyprepared.Thelargelandrequirementinthese
citiesmustbecompensatedbysustainabledevelopmentandgreeninfrastructure.
GovernmentofIndia(GoI)hastakenintoconsideration,theimportanceofsportsin
daytodaylifeandhavemadepoliciesfordevelopmentofsportsatthelevelofGram
Panchayat,UrbanLocalBodyandschools.InitiativestakenbytheGoIareasfollows:

The National Sports Policy, 2001 of Government of India, ensures the provision of land and
development of sports for the educational institutions, Schools and Colleges in bothruraland
urban areas, where existing play fields and stadium, both in rural and urban areas, will be
maintained for sports purposes. The introduction of suitable legislation may be considered for
providing open areas to promote sports activities. Steps would be taken to evolve low cost
functional and environmentfriendly designs in this regard, so that maximum benefits could be
derivedthroughrelativelylowlevelsofinvestment.
The revised Twenty Point Programme, 2006 of Ministry of Youth Affairs & Sports provide for
substantially enhanced public investments as a fundamental requirement for the timebound
establishment of basic but extensive sports infrastructure along with trained supervisors and
organized sports management arrangements. This will include trained supervisors, inallrural
Panchayats and urban neighbourhoods throughout the country, leading to the
establishment of a National Sports Infrastructure Grid extending from the community
levelinPanchayatsandMunicipalitiestoBlock,District,State,MetropolitanandNational
levels,backedbysportsmedicineandsportssciences.
Apartfrom Sportscity,the Comprehensive Sports Policy, 2007 of Ministry of Youth Affairs and
SportsurgesStateGovernmentsandLocalGovernmentstoengagephysicalinstructorsinschools
and make available at least 1acreoflandforaprimaryschooland2.5acresoflandforan
upper primary school for use as playgrounds. In addition, it is also introducing and thus,
implementing major programme in urban areas, to financially support the Nagarpalikas and
otherUrbanLocalInstitutionstoprovidebasicsafeplacestoplayinpoorerareasinconvergence
with the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission. The Nagarpalikas will need to
providetheminimumprescribedextentoflandonarealisticbasis.Forthis,financialassistance
fromGoIshouldbeusedasseedmoneytoraiseothercontributionsfromthepublicandprivate
entitiesforthecreationofthebasicsportsinfrastructure.

5.5.10. DevelopmentbythePrivateSector
Multiple urban planning approaches that are available today pave way for the
development of planned settlements in greenfield and brownfield sites. The
information provided in this chapter about different cities and townships, state
policiesanddevelopmentapproachescanberealisedonthegroundofStatebacking.
Easy adoption of these opportunities by developers for developing planned and
better cities is possible once State Governments legislate and bring out township
policies.

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5.6.

SpecialAreaPlanning(cantonmentarea,restrictedareaetc.)

5.6.1. CantonmentArea
Cantonmentareaisaplaceorplacesalongwithboundariesinwhichanypartofthe
ArmedForcesisquarteredinaregionamidstcivilpopulation.Theoverallmunicipal
administration of the notified cantonments is the function of the Cantonment
Boardswhicharelocalbodiescomprisingdemocraticallyelectedrepresentativesof
theresidentsoftheCantonmentaswellasofficialmembersona50:50basis.
AsperTheCantonmentsAct,2006,theCentralGovernmentmay,bynotificationin
theOfficialGazette,declareanyplaceorplacesalongwithboundariesinwhichany
part of theForces is quartered or which, being in the vicinity of any such place or
places, is or are required for the service of such forces to be a cantonment for the
purposesofthisActandofallotherenactmentsforthetimebeinginforce,andmay,
by a like notification, declare that any cantonment shall cease to be a cantonment.
Also,section10(2)74statesthat,EveryBoardshallbedeemedtobeamunicipality
underclauseofarticle243PoftheConstitutionforthepurposesof
a.
b.

Receivinggrantsandallocations;or
ImplementingtheCentralGovernmentschemesofsocialwelfare,publichealth,hygiene,safety,
watersupply,sanitation,urbanrenewalandeducation.

Thus,theCantonmentBoardprovidesmunicipalservices,communityfacilitiesand
civic utilities including Water Supply, Sanitation, Streetlighting, roads, medical,
educational, and recreational facilities. The Board also strives, as per the National
Policy, for the environmental upgradation by planting trees, bushes, decorative
plants,etc.Thecantonmentboardalsoactasamunicipalityfortaxationpurposes75.
The structure of Cantonment Boards is being maintained keeping in view the fact
that the Cantonment areas were and are primarily meant to accommodate the
military population and their installations. The Cantonment is an area, which
comprise of both military and civil population. Thus, it needs to be covered under
theguidelinesofareadevelopmentplan,sothatthecivicservicescanbeintegrated
forthebenefitoftheultimateuser.

5.6.1.1. CategorisesofCantonments
AspertheCantonmentsAct,2006,thecantonmentsarecategorisedintofourtypes
based on the population residing within the cantonment limit. The categories are
mentionedintablebelow.

74

TheCantonmentsAct,2006.

75

Section10875,statesthat,ABoardshallbedeemedtobeamunicipalcommitteeforthepurposesoftaxationasperthe
MunicipalTaxationAct,1881(11of1881).

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Table5.12: CantonmentCategories
Sr.No.

CantonmentCategories

PopulationLimit

CategoryI

Morethan50,000

ii

CategoryII

10,00150,000

iii

CategoryIII

2,50110,000

iv

CategoryIV

Upto2,500

5.6.1.2. LandUseinCantonment
Land in cantonments is classified under the following major categories for the
purposeofdevelopment:

ClassA:Reservedforspecificmilitarypurposeandismanagedbymilitaryauthorities.
Class B: Reserved for military administration for central government departments, railways;
stategovernmentandagriculturalland;usedbyprivatepersonsonlease;Vacantland,managed
bythedefenceestateofficer.
ClassC:Occupiedorusedformunicipalpurposessuchasmarkets,roads,ranges,gardens,etc.it
ismanagedbythecantonmentboard.

Case Study of Cantonment areas


1. Delhi Cantonment Area
Delhi Cantonment Area is spread over an area of 42.97sq.km and municipal administration is
provided by the Delhi Cantonment Board (DCB), which works under the administrative control of
theCentralGovernment(MinistryofDefence).
RoleinInfrastructure:TheBoard(DCB)isresponsibleforsolidwastemanagement,drainageand
sewerage, street cleaning of the Delhi Cantonment area. While bulk water is supplied by Delhi Jal
Board,whichis100%,metered,waterisbeingmeteredinthedistributionsideatthepumphouses
forbulkconsumersbutnotatindividualhouses.TheDelhiJal Boardreceivesinbulkallsewerage
fromDelhiCantonmentBoardfortreatmentanddisposal.
Landfeatures:DCBregulatesdevelopmentintheCantonmentArea,locatedbetweentheairportand
the NDMC area, within which features such as the Cantonment low density bungalow layout with
extensive gardens, heritage buildings associated with the Armed Forces, and components such as
GopinathBazaarandSt.MartinsGarrisonchurchareconsideredtobeofsignificance.Somelocations
in the Cantonment Area have been proposed as a Conservation Area by INTACH in the 2000 List.
However,totalnumberofJhuggieshasbeenincreasedfrom1570 in1990to1700in1994inDelhi
CantonmentBoardarea.
(Source:CDPDelhi,Dept.ofUrbanDevelopment,Govt.ofDelhi
(http://jnnurm.nic.in/wpcontent/uploads/2010/12/CDP_Delhi.pdf)

2. PuneCantonmentBoard(PCB)
ThePuneCantonmentBoard(PCB)isconsideringlevyingtheLocalBodyTax(LBT)infuture,only
afterthePuneMunicipalCorporationabolishesoctroi.Theyhavealsostudiedtheimplementationof
LBTinAurangabadandhavefoundthereisahikeintheirrevenueandtheybelieveLBTisfarmore
feasible than octroi. Specific rule under Cantonments Act states that if the State abolishes a
particulartax,theCantonmentBoardsituatedinthatStatecannotlevythatparticulartax,limiting
PCBtoimposeit.

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5.6.1.3. Associatedissues
Some major and minor issues associated with Cantonment areas and their
developmentsare:
Cantonments were always considered as highsecurity areas. The Cantonment Land
AdministrationRulespermittedleaseoptionforcivilianpopulation,whoinitiallysettledwithin
thelimitofCantonmentforthepurposeofresidentialandcommercialactivity.Thesesettlements
aresupportsystemssuchasforcommercialactivities,manpowersupportasformalorinformal
andtofulfilsomeoftheinstitutionalrequirements.Withinthecantonmentareas,militarybased
development and civilian based development takes place. But the management of this
development faces the similar issues as those by the ULBs and development authorities. They
are:
Lack of sufficient funding due to dependency on the Central and State government policies and
permittedorabolishedfinancerevenues;
Lackofconsolidatedandappropriateplanningnormstoguidethedevelopmentofthecivilianareas;
The administration of Cantonments is a Union Subject, placed is List I of VII Schedule of the
Constitution.ThemunicipaladministrationofCantonmentsisregulatedundertheprovisionsof
the Cantonments Act, 2006. Cantonments cannot access development funds because the
Ministry of Defence and the army are in the nonplan sector. This isolation is the fundamental
reasonfor
Lackofintegrationwiththecityasawhole,due to paucity of funds and nonimplementation of
CentralandStateSponsoredSchemesistheCantonments.
However,aspertheCantonmentsAct,2006theBoardmayjoinwithanyotherlocalauthorityand
appointajointcommitteeforanypurposeinwhichtheyarejointlyinterested.
Inmostcases,cantonmentsdrawservicesfromthecitymunicipalityespeciallywaterandpower,this
creates a dependence on city municipality which needs to be planned carefully and with higher
standardsthanthatsetforthecity.
Therefore,fromtheplanningperspective,theintegrationofplanningbetweencantonmentareasand
theurbansettlementsaroundit,isweakorabsent.
Anotherimportantplanningissueisurbansprawl/outgrowths.Cantonmentareaswhichwere
originally located at a distance from the city are now within its limits or on its fringe which
creates planning problems related to security and planned urban development of the city. The
rapid urbanisation along urban settlements has engulfed the buffer zone between the two,
leadingto76:
Haphazard development in the surrounding areas of cantonment due to lack of Master Plan /
DevelopmentPlan,andlackoflandusespecifications,resultingintounplannedformalandinformal
commercialestablishments.
High waste generation in the surroundings of the Cantonment areas due to uncontrolled and
undevelopedopenspaces.SuchacaseisofAhmedabadCantonmentarea(duetountreateddisposal
methodsandlackofproperwastemanagementsystem).
IllegaloccupancyondefencelandduetouncertainGeneralLandRecords(GLR).Casesofoccupants
questioning the preparation of GLR particularly in the case of Secunderabad Cantonment have
arrived.

5.6.1.4. PlanningStrategies
The Cantonment Board has to execute a variety of duties and functions with the
limited availability of funds. The board is responsible to make provisions for
physical as well as social infrastructure. Construction, conservation and

76

TheTimesofIndia

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maintenance of public service infrastructure, historical monuments, public places,
etc.arealsounderthepurviewoftheboard.
Inthegivencircumstances,wherethedutiesandfunctionsofthecantonmentboard
and the municipality are similar, the integrated planning efforts shall address the
associatedissuesofthecantonmentareaplanning
Strategy 1: To control the overall area, in absence of land use specifications, which results into
shopping and commercial establishments in Cantonment residential areas calls for the need for
preparation of Development Plans/ Master Plan. Here, efforts shall be made by the Cantonment
Board or by Joint Committee for formulation of a detailed Development plan. The norms and
standardsgiven in this Guideline may be adopted with modifications for planning (specifically) the
civilianareasofthecantonment.Somespecificplanningaspectstoinclude:
a.
Publicutilitiessuchaswatersupply,sewagesystemsandtreatmentplants,telecommunication,
transportation networks and modes, power etc. can be integrated for ULBs and Cantonment
BoardforaneffectiveoutputbythepowersvestedintheJointCommittee.
b.
Socialinfrastructuresuchasstadiumandsportscomplex,workingwomenhostelcanbebuilt
within the Cantonment area for civilians. Recreational facilities shall be integrated with the
cantonmentareas.
c.
Commercial space development with proper guidelines will result in increment of the land
value,whichwillbebeneficialforCantonmentBoard.
d.
Integrationoftheexternalinfrastructurewiththecitylevelinfrastructurefacilities.
e.
More importantly, cantonment boards should make provision to include all sprawls or
outgrowthswithintheirjurisdictionareasforcontrol(building)andlandusemanagements77.
Strategy278:AnotherapproachforplanningexerciseisbyJNNURMscheme,whereComprehensive
Development Plan and Comprehensive Mobility Plan shall be prepared by the Local authorities in
consultation with Cantonment Board and approved by Ministry of Defence for raising the funds
under the scheme. As per norms, a city development plan projecting future development of roads,
water,sewerageandstormwaterdrainsandanindentofexistinglanduseandafuturelanduseplan
is mandatory to obtain grants under all Central scheme such as Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban
RenewalMission(JnNURM),RajivAwasYojana(RAY)andotherCentralgovernmentschemes.
Thisapproachofplanningthecantonmentistoensure:
Integrationintermsofconnectivityaswellasmassrapidtransportationsystem,
Suitablychosenlocationsofcitylevelinfrastructureforcantonmentandcivilians
Wellplannedeconomic/commercialbaseinthecantonmentarea,
Givingcityadirectiontoitsfuturegrowthtowardsorawayfromcantonmentasstrategized.
Another advantage is that the natural systems management such as rivers and flood control
measurescanbeclubbedforboththeCantonmentareasandCityarea,whichwillminimisethe
losses,as,witnessedforAmbalaCantonment.
City zonal plans on areas adjacent to cantonment board area should be finalised by the
Competent City Authority (Municipalities/ Development Authority) in consultation with
CantonmentBoardAdministration.
Control on the surrounding or immediate zonal plans to cater to the requirements of the
cantonmentarea.

77

IncaseofrequirementbufferzonesarecreatedforspecificdefencelandpocketsunderWorksofDefenceAct,1903.

78

Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) had introduced JnNURM in selected 76 cities of the country to provide funds on
Central/ State/ Local Body sharing basis to develop basic infrastructure of the cities keeping in view the modern day
requirementsofurbangovernance.Amongthesecities,thereare28CantonmentswhicharecolocatedwithintheseMission
citiesinthefirstphaseofJnNURM.However,theissueofsharingfundswithcantonmentboardsisstillunderconsideration
ofGovernmentofIndia.

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Case Study for CDP preparation in Cantonment area


The Khadki Cantonment Board (KCB), Pune is preparing City Development Plan (CDP) to
strengthenurbaninfrastructureandintegrateitwiththatofthePuneMunicipalCorporationwith
focusontrafficmanagementforbetterconnectivity,improvementinwatersupply,bettergarbage
disposal system, developing sewerage system in bungalow areas and implementing projects in
slumareas.TheconceptarisestogetmorefundsfromthestateandUniongovernmentsunderthe
JnNURMascantonmentboardislookingformorefunds.Thefirststepforgettingthefundsisto
prepare a CDP, which has to be approved by the state government and sent to the Union
governmentforfinalapproval
(Source:TheTimesofIndia.)
RevenuegenerationforImplementationoftheplan:
TheCantonmentBoardgeneratesrevenuethroughmeagreoctroi,taxesandotherfees,asexplained
in above sections. There are alternatives to increase this revenue. Cantonment area should
incorporateshoppingplaza/complex,whichwillencouragetheshopkeeperstopaymorerenttothe
board.Theboardcanalsoorganiseweeklymarkets,whichwillalsoencouragehighershoprents79.
Proper planning strategy as recommended above shall ease the establishment of paid parking,
theatres, cinemas, community hall, stadiums, gymnasia etc. that will also generate revenue. As per
TheCantonmentAct,2006,theseestablishmentsaretheresponsibilitiesofCantonmentBoard.

5.6.1.5. Recommendations
As per the Study of the National Commission to Review the Working of the
Constitution, recommendation on Empowering and Strengthening Local Self
GovernmentinCantonmentssuggestthefollowingreforms:

1. As Cantonments come within the legislative competence of the GoI under Article 246 read
withentry3ofListIoftheSeventhSchedule,thesolutionappearstobringtheCantonments
under the administrative control of the Ministry which has something to do with the local
selfgovernmentandcanaccessplanfinanceanddevelopmentalgrantsandloans.Itmaybe
worthwhile considering that the Ministry of Urban Development and Poverty Alleviation as
the most suitable Ministry for Cantonments. The Cantonments could be brought under the
MinistryofUrbanDevelopmentandPovertyAlleviation(nowMoUD)forplanningandbudget
purposesandthemechanismmaybeworkedoutasinthecaseof borderroadsandcoastal
guards which are not under the administrative control of Ministry of Defence but still
functionintheinterestofDefenceforceswiththeMinistryofDefenceandarmyhavingtheir
say.
2. The Cantonments may also be brought under the Part IXA of the Constitution so that they
cantaketheadvantageofthebenefitsofdistrictplanning,metropolitanplanning,thefinance
commission,assignmentoftaxes,duties,tollsandgrantsandaidsfromtheStateGovernment,
prepareplansforeconomicdevelopmentandsocialjustice,etc.
3. Structural constraints prevent the Cantonment Boards to access plan finance and
development funds available for municipal necessities merely because the Cantonments
comeundertheMinistryofDefence,anonplanarea.

79

TheDeolaliCantonmentBoard(DCB),TheTimesofIndia.

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SustainabilityGuidelines

SustainabilityGuidelines

OneoftheearlydefinitionsofsustainabledevelopmentwasprovidedbyBrundtland
Commission (1987) as: development that meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs80. The
Commissions report also states that in essence, sustainable development is a
process of change in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of
investments,theorientationoftechnologicaldevelopment;andinstitutionalchanges
are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human
needs and aspirations. Applied to the context of planning and development, the
mostfundamentalelementofsustainabilityistheutilizationofnaturalresourcesin
acityregionmostefficiently,mostequitablyacrosssectionsofsocietyandinsucha
manner that the resources are conserved and renewed for future generations to
meet their needs and aspirations. Integrating sustainability principles in planning
processanddevelopmentintodaysscenariohasbeenexplainedinthischapter.

6.1.

SustainableDevelopment

6.1.1. SustainablePlanning
Sustainablehabitatdevelopmentmeansachievingabalancebetweentheeconomic
and social development of human habitat together with the protection of
environment,equityinemployment,shelter,basicservices,socialinfrastructureand
transportation.Someoftheseparameters,whichcanbeconsideredinPlanningand
Development,are:
1. RegionalPlanning:Regionaldevelopmenttocontrolmushroomingunplannedandunorganized
growthoutsideMasterPlans/DevelopmentPlansalongwithintegrationoflanduseandtransport
resultinginsustainabledevelopment.
2. Compact city/ High Density Development: The National Mission on Sustainable Habitat81
(NMSH) recommends Low Rise and Higher Density Development to improve overall energy
efficiency of the area; such forms are less expensive and reduce pressure on travel demand.
ThereforeforplanningforhighdensitydevelopmentandforincreaseinFARinexistingbuiltup
area, rationality for the increase in FAR should be worked out apart from carrying capacity
analysisforthearea.
3. Redevelopment/redensification: Approaches shall be developed for Redevelopment / re
densification of existing urban habitat. Mixed land use, integrated and shared social space and
multiple transport options can be considered and implemented to reduce trip generation and
createefficienttransportsystem.
4. OpenSpaces:Emphasisshouldbegivenonvegetation/GreenBeltinurbanareastoreduceheat
islandeffects.

80

WorldCommissiononEnvironmentandDevelopments(TheBrundtlandCommission)ReportOurCommonFuture(Oxford:
OxfordUniversityPress,1987).

81

NationalMissiononSustainableHabitat,MoUD.

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SustainabilityGuidelines
Apart from the key parameters, the National Mission on Sustainable Habitat has
identifiedthecomponents,whichhavemajorroletoplayinbringingenvironmental
sustainability.Thesebasicnormsaredetailedoutbelow:

6.1.2. EnergyEfficiency
The Generic Energy Efficiency Guidelines are given below. These guidelines are
applicable for various categories of the building irrespective of their climate
location.

NonConventional/RenewalEnergy:AsperNMSH82,forresidentialbuildings15%ofthetotal
externallightingloadshouldbemetthroughrenewableenergyandforcommercial/institutional
/industrial/mixedusebuildings,5%ofthetotallightingloadshouldbemetthroughrenewable
energysources(solar,wind,biomass,fuelcellsandsoon).Also,thereshouldbedevelopmentof
city level Energy Efficiency (EE) and Renewal Energy (RE) policy actions for e.g. Nagpur and
BhubaneswarhavedevelopedandadoptedcitylevelEEandRE.

EnergyEfficientDesign: Efficient development control regulations and building byelaws from


thepointofviewofenergyefficientdesignshouldbeconsidered.TheGovernmentofIndiahas
developed the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC), which provides minimum energy
performance standards for energy efficient buildings, which can to be referred while designing
private and public buildings. The ECBC is currently a voluntary programme, with a number of
Statesadoptingitasamandatoryrequirement.

BuildingPerformanceCertificationandRatingSystem:AftertheintroductionofECBC,MoEF
suggested ECBC compliance while undertaking EIA for all building and construction projects
fallingundertheirpurview.ApartfromEIA,in2008,theMinistryofNewandRenewableEnergy,
theGovernmentofIndiahavelaunchedGreenRatingforIntegratedHabitatAssessment(GRIHA).
GRIHAratingstandardshavebeenincorporatedtheprovisionsoftheNBC2005,ECBC,andother
IndianStandardcodes.
Similar to the Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED) rating system
(practicedglobally),theLEEDIndiapromotesawholebuildingapproachtosustainabilityby
addressing performance in the following five areas: (1) sustainable site development, (2)
water savings, (3) energy efficiency, (4) materials selection and (5) indoor environmental

quality.ItalsomeetsthespecificationsofECBC2007,NBC2005,MoEFGuidelines,andCPCB
norms.

6.1.3. UrbanTransport

Transit Orient Development (TOD): Provision for TOD in cities should be considered, as it
encourageshighdensityandmixedusedevelopment,overallreducingthetraveldemandandin
turnreducingthecarbonfootprints.ThedetailsonTODareelaboratedinPhysicalInfrastructure
section.

Strengthening of Public Transport System: It can be done through a Combination of


Promotional, Regulatory and Fiscal Measures adopting green transport models. Report of the
SubCommitteeonUrbanTransport(NMSH)canbereferredforstrengtheningPublicTransport.

82

ReportofthesubcommitteefordevelopmentofNMSHparametersforenergyefficiencyinResidentialandCommercial
Buildings.

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Reducing Fuel Consumption per passenger: Significant GHG mitigation can be achieved
through modal shift by providing all arterial roads more than 25 m Right of Way to have
minimumof2.5mpedestrianpath(withtrees)andproperstreetfurnitureand2.5mbicyclepath
preferably in each direction as a mandatory measure. Where it is not possible to provide a
dedicatedcyclepathbecauseofrightofwaybeingnarrow,trafficcalmingmeasurestoreducethe
speedoftrafficto30kmphneedtobeadopted.
Figure6.1: SchematiccrosssectionofArterialRoads

Source:

CodeofPracticePart1,MoUD

RoadPassengerwithUrbanTransportsystems: Longdistance passenger travel needs to be


closelyintegratedintotheurbanenvironment,facilitatingfasttravellerfriendlymasstransport
accesstowelllocatedterminalsandairports.Carefullyplannedhighwaysystemimprovements
are required to reduce travel times for goods and passengers while improving road safety,
congestion,fuelconsumptionandemissions.

NonMotorised Transport (NMT) and Intelligent Transport System (ITS): NMT and ITS
should be encouraged. Provision of NMT is described in Physical Infrastructure section of this
guideline, which aims to reduce carbon footprint. Moreover, ITS should be implemented for
demand management and efficient implementation/enforcement of Public Transport. Provision
of Mixeduse along the streets to ensure public safety and attractiveness for pedestrians and
cyclistsandhenceaccommodatelargenumbersofpedestriansandstreetvendors.

NonConventional source of Energy: Changing to fuels that have a lower carbon footprint in
sufficient quantities would have a major impact on GHG emissions from urban transport. Also
alternativefuelbaseincitiestobepromotedtoreducedependency.Toachieveagoodqualityof
publicspace,treesneedtobeplantedtopreventHeatislandeffects.

Accessibility:Accessibilityofpublictransporttobeimprovedinordertoreducetraveldistance.
Table6.1: AccessibilityofPublicTransportatNeighbourhoodLevel
S.No.

Transportinfrastructure

DistancefromNeighbourhood

RailStationincludingmetros,monorail,lightrail

800metersor5minuteswalkingdistance

Busstops

400meters

IntermediatePublicTransport

400meters

Source:LEEDforIndia,2011,IGBC2011.

6.1.4. UrbanInfrastructure

Zero Waste and Waste Recycling: The urban waste should be recognised with a significant
proportionoforganicconstituents,whichhasemergedasaresourceforenergygenerationinan
environmentallysustainablemanner.Energyintheformofbiogas,heatorpowershouldbeseen
asabonus,whichimprovestheviabilityofsuchprojects.

Biomethanation,refusederivedfuelandincinerationarethemostcommontechnologies,
Pyrolysisandgasificationarealsoemergingaspreferredoptions,

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Incaseofexistinglandfills,bioremediationofwasteisrecommendedwithaviewtoreclaimtheland
andconvertorganicwasteintousefulproducts,whichwillresultinreductionoreliminationofGHG
emission.

GHG mitigation measures for wastewater: GHG mitigation measures includes collection,
conveyance and treatment of wastewater, reuse and recycling of treated effluent and gas
recovery from sludge as well as use of treated wastewater for artificial recharge of aquifers to
improvethegroundwaterpotential.

DecentralisedWastewaterManagementDecentralizedwastewatermanagementsystemsfor
community, housing complexes, and commercial buildings to be introduced for efficient
wastewatermanagement.Institutionalcapacityofall(ULBs)shouldbestrengthenedforeffective
implementationandO&Mofseweragesystem.

Low Water use and Ecological Sanitation It should be ensured that systems for the
management of human excreta incorporate conservation principles. Lowwater use toilets (35
litre) and ecological sanitation approaches (including ecological toilets), where nutrients are
safelyrecycledintoagriculturalmanualcanbepromoted.

RecoveryofEnergy The major benefits of recovery of energy from urban wastes is to bring
aboutreductioninthequantityofwasteby60percentto90percent;reductionindemandfor
land as well as cost for transportation of wastes to faraway landfill sites; and net reduction in
environmentalpollutionbesidesgenerationofsubstantialquantityofenergy.

Reducing need for pumping It would reduce the demand for energy, reduction of Non
Revenue Water (NRW), energy audit of all the water utilities, rationalization of water tariff to
reduce wasteful use of water, minimization of leakages, metering of all water taps and water
audit,etc.

6.2.

ClimateChangeMitigationandAdaptation

Climate change and its recent trends have a direct impact on all types of the
development.NumerousagenciesincludingNationalandInternationalagenciesare
carrying out studies and are supporting cities to develop, adopt and implement
sustainable and climate safe practices as per the National Action Plan on Climate
Change,GovernmentofIndia.
The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Working GroupIIs most recent
report (2013) paints a grim picture for India. Focus of the report is on food and
watersupplyandtheurgentneedforourcitiestoberesilient.Consideringthis,the
Regional Plans and Development Plans must incorporate the possible impact of
climatechangeondevelopment.Thefocusshouldbeonwatersecurity,useofheat
repealingmaterialsinconstructionandminimisingconcretesurfaces.Aspectssuch
as urban agriculture, vertical farming, water harvesting and preservation of all
environmentallyfragileecosystemsincludingwater,landscapes etceterashouldbe
incorporated. Specific actions should be included to address, among the other
mentioned components. It may be desirable to develop appropriate policies and
bring about effective legal and administrative control systems to deal with the
problem.

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CityLevelActionPlans,fore.g.KanpurandMeeruthavealreadyinitiatedtheeffort,
which is supported by WWF. Green building is also one of the approaches for
effectively reducing impact of climate change. It is combination of all the best
practiseprinciple.AbriefonGreenBuildingisgiveninsubsectionbelow.

6.2.1. GreenBuilding
Green building concept recognises sustainable development by effective
performanceinthefollowingkeyareas:
1. Sustainablesitedevelopment:thesustainablesitedevelopmentshallincludethefollowing:
a.
Efficientlanduse
b.
Habitatpreservationandrestoration
c.
Efficienttransportationmanagement
d.
Efficientuseoflocallyavailablematerialsandresources
2. WaterEfficiency:Itshallencourageuseofwaterinaselfsustainablemannerthroughreducing,
recycling and reusing strategies. The methods of rainwater harvesting can be integrated to
reduceloadofwaterrequirementontheurbanwatersupplysystem.
3. Energy Efficiency: It shall reduce energy consumption of infrastructural equipment through
energy efficient street lighting, motor pumps etc. On site power generation using various
renewable energy technologies and other clean fuels can also be integrated in the planning
system.
4. WasteManagement:Itshallencourageeffectivewastemanagementstrategiesbyfacilitatingthe
segregatingofwasteatsourceandpromotingreuseofproductsandmaterials.
5. IndoorEnvironmentQuality:For development of green buildings, the norms as suggested by
Ministry of Environment and Forest and various bodies such as LEED, GRIHA or IGBC may be
applicabledependingupontherequirements.

6.2.2. Climate Proofing Guwahati, Assam: City Resilience


StrategyandMainstreamingPlan
Housing and urban planning, urban infrastructure and services, informal
settlements and slums, poverty and livelihood, ecosystems and landuse and
emergency response capacity are the key sectors which are considered to
understand the present and future vulnerability of the city in context of climate
changeimpacts.

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Table6.2DisasterManagementstrategiesfordifferentsectors
Parameters

Strategy

Housing

Guidelinesforconstructionofbuildingsonslopes
StructuralstabilityofbuildingsinhillsandfortheentireGMA
Soilerosionandsedimentationcontrolforconstructioninnonhillareas

Ecologicallysensitiveurban
planning

Demarcateecosensitiveareasinthecityaslow/nobuiltupareas

Urbaninfrastructureand
services

Augmentthepipedwatersupplynetworkinthecity

Bringinprinciplesofclimateresilienturbandevelopmentbasedonenvironmental
parameterslikeconservationofnaturalecosystems,naturaldrainagepatterns
Augmentthewatertreatmentcapacityofthecity
WaterConservationandRainwaterharvesting
Developmentofaseweragesystem
Monitoringwaterqualityatdisposalpoints
Integratednaturaldrainageplanforthecity
Prepareandimplementastormwaterdrainageplan

DisasterResilience

Preventivehealthmeasures
Publichealthmanagementandsurveillancesystem
Emergencymedicalresponse

Source:

ClimateProofingGuwahati,AssamCityresiliencestrategyandMainstreamingPlan,SynthesisReport,TERI,2013

Based on sectorial analysis, recommendations have been provided for each sector,
which was focused on ecologically sensitive urban planning, management and
conservationofnaturalresourcesandefficientandecofriendlyurbaninfrastructure
andservices.
Figure6.2: ComponentsofGuwahatiClimateResilienceStrategy

Source:

6.3.

ClimateProofingGuwahati,AssamCityresiliencestrategyandMainstreamingPlan,SynthesisReport,TERI,2013.

CityBioDiversityIndex

CityBiodiversityIndex(CBI)isadynamicprocess,beingpreparedfordepictingthe
urban biodiversity status. This helps in evaluation, planning, improving and
reviewingthecityconditionsinbiodiversityperspective.TheUNEPandUNHabitat

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statesthatcitiesoccupy2%oftheEarthssurface,theirinhabitantsuse75percent
oftheplanetsnaturalresources.
Recognising the importance of biodiversity and healthy ecosystems for their
survival, cities should undertake initiatives to utilize and conserve their
surroundings efficiently. These actions can reach far beyond the boundariesof the
city, affecting biodiversity on a global scale. At the City level, Highresolution
satelliteimagesmaybeusedforidentifyingBiodiversityareas.
As adopted by Greater Hyderabad City for formulating Greater Hyderabad
BiodiversityIndex,thecitybiodiversityindexsystemhas92scoresystemwith23
indicators.TheseindicatorsaregiveninAppendixEofVolumeIIB.
International convention (Convention on Biological Diversity) and national
policies/plans (National Biodiversity Action Plan (NBAP), 2008) and documents
haveidentifiedInvasiveAlienSpeciesasthreattobiodiversity83.The12thFiveYear
Plan (20122017) has emphasised the need for a national invasive species
monitoring system to track the introduction and spread of invasive species and
advised that such a system should be linked to the State Forest Departments, and
field staff should be trained to collect information on invasive species. Invasive
species identification should not be limited to invasion in forests it should also
include invasion in aquatic and marine ecosystems, grasslands, wetlands and so
on84.Itissuggestedthatwhileimplementingaplanorprojectanddevelopinggreen
areasorgreenbuffers,localspeciesbeusedandtheStateForestDepartmentstobe
madestakeholdersinsuchprojects.

6.4.

EnvironmentPoliciesandStatutoryObligation

Key environmental policies and obligations to be observed while planning are


enlistedanddetailedinthissection,forreference.However,thelatestandupdated
versionsshallbereferredfromrespectivesourcesduringplanningandcompliance.

6.4.1. NationalEnvironmentalPolicy(NEP),2006
The NEP, 2006 encompasses an integrated approach to reduce the impact on
environment degradation on human life by taking proactive measures at various
fronts. These include regulatory reforms, process related reforms, substantive
reforms, enhancing and conserving environmental resources, prevention of land
degradation, desert ecosystem, and also various other factors that influences the
environment. The policy primarily focuses on ensuring that people who are
dependent on natural resources for securing their livelihoods from the act of
degradation should realize that a greater purpose will be served from the

83

IndiasFifthNationalReporttotheConventiononBiologicalDiversity,2014

84

TwelfthFiveYearPlan(201217),VolumeI

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conservation of resources which includes land, desert ecosystem, water, wildlife,
forests,wetlandsetc.
The National Environment Policy (NEP, 2004) is a response to our National
Commitmenttoacleanenvironment,mandatedintheConstitutioninArticles48A
and51A(g),strengthenedbyjudicialinterpretationofArticle21.TheNEP,2004
has been motivated by the above considerations and is intended to mainstream
environmentalconcernsinalldevelopmentactivities.

6.4.1.1. Reformssuggestedthroughthepolicy
Thestatementsofpolicyobjectivesaretoberealizedbyconcreteactionsindifferent
areasrelatingtokeyenvironmentalchallenges.Thereforethekeyreformssuggested
throughthispolicy,whichimpactplanningdirectlyorindirectlyare:

EnvironmentalandForestclearance
Economicprinciplesforenvironmentaldecisionmakingbycostingtheresources
Coastalareas:developmentactivitiesinthecoastalareasare regulatedbymeansofthecoastal
regulationzonenotification.
Environmentally sensitive zones: environmental sensitive zones may be defined as areas with
identified environmental resource with incomparable values which require special attention for
theirconservation.
Monitoring&enforcementofenvironmentalcompliance.
Use of economic principles in environmental decision making so that costs are associated with
thedegradationanddepletionofnaturalresources.
Enhancing and conserving environmental resources through production and consumption
practices with focus on regulatory and institutional reforms. Land degradation, forests and
wildlife,biodiversity,freshwaterresources;groundwaterandwetlandsarethethrustresources
ofconcern.
Pollutionabatement: ecosystems have some natural capacities to assimilate pollution; however
thesevaryconsiderablywiththenatureofthepollutantandtheecosystem.
Climatechangeissues

6.4.1.2. Strategicactionssuggested
Thereisrequirementofevolvingaflexiblepolicyframeworkwithabuiltinsystem
formonitoringandreview,andwherenecessary,revisethesameforfurtheruse.

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Table6.3StrategicActionssuggested
Actions

Strategy

Environmentalstandards

Environmental Standards refer both to the acceptable levels of specified


environmental quality parameters at different categories of locations (ambient
standards),aswellaspermissiblelevelsofdischargesofspecifiedwastestreamsby
differentclassesofactivities(emissionstandards).

EnvironmentalManagement
Systems,Ecolabellingand
Certification

Environmental Management Systems (EMS), such as ISO 14000, by requiring the


adoption of standardized environmental management practices, documenting their
actual use, and third party verification of the fact may significantly ease the public
burdenofmonitoringandenforcementofprescribedemissionsstandards.

CleanTechnologiesand
Innovation

Cleantechnologies,asdistinctfromendofpipeabatementtechnologiesminimize
thegenerationofwastestreamsintheproductionprocessesthemselves,ratherthan
treatingthewasteaftergeneration.Ingeneral,cleantechnologiesarelessintensive
in use of raw materials and energy, than conventional technologies, which rely on
pollutionabatementaftergeneration.Forthisreason,theymayalsooffersignificant
costadvantagestotheproducer.

EnvironmentalAwareness,
Education,andInformation

Enhancingenvironmentalawarenessisessentialtoharmonizepatternsofindividual
behaviour with the requirements of environmental conservation. This would
minimize the demands placed on the monitoring and enforcement regimes; in fact,
largescale noncompliance would simply overwhelm any feasible regulatory
machinery.

Partnershipandstakeholder
involvement

ConservationoftheenvironmentrequirestheparticipationofmultipleStakeholders,
who may bring to bear their respective resources, competencies, and perspectives,
so that the outcomes of partnerships are superior to those of each acting alone.
Implementing and policy making agencies of the Government, at Central, State,
Municipal,andPanchayatlevels;thelegislaturesandjudiciary;thepublicandprivate
corporate sectors; financial institutions; industry associations; academic and
researchinstitutions;independentprofessionalsandexperts.

Source:

TheNationalEnvironmentPolicy(NEP,2004).

6.4.2. EIANotification,2006
To ensure that the economic growth and development in our country is in
conformity with regulations for environmental conservation, the Ministry of
Environment&Forests(MoEF)hasnotifiedtheEnvironmentalImpactAssessment
(EIA) Notification, 2006. The EIA Notification 2006 has notified 39 developmental
sectors,whichrequirepriorEC.
MoEF has prepared EIA guidelines on each sector as identified by EIA notification
2006, which elaborates the procedure and mandatory requirements of EIA with
respect to the sector. For e.g. Manual on norms and standards for environment
clearance of large construction projects has been issued by MoEF to assist
developers to measure and quantify environmental impacts of proposed
construction, and derive mitigation options to minimise impacts. The manual also
enablesevaluationofconstructionprojectsbytheexpertappraisalcommittee.The
proponentmayusemitigationoptions,otherthantheonesdescribedinthemanual,
tomitigateenvironmentalimpactsofrespectiveprojects.

6.4.3. EnvironmentProtectionAct,1986
TheEnvironmentProtectionAct,1986(EPA)hasnotifiedvariousrulesunderEPA
forprotectingtheenvironmentwhicharechronologicallymentionedbelow:

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The Manufacture, Use, Import, Export and Storage of Hazardous MicroOrganism Genetically
EngineeredOrganismorCellsRules,1989
TheHazardousWastes(ManagementandHandling)Rules,1989
TheManufacture,StorageandImportofHazardousChemicalsRule,1989
SchemeofLabellingofEnvironmentFriendlyProducts(ECOMARK)
RestrictingcertainactivitiesinspecialSpecifiedareaofAravalliRange
TheChemicalAccidents(EmergencyPlanning,PreparednessandResponse)Rules,1996
TheBioMedicalWaste(ManagementandHandling)Rules,1998,asamendedtodate
TheRecycledPlasticsManufactureandUsageRules,1999
TheMunicipalSolidWastes(ManagementandHandling)Rules,2000
TheNoisePollution(RegulationandControl)Rules,2000
TheOzoneDepletingSubstances(Regulation)Rules,2000
TheBatteries(ManagementandHandling)Rules,2001

Along with the above rules as identified in EPA 1986, The Air (Prevention and
Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 and the NoisePollution (Regulation and Control)
Rules, 2000 should also be referred to formulate norms and standards while
preparingdevelopmentplanforacity.Thevariousstatuaryobligationsfordifferent
clearancesarementionedintablebelow:
Table6.4StatutoryObligationsofEnvironmentClearances
TypeofClearances

Statutoryobligations

EnvironmentClearances

AsperEIAnotification,2006

ForestClearances

AsperForestConservationAct,1980

GEACClearances

RulesforManufacture,Use,Import,ExportandStorageofHazardous
Microorganisms/GeneticallyEngineeredOrganismsorCells1989,underEPA1986

Source:

MoEFandothersources.

6.4.4. ForestConservationAct,1980
Duetorisingrateofdeforestationandtheresultingenvironmentaldegradation,the
Central Government enacted the Forest (conservation) Act in 1980. The Act
prohibitsthedeletionofareservedforestorthediversionofforestlandforanynon
forestpurpose,andpreventsthecuttingoftreesinaforestwithoutpriorapprovalof
Centralgovernment.ThesalientfeaturesoftheActaregivenbelow:

ThisActhasfiveSections,whichdealwithconservationofforests.
TheActwasenactedwiththetwinobjectivesunderSection2ofrestrictingtheuseofforestland
for nonforest purposes, and preventing the dereservation of forests that have been reserved
undertheIndianForestAct,1927.However,in1988theActwasfurtheramendedtoincludetwo
new provisions under Section 2, where it sought to restrict leasing of forest land to private
individuals,authority,corporationsnotownedbytheGovernment,andtopreventclearfellingof
naturallygrowntrees.
TheActempowersCentralGovernmenttoconstituteacommitteetoadvisetheGovernmentwith
agrantofapprovalunderSection2,asalsoonanyothermatterconnectedwiththeconservation
offorestandreferredtoitbytheCentralGovernment.
TheActprovidesforpunishmentofoffendersfromtheGovernmentDepartments,includingHead
oftheDepartmentsandAuthorities.

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6.4.5. Strategicplanfornewandrenewableenergysectorfor
the period 201117, Ministry of New and Renewable
Energy
Indiassubstantialandsustainedeconomicgrowthisplacingenormousdemandon
its energy resources. The demand and supply imbalance in energy sources is
pervasiverequiringseriouseffortsbyGoItoaugmentenergysupplies.Indiaimports
about 80% of its oil. There is a threat of its increasing further, creating serious
problemsforIndiasfutureenergysecurity.
The Vision of Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) is to upscale and
mainstream the use of new and renewable energy sources in furtherance of the
national aim of energy security and energy independence, with attendant positive
impactonlocal,nationalandglobalenvironment.

6.4.5.1. Objectives
Thekeyobjectivesare:
To promote deployment of gridinteractive renewable power
generationprojects
Topromoterenewableenergyinitiativesfor:
Meetingenergy/lightingneedsinruralareas
Supplementingenergyneedsinurbanareas
Supplementing energy needs in industry and commercial
establishments,and
To promote research, design and development activities at
premier national institutions and industries on different
aspects of new and renewable energy technologies and help
developmentofnewproducts
ToencouragedevelopmentofaRobustManufacturingIndustry
inRenewableEnergySector

6.5.

Table6.5Thrustareasofsolar
thermalsector
Costreductionin:
Incubating
technologies

Industrial
processheat
systems

Development
ofsiliconand
othermaterials

Technology
improvement
forvariouslow
temperature
applications

Efficientsolar
cells

Solarcooling

Thinfilm
materials

Concentrating
PVtechnology

Source:

StrategicPlanfornewand
renewableenergysectorfor
theperiod201117

EnvironmentalGuidelines

6.5.1. EnvironmentalGuidelinesforIndustries
6.5.1.1. Areastobeavoided85
In siting industries, care should be taken to minimise the adverse impact of the
industries on the immediate neighbourhood as well as distant places. Some of the
naturallifesustainingsystemsandsomespecificlandusesaresensitivetoindustrial
impactsbecauseofthenatureandextentoffragility.Withaviewofprotectionsuch
anindustrialsiteshallmaintainthefollowingdistancesfromtheareaslisted:

85

http://moef.gov.in/citizen/specinfo/enguin.html

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Table6.6DistanceofDifferentAreasfromIndustrialSite
S.No. Areas

Distance

Ecologicallyand/orotherwise
sensitiveareas

At least 25 km, depending on the geoclimatic conditions the requisite


distancehavetobeincreasedbytheappropriateagency.

Coastalareas

Atleast1/2kmfromHighTideLine.

FloodPlainoftheRiverineSystems

Atleast1/2kmfromfloodplainormodifiedfloodplainaffectedbydam
intheupstreamorbyfloodcontrolsystems.

Transport/CommunicationSystem

Atleast1/2kmfromhighwayandrailway.

Majorsettlements

Distance from settlements is difficult to maintain because of urban


sprawl. At the time of siting of the industry if any major settlement's
notified limit is within 50 km, the spatial direction of growth of the
settlementforatleastadecademustbeassessedandtheindustryshall
be sited at least 25 km from the projected growth boundary of the
settlement.

(3,00,000population)

Source:EnvironmentalGuidelinesforIndustries,MoEF.

6.5.1.2. Sitingcriteria86
Economic and social factors are recognized and assessed while siting an industry.
Environmental factors must be taken into consideration in industrial siting.
Proximity of water sources, highway, major settlements, markets for products and
rawmaterialresourcesisdesiredforeconomyofproduction,butalltheabovelisted
systems must be away for environmental protection. In such a selected site, the
followingfactorsmustberecognized:

Noforestlandshallbeconvertedintononforestactivityforthesustenanceoftheindustry(asper
theForestConservationAct,1980).
Noprimeagriculturallandshallbeconvertedintoindustrialsite.
Withintheacquiredsitetheindustrymustlocateitselfatthelowestlocationtoremainobscured
fromgeneralsight.
Land acquired shall be sufficiently large to provide space for appropriate treatment of
wastewaterstillleftfortreatmentaftermaximumpossiblereuseandrecycle.Reclaimed(treated)
wastewatershallbeusedtoraisegreenbeltandtocreatewaterbodyforaesthetics,recreation
andifpossible,foraquaculture.Thegreenbeltshallbe1/2kmwidearoundthebatterylimitof
theindustry.Forindustryhavingodourproblemitshallbeakilometrewide.
Thegreenbeltbetweentwoadjoininglargescaleindustriesshallbeonekilometre.
Enoughspaceshouldbeprovidedforstorageofsolidwastessothatthesecouldbeavailablefor
possiblereuse.
Layoutandformoftheindustrythatmaycomeupintheareamustconfirmwiththelandscapeof
theareawithoutaffectingthescenicfeaturesofthatplace.
Associated township of the industry must be created at a space having physiographic barrier
betweentheindustryandthetownship.
Eachindustryisrequiredtomaintainthreeambientairqualitymeasuringstationswithin120
degreeanglebetweenstations.

6.5.2. GuidelinesforRainWaterHarvesting
Rainwater harvesting is the technique of collection and storage of rainwater at
surfaceorinsubsurfaceaquifers,beforeitislostassurfacerunoff.Theaugmented

86

Ibid.

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resourcecanbeharvestedinthetimeofneed.Artificialrechargetogroundwateris
aprocessbywhichthegroundwaterreservoirisaugmentedatrateexceedingthat
undernaturalconditionsofreplenishment.
The functioning of ground water recharge units, various methods and techniques
havealreadybeenelaboratedinInfrastructurePlanningsection.MinistryofWater
Resources,CentralGroundWaterBoard(CGWB)hasissuedtheManualonArtificial
Recharge of Ground Water87, which can be referred for development of such
projects.

6.5.3. GuidelinesforBufferZones
Bufferzonesareareascreatedaroundtheconservationarea,oftenperipheraltoit,
insideoroutsidetoenhanceitsprotection.WithinBufferzones,certainlegaland/or
customary restrictions are placed upon resource use and/or is managedto reduce
the negative impacts of restrictions on the neighbouring communities. Based on
variousactivities,importantbufferzoneshavebeenidentifiedinTable6.7.
Table6.7: ListofBuffersforvariousactivities
S.No. Activities
1

Ecosensitivezones88

RecommendedBuffer
As per National Wildlife Action Plan (NWAP) 20022016, All identified areas
aroundProtectedAreasandwildlifecorridorsaretobedeclaredasecologically
fragileundertheEnvironment(Protection)Act,1986.
As general principle the width of the ecosensitive zone could go up to 10kms
around a Protected area as provided in the Wildlife Conservation Strategy,
2002.Incasewheresensitivecorridors,connectivityandecologicallyimportant
patches, crucial for landscape linkage, are even beyond 10 kms width; these
shouldbeincludedintheEcosensitivezones.
Further, even in context of a particular Protected Area, the distribution of an
areaofEcosensitiveZoneandtheextentofregulationmaynotbeuniformall
aroundanditcouldbeofvariablewidthandextent.

Railwayland

RoWincludesnodevelopmentzoneinitself.

Aviationrelated
infrastructure

AsperAirportAuthorityofIndia(AAI),thebufferzoneisapplicablewithin20
kmradiusofAirportontheheightofthebuildings,forwhich NOCisrequired
fromAAIforanyconstructionactivity.
Aviation imposes height restrictions only. Other DCR norms such as ground
coverage,setbacksetc.ofthelocalmunicipalityareapplicable.
Theairportshouldbe20kmawayfromgreenareasuchaswildlifesanctuaries/
zoos/ bird sanctuaries and should not have restricted activities such as
butcheries,sewageandnogarbagestoragearoundairports.

Communicationand
Transmissionfacilities
suchassatellite
towers89

Installationoftelecomtowersshouldnotbeallowedonandaround(100Meters)
the buildings where educational, religious and health care institutions are
functioning.

Industrialarea/SEZ90

NoSEZsmaybeplannedinthesensitiveareassuchastheforests,mangroves,
coral reefs, archeologically important sites, sensitive ecosystems, etc. A buffer
zoneof1000mshallbemaintainedfromsuchsensitiveareasandagreenbelt
withtreedensityof1000trees/acreshallbedevelopedinthesaidbufferzone.
Major settlements (of 3,00,000 population) to maintain a buffer of 5025 kms
from the settlement's notified limit and projected growth boundary

87

Availableatwww.cgwb.gov.in

88

GuidelinesfordeclarationofEcoSensitiveZonesaroundnationalparksandwildlifesanctuaries,MoEF,2011

89

DraftSpecialRegulationForInstallationOfTelecomTowersInUrbanAreas,GovernmentofOrissa,2013

90

SEZguidelines,IndustriesCommissionerate,GovernmentofGujarat

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

211

SustainabilityGuidelines
S.No. Activities

RecommendedBuffer
respectively.

Miningandquarrying91

BufferzoneincaseofMiningLease(ML)areaupto25haistobeconsideredas5
kmallaroundtheperipheryofthecorezoneandforMLareaabove25haanarea
10kmallaroundtheperipheryofthecorezone.

PetrochemicalandGas
industries92

NoGaspipelineshouldbelocatedwithin15.0metersofanyprivatedwellingor
any industrial building or place of public assembly in which persons work,
congregateorassemble,unlessitisprovidedwithatleast300mmofcoverover
andminimumcoverasspecifiedPetroleumAndNaturalGasRegulatoryBoard
Notification,2009.
NoGasorOilwellshallbedrilledatanypoint,withinaminimumdistance,tobe
prescribedbytheCentralGovernment,ofanyrailway,pipelineorotherrightof
way,surveyedroad,dwellings,industrialplant,aircraftrunway,buildingsused
formilitaryorpublicpurposes,orwithinthreekilometresofanymine,whether
activeorabandoned,unlessthespecialpermissionoftheCentralGovernmentis
obtainedinadvance.
About90mx90mbuffertobemaintainedalongtheactiveoilwells,petroleum
storagetanks,encompassingallthesafetynormsforprecautionsagainstfire93.

Heritagerelated
areas9495

Everyarea,beginningfromthelimitoftheprotectedarea/monument,extending
to a distance of 100 meters in all directions shall be the protected areas and
extendinguptoadistanceof200metersinalldirectionsshallberegulatedarea.
Theprotectedzoneisanoconstructionzone.
The building regulations in the regulated zone to be prepared by the Heritage
ConservationCommitteeinconsultationwithASI.

Naturalhazardzones
suchRiverfloodplains
andwaterbodies
includingwetlands96

Thebasicconceptoffloodplainzoningistoregulatelanduseinthefloodplains
torestrictthedamagecausedbyfloods.Floodplaincanbeidentifiedbasedon
last50or100yearfloodedareaofwaterbodiesorriver.Therecanbedifferent
considerations for regulations. For example, the area likely to be affected by
floods up to a 10year frequency should be kept reserved only for gardens,
parks, playgrounds, etc. Residential or public buildings, or any commercial
buildings,industries,andpublicutilitiesshouldbeprohibitedinthiszone.
In area liable to flooding in a 25year frequency flood, residential buildings
couldbepermittedwithcertainstipulationofconstructiononstilts(columns),
minimumplinthlevels,prohibitionforconstructionofbasementsandminimum
levels of approach roads, etc. In urban areas there should be double storeyed
buildings.Groundfloorscouldbeutilisedforschoolsandothernonresidential
purposes.

10

CoastalRegulation
Zone

Coastallandupto500mfromtheHighTideLine(HTL)landwardsideandastage
of 100 m along banks of creeks, estuaries, backwater and rivers subject to tidal
fluctuations is called the Coastal Regulation Zone, which is regulated for
developmentalactivities.

11

Manmadehazardzones
suchasradioactive,
chemicalandgas
treatment/processing
/distributionlines97

ChemicalIndustry
Thedevelopmentofbufferzonesallaroundtheindustryinaneffectivemanner
andestablishOffSiterespondingagenciesatanappropriatedistancefromthe
newinstallations.
NuclearPlants98
500Haisneededtobeinthecontrolofpowerstationasanexclusionzone.This
ismaintainedasavacantspaceanddevelopedasagreenbeltarea.
SterilisedZone: theplantassterilizedzonemaintainsAreaof5 kmradius.No
restriction is imposed by the plant on organic development activities of

91

ProformaForEnvironmentalAppraisalOfMiningProjects,MOEF

92

ThePetroleumandNaturalGasRules,1959

93

OilMinesRegulations,1984

94

ModelBuildingByelaws,TCPO

95

AncientMonumentsandArchaeologicalSitesandRemainsAct,2010(AMASR)

96

NationalDisasterManagementGuidelinesManagementofFloods,NDMA

97

NationalDisasterManagementGuidelinesChemicalDisasters(Industrial),NDMA

98

http://www.npcil.nic.in/pdf/news_12oct2011_01.pdf(NationalPowerCorporationofIndiaLimited)

212

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S.No. Activities

RecommendedBuffer
populationintheannulusbetween1.5and5kms.Administrativeactionsensure
thatthereisnoinfluxoflargepopulationinthisarea
PopulationRestriction:
Populationdensitywithin10kmradius:Lessthantwothirdofstateaverage;
Populationwithinsterilisedzone(5Kmradius)Lessthan20,000;
Populationcentreswithmorethan10,000personsmorethan10kmaway;
Populationcentreswithmorethan100,000person)morethan30kmaway;

12

Highdensity/high
activityzones

Areas around high density, mixed land use or residential areas along dense
commuters zones/ arterial and subarterial roads to be buffered with trees and
plantations,flexiblebuildingmaterialforattenuation/reflection.

Sources: Asgiven

6.6.

Environmental Guidelines for Planning Ecofragile


zones99

6.6.1. CoastalArea
AspertheCRZnotification,2011,coastallandupto500mfromtheHighTideLine
(HTL) landward side and a stage of 100 m along banks of creeks, estuaries,
backwater and rivers subject to tidal fluctuations is called the Coastal Regulation
Zone(CRZ).Forregulationofdevelopmentalactivities,thecoastalstretcheswithin
500 m of HTL on the landward side are classified into four categories and
restrictions have been imposed on construction activities in these zones. The
followingactivitiesareprohibitedwithintheCRZ:
1. Settingupofnewindustriesandexpansionofexistingindustries,exceptthosedirectlyrelatedto
waterfrontordirectlyneedingforeshorefacilities.
2. Manufactureorhandlingordisposalofhazardoussubstances.
3. Settingupandexpansionoffishprocessingunitsincludingwarehousing(excludinghatcheryand
naturalfishdryinginpermittedareas).
4. Setting up and expansion of units/mechanism for disposal of waste and effluents into the
watercourse.
5. Discharging of city untreated waters and effluents from industries, cities or towns and other
humansettlements.
6. Dumpingofcityortownwasteforthepurposesoflandfillingorotherwise,theexistingpractice,
if any, shall be phased out within a reasonable time not exceeding 3 years from the date of
notification.

6.6.2. EcoSensitivezones
Due to rapid urbanisation and its impact on protected zone, there is a need to
conserveprotectedareas.TheMoEFhasdevelopedguidelinesfordeclarationofeco
sensitive zones around protected areas, national parks and wildlife sanctuaries.
These guidelines provide the framework to states/UTs to develop specific buffer
zonesaroundNationalParks,WildlifeSanctuaries,Sanctuaries,importantmigratory

99

EcofragilezonesareFragileEcosystemssuchasCoastalecosystem,Desertecosystem,Mountainecosystem,Aquaticeco
system,Rainforestecosystem.

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

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SustainabilityGuidelines
corridors, etc. with a view of minimizing and preferably eliminating any negative
impact on protected areas and sanctuaries. The recommended procedure to be
adoptedbystatesismentionedbelow:

Prepareaninventoryofthedifferentlandusepatternsandthedifferenttypesofactivities,types
and number of industries operating around each of the Protected Area (National
Parks/Sanctuaries)aswellasimportantCorridorsbemadewiththehelpofrangeofficers.
A small committee comprising the concerned Wildlife Warden, Warden, an Ecologist and an
officialoftheRevenueDepartmentoftheconcernedarea,couldbeformedwhosefunctionisto
provide recommendation on requirement and extent of eco sensitive zone. Further, the
committee can also suggest the methods of management of zone and thematic activities, which
canbeincludedintheDevelopmentPlan/MasterPlanoftheregion.

6.6.3. WaterbodiesinUrbanAreas
WaterBodiesplaymultifunctionalroleinurbanarea.Itcanbethesourceofwater
for supply, landscaping, irrigation, fishing and ecotourism, which add values to
socialbenefits.Theycanalsobeusedtopreventheatislandeffectsandtoimprove
the microclimate in cities. For conserving the same, it is necessary to analyse the
hydrologicalsystemwithreferencetocatchmentbasinsforthewaterbodies.MoEF
haspreparedAdvisoryReportforConservationandRestorationofWaterBodiesin
Urban Areas which recommends State and ULBs to take initiatives in order to
conserve water bodies. While formulating Development Plan at city levels, steps
suggested by MoUD &MoEF in the above mentioned report could be adopted to
conserve and restore the water bodies in cities. One of the finest examples of
restorationoflakesinthefastgrowingurbanenvironmentistheKankariaLakein
Ahmedabad.

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CaseStudy:KankariaLake,Ahmedabad

RestorationoflakeinafastgrowingurbanenvironmentKankariaLakeinAhmedabad

KeyHighlights:
1. Sourceofwater:Surfaceandrechargeofgroundwater,fordrinkingandirrigation
2. Supportslivelihoods
3. Foodandnutrition
4. Actasfloodcontrolmeasures
5. RecreationSpot
6. Lakeasanaturalinfrastructureforclimatechangeadaptation

Source: MoUD presentation.

MoEF has also suggested to integrate identified projects on water bodies with
ProgrammessuchasNationalLakeConservationProgrammeandNationalWetland
Conservation Programme, JnNURM/ UIDSSMT, Ministry of Water Resources
programme for Repair, Renovation & Restoration (RRR) of Water Bodies with
Domestic/ExternalAssistancewhichareundertakenbyGovernmentofIndia(GoI).

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SustainabilityGuidelines
For conserving rivers, MoEF has taken up the initiativeand formed National River
ConservationDirectorate(NRCD).InitiativeshavebeentakenthroughvariousRiver
ActionPlanssuchasGangaActionPlanandYamunaActionPlan

6.6.4. Desertareas100
IndiaisapartytotheUNConventiontoCombatDesertification(UNCCD)andMoEF
is the National Coordinating Agency for the implementation of the UNCCD in the
country101, under the National Action Programme to Combat Desertification with
objectives:
Communitybasedapproachtodevelopment,
Activitiestoimprovethequalityoflifeofthelocalcommunities,
Awarenessraising,
Droughtmanagementpreparednessandmitigation,
R&Dinitiativesandinterventionswhicharelocallysuited,
Strengtheningselfgovernanceleadingtoempowermentoflocalcommunities.

DesertecosystemsensitiveplanningiscrucialatRegionalplanningstageincluding
mappingoflanddegradation,droughtmonitoringandindicatingcomponentsforthe
StateandDistrictDisasterManagementPlanfordroughtpreparednessandwarning
systemgroups.
AtDevelopmentPlanandlocalareaplanninglevelthekeyactionssuggestedinNEP,
2006asgivenbelowtobeconsidered:

Intensive water and moisture conservation through practices based on traditional and
sciencebasedknowledge,andrelyingontraditionalinfrastructure.
Enhancingandexpandinggreencoverbasedonlocalspecies.
Reviewing the agronomic practices in these areas, and promoting agricultural practices
andvarieties,whicharewelladaptedtothedesertecosystem.

6.6.5. Wetlands102
Wetlands, natural and manmade, freshwater or brackish, provide numerous
ecological services. They provide habitat to aquatic flora and fauna, as well as
numerous species of birds, including migratory species. Several wetlands have
sufficiently unique ecological character as to merit international recognition as
RamsarSites103.
Wetlands also provide freshwater for agriculture, animal husbandry, and domestic
use, drainage services, and provide livelihoods to fisher folk. Larger wetlands may
alsocompriseanimportantresourceforsustainabletourismandrecreation.

100

NationalEnvironmentalPolicy2006,MOEF.

101

Source:http://moef.nic.in/sites/default/files/Document1_0.pdf.

102

NationalEnvironmentalPolicy2006,MOEF.

103

The Ramsar Convention defines wetlands as, 'areas of marsh, fen, peat land or water, whether natural or artificial,
permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the
depthofwhichatlowtidedoesnotexceedsixmetres',therebygivingawidescopetotheterm.

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Wetlandsareunderthreatfromdrainageandconversionforagricultureandhuman
settlements, besides pollution. This happens because public authorities or
individualshavingjurisdictionoverwetlandsderivelittlerevenuesfromthem,while
thealternativeusemayresultintofinancialgainstothem.
A holistic view of wetlands is necessary, which looks at each identified wetland in
terms of its causal linkages with other natural entities, human needs, and its own
attributes.
KeyactionssuggestedinNEP2006atstateorlocallevelareasfollows:

Integratewetlandconservation, includingconservationofvillagepondsandtanks,intosectoral
development plans for poverty alleviation and livelihood improvement, and link efforts for
conservationandsustainableuseofwetlandswiththeongoingruralinfrastructuredevelopment
andemploymentgenerationprogrammes.
Formulateconservationandprudentusestrategiesforeachsignificantcataloguedwetland,with
participationoflocalcommunities,andotherrelevantstakeholders.
Formulate and implement ecotourism strategies for identified wetlands through multi
stakeholderpartnershipsinvolvingpublicagencies,localcommunities,andinvestors.
Take explicit account of impacts on wetlands of significant development projects during the
environmental appraisal of such projects; in particular, the reduction in economic value of
wetlandenvironmentalservicesshouldbeexplicitlyfactoredintocostbenefitanalyses.
Consider particular unique wetlands as entities with Incomparable Values, in developing
strategiesfortheirprotection.
Promotetraditionaltechniquesandpracticesforconservingvillageponds.

6.6.6. Hillyareas(furthertosection5.5.1)
Hilly areas have one of the most fragile ecosystems, which need to be conserved.
Therefore planning and development strategies for hilly areas shall be designed
with added sensitivity and stress on integrated development. The development
approachshallcomprisejudiciouslanduseplanningandsettlementplanning.Inhill
areas,thespacestandardsareaffectedbythefollowingandthereforethesefactors
shouldbeconsideredwhilesettingnormsinsuchareas:

Exposuretosunlight,degreeofslopesandaccessibilityintheformofdistancetravelled.
Minimumneedsofthepeopleandtheconservationprinciple.
Flexibilityinnormsandstandardstoaccommodateconditionsguidedbydifficulthillterrainand
itsgeology.
Workplaceandresidencerelationship.
Energyneeds.
Alternativemodeoftransportationcommunicationnetwork.
Communicationnetwork.
Mobileandemergencyfacilities.

On the same line, TCPD of Government of Himachal Pradesh has formulated the
NormsandStandardsfortheirstate,whichcanbeadoptedbyotherstatesforhilly
areas.SomeoftheinfrastructurenormsandstandardsaredetailedinInfrastructure
planningchapter.ForvisiondevelopmentofHimalayancities,NationalMissionfor

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SustainabilityG
Guidelines
Sustain
ningHimalaayanEcosy
ystemshou
uldberefeerredfrom theNation
nalActionP
Plan
onClim
mateChangge,Governm
mentofIndia.

6.7.

DisastterManaagementt

Disasteer means a
a catastrophe, mishap
p, calamity
y or grave occurrencee affecting any
areafro
omnaturallandmanm
madecausees,orbyacccidentorn
negligence,,whichressults
in subsstantial losss of life or
o human suffering or damagee to, and destruction
n of
property,ordamageto,ord
degradationofenviro
onmentandisofsuch
hanature and
magnittudeastob
bebeyond copingcap
pacityofth
hecommun
nityofthe affectedarreas.
As it iss clear from
m the defiinition disaaster may impact hu
uman habittat in a sev
vere
manner. Hence itt is evidentt to managge these dissasters at appropriat
a
te level so that
nimised.
impactcanbemin
AsperSection2((e)ofDisassterManagementAct,2005,disaastermanaagementmeeans
a contiinuous and integrated process of plann
ning, organ
nising, coo
ordinating and
implem
menting meeasures wh
hich are neecessary or expedien
nt for (i) prevention of
dangerrorthreato
ofanydisasster;(ii)mitigationorrreduction
nofriskofaanydisasteeror
itsseveerityorcon
nsequences;(iii)capaacitybuilding;(iv)prreparednessstodealw
with
anydissaster;(v)p
promptressponsetoaanythreateeningdisasstersituationordisasster;
(vi)asssessingtheeseverity ormagnitu
o
udeofeffecctsofanyd
disaster;(vvii)evacuattion,
rescueandrelief;(viii)rehab
bilitationaandreconsttruction"assshowninFigure6.3
3.
Figure6.3: DisasterrManageme
entCycle

Source:NaationalDisasterM
ManagementHaandBookforTraainingandCapaccityBuildingofC
CivilDefenceand
dSisterOrganisaations.

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PFIGuideline
es,2014.MinistryofUrba
anDevelopm
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6.7.1. Institutionalsetup
Theinstitutionalizedapproachfordisastermanagementinitiatedwhen4thFinance
Commission (FC) proposed the concept of Margin Money. Subsequently, 9th FC
suggested Calamity Relief Fund(CRF) now termed as State Disaster Relief Force
(SDRF). Further, 11th FC recommended establishment of National Calamity
Contingency Fund(NCCF) now termed as National Disaster Relief Force(NDRF).
The institutional and policy mechanisms for disaster to carry out response, relief
and rehabilitation have been well established since independence. NDMA has
prepared various Guidelines for the Management of different types of disasters
including,naturalandmanmade,toassisttheGoIMinistriesandDepartments,State
GovernmentsandotheragenciestoprepareDisasterManagement(DM)Plans.The
Central Relief Commissioner (CRC) in the Ministry of Home Affairs is the nodal
officer to coordinate the relief operations for natural disasters. The CRC in the
Ministry of Home Affairs is the Chairman of the Crisis Management Group (CMG)
whose primary function is to review the contingency plans formulated by various
Ministries / Departments / Organizations in their respective sectors; provide
measuresandcoordinateamongcentralandstateministries.
PostDisasterManagement:TheNationalCrisisManagementCommittee(NCMC)set
upbyMinistryofHomeAffairs,GovernmentofIndiathatgivesdirectiontotheCMG.
NCMC can give directions to any Ministry/Department/Organization for specific
actionneededformeetingthecrisissituation.Thesemechanismsarebasedonpost
disaster relief and rehabilitation and have proved to be robust and effective
mechanismsinaddressingitsrequirements.
However,inordertofurtherinstitutionalizethenewapproach,theGovernmentof
IndiahavedecidedtoenunciateaNationalPolicyonDisasterManagement(2009),
whose broad objectives are to minimize the loss of lives and social, private and
community assets because of natural or manmade disasters and contribute to
sustainabledevelopmentandbetterstandardsoflivingforall,morespecificallyfor
the poor and vulnerable sections by ensuring that the development gains are not
lostthroughnaturalcalamities/disasters.
Disaster Prevention, Preparedness & Mitigation: Apart from above, the Disaster
Management Act, 2005 (DM Act, 53 of 2005) lays down institutional and
coordination mechanisms for effective disaster management (DM) at the national,
state, and district levels. As mandated by this Act, the Government of India (GoI)
createdamultitieredinstitutionalsystemconsistingof:

NationalDisasterManagementAuthority(NDMA),headedbythePrimeMinister,

StateDisasterManagementAuthorities(SDMAs)bytheChiefMinistersand

District Disaster Management Authorities (DDMAs) bythe DistrictCollectorsandcochaired by


electedrepresentativesofthelocalauthoritiesoftherespectivedistricts.

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SustainabilityGuidelines
Othersorganisations:TheActfurtherprovidesforconstitutionofNationalExecutive
Committee (NEC), National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM) and National
DisasterResponseForce(NDRF).

6.7.2. NationalDisasterManagementGuidelines
ThesalientfeaturesoftheNDMAguidelineswithrespecttotheformulationofDM
plans have been briefed, along with integration of the recommended planning
systemfortheurbanandregionalplanninginTable6.8andTable6.9.Thedetailed
NDMA guidelines for following disasters can be referred separately while
formulatingthePlans104.
Table6.8:SalientFeaturesofNDMAGuidelinesforManagementofNaturalHazards
Sr.No.
1

TypesofNatural
Hazards

SalientFeaturesonPrevention,PreparednessandMitigationof
respectiveDisasters

FloodManagement

PreventionandPreparedness

SetupRiverBasinOrganisationstodealwiththemanagement
ofwaterresourcesatriverbasinlevel.

Preparation of Flood Management Plan by joint effort of States


and concerned department of Central. This plan should be
integratedwithplansatcityregionordistrictlevel.

Mitigation

Earthquake
Management

Identification and marking of flood prone areas on maps,


preparation of close contour and flood vulnerability maps,
formulatingplansforexpansionandmodernisationoffloodcan
alsobeincludedinDevelopmentPlans.

Implementation of the schemes for expansion and


modernisation of the flood forecasting and warning network,
execution of flood protection and drainage improvement
schemeandidentificationofreservoirs.

Implementation of activities, which include construction of


dams and catchment area treatment (CAT) works in India as
wellasneighbouringcountriesforfloodmitigation.

PreventionandPreparedness

Facilitate selective strengthening and seismic retrofitting of


existing priority and lifeline structures in earthquakeprone
areas

Prioritise the enforcement of earthquake resistant design


featuresandstrengthentheexistingstructures.

Improvethecomplianceregimethroughappropriateregulation
andenforcement.

Mitigation

Incorporation of earthquake resistant design features for the


constructionofnewstructures.Thesameshouldbereflectedin
buildingbyelawsindevelopmentplanning.

Sensitive earthquake seismic zones should be identified at city

104

For details NDMA guidelines are available at www.ndma.gov.in website.

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or region or district level. Priority to be given in Earthquake


SeismicZones3,4and5.
3

DroughtManagement

PreventionandPreparedness

Preparation of Drought Management Plan at district and State


level in integration with Disaster management Plan and
developmentplans.Plantobepreparedinadvancebasedonthe
longseasonforecastissuedbyIndiaMeteorologicalDepartment
(IMD)inAprilandalsothepreviousseasonrainfall.

Mitigation

CyclonesManagement

Measures for integration of soil, water and forest management


andformpartofsoilconservation,watersheddevelopmentand
forestryprogrammes.

Droughtproofingmeasuresaretakenbeforethecropisplanted
anddroughtmanagementmeasuresare takenduring the crop
growingperiod.

PreventionandPreparedness

Coastal bioshields spread, preservation and restoration/


regeneration plans to be prepared by the Coastal Area
Development, and Irrigation and Command Area Development
Authorities

Developing Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM)


frameworks for addressing the sustainability and optimal
utilisationofcoastalresources,whichshallalsoserveascyclone
impactminimisationplans.

Evolving ecosystem restoration plans for degraded ecological


zones.

Mitigation

TsunamiManagement

Mapping and delineation (coastal wetlands, patches of


mangroves and shelterbelts), identification of potential zones
forexpandingbioshieldspreadbasedonremotesensingtools,
which can be integrated with DM Plan and Development Plan
formulation.

Regulating infrastructure and development activities in coastal


zones. Ensuring cyclone resistant design standards are
incorporated in the rural/ urban housing schemes in coastal
areas.

Implementing coastal flood zoning,


managementandregulatoryplans.

Groundwater development (recharge) and augmentation of


freshwaterrequirementincoastalurbancentres.

Development of Aquaculture Parks in the identified potential


zones.

flood

inundation

PreventionandPreparedness

Preparation of State and District Disaster Management Plans


(also at city and village level), with specific reference to the
managementoftsunami.

Integration of coastal and tsunami risk into community


planning.

Mitigation

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SustainabilityGuidelines

Landslides/
Avalanches
Management

Revision of town planning byelaws and adoption of model


byelaws, wide dissemination of earthquake and tsunamisafe
building codes, the National Building Code 2005, and other
safetycodes.

Development of tsunami safety standards and guidelines for


existingcriticallifelinestructuresincoastalareas.

EmphasisonEarlyWarningSystem.

Mapping contour levels up to which Tsunami impacted on the


lastincidentofdisaster.

Snow PreventionandPreparedness
Integrating landslide concerns in the development of disaster
managementplansatalllevels(especiallyforhillyareasandthe
MasterplansoftheseareastointegratetheDMPprovisions).

Landslidehazardzonationmappinginmacroandmesoscales.

Settingupofinstitutionalmechanismsforgeneratingawareness
and preparedness about landslide hazard among various
stakeholders.

Strengthening Post disaster management by respective DMAs


and it should be considered as an integral component of
mitigationeffort.

Mitigation

Taking up pilot projects to carry out detailed studies and


monitoringofselectedlandslidestoassesstheirstabilitystatus
andestimateriskandtheoutputofthesestudiescanbeutilised
inplanningprocessatalllevels.

Development of model landuse / town planning byelaws and


revisionofexistingones.

Strengthening of building / heritage structures and safety of


critical facilities against landslides and snow avalanches in
hazardproneareas.

Enforcingandmonitoringthecomplianceoflanduseandtown
planningbyelaws,andothersafetyregulationsinhillyareas.

Urban
Flooding PreventionandPreparedness
Management
Contour Mapping will be prepared at 0.2 0.5 m contour
interval.

Inventory of the existing storm water drainage system will be


preparedonaGISplatform.

Catchmentwillbethebasisforplanninganddesigningthe
stormwaterdrainagesystemsinallULBs.

Stormwaterdrainagesystemsforcoastalcitieshavetobe
designedtakingintoaccountthetidalvariations.

Riskassessmentwillbecarriedoutwithamultihazardconcept
leadingtofoolprooflanduseplanning.

Involvement of the Residents' Welfare Associations &


Community Based Organisations in monitoring this and in all
UrbanFloodDisasterManagementactions.

Mitigation

Future Storm water drainage systems will be designed with a

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RunoffCoefficientofupto0.95inusingRationalMethodtaking
intoaccounttheapprovedLandusePlan.

RainwaterHarvestingasanintegralcomponentofthebuilding.

EncroachmentsonDrainsandinFloodplainswillberemovedby
providingalternativeaccommodationtothepoorpeople.

Lowlyingareasshouldbereservedforparksandotherlow
impacthumanactivities.

Stormwaterdrainageconcernswillbemadeapartofall
EnvironmentalImpactAssessmentnorms.

Table6.9:SalientFeaturesofNDMAguidelinesforManmadeHazards
S.No.
1

TypesofMan SalientFeaturesonPrevention,PreparednessandMitigationof
madeHazards respectiveDisasters
Chemical
Terrorism
Disasters(CTD)
Management

PreventionandPreparedness
Preparedness for an emergency response at the incident site requires
protection, detection, and decontamination. The Chief Medical Officer
willbethemaincoordinatorforthemanagementofCTD.Preparedness
for emergency medical response includes prompt establishment of
medicalpostsaspartoftheICS.

The nodal ministry for CTD and for chemical accidents will organise
necessary activities to develop a common information platform for a
sufficiently robust networking system, as part of the DM plans. Nodal
and line ministries at the central level and departments of health,
SDMAsandDDMAsatthestateordistrictlevelwillidentifythevarious
requirements of critical infrastructure to be developed with PPP
modelstomitigatetheimpactofCTD.

Mitigation

Chemical
(industrial)
Disaster
Management

Counterterrorismstrategies,riskandvulnerabilityassessment,chemo
surveillance, and environmental monitoring are required for the
mitigationofCTDbyauthoritiesrecommendedbyNDMA.

Abufferzonetobedefinedtosuchindustries,whicharevulnerablefor
CTD.Developmentinsuchzonesshouldberestricted,whichshouldbe
coveredindevelopmentplanning.

PreventionandPreparedness

Strengtheningofthepresentregulatoryframeworktomeetthedefined
national policies and aspirations; augmentation of technical support
functions,asupportiveandtechnologyneutralregulationframework.

Specific roles and responsibilities of MAH units, transporters, drivers,


authorities and aspects related to emergency communication systems
andtrainingofvariousstakeholders.

Preparation of Crisis Management Plan by the hospitals, concept of


mobile hospital and mobile teams, planning for and regular testing of
emergencyplan,establishingpostdisasterdocumentationprocedures,
epidemiological surveys and minimum criteria for relief and
rehabilitation.

Mitigation

Legislationonlandusepolicy(bufferzonearoundchemicalindustry),
Standardisationofnationalcodesandpractises,PreparationofOnSite

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S.No.

TypesofMan SalientFeaturesonPrevention,PreparednessandMitigationof
madeHazards respectiveDisasters
andOffSite,PreparationofahighwayDMplanforthetransportationof
hazardous chemical, Establishing a risk management framework
criterionforchemicalassessment.

Hazardidentification,riskassessment,incorporationofGIStechnology,
riskmapping,anddevelopmentandimprovementofdatabase.

Nuclear
& PreventionandPreparedness
Radiological
TheplansforDMofnuclear/radiologicalemergencies/disastersfrom
Disaster
all levels of administration must be mainstreamed, allocation of funds
Management
fromthePlanningCommissionaswellastheconcernedministry.

Offsiteemergencypreparednessandresponseplanstobepreparedby
thecollectors/magistratesofthedistricts.

The SDMAs are required to identify and enlist officers with total
responsibility of issues related to nuclear/radiological disaster
management,thecollector/magistrateofthedistrictaffectedbynuclear
emergency from nuclear power plant/facility will be incharge of the
offsiteemergencyprogrammeandforradiologicalemergenciesinthe
metropolitans/largecities,whereinmorethanonedistrictisinvolved.
The state authorities will nominate an incident commander; NDRF
personnelmustalwaysbemadeavailableonemergencybasisbyNDMA
attheaffectedsite.

Mitigation

Source:

Engineeringsafetyfeaturesandaccidentmanagementproceduresthat
shouldbeinplaceinanuclearplantasaccidentmitigationmeasuresfor
minimising the impact of a nuclear emergency by keeping the
radioactivityreleaseintheenvironmenttolevelsaslowaspossible.

Controlling the power, cooling the fuel and confining the radioactive
materialshouldbeusedasthreebasicsafetyfunctionsinNuclearPlant.

Theinbuiltsafetymeasures,includingbiologicalshields,safetysystems
and interlocks, safety audits, operations strictly following safety
procedures, etc., mitigate the consequences of accidents should be
adopted.

Fire Services PreventionandPreparedness


Management
PreparationofFireHazardResponseMitigationPlan(FHRMP)

The plan should incorporate activities for mass awareness and


inspectionoffirefightingfacilitiesandequipmentespeciallyinschools,
busyshoppingmalls,highrisebuildingsandresidentialclusters.

IntegrationofFHRMPwith13thFinanceCommissionreportandstate
fiveyearplansformobilisationoffunds.

NDMAguidelinesforeachoftheManmadeHazards.

Moreover, in addition to above points, there is a need to identify infrastructural


needs for preparing mitigation plans, Implementing a financial strategy for the
allocationoffundsfordifferentnationalandstate/districtlevelmitigationprojects.
Capacity Building: In addition to abovementioned salient features, the capacity
development for managing the disaster is an important criterion, which should be
considered as a part of preparedness. There should be availability of skilled and

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adequately trained manpower like rescue and relief teams, Civil Defence, Home
Guards,andotheremergencyserviceprovidershavingbasicknowledgeofrelevant
disasters. In Disaster Management Plan, the role of NGOs, other voluntary
organisations,andthecommunityisrequiredtobedefined.Capacitydevelopment
shouldbeundertakenatthedistrict,state,andnationallevelsbytheMinistriesand
departmentsconcernedasapartoftheirrespectiveDMplans.
Response Mechanisms: A mechanism for coordinated approach and efforts is
required for effective response after the incident. Role of communities, NGO and
NationalDisasterResponseForce(NDRF)105shouldbeconsideredwhileformulating
incidentresponsestrategy.
Response&Relief:ToprovidePsychoSocialSupportaftertheincidentasapartof
relief is an important aspect. NDMA has also issued detailed guidelines which
describesthefollowingfeatures:
Implementation of PsychoSocial Support and Mental Health Services (PSSMHS) in National
MentalHealthProgramme(NMHP)andinDistrictMentalHealthProgramme(DMHP);
Integration of the PSSMHS in DMHP and General Health Programme as a part of hospital and
Districthealthplan;
FormationofaNationalSubCommitteeonPSSMHS;
TrainingofNationalDisasterResponseForce(NDRF),QuickReactionTeams(QRTs)
DisasterManagementTeams(DMTs)inallbasicpsychosocialsupportskills;
IntegrationofPSSMHSandNMHPwithDisasterManagement(DM)PlanandHealth/HospitalDM
Plans.
In terms of medical preparedness106, the prevention measure and the preparedness measure is
separatelyhighlightedbyNDMA.
Preventivemeasure:IntegratedDiseaseSurveillanceProgramme(IDSP)
Preparedness for the management of mass causalities: Emergency Medical Response (EMR) at
theincidentsiteandtheirquickandsafeevacuationbyambulance,aretwoimportantsteps.

6.7.3. StateDisasterManagementPlan
TheSection23ofDisasterManagement(DM)Act2005statesthatthereshallbea
DM plan for every state. The NDMA has also issued guidelines on preparation of
StateDisasterManagementPlan(SDMP),whichoutlinesthebroadcoverageofthe
planaswellastherequirementsofconsultationinitspreparation.Italsoprovides
provisionforannualreviewandupdatingoftheStateDMPlan,andenjoinsuponthe
stategovernmentstomakeprovisionsforfinancingtheactivitiestobecarriedout
under the state plans. The SDMP shall be prepared in consultation with the State
PerspectivePlansand/orStateUrbanisationPolicies.
The Act provides for the departments of the State Governments to draw up their
ownplansinaccordancewiththestateDMplan.TheSDMPshouldbepreparedby
theStateExecutiveCommittee(SEC)inconformitywiththeguidelinestobeissued

105

AseparateguidelinehasbeenissuedbyNDMAonIncidentResponseSystemandNationalDisasterManagement
InformationandCommunicationSystem,whichisavailableatwww.ndma.gov.in.

106

TheNDMAguidelineonMedicalPreparednessavailableatwww.ndma.gov.incanbereferred.

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SustainabilityGuidelines
onrelatedmattersbytheSDMAhavingregardtotheNDMAguidelines.TheSDMP
preparedbySECshouldbeapprovedbytheSDMA.Theapproachtothepreparation
oftheSDMPshouldbeholisticandaddressallthehazardsthestateisvulnerableto.
The SDMP may also adopt the generic categorisation of disasters with respect to
specificplansatthestatelevelbyvariousdepartmentstohandledifferentdisasters.
ThesecategoriescouldbeL0,L1,L2,andL3.

L0denotesnormaltimes,whichareexpectedtobeutilisedforclosemonitoring,documentation,
prevention, mitigation and preparatory activities. This is the planning stage where plans at all
levels from community to the State should be put in place. Training on search and rescue,
rehearsals, evaluation and inventory updating for response activities should be carried out
duringthistime.
L1specifiesdisastersthatcanbemanagedatthedistrictlevel,however,thestateandcentrewill
remaininreadinesstoprovideassistanceifneeded.
L2specifiesdisastersituationsthatmayrequireassistanceandactiveparticipationofthestate,
andthemobilisationofresourcesatthestatelevel.
L3disastersituationsarisefromlargescaledisasterswheredistrictsandthestatemaynothave
the capacity to respond adequately and require assistance from the central government for
reinstatingthestateanddistrictmachinery.

ThefollowingfeaturesshouldbeconsideredwhilepreparingtheSDMP

HazardRiskandVulnerabilityAtlas(HRVA)assessmentofdifferentpartsofthestatetodifferent
kindsofdisasters.
Thevulnerabilityofdifferentpartsofthestatetodifferentkindsofdisasters.
TheSDMPshouldbedevelopedinlinewithDDMPs.
Themeasurestobeadoptedforpreventionandmitigationofdisasters.
The manner in which mitigation measures shall be integrated with development plans and
projects.
Thecapacitybuildingandpreparednessmeasurestobetaken.
Therolesandresponsibilitiesofeachdepartmentofthegovernmentofthestateinrelationtothe
measuresspecifiedabove.
The roles and responsibilities of different Departments of the government of the state in
respondingtoanythreateningdisastersituationordisaster.
Thestateplanwillbereviewedandupdatedannually.

ThesuggestedframeworkfordevelopingSDMP&DDMPisshownintheFigure6.4.

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abilityGuid
delines

Figu
ure6.4: Sugg
gestedBroaadFramewo
orkfordevellopingSDMP
PandDDMP
P

Sourcce:

NationalD
DisasterManagem
mentGuidelines,PreparationofStateDisasterM
ManagementPlan
ns.

6.7
7.4. DistrictDissasterMaanagemeentPlan(DDMP))107
Secttion 31 of
f the DM Act,
A 2005 makes
m
man
ndatory to
o formulatee District Disaster
D
Man
nagement Plan (DD
DMP) by District Authority
A
i consulttation with local
in
auth
horities. DDMP
D
shalll include Hazard
H
Rissk and Vullnerability Analysis (HRVA),
(
prevention, mitigation,
m
p
preparedne
ess measurres, respon
nse plan an
nd procedu
ures. An
indiicativelistwithpossib
bleplanob
bjectivesisgivenbelow
w:

Toidentifyth
T
heareasvuln
nerabletomajortypesoftthehazardsin
nthedistrict..
T adopt pro
To
oactive meassures at distrrict level by all the Goveernment departments to prevent/
k
knowdisaste
erandmitigateitseffects.
T define an
To
nd assign thee different taasks and ressponsibilitiess to stakehollders during the pre
disasterandpostdisasterrphases.
T
Toadopt
dissasterresilien
ntconstructionmechanissm in the disttrict by way of using Info
ormation,
Educationan
ndCommuniccationformaakingthecom
mmunityawaareoftheneeedofdisasterrresilient
f
futuredevelo
opment.
T
Toenhanced
disasterresiliienceofthep
peopleinthedistrictbywaayofcapacityybuilding.
Reduce the loss
l
of public and privatte property, especially
e
crritical facilitiees and infrasstructure,
t
throughprop
perdisasterm
managementplanning
Managefuturredevelopmeenttomitigattetheeffecto
ofnaturalhazzardsinthed
district.
T
Tosetupthe
eearlywarningsystemso
oastopreparrethecommu
unitytodeal withthedisaasterand
r
responsiveco
ommunicatio
onsystembasseduponfailproofproven
ntechnologyy.
T
Todevelopt
thestandardiizedmechaniismtorespon
ndtodisasteersituationto
omanagetheedisaster
efficiently.


107

So
ource:ExplanatoryNotesforPreeparationofDistrictDisasterManagementPlan((DDMP),NDMA

URD
DPFIGuidelin
nes,2014.MiinistryofUrb
banDevelopment

227

SustainabilityGuidelines

TosetupanEmergencyOperationsCentreattheDistrictlevel tofunctioneffectivelyinsearch,
rescue,response.
TopreparetheresponseplanbasedupontheguidelinesissuedintheStateDisasterManagement
Plansoastoprovidepromptrelief,rescueandsearchsupportinthedisasteraffectedareas.
Tomaketheuseofmediaindisastermanagement.
Rehabilitationplanoftheaffectedpeopleandreconstructionmeasurestobetakenbydifferent
govt.departmentsatdistrictlevelandlocalauthority.
IntegrationofDMinitiativesintodevelopmentplanandprojects.
TocoordinatewithCentre&StateagenciesconcernedforeffectiveandefficientDM.

The District Disaster Management Plan (DDMP) is the guide for achieving the
objective mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. It should be noted that
Development Plan for the District/City should also integrate with DDMPs and city
planning or town planning should be in compliance with the DDMPs and SDMP of
theconcernedDistrict.

228

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SimplifiedPlanningTechniques

7.

SimplifiedPlanningTechniques

Townplannersusevarietyoftechniquesatdifferentstagesoftheplanningprocess.
Thesetechniquesmayrelatetosurveysforcollectionofdata,assessmentofexisting
conditionsinasettlement,aswellasanalysisandprojectionsoffuturerequirements
inrespectofvariousactivities.
Substantial proportions of these techniques are highly elaborate and demand
intensive data inputs. Considerable time is lost in collecting the required data
causing delays occur in the plan preparation process. Further, with rapid
urbanisation,plannersneedsimplifiedtechniquesforanalysisandplanpreparation.
The chapter describes some of the useful and simplified techniques for data
collection,survey,analysis,projectionsandmapping.Mostoftheseexercisescanbe
takeupasaseparateresearch/surveybeforeplanpreparationtoprovideprocessed
datainputs.

7.1.

IdentifyingDataNeedsandDataCollectionList

The basic presumption of simplified information gathering methodologies is that


thereisalwaysacertainamountofuncertaintyattachedtoanysetofdata,andthat
theavailabledatamayormaynotbecompleteascomparedtowhatisrequiredfor
ensuring perfectness in decision making. This presumption implies that decision
makingmostofteninvolvesanelementofimperfectdataandgooddecisionmaker
makes good use of extrapolation of the collected data though the application of
simplifiedsurveytechniques.
Themethodsofrapidinformationcollectioninstitutionaliseexistinggoodpractices
andevencommonsense.Theyrelymostlyondirectobservation,seekseveralviews
of any one fact (cross checking) and make use of checklists and semistructured
dialogues instead of lengthy and often costly questionnairebased surveys. Due to
difficultiesofmeasuringmuchofsocioeconomicinformationdirectly,rapidsurvey
techniquesmakeliberaluseofproxyindicatorstotraceranking,trendsandshifts.
These rapid methods must not be considered as substitutes to specialist
investigationsandshouldbeusedforquickaccesstoinformationforrapiddecision
making.

7.1.1. DataChecklist
Thedatacollectionchecklistisapreciseandexhaustivelistingoftopics/issuesand
subtopics/issues related to the information need. The process begins with the
preparationofaninitialchecklist.Thenextstageistodefinethemethodofacquiring
informationabouteachsubtopicinthelist.Thechecklistisflexibleandallowsthe
surveyortoadaptandimproviseinthefield.Thestepsinvolvedinthepreparation
ofthechecklistareasfollow:

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

229

SimpliifiedPlann
ningTechn
niques
Listm
majortopicswithitspriorrity.
Listofmajorinfo
ormationneed
dsandhoweeachwillbeusedforanaly
ysis.
Breaakdowneach
htopicintosu
ubtopics.
Indiccatethelikely
yinformation
nsourcessucchas
DocumentfromGoveernmentdepaartments,orgganisations,p
privateagenciies,publicatio
onsetc.
Observationinthestu
udyareaand
dinspection
Dialoguee,interviews
Selfcom
mpletionsurveeysetc.

7.2.

DataC
Collectio
onTechn
niques

Informationordaatacanbe dividedinttotwotypes,i.e.Prim
marydataaandSecond
dary
data. Primary
P
daata is colleected first hand by investigatorr, thus thrrough Prim
mary
survey.. Secondarry data is second hand data, initially collected
c
b
by some other
investiggatorforo
otherpurpo
osebutlateeronused byaninveestigatorfo
orhis/hero
own
purposse.

7.2.1.. PrimaaryDataCollectio
ontechn
niques
Primarrydataarethose,whiccharecolleectedforth
hefirsttimeandareaalwaysgiveenin
the forrm of raw material and
a originaal in characcter. Before beginnin
ng the prim
mary
data co
ollection prrocess, the techniquee of data co
ollection, th
he questionnaire theereof
andtheesurveysaampleselecctiontechniiqueistob
befinalised.Toprocesss,analysisand
interprretprimary
ydata,suitaablestatistiicalmethod
dsareneed
ded.
Figure7.1: StagesoffconductingPrimarySurv
vey

Source:ReeadingMaterialo
onPlanningTech
hniquesbyJHAn
nsariandShriM
Mahavir.

230

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PFIGuideline
es,2014.MinistryofUrba
anDevelopm
ment

SimplifiedPlanningTechniques

Thissectiondiscussesfourtypesofprimarysurveys,whicharelistedintheorderof
passive to active respondents. Following are the broad categories of primary
surveys:

Visual survey / Reconnaissance survey: This survey does not require direct contact with
populationofthestudyarea.Itisquickoverviewofthearea.
Inspection:Itinvolvesdirectinspectionofareabysurveyorforextractinginformation.
PersonalInterview/Dialogue:Thissurveyismorepersonalandcouldbeeitherfacetofaceor
telephonic.Insuchtypeofsurveyssomeinitialtopicsareinvestigatedtogaininsightinthearea
ofinterest.
Selfsurvey: In this type of survey indirect contact is made with the respondent by sending
questionnairethroughmailorhandedoutbuttheresponseisnotcollectedonthespot.

7.2.1.1. Visualsurveys/Reconnaissancesurvey
Visualsurveysaredirectinspectionsurveys,whichareperformedbysurveyteams
movinginavehicleorwalking.Thistypeofsurveycanbeusedintheinitialstagesof
the investigation, often after preparing initial checklist. It performs variety of
functions,suchas:

Familiarisewithstudyarea.
Giveinitialimpressionsofthephysicalandsocialstateofanarea.
Identifyselectedareasforfurtherinvestigation.
Generateideasfordevelopmentofchecklist.

7.2.1.2. Inspection
DirectInspection: The direct inspection of conditions or activities is employed in
many kinds of surveys where human communication is not required to elicit the
information (Source:ReadingMaterialonPlanningTechniquesbyJHAnsariandShri
Mahavir). It can be used for observing traffic counts, recreation area use surveys,
housingqualitystudiesandproxyobservationswhererequired.
IndirectInspection:Thefindingsoftheinitialsurveycanbesubstantiatedwiththe
help of Key Indicator Survey, which are specific to the objectives of the analysis.
Often, instead of getting direct information on the variable, surveyors rely on
observing approximations known as proxies. A proxy is used to inform about a
variable without direct investigation, instead investigating its key indicators. Such
as: instead of enquiring about the income range, the surveyor can observe the
housing condition, number of vehicles and other consumer goods. Table 7.1 lists
proxyindicatorstobegeneratedthroughchecklist,relatingtothesubtopics,which
areidentifiedasimportant.

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Table7.1: PossibleProxyIndicators
Topic

PossibleProxy

Addyourownproxies

Economicgrowth

Housingconstruction&condition

Dwellingextensions
Electricityconsumption
Saleofnewvehicles
Prosperity

NumberofPetrolpumps
SaleofFurnishingstypes
Typesofcommercialstores

Servicelevels

Numberofstandpipes
Privatewatercarriers
Electricitysupply
Useofpublicurinals
Onstreetgarbage

Wealthdistribution

Differingnewhousesconstruction
Privatecarownership

Importedgoodsconsumption
Womensparticipation

Handportageofwater
Ratioofgirlsinhighereducation

Municipalefficiency

Frequencyofgarbageremoval

Conditionofroad
Streetlights
Source:

UDPFIGuidelines,1996

Suchmethodsaretobeadoptedifthedocumentarystatisticsisaggregativeorout
dated or both. Good proxies are those which can be easily investigated, however,
proxiescanoftenbemisleadingandmustbeusedwithcare.Thereforegenerating
proxies require knowledge about the relationship between the proxy and the
variableitistryingtoassesanditsrelationshipinthestudyarea.

7.2.1.3. PersonalInterview/Dialogue
A number of types of surveys are undertaken face to face or by telephonic
conversation. In case of quantitative survey, the structured dialogue is oneway
where precise questioning takes place. Semistructured dialogue is a flexible two
way process where only some initial topics are investigated. These topics can be
revisedasthepractitionergainsinsightintheareaasinformationflowsinfromthe
respondents.Thesemistructureddialogueisthusaninformalprocessbutitneeds
tobemanagedexpertly,particularlyintheaspectslistedbelow:

Behaviouralfactorsofthesurveyorsandrespondents
Questionsnottobeambiguousorlong
Managingtheconversation&carefulprobingtoseekanswers
Judgingresponseswithoutbiases
Crosscheckingwithotherrespondents
Recordingtheinterview(audio/video)
Avoidingerrors

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7.2.1.4. FocussedGroupDiscussion(FGD)
Focussed group discussion is a qualitative data collection and research technique.
Questionsaboutopinions,perceptions,beliefs,attitudeofpeopletowardsplanning
aims, services are probed in these discussions.FGD can be used for learning about
stakeholders, their interrelationship and to know about a range of issues on the
topic. This method costs fairly low compared to surveys, as one can get results
relativelyquicklyandincreasethesamplesize.FGDscaneitherbeusedtoexplore
meaning of survey findings that cannot be explained statically as well as before
designingquestionnaires.
HomogenousgroupofpeopleareselectedforFGDsothattheyarecomfortableand
havefreeflowofdiscussion.Mainobjectiveandkeyquestionsofthemeetingshould
be predecided. Group of 10 to 12 people and questions should be selected for a
singleFGD108.Morethanone,mostlythreetofourFGDstobedonebeforelegitimate
resultscanbereachedonanissue.FGDinruralsettingscanmakeuseofinteractive
diagrammaticdatacollectiontechniquessuchasmapping,Venndiagrametc.

7.2.1.5. ParticipatoryRapidAppraisal
PRAisanintensive,systematicbutsemistructuredlearningexperiencecarriedout
in a community by a multidisciplinary team, which includes community
members109usingvarioustoolsgivenbelow.Participatoryappraisalmethodsand
toolscanbeusedacrossallagegroupsandculturesanddonotrelyonliteracyskills.
Methods of PRA are highly visual and comprise a myriad of activities to elicit and
triangulatethesameinformation110.Toolsusedinparticipatoryinterviewsorgroup
meetings include brainstorming, mapping, ranking and diagramming and can be
broadlyputinfourcategories111:

Groupdynamics,e.g.learningcontracts,rolereversals,feedbacksessions
Sampling,e.g.transectwalks,wealthranking,socialmapping
Interviewing,e.g.focusgroupdiscussions,semistructuredinterviews,triangulation
Visualizatione.g.Venndiagrams,matrixscoring,timelines

Participationusuallytakesplaceinfamiliarsurroundingsinthestreet,publicplaces
orthroughcommunitybasedactivities112.

7.2.1.6. SelfSurvey
These are often in the questionnaires sent to respondents through mail or survey
forms handed out or inserted in the newspapers and the filled questionnaires are

108

Source:OverseasDevelopmentInstitute,UK;Wikipedia.

109

http://www.slideshare.net/ronelcana/participatoryrapidappraisal.

110

http://shortwork.org.uk/?page_id=210.

111

Source:Wikipedia.

112

http://shortwork.org.uk/?page_id=210

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233

SimplifiedPlanningTechniques
mailed back to the surveyor. It has various limitations, like; responses can be low
andunsatisfactory.
Primary data collection techniques can be costly and very time consuming thus
methodsofrapidinformationcollection,whichrelymostlyondirectobservation,is
analternative.Thismethodseeksseveralviewsofanyonefact(crosschecking),
makesuseofchecklistsandsemistructureddialogue.However,rapidmethodsmust
notbeconsideredassubstitutestospecialistinvestigationsandshouldbeusedfor
quickaccesstoinformationforrapiddecisionmakingonly.

7.2.2. SecondaryDataCollectiontechniques
Secondarydataarethose,whichhavealreadybeencollectedbysomeoneotherthan
theinvestigatorhimself.Theseareusuallycompiledandprocessedinformationbut
may be relatively less accurate than the primary data. However, the problems
associated with the primary data collection such as time consumption, skilled
manpower requirement do not arise here. Secondary data can be collected from a
numberofsources,whichcanbebroadlyclassified,intotwocategories.

7.2.2.1. PublishedSources
Mostlysecondarydataiscollectedfrompublishedsources,whichmakesitreliable.
Someimportantsourcesofpublishedsourcesandstatisticaldataareasfollow:

PublishedreportsofCentralandStateGovernmentsandlocalbodies.
Statistical abstracts, census reports and other reports published by different Ministries of the
Government.
OfficialpublicationsoftheforeignGovernments.
ReportsandPublicationsoftradeassociations,chambersofcommerce,financialinstitutionsetc.
Journals,Magazinesandperiodicals.
Periodic Publications of Government organizations like Central Statistical Organization (CSO),
NationalSampleSurveyOrganization(NSSO).
ReportssubmittedbyEconomists,ResearchScholars,Bureaus,
PublishedworksofresearchinstitutionsandUniversities

7.2.2.2. UnpublishedSources
Statistical and nonstatistical data can also be collected from various unpublished
sources.Someoftheimportantunpublishedsourcesfromwhichsecondarydatacan
becollectedare:

Theresearchworkscarriedoutbyscholars,researchassociatesandprofessionals.
The records maintained by private firms and business enterprises, which may not have been
publishedduetobusinessdiscretion.
Records and statistics maintained by various departments and offices of the Central and State
Governments,Corporations,Undertakingsamongothers.

For assisting planning and development efforts of local bodies, CentralStatistical


Organisation (CSO) of Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation
(MoSPI)haspublishedadocumentBasicStatisticsforLocalLevelDevelopmentfor

234

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Ruralvillage schedule, Urban ward schedule and Metropolitan city/ city/ town
schedule. At village level, the gramPanchayat will consolidate, maintain and own
villageleveldata.ItissuggestedthatDistrictStatisticalOffice(DSO)willcoordinate
with respective local body and different departments for getting the information
compiledatrespectiveschedule.

7.3.

TypesofSurveys

Whileplanningregionalorurbanarea,diversestudiesaredonewhichusevarious
setsofinformationtoanalyseexistingsituationandmakefutureprojections.Thus,
keepinginmindtherangeofdatarequiredinplanning,followingsurveytypeshave
beenundertaken.

7.3.1. SocioEconomicSurvey
Demographicsurveyisconcernedwithcollectionofsocioeconomicdataregarding
characteristicsofhumanpopulations,suchassize,growth,density,distribution,and
vital statistics. This survey forms base for not only understanding current socio
demographic characteristics of specific area but also projections of future
population and related infrastructure. However this survey is to be done in rare
casesonlyasCensusofIndiaprovidesdetailedinformationofdemography.

7.3.2. Landuse/utilisationSurveys
Land use survey is commonly undertaken with the purpose to identify developed
andundevelopedareasforanalysisofphysicaldistributionandconditionofexisting
development for future projections. In case of ground verification of the land use
map prepared by remote access or by various secondary sources, land use of a
definedlandparcelcanbeobservedbyundertakingawellplannedexercise.
The developed and undeveloped area can then be further classified into major
categoriesdependingupontheusetowhichmajorportionsoflandareputto.The
categoriesaretobeinlinewithUrbanorRegionalPlan(s)(asgiveninTable4.4and
Table9.1).Incaseofmultipleuseofalandparcel,thedominatinglanduseshouldbe
marked,ifmixedlanduseisnotconsideredintheplan.

7.3.3. DensitySurveys
Densitysurveysaredonetounderstandtherelationshipbetweenbuiltupareaand
populationdensity.Itistakenupforassessmentofinfrastructurerequirements,to
reducecongestion,appropriateavailabilityoflandforspecificactivitiesandservices
requiredbyresidentsforgoodqualityoflife.

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SimplifiedPlanningTechniques

7.3.3.1. ResidentialDensity113
Residential density surveys are undertaken with the objective to understand the
accommodationdensity,builtupareadensity(builtupareaperlandarea)andthe
residingpopulationdensity.Basedontheanalysisfromthissurvey,thedecisionson
thecontrolandpromotionalmeasurescanbetaken.
There are two separate aspects of this objective, first is less congestion within
dwellingunitandsecondislowhighdensityinaneighbourhoodorthestudyarea.
Anotherreasonforsuchsurveysistocontrolnumberofpeople residinginanarea
so as to provide appropriate/sustainable or decentralised services and utilities for
thearea.
Residentialdensityisnormallyexpressedintermsof:
Housesperunitland(dwellingunits/hectare),
Habitableroomsperunitland(rooms/hectare)(Accommodationdensity)and
Personsperunitland(persons/hectare)(PopulationDensity).

Forcomparisonatlaterstagesandanalysisoftheresidential areas,thestudyarea
canbefurtherdividedintozones/subdivisionsofsimilarhousingtypes/conditions
and tentative observation of density or based on similar pattern for survey within
thestudyarea.
As accommodation density and population density are calculated for same unit of
area, these can be compared to reach at number of persons (occupancy rate) per
habitable room. Thus it is used to determine whether particular area is under
utilizedoroverutilised.Thisinformationcanbeusedinfutureplanningtodecide
whichareasaretobedecongestedandinwhichareasdensitycanbeincreased.The
followingformulasareusedforthecalculation:

Numberofhabitableroomsinthestudyarea/subdivision
Accommodationdensity=

Netareaofthestudyarea/subdivision

Totalpopulationofthestudyarea
Populationdensity=

Totalareaofthestudyarea

Populationdensity
Occupancyrates=

Accommodationdensity

7.3.3.2. NonResidentialDensity
Density in nonresidential areas is carried out for assessment and provision of
appropriatequantityandqualityofservicestotheusersofstudyarea.Measurement
of density in nonresidential area in terms of room or occupant per acre does not

113

Source: Reading Material on Planning Techniques by Sh.JH Ansari and Sh. Mahavir; and Keeble Lewis, Principles and
PracticesofTown&CountryPlanning,1968.

236

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provideusefulinformation,thusamethodbaseduponthefloorspaceindex(FSI)is
usedtocalculatenonresidentialdensity.
Thissurveyseekstoobtaintwofoldinformationaboutstudyarea;first,astatement
ofthetotalareadevotedtodifferentclassesoflandusewithinthenonresidential
area,distinguishingonlybetweenquitedistinctkindsofuse, e.g.shop,office,place
ofassembly.Second,theintensityofuseofeachstreetblocksinthenonresidential
areaintermsofitsoverallFSI.TheFSIsurveygivessomeideawhethertheamount
oflandrequiresbeincreasingorreducingfordifferentlanduses.
Table7.2: Fieldsheetfornonresidentialsurvey
Subdivision
No.

Shop

Floorareainsquaremeters

Totalfloorarea

TotalSize

F.S.I.

Residence

Office

Industry

Source:

ReadingMaterialonPlanningTechniquesbyJHAnsariandShriMahavir.

7.3.4. InfrastructureSurveys
Infrastructure survey includes the survey of existing infrastructure within and
surrounding the study area in terms of its population. The result of infrastructure
survey is compared to benchmarks and parameters provided by
National/Government authorities. Such survey includes physical as well social
infrastructure. This survey is commonly integrated with the land use survey to
cohesivelyunderstandtheuseoflandandtosaveontimeandmanpower.

Physicalinfrastructureindicators:transportation,watersupply,wastewater,sewerage,andsolid
wastemanagementinfrastructure.
Social infrastructure indicators: educational, civic and utilities, health care, recreation
infrastructureetcetera.

Key parameters to be assessed in the survey are capacity, utilisation, gap


assessment, issues associated as well as technology. The following table indicates
thevariousinfrastructureindicatorsthatcanbeusedandthebenchmarkproviding
agenciesforthesame.
Table7.3: Infrastructureindicatorsandbenchmarkprovidingagencies
Indicators

BenchmarksprovidingAuthority

Transportation

UrbanRoadCodeofPractice

Watersupply

CPHEEO,ServicelevelbenchmarkingMinistryofUrbanDevelopment(MoUD)

Wastewatermanagement

CPHEEO,ServicelevelbenchmarkingMoUD

Solidwastemanagement

CPHEEO,ServicelevelbenchmarkingMoUD

StormwaterDrainage

CPHEEO,ServicelevelbenchmarkingMoUD

Sewerage

CPHEEO,ServicelevelbenchmarkingMoUD

IndustrialEffluent

AsperCPCB/SPCBnorms

Sources:Asgiven.

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237

SimplifiedPlanningTechniques
Transportation infrastructure survey is undertaken to comprehend the transport
networkandthemovementofcommutersinthecity.Itcomprisessurveyoftraffic
volume, commuter load of different forms of commutation, parking survey and
others.Table7.4coversthisindetail.

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7.3.5. TransportationSurveys
Typesofsurveys,theirobjectivesandmethods,samplingsizeandexpectedoutputaregiveninthetablebelow:
Table7.4: ComprehensiveTableofTransportationSurveys(TransportSurveyformsReferAppendixFofVolumeIIB)
S.No.

SurveyName
Inventoryofroadnetworksystem

1.

Reviewofexistingtransport
infrastructureandfacilities,including:

Flyovers/underpasses,

Majorintersections,

Parkingfacilities,

Trafficcontrolfacilities

Pedestrianfacilities

NMVfacilities,

LevelRailwayCrossings

PublicTransportandParatransit
Facilities

Speedanddelaystudies

2.

Objectives

Classifiedtrafficvolumecounts

3.

SurveyMethods

To appreciate the physical characteristics of


the identified road network in terms of right
ofway,carriageway,numberofaccesspoints,
surfacetype,abuttinglanduse,etc.
To identify physical constraints and
bottleneck points along the identified road
network.
To assess the capacity potential of the
identifiedroadnetwork
To appreciate traffic management measures
presently adopted along the identified road
network
Tounderstandtheexistingtransportsituation
in order to develop a rational land use and
transport plan and mobility improvement
measuresinaCMP

Toelicitthejourneyandrunningspeedalong
theroadnetwork
Toidentifythebottleneckpoint
ToobtainthetraveltimematrixforalltheOD
pairs
Toquantitydelaysandidentifyfactorscausing
delay
To appreciate traffic characteristics in terms
ofsizecompositionandvariationdirectional
andtemporal.
Toappreciatethespatialdistributionoftraffic
To establish the level of service on the road
networksystem

SamplingSize

Manual

Moving
Observer
method
FloatingCarMethod
Registration Number
Method
Elevated
observer
Method
ManualMethod
Usingautomatic
deviceslikeSensors
VideoPhotography

Two sections for a


road section with
similarlanduses
Two samples for a
road section with
similarlanduse
Samples
to
be
collected where ever
sectionhasvariation

ExpectedOutput
Physical characteristics and
physical constraints of road
network and transport
infrastructure

The average of around six


runs114

Journey and running speed,


travel time, delay causing
factors

As even day count will


then give the Average
DailyTraffic(ADT)115

TrafficCharacteristicof
thestudyarea
Trafficvolume
Spatial distribution of
traffic
Circulationoftraffic

114

IRC:SP:19-2001.

115

Ibid.

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239

SimplifiedPlanningTechniques
S.No.
4.

5.

SurveyName

Objectives

RoadSideOriginanddestination
surveysat

Cordonand

Screenlines

Mobilitysurvey(HouseholdSurvey)

ParkingDemandCharacteristics

6.

SurveyMethods

Toappreciatethetrafficcharacteristics
Toappreciatethedesiredpatternsof
passengerandgoodstraffic
Toassesstheintensityofthroughand
destinedtraffic
Touseinmodelvalidation

RoadSideInterview
Method
RegistrationNumber
Platesurvey
Tagsonvehicles

Toelicitsocioeconomiccharacteristicsofthe
household
Toelicittravelcharacteristicsofthe
household(totaltrips,purposeoftrips,mode
used,triplength,triporiginanddestination
etc.)
Toappreciatedesiredpatternoftraffic
Toelicitopinion(oftheresidentsofthestudy
area)regardinggeneraltransportproblemsof
thecityandtheprobableareasof
improvement.
Toassesstheparkingcharacteristicsinterms
ofparkingdurationandaccumulationby
mode
Toassessfuturelevelsofdemand

Householdinterviews

SamplingSize

ExpectedOutput

The
survey
should
normally be conducted for
three consecutive days, on
sample basis, if possible
during a representative
weekintheyearandmust
encompass the weekly
market day and one
workingday116

Population
<50,000
50,000
1,50,000
1,50,000
3,00,000
3,00,000
5,00,000
>10,00,000

Sampling
rate
1in5
1in8
1in15

Travelpattern
OD matrix to calibrate
a transport demand
model

Socioeconomic profile of
the study area, number of
trips,purposeoftrips,mode
used, trip length, trip origin
and destination, vehicle
ownership

1in20
1in25

ParkingSpace
Inventory
ParkingusageSurvey
bypatrol

Each typology to be
covered / representative
sampletobecollected

Parking duration, load,


volume,index,turnover

116

Ibid.

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

240

SimplifiedPlanningTechniques

S.No.

SurveyName

Objectives

SurveyMethods

Todevelopaparkingpolicy

Cordoncount
Questionnairetype
parkingsurvey
ParkingSpace
Inventory

SamplingSize

ExpectedOutput

Determine availability of
existingparking

7.

ParkingSupply

ToassesstheParkingSupply

8.

Activityplacestudy

Toappreciatetheactivitypatternintermsof
typeandintensity
Toappreciatetheemploymentlevelsbytype
ofactivity
Todeveloprelationshipbetweenfloorspace
andemployment
Toappreciatethetripandother
characteristicsofemployees
Todeveloptripproductionandattraction
ratesbytypeandintensityofactivities.
Toappreciatesystemandoperational
characteristics
Toappreciatetheperformanceandeconomic
characteristics
ToappreciateroleandfunctionofParatransit
Toappreciatethesystemcharacteristicsof
Paratransit
ToappreciatecharacteristicsParatransit
users
Toappreciatephysicalcharacteristicsofthe
terminalregardingsize,spaceusageetc.
Toappreciatetheoperationalcharacteristics
intermsofflowofvehicles/good/peopleto
andfromtheterminal
Toappreciatetheusercharacteristics(incase
ofpassengerterminal)regardingtheirorigin,
destination,modeused,triplengthetc.
Toappreciatetheparkingcharacteristicsin
theterminal
Toappreciatetheproblems,constraintsand
potentialsforexpansionoftheterminal
activity

Primarysurvey

Each typology to be
covered / representative
sampletobecollected
100 % of land use survey
andSamplesizeoftriprate
tobedecidedbasedonthe
sizeofstudyarea.

Inventory
Usersurveys
OperatorSurveys

Samplesizetobedecided
basedonthesizeand
characteristicofstudyarea

Systemandoperational
characteristics

Inventory
Usersurveys
OperatorSurveys

Sample size to be decided


based on the size and
characteristicofstudyarea

System and operational


characteristics

Inventory
Usersurveys
OperatorSurveys

Sample size to be decided


based on the size and
characteristics of study
area and availability of
users

Physical characteristics of
the terminal, operational
characteristics in terms of
flow
of
vehicles/good/people,
parking characteristics in
theterminal

9.

Publictransportsystemstudy

10.

Paratransitstudy

11.

Terminalstudies

Identify
rates

trip

generation

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241

SimplifiedPlanningTechniques
S.No.
12.

SurveyName
Safetystudies(accidentstudies,
includingcollision&trafficincidences)

Objectives

13.

PedestrianSurvey

VolumeCounts
Along
Across

14.

Source:

IntersectionSurvey
a. IntersectionTurningMovement
Survey
b. QueuelengthSurvey

SurveyMethods

Toappreciatethetrendsofaccidentsinthe
studyarea
Toappreciatethetemporalandspatial
variationofaccidents
Toidentifytheaccidentproneareas
Toidentifyplanningandmanagement
measuresforimprovementoftrafficsafety
To appreciate pedestrian characteristics in
terms of size composition and variation
directionalandtemporal.
Toappreciatethespatialdistribution
Toestablishthelevelofserviceontheroad
networksystem
Safety:Continuityofstreetlightingfor
carriagewayandpavements
Comfort:Continuityofshade,provisionof
accessramps
Convenience:Presenceofpedestrianpath
findingsignage,streetfurnituresuchas
garbagebins,seating,drinkingwater
Measuresturningmovementsatkey
intersectionsduringthemorningandevening
peakhours.
Aqueuelengthsurveyatmajorbottlenecks
canshowtheseverityoftrafficcongestion
quantitatively.

SamplingSize

ExpectedOutput

Secondarydata
collectionfrompolice
stations

Accident record for last 2


years

Identification of accident
proneareas

ManualCounts
Video
Attitude

As even day count will


then give the Average
DailyTraffic(ADT)117

Level of service of the


pedestrian system and need
for additional pedestrian
facilities

Manualcounts

Directional movement of
trafficinthepeakhour
Countsfor2hourseachin
the morning and evening
peakperiodsunlessthere
exist extended peak
hours.

Performance characteristics
ofanIntersection

Asgiven

Notes:
1)InInventoryofRoadNetworkSysteminclusionofCity,wardandneighbourhoodlevelNMTroutes&NMTpriorityzones,publicbicyclesharingschemes,
NMVparkingfacilitiesmaybeconsidered.
2)Specialemphasismustbepaidtounderstandthedifferencesintravelbetweenmenandwomen(especiallyinMobilitysurveyPublicTransportSystem
Study,ParatransitStudyandTerminalStudy;assesstheirmetandunmetrequirementsforincorporatingtheresultstoimprovetransportsystemtowards
providinggendersensitivetransportsystem.

117

Ibid.

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7.4.

AnalyticalTechniques

Analysis breaks down complex phenomena into simple elements by organising,


correlating, classifying, displaying and resolving. Based on the understanding of
existing conditions, analysis and trends of change, the planners propose shortterm
and longterm scenarios of future and design schedules of inter connected
interventionstosteerdevelopmenttowardsadesiredfuturestate.
These analysis techniques shall be carefully chosen keepingin view the objective of
the study and the extent of data collected. The techniques with following
characterisedshallbepreferred:

Considerationofmultipleparameters
Handlingmassdatabase
Analysisoutputinvisualform

Simplified Reporting: A report can be a summarized or detailed description of


studied phenomenon. It helps in performing the tasks of putting information in an
ordered format, identifying patterns, classifying, observing trends, correlating and
inferring with a view to arrive at insights, conclusions, policy guidelines or design
directionsrelatedtoissuesunderinvestigation.
Thereportshouldintroducethecontentsattheverybeginning,statingtheobjectives,
scope and limitation of the study, describing the methodology used in collecting
information and conducting analyses for arriving at alternatives, evaluating
alternativesandderivingconclusionsandrecommendations.
Trend Analysis: This is a simple technique to study changes in a system over a
period of time. Availability of time series data at least for three points of time is a
basic requirement for its application. The analysis can be displayed in the form of
tables, graphs, maps or diagrams. This technique is popularly used in study and
analysis of change in urban economy, demographic pattern and physical form.
Analytical tools for Trend Analysis may be used to predict the result of specific
measuresinthecontextofTrafficandTransportationstrategiesasdecisionsupport
tools.
DataCompilation&AnalysisTechniques:Withadvancement,dataanalysiscanbe
executed more exhaustively and extensively through various software platforms.
Complexanalysisinvolvingmultiplevariablesandscenariobuildingforvariouscases
require advanced analytical software. These are carefully chosen to meet the
requirementofthedatacompilationandanalysis.
Software like Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), Statistical Analysis
System (SAS), STATA, Microsoft Excel files and others assist in data analysis for
multiplevariables,theoutputofwhichcouldbepresentedvisuallywithgraphs,trend
charts and diagrams. Various other software, which aid in decision making like Pan
Plus, which supports in preparation of participatory plans by enabling recording of

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

243

SimpliffiedPlanniingTechniiques

preferen
ncesandprrioritiesof peopleand
dslottingth
hemintoscchemesandprogram
mmes
that form
m part of the budgeet envelop
pe of plann
ning unit is useful aas an anallysis
techniqu
ue.
Innovattivedataana
alysistechniiques
Develop
pment radarss are pictoriaal depictions of performaance of plann
ning unit witth coordinatees
plotted around at 360 degreess, with each
h axis depiccting one paarameter of developmen
nt.
Develop
pmentradarsscanalsobe areportcard
d,becauseit canberedrrawnovera timesequencce
andthe differencein
nattainment measured.T
Thesecanbe usedinresp
pectofvariou
ussectorssucch
ashealth
h,education,povertyallev
viation,drink
kingwater,an
ndhousing.
Figure7
7.2: Techniq
quesofDataR
Representatio
on:Developm
mentRadar

Source:

IntegratedDisttrictPlanning,PlanningCommisssion

Figure7.3
3: Tabularpresentationo
ofSmileyfacee

Source:

In
ntegratedDistricctPlanning,PlanningCommissio
on.

Data rep
presentation can add vallue to stock taking and visioning
v
exeercises throu
ugh interfacin
ng
numericcaldatawithspatialinform
mationandm
makingitmorrecommuniccativeoneo
ofsuchmetho
od
issmiley
yfacewhich describestheedeviationfrromnorm/av
veragethrougghsmileys,greaterthegaap,
sadderttheface.

MapAna
alysisTech
hniques:M
Maprelated
dsoftwarecontainsm
mapsfromo
officialsources
suchas NRSC;NIC havingloccationsofiinfrastructu
ureandservicesand boundarieesof
urban/ru
ural centrees plotted on them through GIS
G overlay
ys. They allso contain
n an
interfaceebetweenn
numericaldataanddisplayofdaataonmap
p.Someinittiativesofssuch
softwaree applicatio
ons are by
y Gram +++
+ (which converts nu
umerical data into viisual

244

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outputs) and Ridhisofts Whizmap (GIS platform for local planning)118. These and
otherplatformsofGIScanbeusedforthepreparationofdifferentplans.Themethod
of planning through GIS platform has been elaborated later in this chapter in the
section:GISapplicationinplanformulation.
The above mentioned data collection, analytical and mapping techniques are
comprehensiveinnatureandcanbeappropriatelyadoptedduringthecourseofthe
project. Land availability for development is declining with accompanying
competitionamidvariousactivities.Withthisscenariolandsuitabilityanalysisplays
importantrolewhereinlandforparticularuseisselectedafterconsideringrangeof
factors.Landselectedthereuponismostsuitableandtendtoreducewastageofthis
limitedresource.
With the expanding city areas, threshold analysis for limiting its boundaries is
evaluated on the basis of viability. These techniques have significant impact on
decisionmaking.

7.4.1. CarryingCapacity
Carrying capacity of an area can be defined as the maximum number of population
thatcanbesupportedbytheenvironmentofthatareathroughoptimumutilizationof
the available resources. The pattern and extent of resource usage serves to be the
primaryfactorthataffectsthecarryingcapacity.Thisindeeddependshighlyonthe:

Socioeconomicstatusofthepeople
Useoftechnology

Iftechnologyisusedinapositivemannerthenthecarryingcapacityismeasuredto
increasemanifold.
Planners usually define carrying capacity as the ability of the natural or artificial
system that can absorb the population growth or physical development without
considerabledegradationordamage(Schneideretal.,1978).
(Source:Schneider,D.M.,D.R.Godschalk,andN.Axler.1978.TheCarryingCapacityConceptasaPlanning
Tool.Chicago,IL:AmericanPlanningAssociation,PlanningAdvisoryServiceReport338).

Thetechniquescanbetranslatedintopolicies,strategiesandactionplansatthelocal
leveltowardsaugmentationandsustenanceofurbanenvironmentresourcesinterms
of their supportive and assimilative capacities on one hand and size, nature and
distribution of urbaneconomic activities and their concomitant demands on
environment,onanother.
(Source: Carrying Capacity based Regional Planning by National Institute of Urban Affairs, New Delhi;
IHS,Rotterdam)

The evaluation of urban carrying capacity is a complex process as it is determined


from basic needs such as food requirements, various kinds of resources consumed

118

Source:IntegratedDistrictPlanningManualbyPlanningCommission

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

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SimplifiedPlanningTechniques

and the many kinds of wastes generated, different kinds of landuse conversions
leading to ecological imbalance and the great variability in technology, institutions
andlifestylescreated.Thereare6typesofcarryingcapacitiesthatcanbeevaluated

Infrastructurecapacitylevel,
Institutionalcapacitylevel,
Perceptualcarryingcapacity,
Environmentalcapacitylevel,
Sustainablecapacityleveland
Biocentriccapacitylevel.

Among these six types, the profound ones are infrastructure capacity level,
environmentalcapacitylevel,andsustainablecapacitylevel,whicharemorerelevant
tourbanplanning.
Table7.5: Levelsofevaluatingcarryingcapacityfortheurbanareas
Levelof
InfrastructureCapacityLevel
Evaluation

EnvironmentalCapacityLevel

Definition The degree of human activity


thatfacilitiesandserviceswithin
an area can support without
causing serious degradation of
ordamagetothemaintenanceof
qualityoflife.

SustainableCapacity
Level

The degree of human activity


that environment and ecosystems
within an area can support
without
causing
serious
degradationordamagetoquality
oflife.

Sustainable
carrying
capacity is the number of a
species that can be
supported in a particular
area indefinitely, given that
areasendowmentofwater,
food,andothernecessities.

Concept

Atthiscapacitylevel,themajor This level basically reflects the


factor of evaluation is the present
state
of
the
infrastructuredevelopment.
environment with respect to
productivity.

The basic resource flow


through the urban area
to its ultimate sink is
evaluated. These are long
termbasedfactors.

Indicator

Heretheintensityandpattern
ofresourceusage is estimated
for the development of
infrastructure
like,
water
supply system, sewage system,
transportation system, waste
disposalsystem,etc.

Indicators of particular
resource: how long it will
be available. If a resource
is getting scarce then
efficient steps could be
taken to sustain it for long
term.

Thestateofproductivityofthe
environment, e.g. agricultural
productivity by evaluating the
past data or the availability of
cleanair&water,lowpollution.

Source: Urban Carrying Capacity: Concept and calculation; IIT Guwahati; 201112, Determining Sustainable Development
Density using the Urban Carrying Capacity Assessment System Kyushik Oh, YeunwooJeong, Dongkun Lee, Wangkey
Lee;UCL,WorkingPaperSeries,2004&Thesustainablecarrying capacityofNewZealand;TheroyalsocietyofNew
Zealand.

7.4.2. Applying Carrying Capacity for Urban and Regional


planning:
Carrying capacity based approach to planning is a concept as well as tool towards
sustainable development of cities and region. It is still in nascent stages in India.
Planningbasedoncarryingcapacitydealswiththemanagementofhumanactivities,
supportiveresourcesandassimilativecapacitiesoftheenvironment(Figure7.4)and
generalprocessofcarryingcapacitybasedplanningisdepicted(Figure7.5).
Carrying Capacity analysis tool is useful to rationalise fixation of FAR including
increaseingivenFAR.Twomajordeterminingfactorsshouldbeconsidered:
1. V/C(V=volume,C=capacity)

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hniques
V/C: optimum
V
m level is 0.8; it can be relaxed upto
o 0.9. Above 0.9 is dysfu
unctional and
d 1.0 is not
desirable.

2 LPCDofp
2.
pipedwatersupply
Litrespercapitaperday (LPCD):the plannedLPCDshouldbe asperthem
minimumofnormis135
LPCD set. Ho
owever, the density is to
o be capped
d by the Dev
velopment/ M
Master Plan as per the
t
threshold.

Figu
ure7.4: Com
mponentsofC
CarryingCapaacityofUrban
n&RegionalAreas119

Sourcce:

Projectpap
peronCarryingCapacitybasedRegionalPlannin
ngbyNIUA.

Figu
ure7.5: Plan
nningofUrbaanandRegion
nalareasbaseedoncarryin
ngcapacity

Sourcce:

Modifiedb
basedonProjectpaperonCarryiingCapacitybassedRegionalPlan
nningbyNIUA.


119

Sup
pportive capacitty means the caapacity of the environment
e
to support the lives of the peoplee and other liviing organism.
Assimilativecapaccityisthecapacityoftheenviro
onmenttoabsorrb/recyclemattter,energyand//orothercompo
onents,which
com
meintotheenviironmenteitherb
bythemselvesofthroughhuman
nintervention,fforsustenanceoffenvironmentallquality.

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SimplifiedPlanningTechniques

CaseStudy1:UrbanCarryingCapacity,Guwahati
Anewmethodofcalculatingcarryingcapacitywasdevelopedby IIT,GuwahaticalledSustainable
AccommodationthroughFeedbackEvaluation(SAFE).Thismethodwasdevelopedforhillyurban
areatoensurehazardfreesustainableurbandevelopment.TheStepsisasfollow:
Step1:Delineationoftheurbanwatershed.
Step2:Demarcationofthedevelopable&non
developablearea.
Step3:Determinationofarearequiredfor
differentinfrastructureandfacilities.
Step4:Calculationoftheavailableresidential
area.
Step5:Socioeconomicsurveyoftheurbanregion
andcalculationofthefloorarea
requirementofthepeople.
Step6:DeterminationoftheFloorAreaRatio.
Step7:Calculationofpopulationcarrying
capacity.
Step8:Checkadequacyofotherindicatorsnot
analysedearlier.

CaseStudy2:TourismCarryingCapacityinEuropeanTourismDestinations
Thestudywasundertakentoelaboratecomprehensivemethodologicalframeworktounderstandthe
concept of Tourism Carrying Capacity (TCC) and applying this methodology for sustainable tourism
activitiesintheEuropeantouristdestinations.
Thebasicelementsoftheconceptofcarryingcapacityfromtourismpointofview,i.e.theneedfora
limit/athresholdinthetouristactivities,werecharted.FormeasuringTCCdifferentcomponentsand
subsequent indicator swere weighted based on the (a) characteristics of the locality, (b) the type of
tourism and environment interface and (c) the type of tourism. Sample of different type of tourism
destinationswerestudiedforcalculatingTCC.Suchascoastalareas,islands,protectedareas,mountain
resortsetcetera.ThemethodologyofmeasuringTCChasbeenshowninFigure7.6.

248

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hniques

Figu
ure7.6: Meth
hodologyformeasuringT
TourismCarry
yingCapacity
y

Sourcce:

Defining,M
Meaning&Evalu
uatingCarryingC
CapacityinEuropeanTourismD
DestinationsbyU
UniversityofAeg
gean,Greece.

7.4
4.3. ThrresholdA
Analysiss
Thee threshold
d theory is based on the
t observ
vation that any urban
n centre en
ncounters
limiitations to their expaansion duee to physio
ographic feeatures, exiisting land
d use and
tech
hnology off infrastruccture. An important inference from
f
this observatio
on is that
phy
ysicalgrow
wthoftownisnotsmo
oothlycontiinuousbutproceedsiinstagesm
markedby
successive lim
mitations which haave been called dev
velopmentt threshold
d. These

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SimplifiedPlanningTechniques

thresholdsarenotinsurmountableandcanbeovercomebutonlyatadditional(often
veryhigh)developmentinvestmentsknownasthresholdcosts.
This technique is used to determine influence zones, urban extents and regions,
attempts to rationalize and control the process of urban growth and provides a
quantitative tool to help decisionmaking. Thresholds based on physical limitations
are comparatively easy to determine using mapping techniques. Thresholds can be
tangibleorintangible.
Tangible thresholds are those, which can be measured, quantified and represented.
Thesearephysical,technologicalandstructurallimitationssuchaslandavailablefor
development, current technology of water treatment or electricity production.
Physical limitations or threshold are restrictions imposed by physiography and
topographyandgetphysicallyidentifiedintheformofnaturalfeaturessuchasrivers
to be crossed, hilly areas and steep slopes etc. Technological thresholds are
limitations imposed on physical growth of city, by constraints in expansion of
infrastructuresystem.Someofthesethresholdscanbeidentifiedspatiallyandsome
numerically for instance, watershed line is generally the limit of extension of
seweragesystem,whereas,thecapacityofasewagetreatmentplantcanbeexpressed
in terms of number of inhabitants that can be served (numerically) identified
threshold. Intangible thresholds can only be understood and indirectly measured
suchas,socioeconomiclimitations.

7.4.3.1. TheProcessofThresholdAnalysis
PartOne:Analysis

StageI:Delineationofareatobesurveyedbydrawingtheboundariesofareaascloselyaspossible
toahomogenouspatternofsettlement.
StageII:Analysisoffactorsaffectingtown/urbandevelopmentsuchasphysiographicsuitabilityof
landandpossibleextensionofpublicutilities.
Stage III: Tracing the threshold lines, delimiting areas suitable for urban development and new
developmentareasfromfundamentallanddevelopment.
Stage IV: Synthesis The information can now be correlated to form a synthesis of all factors
consideredonbasisofwhich,thelinesofurbandevelopmentthresholdscanbedefined.Physical
thresholdsareshownspatiallyonbasemapandquantitativethresholdssuchaspopulationfigures,
investment,powerorwatersupplyrequirementcanbeexpressed.
Stage V: Land is subdivided for main functions of city within the successive physical threshold
areas.Thisisdonegenerallyfortwomainfunctions,suitableareaforindustryandsuitableareafor
otherurbanuses,prioritybeinggivenbasedonvisionofdevelopment.
StageVI:Thecalculationofcapacityof residentialareaswithinthefirstandsuccessivethreshold
lines in relation to quantitative threshold figures in order to define the approximate number of
inhabitants,whichmaybeaccommodated.
StageVII:Thecalculationofaveragesofindustrialareaswithinthefirstandsuccessivethreshold
lines to define their potential for industrial location after considering the quantitative threshold
figures.

250

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PartTwo:OutlineofEconomicAssessment

Stage VIII: Calculating the approximate capital investment costs necessary to overcome each
thresholdwithintheexaminedarea.
StageIX:Calculatingthefollowingefficiencyindicesforeachsuccessivethresholdarea:
Costofeachnewinhabitant
Costperacreoflandsuitablefordevelopment

Inregionalplanningindirectuseofquantifiedresultscanbeusedindecisionmaking
amongalternativelocationsforsomesignificantinvestmentwithintheregion,while
preparingacomprehensiveregionalpolicyforthedistributionoftheexpectedinflux
ofpopulation.

7.4.3.2. LandSuitabilityAnalysis
Landsuitabilityreferstotheabilityofaparticulartypeof landtosupportaspecific
use.Theprocessoflandsuitabilityclassificationinvolves;evaluationandgroupingof
particular land areas based on their suitability for a defined use120. Land use
suitabilityanalysisaimsatidentifyingthemostappropriatespatialpatternforfuture
land uses according to specific requirements, preferences, or predictors of some
activity121.
Applicationsofsuitabilityanalysiscanbefoundinmanyfields,suchassiteselection
for cropland, agriculture suitability, graze suitability, forestry suitability (natural
resourcemanagementfield),floodingcontrol,sustainabledevelopment(environment
field), suitability for urban expansion, site selection for specific land use etcetera.
Landsuitabilitycanbeusedinplanningprocesstofinalisemostappropriatelandfor
particularlanduseoractivitybyfollowingtheprocesspresentedinFigure7.7.

120

Landsuitabilityanalysisforagriculturecrops:afuzzymulticriteriadecisionmakingapproach;2003;PrakashTN.

121

Hopkins,L.,1977.Methods forgeneratinglandsuitabilitymaps:acomparativeevaluation.Journal for AmericanInstituteof


Planners 34 (1), 1929.) (Collins, M.G., Steiner, F.R., Rushman, M.J., 2001. Landuse suitability analysis in the United States:
historicaldevelopmentandpromisingtechnologicalachievements.EnvironmentalManagement28(5),611621.

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SimpliffiedPlanniingTechniiques

Figure7.7: LandsuittabilityproccessinPlann
ning

Source:

Vaarioussourceon
nlandsuitability
yanalysis.

Factorsttakenintocconsiderationtobringoutmosttsuitablelaandwillvarryaccordin
ngto
thedesirredlandusseforwhich
hthistechn
niqueisundertaken.A
Afewexam
mplesoffacctors
are giveen in the Figure7.8. However, list of th
he factors can be brroadly gau
uged
accordin
ngtothesco
opeofprojectandavaailabilityoffdata.

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Figu
ure7.8: Facttorstakeninttoconsiderationtoassessthemostsuitablelandusse

Sourcce:LandsuitabilityAnalysis,Roh
htak,Landsuitab
bilityAnalysisfo
orurbanplannin
ngenvironmentaalassessmentinan
ecologicallysensitivecostaalareaofeastern
nchinabasedup
ponmulticriteriiamechanism;X
XiangS,DongZX
X,FanLY,LiZ,
YanZ;2008.

7.4.3.3. Meethod
Suittability anaalysis is th
he processs to assign
n weightagge and oveerlay the faactors to
iden
ntify the land
l
parceels on the predefineed scales. There aree various advanced
a
map
pping and statistical techniquess that can be used fo
or calculatiing land su
uitability.
Gre
ey tone method,
m
alsso known as map overlay me
ethod, mak
kes use off gradual
colo
ourstorep
presentthesuitability
ylevelsintthesamesccale,andovverlayalltthefactor
map
psinacerttainorder.GIStechniquesareu
usedtotraansferthessuitabilityllevelinto
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SimplifiedPlanningTechniques

numerical value, and assign weightage to each factor according to their relative
importance.Threesimplifiedstepsforsuitabilityanalysismodelinclude:
SelectingSuitabilityFactor:EachfactorisrepresentedbyathematicmapinGIS,
SingleFactorAnalysis:Accordingtosinglefactorevaluationstandard,scoreisgiventothemap
unitofeachfactorandthenthesinglefactorsuitabilityisgenerated,
MultipleFactorsOverlay: Weights are accorded to suitability factors according to their relative
importance. The weights are determined by statistic integration and hierarchic analysis in this
researchfromwhichthecompositescoreiscalculated.

Computer methods were developed to solve the inherent shortcomings of the


traditionallandsuitabilitymethods.
Incase,specificdataisnotavailableorindicativestudyistobeundertakenorincase
of cross checking, sieve mapping can be used. In this method, a series of sieves
(factors)areoverlaidtoexcludetheareas,whicharenotsuitableforthespecificland
use, thereof, the left over area is considered as suitable for some specific uses122.
WeightedoverlaymethodoflandsuitabilityispresentedinFigure7.9.

122

Mnalun Y, Suitability Analysis of Urban Green Space System Based on GIS, 2003.

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Figu
ure7.9: WeigghtedOverlaayofLandSuiitability

Sourcce:

http://ww
ww.urban.uiuc.ed
du/courses/up503/Lectures/3__UP503SuitabilittyAnalysis11.pdff.

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y:Hyderabad
dMetropolitaanDevelopmeentRegion
CaseStudy
ForcalculaatinglandsuitabilityofHy
yderabadreggiontwobroaadcategoriesofindicatorssweremade:
Enviro
onmentsuitability(tenfeeatures)
Landp
potentialanalysis(twelvefeatures)
Totaltwen
ntytwofeatu
ureswerestu
udiedandland
dwasdivided
dinto5classesaftercond
ductingland
suitability
y/potentialaanalysis.Baseedonlandsuiitabilitystudyalternativeconceptsforrfuture
developmentofcityweereproposed
d.
FeaturessstudiedforEn
nvironmentssuitability:
River,Waterbodiees
Forestt
Drainaage
Slope,Soil
Vegetaation
Agricu
ulture
Govt.O
Order(GO)
Groun
ndwater
Features studied
s
for Land
L
potential analysis
a
Airporrtandrailway
ystations
Workp
placeandind
dustrial
locatio
ons
Urban
narea
Urban
nvillage1,2&
&3
Nation
nalHighway
StateH
Highway
Ringrroad
Districctroad
Proposedroad
HyderrabadCityboundary
Fiveclasseesdecidedup
pon,throughlandsuitabiliity
study:
Conservationarea(asenvironm
mentally
sensitiiveareas)
Leastssuitableareaa
Moderratesuitablearea
Highly
ysuitableareea
Mostssuitablearea

7.5.

ProjecttionTech
hniques

In the process
p
of plan
p
formu
ulation, pro
ojection teechniques are
a used fo
or anticipaating
future,w
whichisan
necessarysstep.Here, twotypes ofprojectio
ontechniques,Simplee(1,
2and3))andAnaly
ytical(4,5 and6)areeavailable toplannerrsformakin
ngprojectiions,
havebeeendiscusseed.
The disttinction bettween simp
ple projecttions and analytical
a
p
projections
is that sim
mple
projectio
ons operatte on limitted data directly
d
an
nd usually extrapolate a series of

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observations in a direct manner. Analytical projections depend on more detailed


informationinwhichtheprojectedvalueisoftenthedependentvariablederivedfrom
projectionsofindependentvariables.Generallyspeaking,analyticalmethodsaretobe
preferred over simple ones since it allows accounting for or assuming differing
patterns of change in the components of a situation; this usually leads to more
accurateresultsthanisthecasewithsimpleprojections.

7.5.1. PopulationProjection
Plannersareconcernedwithpopulationprojectionswhichformthebasicframework
forsettingtargetsexpectedtobeachievedwithinaspecifiedtimeframe,beitforland
use,servicesorfacilities.Mostoftheimportantdecisionsaboutlandusesandservices
are derived from population estimates: the demand for water, power and waste
disposal facilities; housing, open spaces and schools; the supply of labour; spending
power available for the retail trade, the numbers of private cars to be expected,
possiblerecreationaldemandsallcanbeestimatedfromtheprojectedpopulation.
Thesectiondescribessixmethodsofpopulationprojectionsviz.
1. MathematicalandDirectMethods:Thesearesimpleordirectmethodsofestimationsbased
on the past population records. Arithmetic progression is involved when, past data suggests
that, population is changing by a constant rate. The figures are plotted on plain paper
(conventionallywithy=populationandx=time),whichresultsinastraightline.Thisstraight
lineisextrapolatedforprojectingthefuturepopulation.
However, mostly population changes according to geometric progression, in such a case semi
logarithmicpaperistobeusedtoyieldastraightlineforextrapolation.Ifthepastdatadoesnot
follow a definite progression, then a best fit equation can be derived by method of least square
andthismaybeextendedtoprovideprojection.
Graphical methods are most useful for shortterm projections, particularly when demographic
changesshowstabletrends.Hence,thesemethodsshouldbeusedforprojectingupto10yearsin
stablesituationsand5yearswherepopulationchangeismorevolatile.

2. Employment Method: This method assumes that there is a very strong interrelationship
between population and employment and indicators such as workers population can be
correlatedwithtotalpopulationtoyieldextrapolatedinformation.
Thismethodsreliabilityislowandshouldnotbeusedforlongrangepopulationforecasting.

3. RatioMethods:Thesemethodsrestsontheassumptionthatchangesinanygeographicalarea
isafunctionofthoseexperiencedinwiderarea.Thuspopulationofacityisheldtobeafunction
oftheregionandregionitselfisaresultofthefunctionofthatnation.
Inratiomethodsthepopulationofthesecondlargestarea(e.g.theregion)isplottedagainstthatof
the parent area (the nation). A curve is obtained by fitting it on the two points. Thereafter it is
extrapolated, by least square/ graphical/other method, to estimate the projected value for the
parentareaforthetargetyear.

4. Therequirementsofsuchprojectionsaretimeseriesofpopulationsfortheareastobeusedin
theanalysisandaforecastorsetsofforecastforthelargerarea.Thesemethodsareweakerfor
longer periods and smaller areas, but are useful for quick and cheap forecasting for middle
range(1015years)forareasnotlessthanawholemetropolitanareaoracityregion.

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MigrationandNaturalincreaseMethod:Asthenameimplies,thismethodenablesnaturaland
migratorychangestobehandledseparately.Byexaminingpastdataonnetmigrationratesandby
attemptingtorelatethesetoeconomicconditions,particularlytothedemandforemploymentin
thestudyarea,itispossibletoadoptvaryingassumptionsaboutthepatternoffuturemigration.
Next, a set of programmes of future natural change would be developed either by subjective
projection of past maximum and minimum migration rates or by using migration data from
projections produced nationally or regionally. The essence of the method is to begin with the
startingdatepopulation,addtheestimatedmigratorypopulationfiguretoproducethenextfigure
(A).Natural change in population is then added to the projected figure (A), thus completing one
cycle of the projection giving a figure (B). The process is then repeated until the end of the
projection period giving a figure (C). Cycle of projection could be any convenient period e.g. 5
years,10yearsormore.
This projection method uses total population, but age & sex structure is not considered. Thus
changes in death and birth rates, which might result from changing age/sex structure cannot be
seenandactedupon.Neitherfutureestimatesofschoolagepopulationandnumbersofwomenof
working age can be made. Still migration and natural increase method does reveal the possible
sequenceandthemainelementsofchange.

5. The CohortSurvival Methods: The CohortSurvival projection is a method for forecasting


whatthefuturepopulationwillbe,baseduponthesurvivalof theexistingpopulationandthe
births that will occur123. This method can be applied for any period of time but typically it
involvesfiveyearsteps.
Cohortcomponentmodelsaresocalledbecausetheydividethepopulationintocohortsandmodel
on the demographic components of change such as fertility, mortality and migration affecting
eachofthecohorts.Cohortindicatesthegenerationalgroupe.g.09,1019andsoforth124.
Thecohortcomponentmethodisusedwhenpopulationprojectionsbyageandsexareneededfor
5 years, 10 years or longer periods of time. This projection tool allows planners to examine the
future needs of different segments of the population including the needs of children, women in
their reproductive years, persons in the labour force and the elderly. It also allows planners to
projectthetotalsizeofthepopulation.Theresultscanbeusedinallaspectsoflocalandregional
developmentplans125.

6. MatrixMethods:These methods follow the logic of the cohortsurvival technique. The initial
ageandsexdistributionissimilarlyrepresentedasacolumnsectorbuttheincidenceofbirths
and deaths is handled by means of a survivorship matrix which operates on the original
population to age the population through successive time periods, simultaneously performing
thecalculationsofbirthsanddeaths.

7.5.2. EconomicProjection
Thelikelydemandsoflanddevelopmentrestonvarioustypesofeconomicactivities,
its scale, its possible location within a city or a city region and broad relationships
between these activities. The key concerns are addressed by economic projections,
which are ultimately relevant for calculating demand for housing, hospitals, schools
andothersocialfacilities.Sevenmethodsofeconomicprojectionsaredescribed,viz.

123

http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/watkins/cohort.htm.

124

TomWilson,AReviewofSubRegionalPopulationProjectionMethods,2011.

125

https://training.measureevaluation.org/noncertficatecourses/pap/lesson8.

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Simple Extrapolation: Measures of economic activity such as employment, volume or value of
production,valueaddedbymanufactureretc.maybearrangedintimeseriesandextrapolatedina
varietyofways.
Thesemethodshaveadvantageofsimplicity,relyingonreadily availabledataanddonotrequire
highlevelofskills.Butsincethesedonotattempttoexaminethefactorsofthephenomenon(e.g.
employment)torevealthepossiblereasonsofitsoccurrenceorinfluencesuponit,thesearelikely
to be unreliable and are only referred as a general guide. Also, simple extrapolation method is
suitableforsmallplanningareasonly.

ProductivityMethod:Thevariablesofproductionoroutputononehandandemploymenton
theotherarelinkedbythevariableproductivity.Thisissimplymeasuredasoutputperworker.
Thissimpleformissuitableforplannersforwhomemploymentisthemostusefulmeasure.The
projectionisaccomplishedbyobtainingestimateoffutureproductionoroutputandproductivity
fromsomereliablesource.Hence,
Output
Output/=Workers

Workers
Or,inotherwords,outputdividedbyproductivityyieldsanestimateofworkers.
This method has advantages over the simple manipulations of employment data since it enables
usertoexaminetheprojectedemploymentwiththetrendsofproduction,separatelyandtherefore
moreclearly.

ProjectionsbySectorsofEconomy:Itismorevaluabletohaveestimatesofthefuturelevelsof
outputoremploymentinthevarioussectorsoftheeconomyseparately.Forexample,toestimate
the possible amount of secondary activity, the land requirement for different kinds of
manufacturingisestimated(suchasthefloorspaceneededbywholesalingandretailingandoffice
typeemployment).
In the simplest case, the forecaster simply extrapolates the past trend in each sector of the
economye.g.throughproductivitymethod.Theestimatesfromdifferentsectorforecaststhenhave
to be summed. Such figure arrived should be crosschecked with a forecast of total employment
derivedfromsomeothersourceorcalculation.

EconomicBaseMethod:Thismethodisbasedonthepostulatethatgrowthinanareaseconomy
comesfromtheexpansionofeconomicbasewhichisdefinedasallthosebasicactivitieswhichare
producedforexportbeyondboundariesoflocalareaandwhichincreasesitswealthandabilityto
pay for imports. The remaining activities, which do not produce for 'export' but which exist to
satisfylocalneedsarereferredtoasthe'service'or'nonbasic'activities.
Theprojectionofbasicactivities(produceforexportonly)oftheeconomyismadebyusingratio
method of comparing local to national trends (for each sector of economy separately). Once the
projection of basic activities of each sector of economy has been made in the basic/nonbasic
ratios, the forecasts of basic employment are projected in comparison to total employment
estimate.
Theproblemsassociatedwiththemethodare,definitionofthe'localarea'andidentificationofthe
basicsectoroftheeconomyitself.Theshortcomingsoftheeconomicbasemethodare:relianceon
employment as the measure ignores the possible effects of changes in productivity; and the
basic/nonbasicratioisasuspectmeasureatanygivenpointoftime.
Ratio Method: The method makes use of a similar rational as described in the population
projection studies i.e. local levels of economic activity (either in total or sector wise) bear
proportionalrelationshipstolevelsofeconomicactivityinsuccessivelylargergeographicalareas.
The ratio method also implies that these relationships may be studied as they change over time
andareextrapolatedsothat,estimatesforthelocalareamaybederivedbasedonthegivensetof
forecastsforthelargergeographicalunit(e.g.thenation).

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InputOutput Methods: This method is based on the assumption that if the total output of
particular industry is distributed among all other sectors of economy (including consumers and
export) in a known proportion, it should be possible to calculate a table of coefficiency which
wouldshoweffectsofagivenincreaseofoutputofoneindustryonthepurchaseofallothers.This
kind of definable relationship spelled out in inputoutput grid can be helpful for economic
projectionsforaparticularregion/city.
The results are valid for shortterm projections only, as it cannot be assumed that relationships
betweensectorswillbestablethroughtime.Buttousethismethod,first,therelationshipbetween
differentsectorsofeconomyforagivendatehastobeobtainedbysomereliablesource.
Social or Regional Accounts Method: These methods employ the same logic as inputoutput
methodbutbyusingmoney(ratherthanproductionoremployment)asthemeasure.Itcanbefully
comprehensive in its analysis of the interrelations within an economic system by inclusion of
capitalformation,investmentandtradeaswellasindustrialproduction.Inthiswaythematrixisa
record of the incomeandexpenditure relationships between all sectors of the economy. This
matrixmaybeusedtoobtainprojectionsoftheexpectedincomeofeachsectorforthefuture.To
doso,itisnecessarythatthecoefficientsexpressingtheintersectorrelationships(eachcellinthe
matrix) isset. Then, the level of employment and income per worker of different sectors of
economyisestimated126.

7.5.2.1. EstimationofCitylevelGDP
National product is a measure in monetary terms of the volume of all goods and
services produced by an economy during a given period of time, accounted without
duplication.Itismeasuredbythreeapproaches,namelytheproduction,income,and
expenditure.InIndiaGrossDomesticProduct(GDP)iscalculatedthroughproduction
andexpenditureapproach127.
Productionapproach(ofGDPcalculation)=thesumofvalueaddedofalleconomicactivitieswithin
thecountrysterritory(sumofoutputminusintermediateconsumption)+indirecttaxessubsidieson
products128.
Expenditureapproach(GDPatmarketprice) = Household final consumption expenditure + Non
profit Institutions final consumption expenditure + Government final consumption expenditure +
Gross fixed capital formation + Acquisition less disposals of valuables + Changes in inventories +
ExportsImports.
GDPDepreciation=NetDomesticProduct(NDP)ofthecountry.
Thestateaccountsstatisticsareanextensionofthesystemofnationalaccountsattheregionallevel.
The most important aggregate of the state & district accounts is the StateDomesticProduct(SDP)
and District Domestic Product (District DP) respectively, compiled by State Directorates of
Economics and Statistics. For estimating the Domestic Product, the economy is divided into various
economic activities like agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, manufacturing, construction, electricity,
transport,communication,tradeetc.
The Central Statistical Organisation (CSO) estimates Rural and Urban share of the GDP at
National level for few years129. From the National Urban GDP, the following method could be
consideredforestimatingurbanshareofDistrictGDP130:

126

Urban&RegionalPlanningAsystemsApproachbyJ.BrrianMcLoughlin.

127

QuarterlyEstimatesofGrossDomesticProductfortheThirdQuarter(OctoberDecember)of201314.

128

NationalAccountsStatistics:ManualonEstimationofStateandDistrictIncome,2008.

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FundamentalequationestimatedatallIndialevelforurbanGDPcalculatedbyCSO.
SimplifythefundamentalequationbymakingurbanshareofGDP afunctionofurbanizationrate
andnonagricultureshareofGDPtoestimateStatesShareofUrbanGDP.
Apply the estimated coefficients on district level urbanization rate and nonagriculture GDP to
estimateDistrictshareofUrbanGDP.

Once the urban share of District GDP is derived, City GDP could be calculated by
followingsteps:

The approach and methodology for estimating the Rural and Urban income sector
wise,isdiscussedintheNationalAccountsStatisticsSourcesandMethods,2007.
ForcalculatingcitylevelGDP,CSOmaydevelopacitylevelinventory.Thefollowing
table provides sector wise tentative items, the monetary value of which can be
consideredintheinventory,tocalculatecityGDP.
Table7.6: ItemsforconsiderationintheinventoryforCityGDPcalculation
S.No.Sector

Items

Manufacturing

IndexofIndustrialProduction(Manufacturing)
Manufacturingregistered(unorganisedsector)
Productionandincome

Financing,
Banking
Insurance,Real Insurance
estateand
Realestate
businessservices
Ownershipofdwellings
Legalservices
Accounting
Computerrelatedservices
Rentingofmachinery
Researchanddevelopment

Electricity,Gas
andWater
supply

Electricity:IndexofIndustrialProduction(Electricity)

Railways

Goods(NettonneKms.)andPassenger(NetpassengerKms.)

Transportby
othermeans

Gas
WaterSupply:publicandprivate
Thetwoindicatorsarecombinedusingtheweightsofrespectiveearnings
Public:road,watertransport,airtransport,
Private:roadtransport,watertransport,airtransport
Serviceincidentaltotransport
Warehousing
StorageColdstorage

Communication

Publicservicesandinfrastructurecost
Privatecourierservices,cableoperators,othercommunication

129

http://planningcommission.nic.in/hackathon/Urban_Development.pdf.

130

McKinsey & Companys note to MoUD, 17 April 2014.

th

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S.No.Sector

Items

Construction

Puccaconstruction:Householdsector,Publicsector,Privatecorporatesector

Trade,Hotels
Trade:publicsectordealinginwholesaleandretailtrade;privateorganisedtrade,private
andRestaurants unorganisedtrade,

Kutchaconstruction

Hotelandrestaurants:public,private
9
10

Public
administration

Publicadministration

Miningand
Quarrying

Coalandcrudepetroleum

Quasigovernmentbodies
Othermajorminerals
Otherminorminerals

11

Agriculture

MajorandMinorcrops
Commercialcrops
Miscellaneouscrops
Byproducts

12

Livestock

Milk&milkproducts
Egg,Meat
Otherproducts(wool)

13

Forestry

Fuelwood
Industrialwood
Minorforestproducts,ifany

14

Fishing

Inlandandmarinefish,prawns
Subsistencefish

15

Otherservices

Public:education,medical,coachingcentresetc.
Private:coachingcentres,medicalandhealth,sewageandrefusedisposal,recreational
activities,washingandcleaning,hairdressing,funeralrelatedservices,tailoringservicesetc.

Sources:NationalAccountsStatisticsSourcesandMethods,2007.Respectivesourceofdatacollectionoftheabovementioned
itemscouldbereferredfromNationalAccountsStatistics:ManualonEstimationofStateandDistrictincome,2008.

7.5.3. AssessmentofRequirementofHousing
Basedontheprojectionofpopulationandeconomicactivities,townplannersmajor
preoccupationistodeterminethedemandforhousingandotherfacilitiesinatown.
While dealing with housing, it is necessary to clearly distinguish between housing
need and its demand. Need refers to inadequacy of existing provisions when
compared with socially acceptable norms, while demand is an economic concept
wherein standard and amount of housing demand is related to households income
and ability to pay. Both housing need and demand are affected by factors such as
housing shortage and rate of obsolescence, whereas demand would be additionally
affectedbyaffordabilityandfuturehousingneeds.
Present housing need: By subtracting the number of unsuitable dwellings from the
existinghousingstockthepresenthousingneedcanbeestimated.
Future housing need: Further, the future housing need can be estimated from the
projectednumberofadditionalhouseholdsinthecity.Asimplewayofdoingthisisto
estimatethefuturepopulationofthecityanddivideitbytheexpectedhouseholdsize.
ThehouseholdsizeistobereferredfromNationalaveragefamilysize.
Demand estimation requires careful analysis of the affordability criterion. For this
initial capital cost of the housing units, total annual household income and annual

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economic rent131have to be looked into simultaneously. The annual economic rent


can be further analysed based on the information on amortisation rates, interest
rates,andcostofmaintenance,repairandmanagement.

7.6.

Mapping

Amapcanbedefinedasrepresentationofearthspatternasawholeorpartofitona
plane surface with conventional signs, drawn to a scale and projection so that each
andeverypointonitcorrespondstotheactualterrestrialposition.
No matter how large or small a community is; a planner has to deal with spatial
information required for planning such as land parcels, zoning, land use,
transportation networks, housing stock among others. As well, to monitor multiple
urban and regional indicators, forecast community needs, and plan accordingly to
improve quality of life of the community; mapping activities are valuable in
understandingandcommunicatingplanningissues.

7.6.1. ScaleofMap
Thescaleofmapuseddependsuponthesizeoftheplanningareaandthecoverage
and extent of the information to be shown. The scale of maps for different types of
planningexercisesatvariouslevelsmaybeselectedoutoftherangeindicatedinthe
followingtable.
Table7.7: ScaleofMapsforPlanning
Sr.No.

Typeofmap/PlanningExercise

SizeofPlanningArea

PerspectivePlan

1:2,50,0001:1,00,000(forlargerregions)
1:1,00,0001:50,000(forsmallerregions)

RegionalPlan

1:50,0001:25,000(DistrictDevelopmentPlan)
1:25,0001:10,000(MetropolitanRegionPlan)

DevelopmentPlan

1:10,0001:8,000(asperStateProvision)

LocalAreaPlan/SpecialPurposePlan

1:5,0001:1,000(aspertherequirementoftheproject)

Source: BasedonscaleofSoIToposheet,BhuvandataavailabilityandUDPFIGuidelines,1996,NUIS2006,Scaleofvarious
PlansasperStateprovisions.

7.6.2. MapInformationChecklist
Maps contain lots of spatial data for the planning of urban and regional areas.
Depending upon the requirement of study and availability of data, features can be
selectedandpresentedthroughmap.
This data is collected from various sources and in diverse fields to make a
comprehensive and working plan. A map information checklist with sources of
information is given below to save time and expedite planning process. This data is
broadly divided into 17 categories and these categories are further divided into
detaileddatalist.

131

Consideringthefastrisinglandpricesinalmostalltownsandcities,itisnecessarytopromoterentalhousing.Thisrequires
augmenting access to reasonable housing by the low income and fresher in the employment. Requiring higher residential
densityoverandabovetheownedhousingstock.

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Table7.8: MapDataChecklist
S.No.

Features

Subcategories

Physical

Physiography

Sources
Undulatingplainwithmounds

SoIToposheets,
SatelliteImagePhotomosaicfromNRSC&Bhuvan
(Resolution30m
Heightaccuracy8m),
AerialPhotographs

Plains

Floodplain,

SoIToposheets,

Alluvialplain,

Coastalplain,

SatelliteImagePhotomosaicfromNRSC&Bhuvan
(1:50,000),

Lacustrineplain,

AerialPhotographs

Valleys

Ushape,
Vshape,
Hillvalley,
Rivervalley,
Plateauvalley

SoIToposheets,
SatelliteImagePhotomosaicfromNRSC&Bhuvan(joint
projectofNRSC/ISROandGSI),
AerialPhotographs

Waterbodies/Drainage

River,
Canal,
Lakes/Ponds,
Reservoirs,
Tanks,
Coolingponds/coolingreservoir,
Abandonedquarrieswithwater,
Hotsprings

SoIToposheets,

SatelliteImagePhotomosaicfromNRSC&Bhuvan
(1:50,000;for2005,2012),

AerialPhotographs

Aquifers,
Depthofwatertable,
Fluctuationofwatertable

SoIToposheets,

BhuvanGroundwaterprospectsmaps(1:50,000),

Unconsolidatedsediments,
ResidualCapping,
VolcanicFlowsandIntertrapeans,
SemiConsolidatedSediments,
Consolidatedsediments,
IntrusiveRocks,
Crystalline/Metamorphicrocks,
Faultandsheerzones,

GeologicalSurveyofIndia,

BhuvanUnderRajivGandhiDrinkingWaterMission
(RGDW)

Groundwater

Lithology

CentreGroundWaterCommission

JointprojectofNRSC/ISROandMinistryofRural
development(1:50,000),

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S.No.

Features

Subcategories
GeologicalStructure

Soil

Sources
Lineament,
Fracture/Faultlinevalley,
Folds,
Geomorphology,
Faultlines,
Fractures,
Folds

SoIToposheets,

SatelliteImagePhotomosaicfromNRSC&Bhuvan
(1:50,000),

TypesofSoils

RedSoil,
BlackSoil,
MixedRedandBlackSoil,
LateriteandLateriticSoils,
AlluvialSoil
(river/deltaic/costal),
PeatyandMarshySoils,
DesertSoils,
SalineandAlkalineSoil,
ForestandHillSoil

SatelliteImagePhotomosaicfromNRSC&Bhuvan,

GeologicalSurveyofIndia

Districtcensushandbook

Soildepth

Verydeep(>150cms),

SatelliteImagePhotomosaicfromNRSC&Bhuvan,

Deep(100150cms),

PhotomosaicfromNRSC&Bhuvan,

Deeptomoderatelydeep(50100
cms),

Shallow(2550cms),
Veryshallow(<25cms)
2

Planningand
Administrative

Administrative
Boundaries

StateBoundary*,
DistrictBoundary*,
Taluka/TehsilBoundary*,
Mandal/blockBoundaries*,
VillageBoundary*
UDABoundary,
MunicipalBoundary,
CantonmentBoundary,
ZoneBoundary,
BlockBoundary,
LocalityBoundary,
Municipal/Censuswards,

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

SoIToposheets,
CensusAtlasMaps,
Maps/DrawingsfromULB,
Revenuerecords,
Municipalmaps,
StateRemoteSensingApplicationCentre(SRSAC),
SatelliteImagePhotomosaicfromNRSC&Bhuvan*
(1:50,000),

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S.No.

Features

Locationaland
regionalsettings

Subcategories

Sources

Surveyno.Boundary,
Citysurveyno.Boundary

Locationoftownin
regionalsetting,

SoIToposheets,
SatelliteImagePhotomosaicfromNRSC&Bhuvan(Cities
andTownslocations),

Urban/ruralsettlements

CensusAtlasmaps,
NationalAtlasandThematicMappingOrganisation
(NATMO),
StateRemoteSensingApplicationCentre(SRSAC)
4

Historyof
development

Settlementmorphology

Climate

Temperature,

Municipalmaps
MapsandDrawingsfromULBs
Departmentalmaps

Bhuvan(Pointinformation

Rainfall,

Canberegisteredanddatacanbedownloaded,
SAC/ISROwebsiteprovidestheseparametersbyAWF
station

Humidity,
Winddirection
6

Landuse
assessment

Existinglanduse/cover,
Proposedlanduse/cover

Residential,
Industrial,
Mixedlanduse,
Recreational,
Publicandsemipublic,
Communications,
Publicutilitiesandfacility,
Commercial,
Transportation,
Reclaimedland
Vacantland,
Vegetatedarea

SoIToposheets

MapsandDrawingsfromULBs

SatelliteImagePhotomosaicfromNRSC&
Bhuvan(1:50,000;200506,201112),

Agriculturalland

Cropland,

SoIToposheets

Fallowland,

Departmentalmaps

Plantation,

Revenuerecords

Doublecroppedarea,

SatelliteImageries

Irrigatedland:

AerialPhotographs,SatelliteImagePhotomosaicfrom
NRSC&Bhuvan(1:50,000;200506,201112),

AerialPhotographs

StateRemoteSensingApplicationCentre(SRSAC),

NUISmaps

Canalirrigated,

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S.No.

Features

Subcategories

Sources
Wellirrigated,
Tankirrigated
Wasteland

Saltaffected

SoIToposheets

Gullied/ravenous

Landwith/withoutscrub,

SatelliteImagePhotomosaicfromNRSC&Bhuvan
(1:50,000;200506,201112),

Barren/rocky/
unculturableland,

AerialPhotographs

Revenuemaps

Culturablewasteland,
Sandyarea

Grazingland

Permanentpastures,

SoIToposheets

Othergrazingland,

SatelliteImagePhotomosaicfromNRSC&Bhuvan
(1:50,000;200506,201112),

Miscellaneoustreecrops
andgroves

Revenuemaps
AerialPhotographs

Environmentally
andecologically
sensitivearea

Air,waterandnoise
pollution,

MapsandDrawingsfromULBs

Locationofpollution
generatingindustries,

AerialPhotographs
CPCB(ZoningAtlasofIndustries)

Mapdepictingthelocation
ofslums,squattersand
otherblightedarea
8

Conservationof
environment

Hazardszone

NationalDisasterManagementAuthority(NDMA),

GeologicalSurveyofIndia

Pollutingactivities

CentralPollutionControlBoard(CPCB),StatePollution
ControlBoard(SPCB),MajorprojectEIAreports

Environmentallysensitive
/Conservationarea

Forestboundary

Notified/Reserved/
ProtectedForestBoundary,

SoIToposheets,

NationalParkBoundary,

MinistryofEnvironmentandForest,StatePCCF
(PrincipalChiefConservatorofForests)

SanctuaryBoundary

Worldheritagesites

CulturalandNatural
heritage

UNESCO

RAMSARsites

OtherWetlands

Saltpans,

SoIToposheets

Marshy/swampy

SatelliteImagePhotomosaicfromNRSC&Bhuvan,

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S.No.

Features

Subcategories

Sources

Mudflats,

Waterlogged
9

Heritagesite,
buildingand
areas

ASIsites,
Locationofheritagesite,
buildingandareas

SoIToposheets,
ArchaeologicalSurveyofIndia

10

Tourism

Tourismdevelopment
Map

MinistryofTourism,
StateTourismDepartments

11

Hazardprone

Earthquakeprone,
FloodProne,
CycloneProne,
DeforestationProne,
DesertificationProne

BuildingMaterialandTechnologyPromotionCouncil,

Distributionofexisting
andproposedpopulation,
Migrationtrends,
Populationgrowth,
PopulationDensity,
Sexratio,
Childsexratio,
GendergapinLiteracy,
Workforce

Slumpopulation

Mainworkers,
Marginalworkers,
Nonworkers,
Cultivation,
Agriculturallabourers,
Householdindustryworkers,
Otherworkers

Cityward/districtmap,
Locationofinformal
sectorsarea
Typeofstreetvendors

Natureofstreetvendors

Stationary,
Mobile,
Perishable,Nonperishablegoods.

12

13

Demography

Economicand
social
development

CWC(FloodAtlasofIndia),
Bhuvan(1:50,000;onlyBiharandAssam)

CensusAtlasmaps,
NationalAtlasandThematicMappingOrganisation
(NATMO)

DepartmentalMaps,
MapsandDrawingsfromULBs,
CensusMaps
Groundsurvey

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S.No.
14

Features

Subcategories

Housingand
shelter

Builtuparea

Sources

Revenuedepartmentofthelocalauthority

Distributionofresidential
landuse,

DepartmentalMaps,

Basemapcontaining
building/property
boundaries,

MapsandDrawingsfromULBs

Buildingmaterialmap,
Buildingagemap,
Landvaluemap
15

Transportation

Roadnetwork,

Nationalhighway,

SoIToposheets,

ExistingandProposed
roadnetworkmap

Statehighway,

NHAI,

Districtroads,

DepartmentalMaps,

Villageroads,

MapsandDrawingsfromULBs,

Cityroads,

DetailedProjectReports,

Wardandneighbourhoodlevelnon
motorizedroutesExisting,

RoadandBuildingDepartment,

Proposednonmotorizedtransport
priorityzones,

SatelliteImagePhotomosaicfromNRSC&Bhuvan
(110,000;existingroadnetwork),

PublicWorkDepartment,

BusTransportChowkiesorResting
areas,

Groundsurvey

Existingstreetlighting,
Ringroad,
Byepass,
Expressway,
Busterminus,
Truckterminal
Railwaynetwork,

Broadgauge,

ExistingandProposedrail
networkmap

Narrowgauge,

SoIToposheets,
MinisterofRailways

Railwaystations,
Railwayterminals,

Airports

Internationalairports,

Locationofairportsand
airdromes,

Domesticairports,

AirportAuthorityofIndia,

Airfunnelmaps

Customsairports

SatelliteImagePhotomosaicfromNRSC&Bhuvan,

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

SoIToposheets,

269

SimplifiedPlanningTechniques

S.No.

Features

Subcategories

Sources

Waterways,

Majorports,

SeaPorts,

Minorports

SoIToposheets,
DepartmentalMaps

Landusemapsofjetties
andports
16

Infrastructure

Watersupplynetwork,

Watertreatmentplants,

Waterpumpingstations,

DepartmentalMaps,

MapsandDrawingsfromULBs,

DrainageNetwork,

CityGuideMaps,

AerialPhotographs,

Sewerageandsolidwaste
management,

Publictoiletsformenandwomen.
Seweragetreatmentplants,

DetailedProjectReports,

Seweragepumpingstations,

Outletsinwaterbodies/lowlying
areas,

Groundsurvey.

SoIToposheets,

PublicWorkDepartment

Communitygarbagebins,
Wastetreatmentsite,
Wastedumpingsite,

Powersupplyline
network,

Electricityline,
Electricitysubstations,

Powerstations,

Telecommunication
network,

MobileTowers,

Healthcentres,

Includingdaycarecentres,health
posts,deaddictioncentres,

Educationalinstitutes,

Includingstreetschoolsandbalwadis,

Firestation,

Postoffice,

Policestations,

Policefieldoffices.

Banks/ATMs,

Communitycentres,

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

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SimplifiedPlanningTechniques
S.No.

Features

Subcategories

Sources

Socioculturaland
religiouscentres
Allsocialinfrastructures
withininformal
settlements.
17

Review,Revise

Updatedbasemap,

Existinglandusemap,

MapsandDrawingsfromULBs

Proposedplanofvarious
sectors
Source:Asgiven.

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7.6.3. ProcedureofCollectingData
Proceduretoretrievedatabypermissions,whichisnotavailableinthepublicforum
aregivenbelow:

7.6.3.1. Toposheets
Unrestricted topographical/ city guide maps published by Survey of India are
availableforsale.Thestandardtopographicalmapsonscale1:25000,1:50000and1:
250,000andcityguidemapspublishedforselectedtowns/citiesareusefulforurban
developmentplanpurpose.
All the topographical maps along the external boundary/coastline of India, as
indicatedintheTopoIndexmapofSurveyofIndiaarecategorisedasrestrictedmaps.
The restricted category maps can be procured by State and Central Governments /
Private Individuals / Organisations/commercial firms by filling a separate form.
Private individuals and organizations / commercial firms can also obtain restricted
mapswithpriorapprovalfromMinistryofDefencethroughtheStateGovernmentto
whomtheyshouldapply.

7.6.3.2. Aerialphotography
Informationregardingareaofinterestforaerialphotography,itsscaleandcostrates
can be obtained from Surveyor Generals Office, Dehradun or the Directorate of
Survey (Air), New Delhi. Survey of India (SoI) has a dedicated web portal for
presenting the metadata information available with SoI from various aerial
photography tasks commenced. Web Aerial Photography Transaction Registry
(APTR) provides transparent indenting process based on instructions issued by
MinistryofDefence.
Indentor can obtain the existing photography by marking the area of interest on
1:250,000 scale topographical map, indicating purpose, identifying the type (B&W,
colour,colourinfrared),scaleandthephotographicproductrequired(contactprints,
enlargements, mosaic, etc.).If the existing photography does not cater to the
requirementsofindentor,processforfreshaerialphotography canbeinitiated.The
NationalGovernmentagencies,whichprovidefreshaerialphotography,are:

IndianAirForce(throughSurveyofIndia)
NationalRemoteSensingCentre,Hyderabad
AirSurveyCompany,Calcutta.

For indenting freshaerial photography theindentor may approach any oftheflying


agencieswithspecificinformation.Theindentormaymarkthelimitoftheareatobe
photographed on 1:250,000 scale top sheet if photography is required on scale
smaller than 1:20,000 and 1:50,000 scale top sheet if photography is required on

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scale1:20,000andlargerandapplywiththespecificrequirementsmentionedforthe
procurementoftheexistingaerialphotography.

7.6.3.3. SatelliteImages
National Remote Sensing Centre(NRSC) is the important segment ofIndian Space
ResearchOrganization(ISRO)withthemandateofprovidingEarthObservation(EO)
data from space and aerial platforms to users, develop technologies for the
managementofnaturalresources,supportdisastermonitoringandmanagementand
capacitybuildingforutilizationofEOdata.Itisvestedwiththeauthoritytoacquire
and disseminate all satellite remote sensing data in India, both from Indian and
foreignsatellites.
Table7.9: IRSSatelliteDataProductsrelevantforUrbanApplications
S.No

Satellite/
Sensor

Spatial
Resolution

Spectral
Resolution

ScaleofBase&
Thematicmapping Remarks
(Possible)

Cartosat2

1m

PAN

1:5,000

MergingPAN+LISSIV
Imagescangenerate1m
multispectralimages.

Cartosat1

2.5mStereo

PAN

1:10,000

2.5mmultispectralimage
cangeneratedbymerging
PAN+LISSIVImages

LISSIV(5.8m)

Multispectral

1:25,000

Resourcesat1/2 LISSIII(23.5m)

Multispectral

5
6

RISAT

1:50,000

Awifs(56m)

Multispectral 1:25,000

Capableofimaging
50mto3min
differentmodes

Capableofimagingincloud
conditions,henceUsefulin
especiallyduringmonsoon

Microwavesensor

NearFuture
Satellite

Proposedsensors

25cmPAN

1:2,000orbetter

Cartosat3

1MMultispectral

24cmmultispectralimage
canbegeneratedby
mergingPAN+LISSIV
Images.

Source:NationalRemoteSensingCentre132

In addition to the IRS satellite data products, very High Resolution foreign satellite
datamayprocurethroughNRSC,aspertheRemoteSensingDataPolicy2011.
1. Alldataofresolutionsupto1mshallbedistributedonanondiscriminatorybasisandonas
requestedbasis
2. Withaviewtoprotectnationalsecurityinterests,alldataofbetterthan1mresolutionshallbe
screenedandclearedbytheappropriateagencypriortodistribution.

Apart from the responsibilities stated above, NRSC proactively disseminates the
information derived from its various national level projects through its Bhuvan
Geoportal. The free satellite data download facility is also available for registered
userstofacilitateresearch,formulateprojectsandplandevelopmentactivities.

132

Detailsondataproducts,priceandnecessarydataorderformsareavailablewww.nrsc.gov.in.Apartfromtheresponsibilities
stated above, NRSC proactively disseminates the information derived from its various national level projects through its
Bhuvan Geoportal. The free satellite data download facility is also available for registered users to facilitate research,
formulateprojectsandplandevelopmentactivities.

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7.6.3.4. GeologicalSurveyofIndia
ToassessthemetadatabaseofGeoenvironmentalstudiesforvariouscitiesinIndia,
with interpretation of geomorphology, hydrology, geological structures and tectonic
datafromGeologicalSurveyofIndia,UrbanLocalBodiesanditsrepresentativescan
approachMinistryofMinesandGSIwiththeirspecificrequirements.

7.7.

BaseMap&DevelopmentPlanPreparation

7.7.1. Basemapfeatures
Before taking up any urban development plan exercise the first task, both from
planningpointofviewandasstatutoryrequirement,istoprepareorobtainreliable,
accurateanduptodatebasemapfortherespectivetownorcityforwhichtheplanis
beingprepared.Theamountofinformationtoberepresentedonthemapvariesfrom
maptomapbecauseinformationdepictiondependson:

Purposeofmap
Scale
Projection
Methodofmapmaking
Draughtingskill

Uniformity of base map with regard to presentation of features, scale, size and
notations, facilitates the readability of these maps and comparison of one map with
another.MappingsoftwareofRemoteSensingandGeographicalInformationSystem
are capable of generating maps with uniformity as well as processing data from
differentplatform.ThestandardlayoutofmapisgiveninAppendixGofVolumeIIB.

7.7.2. PlanformulationthroughRemoteSensing&Geographic
InformationSystem
Geographical Information System (GIS) in planning is increasingly being applied for
plan formulation, analysis as well as for proposal. As a powerful tool, GIS helps the
plannerstoviewdifferentscenariosandtheiroutcomesothatanoptimalstrategycan
be chosen for planning and development. Besides this Plan formulation using
RemoteSensingandinGISplatformhavethefollowingadvantages:

BenefitsofAnalyticaltechniquesinGISplatform
Groundpointsandgeoreferenceddatabaseforproposalspreparation
DynamicfeaturescanbeincorporatedfromRSdata
RegularDatabaseupdatingandPlanRevisionwithouthassle
Providedecisionmakingsupport
Promotecollaborationamongpublicagencies.
Automatedtasksreducehumanerrors
LongTermInvestment
Inaddition,forBhuvanEnhancepublicparticipation
Inaddition,forBhuvanIncreaseaccesstogovernment&efficientapprovalprocedures

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OncethespatialandattributedataaregeneratedinGISframe,theirapplicationsare
wide and varied. These include resource inventory and management, planning and
monitoring, land records fortaxation and ownership controls, facilities and services
management, environment impact assessment. GIS is being used for planning of
variouscitiesinIndialately.DevelopmentPlanisalevelofplanforwhichGIScould
be used very successfully. Preparation of Development Plan using RS & GIS can be
classifiedunderfollowingpartsforeasierunderstandingandimplementation.

Basemappreparationprocess
Preparationofexistinglandusemap
Analysisofthestudyarea
Proposedlanduseplan
Revisionoftheplan

7.7.2.1. BaseMappreparationprocess
Preparation of Master Plan starts with base map preparation before which relevant
data of all the necessary information, which is to be presented via base, map is
collected. For base map preparation, National Urban Information System (NUIS)
Scheme has prepared maps on 1:10,000 scale and made available on NRSC/ISRO
GeoportalBhuvan(www.bhuvan.nrsc.gov.in)forUrbanLocalBodiesfor152towns.
Bhuvan NUIS GIS database comprises Baselayers: Road, Rail, Canal, Transportation
nodes,Drainage,SurfacewaterBodiesandThematiclayers:UrbanLanduse/Cover,
Geomorphology*, Lithology, Geological structures*, Physiography* and
Administrative Layers: State, District, Village, City/Town boundaries and Ward
Boundaries (*outside core area also). Attribute data has spatial layers as,
administrativeboundaries,forestboundary,settlementandvillagelocations/names
andcity/townboundariesandnonspatialdata.Othersourcesoflicenced/authentic
versions of interpreted satellite imageries can also be used for preparation of base
map.
Alternatively,fordetailedbasemappreparationhighspatialresolutionpanchromatic
imageandmediumresolutionmultispectralimagecanbemergedtoprovideahigh
resolution multispectral image at appropriate largescale urban information. For
preparing thematic maps, under NUIS, Cartosat1 (panchromatic) with 2.5m spatial
resolution and Resourcesat1 (LISSIV/ multispectral data) 5.8m spatial resolution
satelliteimagerieswerefused,toproducecolourimagesat2.5mspatialresolutionfor
analysis,mappingandproductgeneration.
At this stage, scale of the map should be decided. The Thematic GIS databases
availableonBhuvanrangefrom1:10,000,to1:250,000.TheimportantSatellitedata
and thematic GIS data resources available for utilization for various planning and
developmentarelistedbelow.

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

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SimplifiedPlanningTechniques
Table7.10: BhuvanSatellitedataandthematicGISdataresourcesavailable
S.No

Description

Scaleofdata

Coverage

SatelliteDataResources
1

HighResolutionsatelliteimage

2.5mspatialresolutionNatural
ColourComposite(NCC)

EntireIndia

VeryHighResolutionsatellite
Image

1mspatialresolutionNatural
ColourComposite(NCC)

MajorCities/Towns

BaseandThematicGISdataservices
1

NUISSchemeBaseandUrban
ThematicGISdatabase

1:10,000

152Towns

SISDPBaseandLandUse/Cover
GISdata

1:10,000

EntireIndiaStatewise

Landuse/CoverGISdata

1:50,000

EntireIndian
20052006
20112012

GeomorphologyGISdata

1:50,000

EntireIndia(Collaborationwith
GSI)

GeologicalstructuresGISdata

1:50,000

EntireIndia(Collaborationwith
GSI)

WastelandGISdata

1:50,000

EntireIndia

GroundWaterProspectsGISdata

1:50,000

EntireIndia

Landuse/CoverRasterdata

1:250,000

EntireIndia
9Cyclesofdatafrom2004to2013

Source:NationalRemoteSensingCentre.ThislistofsatellitedataandThematicGISdataavailabilitygetsupdated,regularlyas
pertheISRO/DOSpolicies.

Once the base and thematic layers from the Satellite Imagery are prepared, other
city/townspecificinformationsuchas,cadastralmaps,revenuerecords,andplansof
government agencies and attribute information from Industrial Development
Corporations,PublicWorkDepartment,Railways,NationalHighwayAuthoritycould
be integrated for preparation comprehensive GIS database as required for
DevelopmentPlan/MasterPlanpreparation.
TheprocesstooverlaySatelliteimagesovercadastralmapsforpreparingbasemapis
explained in the Manual: Space based Information System for Decentralised
Planning,ISRO133.Thesatelliteimageries,ResourcesatLISS4andCartosatPAN,can
beoverlaidoncadastralmapstopreparebasemap.Thesesatelliteimagesdepictfield
bunds, cart tracks, small nullahs, settlements, tanks and other cultural features like
roads, railway network and canals. These features facilitate identification ofGround
ControlPoints(GCP)fortiedownsatelliteimageandcadastralmap.
Foroverlayingcadastralmapwithsatelliteimageitisrequiredthatcadastralmapbe
generatedinvectormode.Inthisprocessthemaintasksareacquisitionofcadastral
maps,scanninganddigitisationofcadastralmapsandgenerationofvectordata.Once
the cadastral maps in vector mode are available, the georeferencing of these maps

133

AppendixGofVolumeIIBandManualalsoavailableat:http://www.bhuvanpanchayat.nrsc.gov.in/assets/ManualPart2.pdf

276

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

SimplifiedPlan
nningTechniques
can be done. The georeferencingg of digitaal cadastraal maps an
nd overlay
ying with
sateelliteimageeconsistso
ofthefollow
wingsteps:

Acquisitiono
A
ofGCPs
ionmodeldeevelopmentandassessment
T
Transformat
Georeferenccingofcadasttralmaps
V
Validationof
fGeoreferencedmap,inIsolation
V
Validationof
fGeoreferencedmap,witthneighbourh
hood
Mosaicgenerrationatreveenueinspecto
or(RI),taluka
aanddistricttlevel

TheesestepsarredetailedinAppendixHofVolu
umeIIB.
Furrther,theprrocessofpreparation
nofExistingglandusep
plancanbeeinitiatedaasthe
logiicalstepofdataprepaaration.

7.7.2.2. Preeparation
nofExistin
ngLandU
UseMap
Theedraftofth
heexistingglandusem
map,incorrporatingth
helandusefeatures fromthe
sateelliteinterp
pretationaandrevenuerecordsaaretakenu
upforgroundverificaation.The
amo
ount of infformation or area veerified und
der this staage varies from settleement to
setttlement.In ruralareas1520%o
ofgroundv
verification
nshouldbeeappropriaate,given
thepredominaanceofagrriculture,w
wastelando
orforestlan
ndcover.W
While,inurb
banareas
groundverificcationcould
dbe2050%
%orevenupto100%
%,ifsettlem
mentisvery
ydense.
Onccegroundv
verification
nisoveran
ndincorporatedinth
heexisting draftland usemap,
finaallanduse mapispro
oduced.In thefinaleexistinglan
ndusemap
p,thedateo
onwhich
map
pwasapprrovedshouldbementtioned.
Figu
ure7.10:ProccessofDevelo
opmentPlanPreparationthroughGIS(A)

Sourcce:

Consultatio
onswithNRSC,N
NUIS,HMDAand
dvarioussourcees.

URD
DPFIGuidelin
nes,2014.MiinistryofUrb
banDevelopment

277

SimplifiedPlanningTechniques

7.7.2.3. AnalysisofExistingLandUseMap
Base data, such as population, transportation, infrastructure, area under
conservation/preservation, ecologically sensitive area, developable area etc., can be
taken.ThematiclayersfromBhuvanseriesprovidingdataofgeomorphology,geology,
lineaments, DEM, land transformation Atlas etc., can be selected. After giving
weightage to the chosen indicators, these layers can be superimposed to generate
mapsshowinglandsuitabilityoritspotentialfordevelopmentorconservation.Here
the parameters for selection are to be carefully chosen to suit the planning
requirements of the region. Through the weightage given for analysis, the resulted
mapcanbecategorisedintosuitabilitylayers,suchas:
Landmostsuitablefordevelopment
Landsuitablefordevelopment
Landmoderatelysuitablefordevelopment
Landnonsuitablefordevelopment

Figure7.11:ProcessofDevelopmentPlanPreparationthroughGIS(B)

Source:

ConsultationswithNRSC,NUIS,HMDAandvarioussources.

7.7.2.4. ProposedLandusePlan
Developement strategy can be prepared from the analysis of the situation after
superimposing it on the existing land use map. Development strategy could be

278

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

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focussed on urban nodes, key infrastructure, transport links or industrial
development.Thedevelopmentstrategyandlandsuitabilityanalysisistosuggestthe
landusezoningandtheproposedplan.However,thesezonesandspecificationsofthe
existing land use map are overlaid and refined for bringing out details on the
proposedplan.AnalysisonGISalsoallowsplannerstointegrateinputsfromDisaster
ManagementPlanintotheProposedDraftLandUsePlan.
Through efforts of the State and Local Government, Master Plan formulation using
webbasedGISsoftwareapplicationonBhuvancanbeutilisedforpublicpartispation
onGeospatialplatform.Theapprovedproposedlanduseplancouldbeuploadedon
BhuvanGeoportal.Feedbackcanbegivenonsuchplanson BhuvanGeoportalbythe
publicorbyStateofficials.Basedontheobjectionsandsuggestionsreceivedinearlier
stage,theproposedlanduseplancanbemodifiedanduploadedonBhuvanGeoportal
again as a new version. The process of objections & suggestions and approvals and
uploading of the Plan can be repeated for a number of times as per the States
statutoryprovisionsuntiltheFinalPlanversionisnotapproved.
Figure7.12:ProcessofDevelopmentPlanPreparationthroughGIS(C)

Source:

ConsultationswithNRSC,NUIS,HMDAandvarioussources.

7.7.2.5. UseofGISinPlanRevision
For monitoring and revision of the Development Plan, deviation from the proposed
landusecanbedeterminedinGIS.TheULBandtheStategovernmentshavingutilised

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279

SimplifiedPlanningTechniques
the Bhuvan portal can create new data layers for the nonconforming land uses to
assessthedeviationbetweenthepreviousapprovedProposedLanduseplanandthe
existing situation. And since the mapping has been done on GIS, temporal variation
fromthelatestremotesensingimagerycanalsobeearmarked.Thisdeviationcanbe
addressedintherevisionoftheplan.

7.7.3. BhuvanGeoPortalforPlanning
Bhuvan is a geoportal of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), which is for
IndianEarthObservationdataproductsandservices. Bhuvanprovidesinterpretated
satelliteimageries,thematicdataandotherservicestoall,apartfrombaseforurban
and regional planning for the authorised Government agencies. Some of its salient
featuresare:
ProvideaccesstoallBhuvanGISdatabasesaswellasanyotherrelevantdatafromotherwebsites
like Survey of India (SOI), Forest Survey of India, National Highways Authority of India, Indian
Railways etc., Can used through the WMS service for effective utilization of available data. This
helpsinavoidingtheduplicationandredundancy.
RespectiveULBcanuploadthetownspecificspatialdatalikecadastralmapsandattributedatato
Bhuvan and comprehensive database required can be organised and used for formulation of
MasterPlan.
OpensourcefreelyavailableWebGISsoftwarepackageforexampleQGIS
UseBhuvanWMSservicefordatacreation.

7.7.3.1. BhuvanGeoPortalUserAccess
Bhuvan provides access to ULBs 134 , development authorities for government
administrationforurbanandregionalplanning,toworkontheavailableinformation,
create new databaseas layers; prepare,approve and upload plan. At ULB, the three
tiersystemofBhuvandatamangementprovideslogintodraughtman,TownPlanning
OfficerandCommissionerlevelofficers.
EachlevelhasdifferentpowerstoaccessBhuvandatabase,whichisdescribedbelow
(andcanbecustomizedasperULBsprocedures/methodsbeingfollowed):
DraughtsmancanworkonTowndatabaseandhaverightstoreadandcontrolwriteintheportal
database. Draughtsman have access control for all database for ready, edit, process and write to
temporaryfolder.Atthislevel personnelcancreatenewspatialfilesoredittheexistingfilesand
uploaddataforapproval.
Townplanningofficer(TPO)canworkonTowndatabaseandhave rightstoreadandwrite.TPO
havefullcontrolonthedatabase.Themaps,analysisonexistingdata,uploadeddataandreportsby
draughtsmenarepostedintemporaryfolderandrequiresTPOapprovaltomovethesefilestothe
database.
CommissionerlevelofficercanworkonTowndatabaseandhaverightstoselfcontrolledreadand
writeaccess.
Statelevelauthorities(DirectorsofficeofStatetown&CountryPlanningDepartment)haverights
foraccessingrespectivesatealltowns.

134

ULBscanaccessBhuvanthroughMoUDandStateTown&CountryPlanningDepartmentforauthorisationandfacilitationof
Bhuvanusernameandpassword.

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National level authorities (Ministry of Urban Development, TCPO, Delhi) have the rights of all
accessingstatewisealltownsstatusofIndia.

7.7.3.2. PortalUserInterface
AfterPlanningactivityisover,suchdatacanbeuploadedonBhuvanportalforpublic
viewing.Bhuvanportalhasuserinterfaceinthreelevelssuchas:

Viewing: Citizens and governemnt departments can view the spatial plan that is uploaded on
Bhuvanportal
Datacreation:BhuvanaccessedtownlevelUrbanPlanningauthoritiescancreateanduploaddata
onthePortal.
Feedback on the uploaded Plans: Citizens, Government departments and Bhuvan accessed Town
levelUrbanPlanningauthoritiescangivefeedbackonuploadeddata/plans.

7.7.3.3. BhuvanMobileapplications
Bhuvan provides varieties of solutions on Mobile and Smartphone platform in
additiontofielddatacollectionandupload,whichcanbeusedforurbanandregional
planning exercise. BhuvanApp can be downloaded on compatible mobile software.
Bothattributedataandpictorialdatacanbecollectionfromthefieldthroughtheapp,
and uploaded on Bhuvan to develop a centralized database and thereafter can be
viewedbyallfordecisionmaking.
Other applications are also available as a part of Bhuvan mobile app, such as
emergencyservices/responsesattheeventofhazard.Suchapplicationscanbeused
for Smart city concepts and can be modified or customized for the need to the
ULBs/DA. For the State of Uttarakhand, a post distaer initiative was taken using
Bhuvan. Bhuvan has developed customized applications called, Mapping the
NeighbourhoodinUttarakhand(MANU),forcollectinginformationfromthefieldon
mobilebyassignedteamandupdatingitontheBhuvanforenablingreconstructsand
rehabilitationexercisethatcouldbeusedbylocalGovt.effectively.

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InfrastructurePlanning

InfrastructurePlanning

Millennium Development Goals (MDG), directly or indirectly, are linked to status


physicalinfrastructure.MDGswereadoptedbyUNin2000keepinginmindtoraise
the quality of life of vulnerable population of the world. India is falling behind the
goals and time frame to achieve goal will get over in 2015. In this scenario it is
prudentthatlocalbodiesfocusonimprovingphysicalinfrastructure.Manypolicies
andschemesofCentralgovernmentarealsoprovidingforimprovementofphysical
infrastructureinIndia.
The planning of infrastructure shall be based on the hierarchy of urban
development.ThischapterofURDPFIguidelinessuggesttheinfrastructureplanning
normsforanUrban/Regionalspace;thenormsaresuggestedunderfivecategories,
namely:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

8.1.

TransportationPlanning
PhysicalInfrastructure
SocialInfrastructure
CommercialInfrastructure
MiscellaneousInfrastructure

HierarchyofUrbanDevelopment

A planned city for an environment of convenience should have a hierarchical


structure; with each unit planned for basic selfsufficiency. The smallest planning
unitisconceivedasHousingAreafor5000populationwithconvenienceshopping,
open area, Anganwadi and milk booth as minimum infrastructure provision. The
higherlevelofadditionalfacilitiesistobeprovidedatNeighbourhood,Community,
District, Zonal, Subcity and Regional levels. The hierarchy of development on the
basisofpopulationisgiveninTable8.1.
Table8.1: HierarchyofInfrastructureDevelopment
Sr.No.

PlanningUnit

Population

HousingCluster/Neighbourhood

5000

Neighbourhood

500015,000

Community

Upto100,000

District*

5Lakh

Zonal

10lakh

Subcitycentre

25Lakh50Lakh

City

50Lakh+

Source:UDPFIGuidelines,1996;MPD,2021,JaipurMasterPlan.*Wardat3lakhpopulation.

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InfrastructurePlanning

8.2.

TransportationPlanning

Besides the National Urban Transport Policy (2006), the National Transport
Development Policy Committee (NTDPC)135was constituted by the Government of
Indiain2010toformulatealongtermtransportpolicyhavinganaimtosetupthe
conditions for a coherent transport strategy for India in the long term for the
horizon year 2032, with a vision to arrive welldeveloped and competent
institutionalsystemforplanning,managementandexecutionof transportprojects.
Indian cities are expanding and therefore urban transport has gained regional
importance. The public transport needs to improve by an integrated road and rail
base transport, expansion of BRTS/MRTS, etc through formulation of
Master/Development/Mobility Plan which may help to integrate transport and
urbandevelopment.Similarly,buspriorityways,connectivityofMRTSwithCBDand
residential areas, improvement of intermediate public transport and priority in
planning for NMT, etc should be developed along with other facilities such as
parking,streetfurniture,etc.
ThereportrecommendsthatStateGovernmentsshouldalsoenactComprehensive
UrbanTransportLawtodefinetherolesandresponsibilitiesofthecityauthorities
and State level entities related to public transport, landuse and transport
integration, multimodal integration, transport infrastructure for pedestrians,
bicycle,cyclerickshaws,etc.Further,priorityinplanningforvariousmodesshould
focus on improving mobility through NMT, Public Transport, ParaTransit and
Personalvehiclesinorder.ThereisaneedtosetupMetropolitanUrbanTransport
Authoritiesasholisticandintegrateddecisionmakingandcoordinatingbodies.The
dedicatednonlapsableandnonfungibleurbantransportfundsshouldbesetupat
theNational,StateandCitylevels.
Each Municipality and Development Authority could have a Transportation and
Trafficcell/divisiontocomprehensivelyprepareCMPinlineswiththeDevelopment
Plan,implementthetransportationplanandcoordinatewithTrafficPolice.Therole
ofsuchacell/divisionisalsotoincludeapplicationofsmarttechnologiestoimprove
transportation in the city. It is necessary for Transportation and Traffic cell/
divisiontoemploytransportplannersandurbanplannersfortechnicalinputs.

8.2.1. ClassificationofUrbanroad
1. Urban Expressway: Expressways are divided highways for through traffic

with full or partial control of access and generally with grade separations at
majorcrossroads.136
2. Arterialroad137:Theyaretheprimaryroadsforensuringmobilityfunction.
They carry the largest volumes of traffic and longest trips in a city. These

135

NTDPCIndiaTransportReportMovingIndianto2032,Jan2014.

136

HighwayDesignManual,DepartmentofTransportation,NewYorkState(USA).

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3.

4.

5.

6.

roadsarecharacterizedbymobilityandcatertothroughtrafficwithrestricted
access from carriageway to the side. In such cases, special provisions should
beintroducedtoreduceconflictwiththethroughtraffic.
Sub Arterial Road: This category of road follows all the functions of an
Arterial Urban road and is characterized by mobility, and caters to through
traffic with restricted access from carriageway to the side. It carries same
trafficvolumesasthearterialroads.Duetoitsoverlappingnature,Subarterial
roadscanactasarterials.Thisiscontextspecificandisbasedonthefunction
andthelandusedevelopmentitpassesthrough.
Distributor/Collector Roads: As the name suggests, these are connector
roads, which distribute the traffic from access streets to arterial and sub
arterialroads.Theyarecharacterizedbymobilityandaccessequally.Itcarries
moderate traffic volumes compared to the arterial roads. Due to its
overlapping nature, distributor roads can act as sub arterial and as access
streets,dependinguponthefunctionandthelanduseofthesurroundings.
LocalStreet138:Theseareintendedforneighbourhood(orlocal)useonwhich
through traffic is to be discouraged. These roads should be made pedestrian
and bicycle friendly by using modern traffic calming designs to keep the
speedswithinlimitsasperdesign.
AccessStreet:Theseareusedforaccessfunctionstoadjoiningpropertiesand
areas. A majority of trips in urban areas usually originate or terminate on
thesestreets.

8.2.2. DesignConsiderationofUrbanRoads
8.2.2.1. DesignSpeedandSpaceStandard
Thedesignspeedandcarriagewaywidthfordifferenttypesofroad,as
recommendedrecentlybyMoUDmaybeseeninTable8.2&8.3:
Table8.2: Designconsiderationofurbanroads
S.No.

RoadTypes

DesignSpeed(kmph)

SpaceStandards(m)

UrbanExpressway139

80

5060

ArterialRoad

50

5080

SubArterialRoad

50

3050

Distributor/CollectorRoads

30

1230

LocalStreet140

1020

1220

AccessStreet

15

615

Source:UrbanRoad,CodeofPracticePart1,MoUD.

137

UrbanRoadCodeofPractice,MoUD.

UrbanStreetDesignGuidelines,UTTIPEC.
TheUrbanexpresswaydesignstandardshavenotbeendevelopedinIndia,Howeverforurbancontext,itisassumedasMain
ArterialroadandIRC:861983recommendsdesignspeedofsuchroadis80KPHandSpacestandardof5060mwidth.
140UrbanStreetDesignGuidelines,UTTIPEC.
138
139

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8.2.2.2. CarriagewayWidth
Table8.3: CarriagewayWidthforeachtypeofroad
S.No.

TypesofRoads

Characteristics

Widthofeachcar
lane(m)

WidthofeachBus
lane(m)

UrbanExpressway141

Minimum6lanesdivided(usinga
median)

3.0to3.5mwidth
each

3.5m(segregated)

ArterialRoad

Minimum6lanesdivided(usinga
median)

3.0to3.5mwidth
each

3.5m(segregated)

SubArterialRoad

Minimum4lanesdivided(usinga
median)

3.0to3.5mwidth
each

3.5m(segregated)
orPaintedlane

Distributor/Collector
Roads

Maximum4lanesof3.0mwidth
each(excludingmarking)or2lanes
of3.0to3.3mwidtheach(excluding
marking)withorwithoutan
intermittentmedian

2lanesof3.0to
3.5mwidtheach

Mixedtraffic

LocalStreet142

1to2lanes,(undivided);traffic
calmingisrequired

2.75to3.0mwidth
each

Notrequired

AccessStreet

1to2lanes,(undivided);of2.75to
3.0mwidtheach,

2.75to3.0mwidth
each

Notrequired

Source:CodeofPracticePart1,MoUD,(referAppendixIofVolumeIIBfortheCrossSections).

Notes:
1. Footpath,NMTprovisionsandRightofUse(RoU)ofthevariousinfrastructureshallalsobe
assignedintheRoWatthestageoffinalisationofroadnetworkandhierarchy.
2. RoWshallalsoincludeawellplannedutilitycorridor.
3. RoadlevelstobedefinedattheLocalAreaPlanleveltoensureintegratedroadlevelswith
drainagesystemandslope.
4. Noroadstohavetwodifferentroadlevelswithoutapropermedianoraseparator.

8.2.3. Footpath
Footpath should be normally designed for a pedestrian Level of Service (LOS) B,
thereby providing wide pedestrian facilities for pleasant and comfortable walking.
UnderresourceconstraintLOSCcanbeadoptedfordecidingthewidthoffootpath
mentioned in Table 8.4. The width of footpaths depends upon the expected
pedestriantrafficandmaybefixedwiththehelpofthefollowingnormssubjectto
notbeinglessthan1.8m

The Urban expressway design standards have not been developed in India, However for urban context, it is assumed as
MainArterialroad,andhencethelaneofwidthisassumedtobethesameasarterialroadwhichisreferredfromCodeof
PracticePart1,MoUD.
142UrbanStreetDesignGuidelines,UTTIPEC.
141

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Table8.4: CapacityofFootpath&Design
DesignFlowinNumberofPersonsperhour
Widthofsidewalk
(m)

InBothDirections

Allinonedirection

LOSB

LOSC

LOSB

LOSC

1.8

1350

1890

2025

2835

1800

2520

2700

3780

2.5

2250

3150

3375

4725

2700

3780

4050

5670

3.5

3150

4410

4725

6615

3600

5040

5400

7560

Source:IRC1032012.

Thelanduseadjacenttoroadsignificantlyinfluencesgenerationofpedestriantraffic
RecommendedwidthoffootpathalongvariouslandusesaregiveninTable8.5
Table8.5: Requiredwidthoffootpathasperadjacentlanduse
S.No.

Description

Width

Minimumfreewalkwaywidthandresidential/mixeduseareas

1.8

Commercial/MixedUseAreas

2.5

ShoppingFrontages

3.5to4.5

BusStops

HighIntensityCommercialAreas

Source:IRC1032012.

8.2.4. CycleTracks
Cycle infrastructure width requirements are based on vehicle dimensions, volume
and clearance requirements of moving vehicles (cycle rickshaw, freight rickshaw).
Theserequirementsvaryforstraightridingcyclistsandthose manoeuvringabend
atacruisingspeed.
Exclusive lanes for slow moving vehiclesbicycles and rickshaws and pedestrians
along with spaces for street vendors are also essential. Hawkers and roadside
vendors provide services to bus commuters and pedestrians therefore designed
spaceswoulddiscouragethemfromoccupyingthecarriageway.Thisimprovesthe
capacity of the lanes designed for motorized vehicles and increases safety of
bicyclistsandpedestrians.

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Table8.6: Cycle/NMTtrack
SlNo.

ArterialRoads

SubArterialRoads

DistributaryRoads

AccessRoads

Non
Motorised
Vehicle

SegregatedCycleTrack

SegregatedCycleTrack

CycleLane

Mixed\traffic

Location

BetweenCarriagewayor
streetparkingandfootpath
oneitheredgeofthe
carriageway

BetweenCarriagewayor
streetparkingandfootpath
oneitheredgeofthe
carriageway

Ontheedgeofthe
NotApplicable
carriageway,adjacent
tothefootpathor
parking.

Gradient

1:121:20

1:121:20

1:121:20

1:121:20

Lanewidth 2.2to5.0m

2.2to5.0m

1.5to2.5m

Mixedwith
motorized
vehiculartraffic

Minimum
Width

2.0foratwolanecycletrack
and1.7mforacommoncycle
trackandfootpath

1.5m

1m(painted)

2.5foratwolanecycletrack
and1.9mforacommoncycle
trackandfootpath

Source:CodeofPracticePart1,MoUD,2012.

8.2.5. ForHillyAreas
Width of roads in hilly areas is given below which can be adopted as per
requirementandadjoininglanduses.
Table8.7: CarriagewaywidthinHillyareas
S.No.

Description

Width(metre)

1.

Singlelanewithoutkerbs

05.00

2.

2lanewithoutkerbs

08.80

3.

2lanewithkerbs

10.00

4.

3lanewith/withoutkerbs

13.00/11.80

Source:TCPO,GovernmentofHimachalPradesh.

8.2.6. PassengerCarUnits(PCU)
ThePCUstandardsasperthevehicletypeforplanningthearearequirementaregiveninTable8.8
below:
Table8.8: PCUstandards
S.No.

VehicleType

Equivalencyfactor

Passengercar,tempo,auto,jeep,vans,oragriculturaltractor

1.0

Truck,bus,agriculturaltractortrailer

3.0

Motorcycle,scooterandcycle

0.5

Cyclerickshaw

1.5

Horsedrawnvehicle

4.0

Bullockcart

5.0

Handcart

6.0

Source:JnNURMRapidTrainingProgramme,PreparationofDPRs,UDPFIguidelinesandinIRC1061990.

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8.2.7. DesignServiceVolume
The Design Service Volume standards as given in IRC Code 1061990, which
recommendsLOSCwhiledesigningroadcapacity,aregiveninTable8.9below:
Table8.9: DesignServiceVolumeStandards
TotalDesignServiceVolumefordifferentroadcategory

S.No.

TypeofCarriageway

1.

2Lane(oneway)

2400

1900

1400

2.

2lane(twoway)

1500

1200

900

3.

3lane(oneway)

3600

2900

2200

4.

4laneundivided(twoway)

3000

2400

1800

5.

4lanedivided(twoway)

3600

2900

6.

6laneundivided(twoway)

4800

3800

7.

6lanedivided(twoway)

5400

4300

8.

8lanedivided(twoway)

7200

Arterial

SubArterial

Collector

Source:IRCCode1061990.

8.2.8. Parking
8.2.8.1. EquivalentCarSpace(ECS)fordifferentvehicles
TherecommendedECSrequiredfordifferenttypeofvehiclesaregiveninTable8.10
Table8.10: RecommendedECSforvarioustypesofvehicles
S.No.

VehicleType

ECS

Car/taxi

1.00

TwoWheeler

0.25

AutoRickshaw

0.50

Bicycle

0.10

Trucks/Buses*

2.5

EmergencyVehicles*

2.5

Rickshaw*

0.8

*Source:VolumeVD1:DPRforMultilevelParkingFacilityatGhaziabadMainReport,NCRPBandADB,2010.

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8.2.8.2. RecommendedECSbasedonlandusetype
TherecommendedECSrequiredfordifferenttypeoflanduse,asrecommendedby
theNBC,aregiveninTable8.11.
Table8.11: ParkingStandards
S.No. Landuse

ParkingStandards

Remark

Residential

ResidentialPlotPlottedHousing

2EquivalentCarSpace(ECS)in
plotsofsize250300sqmand
1ECSforevery100sqm.builtup
area,inplotsexceeding300sqm.

ResidentialPlotGroupHousing

2.0ECS/100sqmbuiltuparea

ClusterCourtHousing

2.0ECS/100sqmbuiltuparea

GuestHouse/Lodging&BoardingHouse/
Dharamshala

2ECSper100sqm.ofbuiltup
area

CommercialCentres

ConvenienceShoppingCentre/LocalShopping
Centre/LocalLevelCommercialareas

2ECS/100sqmoffloorarea

ServiceMarket

2ECS/100sqmoffloorarea

CommunityCentre/Nonhierarchical
CommercialCentre

3ECS/100sqmoffloorarea

DistrictCentre/SubCentralBusiness
District/SubCityLevelCommercialareas

3ECS/100sqmoffloorarea

CommercialPlot:Retail&Commerce
MetropolitanCityCentre

3ECS/100sqmoffloorarea

Hotel

3ECS/100sqmoffloorarea

ForPopulation
between210lakh1
carparkingspacefor
every4guestroom.

ForPopulation
between1050lakh
1carparkingspacefor
every3guestroom.
ForPopulationmore
than50lakh1car
parkingspacefor
every2guestroom143.

ServiceApartments

3ECS/100sqmoffloorarea

Anyothercommercialcentreincluding
commercialcomponentalongwithRailway/MRTS
andISBT

3ECS/100sqmoffloorarea

IntegratedFreightComplex/WholesaleMarket

3ECS/100sqmoffloorarea

Incaseofplotsupto
300sqm.common
parkingistobe
provided

143

NationalBuildingCode,2005.

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S.No. Landuse

ParkingStandards

Remark

SocioCulturalFacilities

CommunityHall

Parkingstandard@3.0ECS/100
sqm

RecreationalClub

Parkingstandard@2ECS/100
sqmoffloorarea

Socioculturalactivitiessuchasauditorium,
music,dance&drama,centre/meditation,
spiritualcentreetc.

Parkingstandard@2ECS/100
sqmoffloorarea

ScienceCentre

Parkingstandard@2ECS

InternationalConventioncentre

Parkingstandard@2ECS

OldAgeHome/CareCentreforPhysically/
Mentallychallenged/Workingwomen/men
hostel/AdultEducationCentre/Orphanage/
Children'sCentre/NightShelter

Parkingstandard@1.8ECSof
floorarea.

Sportfacilityforinternationalsportsevent

2ECS/100sqmoffloorarea.

PublicSemiPublic

IntegratedOfficeComplex

1.8ECS/100sqmoffloorarea

ThenormsforLocal
Governmentoffices/
PublicSector
Undertakingsunder
GovernmentLanduse
shallbeasper
Integratedoffice
complex

DistrictCourt

1.8ECS/100sqmoffloorarea

HeadPostOfficewithAdministrativeoffice&with
/withoutdeliveryoffice

1.33ECSper100sqm.offloor
area

AmusementPark

3ECS/100sqm.offloorarea

ISBT/Metro

2ECSper100sqm.offloorarea

Hospitals

2ECSper100sqm.offloorarea

VeterinaryHospital
VeterinaryDispensary

NursingandParamedicinstitute

1.33ECSper100sqm.offloor
area

1.33ECSper100sqm.offloor
area

2ECSper100sqm.offloorarea

MedicalCollege

AspernormsofMedicalCouncil
ofIndia/RegulatoryBody

Industry

IndustrialPlotupto50sqmarea

2ECS/100sqmoffloorarea

IndustrialPlot51sqm400sqmarea

2ECS/100sqmoffloorarea

IndustrialPlot401sqmandabove

2ECS/100sqmoffloorarea

FlattedgroupIndustry(MinPlotsize400sqm)

2ECS/100sqmoffloorarea

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S.No. Landuse

ParkingStandards

Remark

Parking@2.0ECSper100sqm
builtupareashallbeprovided
withinthepremises.

Wherethisisnot
available,costof
developmentof
parking,shallbe
payablebytheplot
allottee/ownertothe
localbodyconcerned
orMultilevelparking
tobeprovidedasan
option.Thiscondition
shallapplyevenif
residentialpremises
areusedonlyfor
professionalactivity.

MixedLanduse

Source:MasterPlanofDelhi(MPD)2021.

Parking standards are prescribed in above table, however, where it is not


prescribed;itcouldbefollowedasgiveninTable8.12.
Table8.12: PermissibleECSfordifferentlanduses
PermissibleEquivalentCarSpaces(ECS)Per100
sqm.offloorarea

S.No.

UsePremises

Residential

2.0

Commercial

3.0

Manufacturing

2.0

Government

1.8

PublicandSemiPublicFacilities

2.0

Source:MPD2021.

8.2.8.3. SpaceStandardsforParking
Fortheprovisionofcarparkingspace,thespacestandardsshallbegivenasperthe
Table8.13.
Table8.13: SpacestandardsforParking
S.No.

TypeofParking

AreainsqmperECS

Open

23

GroundFloorcovered

28

Basement

32

MultiLevelwithRamps

30

AutomatedMultilevelwithlifts

16

Source:MPD2021.

8.2.8.4. ParkingforHillyAreas144
Apartfromtheabovegivenparkingnorms,onecarparkingspace/garageforeach
dwellingunitshouldbeprovidedinresidentialbuildings.Forinstitutionalbuildings,
onefloorexclusivelyforparkingofvehiclesshouldbecompulsory.

144

TCPD,GovernmentofHimachalPradesh.

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8.2.9. BusTerminals
8.2.9.1. Functions
Thefunctionsofbusterminalprimarilyincludesprocessingof vehicles,passengers
etc.withprovisionofnecessaryfacilitiesfortheirsmoothflow.Theterminalserves
as a point and unit where necessary information to user is made available for
processing.Tocreateseamlessmultimodalconnectivity,thebusterminalshouldbe
integratedwithothermodesoftransport(train,metro,bicycle,pedestrian,private
car)
A bus terminal also functions as the centre of a neighbourhood with high density
mixeduseactivitiesinitsvicinity.Toprovideasafeandattractiveplaceatalltimes,
the presence of residential housing, shopping complexes, offices and other
commercialactivitiesaretobeencouragedaroundtheterminal.
A passenger bus terminal broadly needs to perform the functions to meet
requirementsofthefollowing:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

PassengersandVehicles
Passengersonly
Vehiclesonly
Crew
Management

Thefunctionsrelatedtobothpassengersandvehiclesinclude:

Concentration
Loading
Dispersal
Unloading

Passengeronlyorientedfunctionsoftheterminalincludeprovisionof:

Passengerplatformstoboardandalight(withrampsfordisabled&elderly)
Ticketingfacilities
Waitinglounges
Resthouses/rooms
BaggageStorageFacilities
Commercial:BasicShoppingandretailfacilities
Utilities,ServicesandAmenities(includingpublictoilets,ATM,drinkingwateretc.)
InformationSystem
Shelterfromweather
Communicationandpostalfacilities
Eatingplaces

8.2.9.2. Components
Thecomponentsrelatedtovehicles(bus)onlyincludeprovisionof:

Baysforloadingandunloading
Idlebusparkingspaces
Facilitiesrelatedtomaintenance

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Informationsystemformovementwithterminal

Theterminalcomponentstomeettheneedsofcreware:
Restrooms
Informationsystem
Communicationfacilities
Eatingplaces

Theterminalfacilitiesforthemanagementintermsof:
Demandmanagementonaccountofconcentration
Incurringminimumexpenditure
Developmentofcentralisedinformation
Ensuringbettercontrol

8.2.9.3. DesignCriteria
Thedesigncriteriaofterminalstudiesdeterminingthesizeofterminalandfactors
to be taken into consideration in planning the facilities and activities is primarily
governedbythefollowingfactors:
TrafficDemand
TrafficCharacteristics
FunctionofTerminal
TypeandSophisticationofFacilities

The other factors to be considered in terminal design by appreciating activity and


facilityinterrelationshipare:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

Segregationofterminalandnonterminaltraffic
Segregationofvehicularandpedestrianstrafficandmovement
Segregationoftrafficbytype,functionanddirection
Coordinationofdifferentactivitiesintermsoffunctionalandspatialinterrelationship
Provisionofgooduserandvehicularinformation
Provisionofnecessaryandidentifiedfacilitiestomeetrequirementofallusergroupsachieving
minimumpassengerandvehicularprocessingtime
g. Achievingoverallfunctionalandspatialefficiency
h. Achievingsmoothflowofalltypesoftraffictoandfromterminal.

8.2.9.4. PlanningNormsandSpaceStandards
Norms
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.

Capacityofanintracitybusterminal

Onebusbayfor5000passengersperday
Onebusbayfor10,000passengersperday
Peakhourload

Occupancy/bus:

Timetakenforloading

Timetakenforunloading

:1.5lakhpassengers/day
:Loading
:Unloading
:10%ofdailypassengerload
:50ideal
:6min;12min
:3min;6min

SpacestandardsforParkingFacilities

Theparkingstandardsforbusbays,asmootedbyUDPFIGuidelines1996,continue
toremainvalidandaregiveninTable8.14below:

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Table8.14: BusBaysParkingStandards
Typeofparking

Area/vehicle

IdleParking

145sqm

Angular

76sqm

Parallel

104sqm

Source:

UDPFIGuidelines,1996.

8.2.10. TruckTerminal
A truck terminal is highly specialised facility, designed for a specific function and
operatingplanintermsofservicestandardsitmustmeet,theareaitservesandthe
volumes to be handled. It provides interface between intercity and local
transportation facilities and which handle the distribution and collection of goods
withinthecity.
Themajorobjectivesofatruckterminalare:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

Toreorganiseofficeandgodownspaceoftransportcompanies
Toprovideforexpansionofcompanies
Toreduceparking,loading/unloadinginstancesinCBD(CentralBusinessDistrict)
Tolocatethefacilitiesforvehiclerepairs,servicing,restplaces,shopsetc.
Tocatertointercitymovementsdestinedtooperatorsgodownandprovideforidleparkingfor
truckswaitingforreturnload.
Tofunctionasarestandhaltingplaceforthroughtraffic.

8.2.10.1. FacilitiesinTransportNagar
ThemainfacilitiesforwhichareaallocationneedstobemadeinTransportNagar
are:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.
x.
xi.
xii.
xiii.
xiv.
xv.
xvi.
xvii.
xviii.
xix.
xx.

TransportAgencies
Circulation
Parking
OpenSpace
PetrolPump
ServiceCentre
Toilets
PoliceStation
Restaurant
Shops
Godowns
WeighBridge
Stalls/Dhabas
AdministrativeOffice
FireStation,PostOffice,Dispensary
Bank,BusStation,ElectricSubstation
ColdStorage
SparePartsShops
BodyBuildingShops
Cinema

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8.2.10.2. LocationalFactors
The following factors are generally considered while locating a truck terminal/
TransportNagar:
a.
b.
c.
d.

Theyshouldbelocatedonmaincorridorofgoodsmovement.
Multimodalconnectivitywithtraincorridorsandwaterways
Theyaregenerallylocatedonfringeofdevelopedlands
Theyshouldhaveproperlinkagewithotherfreightgeneratingactivitiesaswellasdeveloped
areas.
Considerationforintracitygoodsmovementpatternintermsofdesireofmovement,modes
usedanddistancesoverwhichmovementismadeshouldalsobekeptinview.

e.

8.2.10.3. BroadLandUseBreakUp
Thebroadlandusebreakupinatruckterminal(TransportNagar)isasfollows:
Table8.15: BroadLandUsebreakup
S.No.

Use

PercentageArea

TransportoperatorsOffice,Godown,Loading/Unloading

30.0

ServiceIndustryPetrolPump,ServiceArea,WeighBridge,etc.

6.0

Public/SemiPublicPolicePost,Postoffice,Telephone,FirstAidetc.

3.0

Commercial

3.0

ParkingIdle,Transit,OtherVehicles

18.0

Source:UDPFIGuidelines,1996.

8.2.11. IntegratedFreightComplex145
8.2.11.1. Functions
Thebasicfunctionsofanintegratedfreightcomplexare:
a.
b.
c.
d.

Toprovidefacilitiesforregionalandintraurbanfreightmovement.
Toprovidefacilitiesforfreightintransitaswellasinterchangeofmode.
To provide warehousing and storage facilities and linklink these sites with specialised
markets.
To provide servicing, loading and boarding, idle parking, restaurants and other related
functionsinthecomplex.

8.2.11.2. Objectives
Thefunctionalobjectivesofwholesalecomplexcumtruckterminalshouldbe:
a.

Toprovideadequatefacilitiesforwholesaletradeactivities,theseinclude:
i. Auctionareas
ii. Wholesaleshopsandsubsidiarystoragecapacity
iii. Parkingfacilities
iv. Wholesalesgodowns,coldstorage,etc.togetherwithhandlingfacilitiesandequipment,etc.

145

ThesenormsmaybemodifiedtobeusedforDryPorts,ContainerFreightStation(CFS),LogisticsHub.

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b.

c.

To provide adequate parking space and facilities for trucks expected to utilise the terminal.
Thesefacilitiesinclude:
i. Service/repairfacilities
ii. Rest/recreationfordrivers
iii. Weighingoftrucksetc.
Toprovideadequatefacilitiesforoffice/storageactivitiesoftrucksoperatingatterminal.These
include:
i. Godownspace
ii. Officespace
iii. Loading/unloadingfacilities
iv. Weighingofgoodsvehicleetc.

Apartfromtheabovementionedobjectives,thecomplexmustprovideforanumber
ofassociated/ancillaryfacilitiesandservices,someofwhichare:
d.
e.

Provision for goods movement within the complex in terms of truck movement and loading
unloading/stackingofgoods.
Buildingandamenitiesforadministrationandsecuritymeasuresnecessaryforcomplex.
i. Facilitieslikebanking,postaltruckers,etc.requiredforbusinesstransactions
ii. Amenitiesforwholesales,truckersandtheiremployees
iii. Areasforshops,eatinghousesandotherserviceestablishment
iv. Provisionoflighting,watersupplyandgarbage,seweragedisposal.

8.2.11.3. SpaceNorms
The Spacenorms in terms of quantum handled (kilograms) per square meter area
for selected commodities as per Central Warehousing Corporation (CWC) is given
below:
Table8.16: SpaceNorms
Commodity

Wt./Area(Kg./sq.m.)

Foodgrains

1054

FruitsandVegetables

721

HardwareandBuildingMaterial

1054

IronandSteel

904

Timber

968

Machinery

968

AutoParts

968

Textile

968

Chemicalsandfertilisers

968

Source:CentralWarehousingCorporation.

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8.2.11.4. BroadLandUseBreakup
Thebroadlandusebreakupofanintegratedfreightcomplexrecommendedin
UDPFIGuidelines1996continuetoberelevantandareasfollows:
Table8.17: BroadLandUseBreakUp

UseType

PercentageofArea

1.

WholesaleMarket

35.0

2.

Warehousing

8.0

3.

BookingAgencies

2.0

4.

Commercial&Public/SemiPublic

5.0

5.

UtilitiesandServices

3.0

6.

ServiceIndustry

4.0

7.

Parking

12.0

8.

Circulation

25.0

9.

Others

6.0

Total

100.0

Source:UDPFIGuidelines,1996.

8.2.11.5. AreaRequirements
As a general guideline, the area required for a truck terminal (Transport Nagar)
shouldbereservedattherateofonehectareper300tonnesofdailygoodsinflow
intothecomplex.Incaseofintegratedfreightcomplex,theareanecessarywouldbe
onehectareper400tonnesofdailygoodsinflowintothecomplex.

8.2.12. TravelDemandModellingProcess146
Atravelmodelisasimplifiedrepresentationoftravelbehaviourthroughtheuseof
mathematical equations and dataanalysis. Models are based onthe theory that an
individual'stravelchoicesareafunctionofhisorhersocioeconomiccharacteristics
(household size, income, and vehicle ownership), geographic location (distance to
work, shops, etc.) and modal choices (road, rail, bus, NMT) available to them.
Modelling is an attempt to replicate this behaviour using statistical analysis. The
processiscomplexandrequireslargeamountofdata.
Theaccuracyofatravelmodeldependsonmanyfactors:landuseanddemographic
data, quality of travel survey data, technical expertise of the developer, and
assumptionsused.Therefore,amodelshouldbeevaluatedasawholeandneverasa
functionoftheforecastsproduced.Amodelshouldalwaysbecalibratedwellsothat
it can replicate current year conditions within reason before using it to produce
forecasts. Model calibration and validation should be done at every step of the
processtoensurequalityofforecasts.

146

Development of Training Material under Sustainable Urban Transport Project, Reference Guide Volume 2 Demand
Assessment,MoUD.

298

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Models are a simplified simulation of travel behaviour producing rational travel
choicesbasedonthecontrolledvariableswithinamodel.Intherealworld,variables
are constantly changing and individuals don't always make the most rational
decisions. Therefore model forecasts should only be used as one element in
transportplanning.
The most commonly used method of forecasting is 4 step Aggregate Model; this
modelincludestripgeneration,distribution,modalsplit,andassignment.
Anindividualdecideswhethertomakeatrip,whereandwhentogo,whichmodeto
select, and which route to take based on his needs, income, occupation, vehicle
ownership, etc. and the choices available to them. The choices could be different
modes of transportation (car, 2 wheeler, public transport, bicycle etc.), different
times of day travel (peak, offpeak) or competing destinations (shopping mall,
downtown).Asmentionedabove,thismethodinvolves4majorcomponents,which
aredetailedinAppendixJofVolumeIIB.

8.2.12.1. RecommendedModalSplitbyPublicTransportModes
The recommended share of public transport modes based on city size, which is
mentionedinTable8.18.
Table8.18: RecommendedderivedModalSplit
CitySize

RecommendedModalSpilt

Below1Million

30%

Around1Million

35%

1.5Million

40%plus

3.0Million

50%plus

6.0Million

70%plus

9.0Million

75%plus(85%withamasstransitsystem)

Source:UDPFIGuidelines,1996.

8.2.13. MRToptionsfortheCity
Everycityisdifferentandrequiresitsownstudyofthepotentiallyrealisticoptions.
TheguidelinesshowninTable8.19andTable8.20aretoassistdecisionmakersin
narrowing down the applicable options. As can be seen in the table, population
densityisanimportantcriterion.Cityshape/form(linearorcircular)alsoinfluences
the concentration of demand; therefore, this factor may be incorporated when
selectingappropriateMRToptions.

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Table8.19: MRToptionsfortheCity
MRTS
S.No. Options

CityRequirements

Whenmorethanabout100busesperhourperdirection(bphpd)usethebusway147

Citieswithamediumtohighdensityurbanarea

BRTshouldbeoneofthefirstconsiderationsinMRTsystemdevelopmentinanycity.

BRTsystemcanbedevelopedastrunksystemsaswellasfeederstoanexisting(orplanned)
MRTsystem

SuitableforcitieswhereanMRTsystemneedstobedevelopedquicklyandincrementallyas
conditionsandfundingallow

Awelldevelopedtrafficplanning/managementcapabilityshouldbeavailable(thismaybe
broughtininitially)

Existingbusandparatransitoperationscanberegulated/restructured
RoadspaceisavailableforBRTdevelopment(24lanesfromexistingroads)

BusOnlyLane(BOL)canberecommendedinthefollowingtwocases:

Onelanebusway(4metersforasinglelane)isavailableandthepassengerdemandisbelow
6,000bphpd;and

Multiplelanebusways(7metersfortwolanes,or10.5metersforthreelanes)areavailable
andthepassengerdemandexceeds6,000,butisbelow12,500bphpd

BusRapid
Transit
(BRT)

LightRail
Transport
(LRT)
including
monorail,
tramways

MetroRail

Citieswithamediumtohighdensityurbanarea

Citieswhereenvironmentalissuesarecriticalandthereisaneedtoattractcaruserstouse
publictransportsystems;however,ifthecorerequirementsareoperationaleffectiveness,

LRTsystemshouldbedevelopedthatismoreflexibleandcostsless

Appropriateforcitieswithanexistingtramoperation,whichmaybecosteffectively
enhanced.

Awelldevelopedtrafficplanning/managementcapabilityshouldbeavailable

Existingbusandparatransitoperationscanberegulated/restructured

RoadspaceisavailableforLRTdevelopment(23lanesfromexistingroad)orexistingtram
trackcanbeconvertedtoanLRTroute

Existingpublictransportflowsonthemaincorridoroftheorderof10,00015,000passengers
perhourperdirectionwithmorethan15kmtriplength

Cityincomesthatarenotlow(typicallyatleastUS$1,800perperson)

Prospectsforsustainedeconomicgrowthandanexpandingcentre(incaseofmetropolitan
regions)

Existenceofalowcostmetroalignment

Farespolicyafarespolicyonmetroandbussystemstoencourageridershipyetlimitthe
needforfinancialsupport

Awelldevelopedtrafficplanning/managementcapabilityshouldbeavailable

Existingbusandparatransitoperationscanberegulated/restructured

Strongandlargelyautonomousmanagementofmetropolitanregion,withclearobjectives

Source:GuidelinesandToolkitsforUrbanTransportDevelopmentModule1ComprehensiveMobilityPlan.

Personal rapid transit system is also emerging as an alternative mode of


transportation in many Nations. This system is capital intensive and has long
payback period, besides, the system is feasible where passenger flow in the main
corridor is higher than the demand for the metro rail and the paying capacity is
higher.

147

Guidelines and Toolkits for Urban Transport Development in Medium Sized Cities in India Module 2: Bus Rapid Transit
(BRT): Toolkit for Feasibility Studies, MoUD.

300

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Table8.20: TechnicalParametersofPublicTransportOptions

MetroRail

LRT

Tramways

HCBRT

BRT

BusPriorityLanes

CityBus

LineCapacity

40,00075,000

15,00045,000

5,00015,000

20,00035,000

7,50015,000

5,0007,500

Below1,000

Veryhigh

High

Medium/high

Medium/high

Medium

Low

VeryLow,onlybus
stopsand
maintenancestop
required

Alignment

Doubletrackrailway

Doubletrackrailway,
elevated,atgradeor
intunnels

Doubletrack
tramway,atgrade

4BusLanes(2per
direction)

2to3BusLanes

2BusLanes

Usepublicroads

Segregation

100%segregatedin
tunnels,elevatedor
atgrade

Highdegreeof
segregationpreferred,
butsectionswith
sharedrightofway
possible

Usespublicroads,but
mayhavereserved
rightofwayon
sectionswithhigher
demand

AllBusLanesmustbe
segregatedtoachieve
highcapacity

BusLanesmustbein
generalsegregated,
exceptionspossible,
reducecapacityand
speed

BusPriorityLanes
mustbeexclusively
forbuses

None

Roadspacerequired

None

Noneincaseof
elevatedandtunnel
alignment,2lanesat
grade,additional
spacerequiredfor
stationsandterminals

2Lanes,additional
spacemaybe
requiredforstations
andterminals,tracks
canbesharedwith
publicroadsor
pedestrianroads

4Lanes;morelinear
spacefor
Interchangesand
Terminals

2Lanes,possibly3or4
atStationsand
Interchanges,spacefor
majorInterchanges
andTerminals

2to3Lanes(3to4
LanesatBusStops)

Sharedwithcarsand
pedestrian

Vehicles

HighcapacityEMU

Mediumtohigh
capacityEMUs
(upgradedtramsas
anoption)

Trams,articulated
and/orwithwagons
asanoption

Specialarticulated
buswithatfloor
boardingandwide
doors

Articulatedbuses;pre
paidboardingrequired

StandardCityBus,
articulatedasoption

StandardCityBus

Passengersper
Vehicle/Train

1,2002,500

2501,500

Dependsonlength

180240

150180

75100

75

Traction

Electric

Electric

Electric

Diesel

Diesel(Electricasan
option)

Diesel

Diesel

FeederSystem

Necessary

Necessary

Notnecessary

Necessary

Desired

Notnecessary

Notnecessary

Flexibilityofroute
changes

Verylow

Low

Low

Verylow

Medium

Medium

Veryhigh

TicketingSystem

Closed

Closed

Open

Closed

Closedoropen

Open

Open

(PAX/hr/dir.)
Costperkm
(Infrastructure,vehicles,
OCC,Maintenance)

Source:GuidelinesandToolkitsforUrbanTransportDevelopmentModule1ComprehensiveMobilityPlan.

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8.2.14. UrbanBusesandcharacteristics
MoUD148has established different types of buses for urban services. The following
tabledefinesthecharacteristicsandfloorheightofdifferenturbanbuses.
Table8.21: Typesofurbanbusesandtheircharacteristics
S.No.

BusTypes

BusCharacteristics

Lowfloordefinition

Standardsizeurbanbus
(AC/NonAC)

Maximumfloorheight:
400/650/900mm

Lowfloorareashallnotbelessthan50%
of the total saloon area (excluding front
wheel boxes and drivers cab) and shall
notberampedinthelongitudinalplane.

MiniandMidiurbanbuses
(AC/NonAC)

Maximumfloorheight900mm
withinclusionofvariantsof
havingfloorheightof400mm
and650mm

Lowfloorareashallnotbelessthan50%
of the total saloon area (excluding front
wheel boxes and drivers cab) and shall
notberampedinthelongitudinalplane.

StandardBRTSbus
(AC/NonAC)

Maximumfloor
height:400/650/900mm

Floorheightof400,650or900mmshall
beuniforminsidethevehicle.

MiniBRTBus

Floorheightof400,650or900
mmshallbeuniforminsidethe
vehicle

Lowfloorareashallnotbelessthan50%
of the total saloon area (excluding front
wheel boxes and drivers cab) and shall
notberampedinthelongitudinalplane.

MidiBRTBus

Floorheightof400,650and
900mmshallbeuniforminside
thevehicle

Lowfloorareashallnotbelessthan50%
of the total saloon area (excluding front
wheel boxes and drivers cab) and shall
notberampedinthelongitudinalplane.

StandardBusofPremium
Segment(Airconditioned)

Maximumfloorheight:900mm

Lowfloorareashallnotbelessthan50%
of the total saloon area (excluding front
wheel boxes and drivers cab) and shall
notberampedinthelongitudinalplane.

MidiBusofPremium
Segment(Airconditioned)

Maximumfloorheight:900mm

Lowfloorareashallnotbelessthan50%
of the total saloon area (excluding front
wheel boxes and drivers cab) and shall
notberampedinthelongitudinalplane.

ArticulatedBRTSBus(AC
/NonAC)

Maximumfloorheight:900mm

Floor height shall be uniform inside the


vehicle

BiarticulatedBRTSBus
(AC/NonAC)

Maximumfloorheight:900mm

Floor height shall be uniform inside the


vehicle

8.2.15. TODNorms
Transit Oriented Development is a development, macro or micro that is focused
around a transit node,and facilitates complete ease ofaccess to thetransitfacility
thereby inducing people to prefer to walk and use public transportation over
personalmodesoftransport149.

148

RecommendatoryUrbanBusSpecifications,MoUD2013.

149

AsperDraftUTTIPECGuidelinesofDDA.

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Figure8.1: ProposedKarkardoomaTODProject

Source:

http://uttipec.nic.in/writereaddata/linkimages/6080492270.pdf

RegionandTransitOrientedDevelopmentarisesfrominvestment ininfrastructure
thatguidestheurbangrowthofthecityandissuggestedasoneoftheapproachesin
the regional &urban planning approach Chapter 4 and 5 respectively of the
guidelines. Typically, TOD involves implementing or strengthening a mass transit
systemwithdevelopmentfocusedonmajortransportnodes(whichcanbeplanned
at regional level or city level). This strategy supports the objective of achieving a
desirablemodalsplitof5070%asadvised150.
Masstransitcanbestrengthenedby:
Enhancing the public transport network by careful and robust selection of an optimum mass
transit system, including bus service improvements, bus rapid transit (BRT), and/or railbased
solutions;and
Developing an integrated public transport system that combines modes and services through
interchanges and feeder services, rationalises existing services, and improves passenger
dispersalatterminals

Cities with strong Central Business Districts (CBDs) are generally good candidates
fortransitorienteddevelopment.Tripscantakeplacealongradialaxesbetweenthe
CBDandsuburbancommunities,withconcentratedmixedusedevelopmentaround
the suburban nodes. TOD can be facilitated by identifying major corridors and
investing in them as primary mass transit corridors. This can be undertaken with
referencetoanalysisoftraveldemandanddesirelinepatternsfromthemodelling
exercise.

150

TrafficandTransportationPoliciesandStrategiesinUrbanAreasinIndia,1998,MoUD,GoI.

304

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8.2.15.1. DemarcationoftheTODInfluenceZone151
TODisanewconceptintroducedinIndia.CurrentlyUTTIPEC(asubdivisionofDelhi
Development Authority DDA) has developed draft policy norms and guidelines for
TOD.SomeofthekeyaspectsrelatedtodemarcateTODzoneisgivenbelow:
1. A maximum up to 2000 m. wide belt on both sides of centre line of the MRTS Corridor is
designatedasTODInfluenceZone,whichshouldalsobeidentifiedinDevelopmentPlanofa
city.
2. The entire influence zone shall be considered as white zone. Application of Development
Control Norms in the White Zone shall be compliant with TOD norms as stated in TOD
guidelines (approved by competent Authority). Final boundaries of Influence Zones shall be
demarcatedaspertheInfluenceZonePlans.
3. The overall Influence Zone further consists of three sub zones Zone 1: Intense TOD Zone,
Zone2:StandardTODZone,andZone3:TODTransitionZone.
4. DevelopmentControlNormsasperUTTIPECTODnormsapplytoallthreeTODzones.
5. Development Control Norms of High Density Mixed Income Development shall not be
applicabletotheTODTransitionZone.
6. All properties public or private shall be able to avail the norms and benefits of TOD while
complyingtoanapprovedInfluenceZonePlan,Howeverexceptioncanbeidentifiedwhere:
Heightrestrictionhasalreadymade.
FlightfunnelzonesshallfollowtheheightrestrictionsasperregulationsofAirportAuthorityofIndia.
Environmentallysensitivezonesforprotection(EnvironmentProtectionZones)
SeismicZonessuchasfaultlines.
Table8.22: TODInfluenceZones
Zone1:IntenseTODZone

Zone2:StandardTODZone

Zone3:TODTransitionZone

300minfluencezoneofall

800m*(10min
walking)influencezoneofall
MRTSStations.

2000m**(10minutecyclingdistance)
influencezoneofallMRTSStations.

MRTSStations
800m*(10minwalking)influence
zoneofRegionalInterchange
Station(i.e.RailMRTS,ortwo
MRTSlines.)
Source:

300minfluencezoneofBRTcorridors.
ZoneswithinIntense(zone1)orStandard
TODZoneswhicharenotpermittedfor
redevelopmentbutneedenhancementsin
publicrealmandnetworkconnectivity.

DraftTransitOrientDevelopmentPolicy,Norms,Guidelines,UTTIPEC

8.2.15.2. DevelopmentTypeswithinInfluenceZones152
Broadlythetypesofplannedandunplanneddevelopmentwhichmayfallwithinthe
Zone1:IntenseTODinfluencezonesandZone2:StandardTODmaybecategorized
intothreebroadcategories:
Redevelopment/Infill Sites withinthe Intense/ Standard TODZones arethose within Existing
UrbanAreaandsuitablefordevelopment/redevelopment.
7. Infill Sites are empty sites within Existing Urban Area, which may have opened up for
development.
8. Redevelopmentsitescouldbeanyofthefollowing:
i.
Lowdensityareas
ii.
Shopping/Commercialcentres
iii.
Industrialareas/clusters

151

DraftTransitOrientDevelopmentPolicy,Norms,Guidelines,UTTIPEC.

152

Ibid.

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iv.
v.
vi.
vii.

ResettlementColonies
Unauthorizedcolonies
UrbanVillages
JJclusters

GreenfieldSiteswithintheIntense/StandardTODZoneswhichareintheUrbanExtensionArea
whereprovisionofroadnetworks,servicesandsocialfacilitieshasnotyettakenplace.
Retrofit In addition to TOD Transition Zones, sites within Intense/ Standard Zones which have
existinggrossdensityhigherthan250du/hamaynotbesuitableforredevelopment,butmayneed
retrofittingtomeetTODZonerequirements.Thefollowingcriteriamaybeusedasbenchmarksfor
selectingsuchdensesitesforneedforretrofitting:
1. Lackofstreetnetworkandconnectivity
2. Lackoffireaccesstobuildings.
3. Lackofadequatephysicalandsocialinfrastructurefacilities.

Hence, depending upon the requirement of the area, to which TOD is applied, the
influencezoneplanistobeprepared.

8.2.15.3. InfluenceZonePlan
ADetailedInfluenceZonePlanisadocumentthatprovidesaframeworkandvision
for future TOD development for MRTS. Any public or private development within
theInfluenceZonePlanAreasmustadheretotheoverallstrategies,frameworkand
benchmarksprovidedbythePlan.ThePlanshallbepreparedorbeapprovedbythe
competent Planning Authority for each influence zone area in a phased manner,
customizedtositecharacteristicsandcontext.Theplanshall includethefollowing
components:
1. UrbanDesignFrameworkThiswouldinclude:
StreetNetworkPlanindicatingstreethierarchyandcharacter
LandscapeandOpenSpaceStructureindicatingtypeofopenspacesanddistributionofplayareas.To
includeplantingstrategyforallstreettrees.
NetFARandresidentialdensitiesforeachblockwithintheInfluenceZone
Vertical mix of uses for each TOD parcel indicating location of civic amenities within mixed use
blocks (refer Chapter 9 for mixed zone use). To include location of unbundled parking sites for
shareduse.
Threedimensional site briefs for each block within the Influence Zone indicating recommended
massingandorganisationofuses.
Locationandnumbersofshortandlongtermparkingspaces
2. TransportImpactAssessment&MitigationStrategiesThiswouldincludestrategiesfor:
Achievingthedesiredmodalshift,inparticularmodeshiftforshorttrips
Streetnetworkimprovementthroughassessmentofexistingcapacityandaugmentationofnetwork
asrequiredthroughnewlinkages,alternateroutes,junctiondesignsetc.forallmodeswithpriority
forintermediatepublictransport,pedestrians,cyclists/NMT.
IntegratedstrategyforPublictransport,PedestrianandCycleaccess
Determining the optimum mix of uses to mitigate negative impact on surrounding land uses and
transportnetworks
ParkingStrategyasaDemandManagementTool
Mitigationstrategiesfortrafficnoiseandvibration

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The Draft TOD Guidelines and Norms of UTTIPEC are under finalization. In the
contextofMPD2021provisionswhichspelloutthata500mwidebeltfromthe
centreline of MRTS corridors/major transport axis shall be designated as the
influencezone.TheGuidelinesandNormshavebeenincludedundertheChapter
onTransportation,whichisunderrevisionaspartofMPD2021reviewexercise.
ItisimportanttoappreciatethatTODisavalueadditionoverandabovemixed
use streets and the LandPooling policy in the sense that provides for multiple
useswithinthesamebuildingalongwithhigherFARprovisionssoastopromote
intensive development along MRTS corridors/major transport axis which will
inducepeopletousePublicTransportanddoawaywithpersonalizedvehicular
modes. However, TOD has to be designed casetocase basis and cannot be a
defaultfunction.
Figure8.2: ProposedKarkardoomaTODProject

Source:

http://uttipec.nic.in/writereaddata/linkimages/6080492270.pdf

3. DecentralizedInfrastructureandSustainabilityPlanThiswouldinclude:
Water and Waste Water management strategy including recycling and reuse of waste water. To
includestrategyforbothpotableandnonpotablewater.
Rainwaterstrategy,tobeintegratedwiththeLandscapeandPublicOpenSpaceStrategy
SolidWasteManagementStrategy
EnergyStrategymaximisinguseofrenewablesources
Integrated Infrastructure and Services Systems Plan indicating space requirements for all
infrastructure
4. EconomicViabilityandImplementationModelThiswouldinclude:
Determining a financially profitable mix of uses based on the current demand and supply, coupled
with the projected land values for the TOD zone. To include cost delivering of Social and Physical
infrastructure

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Determiningafinancialmodelanddeliverymechanismforaffordablehousing,publicinfrastructure
and public transport facilities through mechanisms of cross subsidy, FAR benefits or any other
possiblebenefitthattheTODauthoritycangive.
StrategyforrevenuecollectionfromtheTODzonebasedonthe benefitsenjoyedbyapieceofland
lying within the TOD zone. To determine total profit generated from the TOD Zone in a phased
mannerforindividualowners,consortiumsandTODadministration.
Determiningappropriatemechanismsforlandpoolingbyindividualplotholderstoavailthebenefits
ofTODbasedonthespecificcharacteristicsofthesite.
DeterminingthestructureoftheadministrativebodyoftheTODzoneandthecostofoperationofthe
body.
Strategy for implementing the TOD policy in the TOD zone through the principle of award and
penalty.

Note:AfterpreparationofInfluenceZonePlansforUrbanExtensionareas,theTOD
Zonesshallaccommodatesubstantiallygreaterproportionofthepopulation
of planned areas of Zonal Plans, which may therefore require subsequent
modification.

8.2.15.4. RedevelopmentCriteriaandMinimumProjectSizeCriteria153
Policy:

Redevelopment within developed areas of the city would be permitted only when an overall
Influence Zone Plan has been prepared for the Station. This is to ensure that local street
networks,physicalandsocialinfrastructureandsharedparkingfacilitieshavebeenplannedfor
thearea,beforedensificationcommences.

For achieving higher FAR it would be desirable to incentivize amalgamation of plots as well as
make appropriate amendments in the bye laws, as per TOD norms. However, though
amalgamationisdesirablebutitmaynotbeaprerequisite.Densificationshouldbeallowedinall
plot sizes subject to the project complying with the approved Influence Zone Plan, so that
incrementaldevelopmentanddensificationcanstarttakingplace.

ItishighlyinappropriatetoallowlandbankinginTODzones.Penaltiessuchasvacantlandtax,
etc. on underutilized land and/or underutilized FAR could be levied, in order to ensure time
bounddensificationalongwithMRTScorridor.Suchpenaltiesshouldapplytoalldevelopersas
wellasGovt.bodies,toeveninefficientuseofvaluableland.

Norms:
1. IfInfluenceZonelayoutplanforthestationareadoesnotexist,noindividualdevelopments
withTODnormsshallbepermitted.
2. IfInfluenceZonePlanforthestationareaexists:
i.
Anyprojectssizeofequalormorethan50Hamaybetakenupfordevelopment/infillor
redevelopment, if in adherence to the influence zone plan prepared by the Planning
Authority.
ii.
Individual buildings shall be given sanction by the concerned authority within the
frameworkoftheoverallinfluencezoneplan.
iii.
For projects accommodating more than 5000 residential population, the residents/
cooperativesocieties/privatedevelopersshouldgetthedetailedlayoutandservicesplan
preparedinconsultationwiththeconcernedauthorityforfinalapproval.

153

Draft Transit Orient Development Policy, Norms & Guidelines, UTTIPEC.

308

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8.2.15.5. TODDevelopmentControlNorms154
TheTODmainlyhas6componentsforwhichtheDCRistobedevelopedbydevelopmentauthorities.
Thesecomponentsareasfollowing:
1. Pedestrian&Cycle/CycleRickshawFriendlyEnvironment
2. Connectivity:Createdensenetworksofstreetsandpathsforallmodes.
3. Multimodal Interchange: Mass transportation modes servicing the area should be well
integratedtoaffordrapidandcomfortablemodaltransfers.
4. Modal Shift Measures: Shift to Sustainable Modes by using Design, Technology, Road Use
Regulation,MixedUse,ParkingPolicyandFiscalMeasures
5. Placemaking and Safety: Urban places should be designed for enjoyment, relaxation and
equity.
6. High Density, MixedIncome Development: Compact Neighbourhoods for Shorter Commutes
andequityforallsectionsofsociety.

Policy details and development norms for each of the above components are
providedinDraftTransitOrientDevelopmentPolicy,Norms,Guidelinesissuedby
UTTIPEC155, which is the only guideline available in India at present and can be
referred for TOD projects. In addition, ITDP mentions principal and objectives of
TODinitsversion2.0ofTODStandardsandprovidesprojecteligibilitycriteriaand
itsscoring.However,anylatestandmorecomprehensivedocumentandcasestudies
canalsobereferredforthisexercise.

8.2.16. NonMotorisedVehicles(NMV)
AsperGuidelinesandToolkitsforUrbanTransportDevelopment inMediumSized
Cities in India prepared by MoUD and ADB, NonMotorised Transport (NMT)
measuresproposedbyanIndiancityshouldconformtoexisting policyatNational,
State and City level. National Urban Transport Policy has also encouraged using
NMVs by offering Central financial assistance for this purpose. As per MoUD
guidelines,NMVscanbepromotedthroughthefollowinginitiatives:

ProvidingbetterfacilitiestoaccommodateexistingNMVuseandencouragemoreNMVsthrough
visibleinfrastructure;
DevelopingastrategicNMVplanincludinganetworkofroutesavailabletoNMVsthroughoutthe
city;
SegregatingNMVs/MVstoimprovesafetyandsmoothpassageofNMVs;
PromotingfreightNMVsforthetransportanddeliveryofsmall goodstomarketsandshopping
areas;
Identifyingsubprojectswhichmakepositive,proactiveprovisionforNMVsaspartofabalanced
approachtotrafficplanning;
GivingNMVspriorityoverMVsonselectedroutesandinselectedareas;
StrengtheningRoadUserEducation(RUE)programmesforNMVuserstoimprovebehaviourand
roadsafety;
RationalisingandimprovingNMVregistration,licensingforuseasaPublicTransportorfreight
vehicle,regulationandenforcement
EncourageNMVbyimprovingwomensaccess.

154

Ibid.

155

Thedocumentisavailableatwww.uttipec.nic.in.

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Various initiates and programmes takenup by Ministry of Road Transport and


Highwaysinthisdirection.
IthasalsobeensuggestedbyMoUDthatNMVmeasurescanbeimplementedeither
as mandatory or advisory. Mandatory measures are formal and require to be
backedupbyappropriatetrafficregulations.Forexample,partofthehighwaymay
bedesignatedforNMVsonly.Advisorymeasuresareusuallydesignedtoencourage
NMV use, or where mandatory measures are difficult to implement due to the
requirementoftrafficregulationsorthepracticalitiesofaccommodatingmotorized
vehicles within limited road space. For example, part of the highway may be
allocatedforNMVs,butMVswouldbeallowedtoencroachforsideaccessesorwhen
trafficvolumeishigh.Evenadvisorymeasurescanincurcosts suchimprovedroad
surfacingorremovalofphysicalobstructionstoensurethatNMVpassageissmooth
andcomfortable.
MoUDhasalsorecommendedthatsegregationofNMVsandMotorVehicles(MVs)is
well suited for Indian scenario. Segregated NMV measures can take the form of
dedicated lanes within the highway (with physical dividers or simple line
demarcation) either withflow or contraflow, and streets that prohibit motor
vehicles. Mixed flow measures allow all types of traffic to mix within the highway
and are typically a donothing or minimum case, though some treatments can be
implemented to improve the comfort level of NMVs or provide priority, e.g. at
intersections.ItalsoofferssafeandefficientnetworkforNMVs.

8.2.17. RoadSafety
Road safety is to include design strategies for elements that make up the urban
environment at various scales must be clearly articulated, and must be integrated
withrelevantdevelopmentregulations(DevelopmentPlan,LocalAreaPlans,Urban
Design Guidelines, etc.)156. A checklist of road safety indicators is provided in
Appendix K of Volume II B for ready reference. The principle of road safety to be
includedatRegionalplanninglevel(Mobility1),DevelopmentPlanPreparationlevel
withCMP(Mobility2)andlocalareaplanleveltocreatesafeinfrastructure.

8.2.18. Special Requirements for Barrier Free Built


Environment for Differently abled and Elderly
Persons157
Barrier free environment is one, which enables people with disabilities to move
about safely and freely and to use the facilities within the built environment. The
goalofbarrierfreedesignistoprovideanenvironmentthatsupportsindependent
functioningofindividualssothattheycangettoandparticipatewithoutassistance

156

Working Paper on Urban Development and Road Safety, Embarq, India.

157

Guidelines, NBC, pg 47-48.

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ineverydayactivitiessuchasprocurementofgoodsandservices,communityliving,
employmentandleisure.

Publicwalksshouldbeminimum1.2mwidewithamaximumgradientof1in20
Parkingspacesforindividualswithphysicaldisabilitieswhen placedbetweentwoconventional
diagonal or head on parking spaces should be 3.6 m to 3.8 m wide and the length of the aisle
should7.3m,6.3mand6.5mforheadon,90and60parkingrespectively.
BuildingsRampswithgradients:Arampshouldhaveamaximumslopeof1in20ormaximumof
1in12forshortdistanceupto9m.OtherdetailsoframpshallbereferredfromNBC2005.
UseofTactilepavingandensuringcontinuouspavement

For designing elements within the building premises, the norms as given in the
GuidelinesforBarrierFreeBuiltEnvironmentshallbeapplicable.

8.2.19. InlandWaterTransportation
Water based transport is effective as operating costs of fuel are lower and
environmental pollution is lower thanfor corresponding volumes of movement by
road,railorair.Amajoradvantageisthatthemaininfrastructure,i.e.thewaterway
isoftennaturallyavailable158.
InIndia,anumberof centralandstateagenciesplaycrucialroleinthe regulation,
operation and sustenance of Inland Water Transport (IWT). Their smooth
functioning is required for IWT to be viable. Some of the actors in this sector are
givenbelow.

InlandWaterwaysAuthorityofIndia(IWAI)
CentralInlandWaterTransportCorporation(CIWTC)
Stategovernments
Portauthorities
Transportdevelopmentagencies
Customers

As per constitutional provisions, only those waterways, which are declared as


NationalWaterways,comeunderthepurviewofCentralGovernmentwhilerestof
waterwaysremaininthepurviewofrespectiveStateGovernment.Sinceformation
ofIWAI,waterwaysnamely:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Ganga
Brahmaputra
WestCoastCanalwithUdyogmandalandChampakaraCanals
KakinadaPuducherryCanalssystemalongwithGodavariandKrishnarivers
EastCoastCanalwithBrahmaniRiverandMahanadidelta
Barakriver

The National Transport Policy Committee (1980) recommended the following


principlesfordeclarationofaNationalWaterway.

Itshouldpossesscapabilityofnavigationbymechanicallypropelledvesselsofareasonablesize.

158

RangarajNandRaghuramG,ViabilityofInlandWaterTransportinIndia,
http://www.ieor.iitb.ac.in/files/faculty/narayan/transport/iwttecrepoct05.pdf.

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Itshouldhaveabout45mwidechannelandminimum1.5mdepth.
Itshouldbeacontinuousstretchof50km.Theonlyexceptiontobemadetowaterwaylengthis
forurbanconglomerationsandintraporttraffic.
ItshouldpassthroughandservetheinterestofmorethanoneState(or).
ItshouldconnectavastandprosperoushinterlandandMajorPorts(or).
It should pass through a strategic region where development of navigation is considered
necessarytoprovidelogisticsupportfornationalsecurity(or).
Itshouldconnectplacesnotservedbyanyothermodesoftransport.

As per IWAI, the waterways shall be classified in the following categories for safe
plying of selfpropelled vessels up to 2000 Tonnes dead weight tonnage and tug
bargeformationinpushtypeunitsofcarryingcapacityupto8000tonnes.
Table8.23: WaterwaysClassification
S.No.

Class

River

Canal

ClassI

Minimum1.2metredepth,

Minimumof1.5metredepth,

30metrebottomwidth,

20metrebottomwidth,

300metrebendradius,

300metrebendradius,

4metreverticalclearanceand

4metreverticalclearanceand

30metrehorizontalclearancebetweenpiers

20metrehorizontalclearancebetweenpiers

Minimum1.4metredepth,

Minimumof1.8metredepth,

40metrebottomwidth,

30metrebottomwidth,

500metrebendradius,

500metrebendradius,

5metreverticalclearanceand

5metreverticalclearanceand

40metrehorizontalclearancebetweenpiers

30metrehorizontalclearancebetweenpiers

Minimum1.7metredepth,

Minimumof2.2metredepth,

50metrebottomwidth,

40metrebottomwidth,

700metrebendradius,

700metrebendradius,

7metreverticalclearanceand

7metreverticalclearanceand

30metrehorizontalclearancebetweenpiers

40metrehorizontalclearancebetweenpiers

Minimum2.0metredepth,

Minimumof2.5metredepth,

50metrebottomwidth,

50metrebottomwidth,

800metrebendradius,

800metrebendradius,

10metreverticalclearanceand

10metreverticalclearanceand

50metrehorizontalclearancebetweenpiers

50metrehorizontalclearancebetweenpiers

Minimum2.0metredepth,

NA

ClassII

ClassIII

ClassIV

ClassV

50metrebottomwidth,
800metrebendradius,
10metreverticalclearanceand
80metrehorizontalclearancebetweenpiers
incaseofriversonly.
6

ClassVI

ClassVII

Minimum2.75metredepth,

Minimumof3.5metredepth,

80metrebottomwidth,

60metrebottomwidth,

900metrebendradius,

900metrebendradius,

10metreverticalclearanceand

10metreverticalclearanceand

80metrehorizontalclearancebetweenpiers

60metrehorizontalclearancebetweenpiers

Minimum2.75metreandabovedepth,100
metreandabovebottomwidth,

NA

900metrebendradius,
10metreverticalclearanceand
100metrehorizontalclearancebetweenpiers
incaseofriversonly
Source:TheInlandWaterwaysAuthorityofIndiaAct,1985.

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There are only few states, which have undertaken the initiatives to develop
waterways as transport medium. Such states are Assam, Goa, Kerala, Maharashtra
(Mumbai), West Bengal, and some other coastal areas (where it has natural
advantageandnodevelopmentalinterventionisneeded).

8.2.20. AirportPlanning
Airportplanningisasystematicprocessusedtoestablishguidelinesfortheefficient
developmentofairportsthatisconsistentwithlocal,stateandnationalgoals.Akey
objective of airport planning is to assure the effective use of airport resources in
order to satisfy aviation demand in a financially feasible manner. An airport has
different elements, which required space; however it may vary (depending on the
passengertrafficwhichistheessentialparametertodeterminethesizeofairport).
Suchoverallrequiredspaceshouldbeintegratedwithdevelopmentplaninorderto
minimisetheeffectatlaterstagesofplanning.Airportconsistofdifferentelements,
suchelementsare:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Runway
Taxiway
TerminalBuilding
AncillarybuildingswhichincludeCargoTerminal,FirefightingStation,Fuelfarm
Aprons
Hanger
AirTrafficControlToweretc.
RoadinfrastructurewhichincludesAirsideroadandlandsideroad,and
OtherInfrastructuralfacilitiessuchSTPs,WTPs.

8.2.20.1. AirportLandRequirement
ThefollowingtableassembledbyInternationalAirTransportAssociation(IATA)159
providestheapproximatelandrequirementbasedonpassengermovement,number
of runways, cargo movement etc. in order for airport planners and airport
authorities (could be used for development planning as well) to understand the
scale of the site required for airport infrastructure development. These cover the
abovementionedelementsandshouldbeusedforroughestimationpurposesonly.
However these figures may vary depending upon the local topography, type of
aircraftforwhichairfieldistobedesignedetc.
Table8.24: ApproximateLandRequirementforAirportinfrastructure
No.of
Runways

TotalAnnual
Mvts.

TotalAnnual
Passengers
(mppa)

TotalAnnual
Cargo.

LandArea
(ha)

Sydney(SYD)

307,058

25.7

573,880

887

Hong Kong(HKG)

193,895

32.7

2,240,585

1,255

Singapore Changi Airport (SIN)

184,533

28.6

1,680,000

1,300

Narita International Airport (NRT)

133,396

27.3

1,932,694

1,084

Kansai International Airport (KIX)

122,916

19.4

999,692

510

Airport
(Asia&Pacific)

Source:AirportDevelopmentReferenceManual,9 thedition,IATA.

159

Airport Development Reference Manual, IATA.

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8.2.20.2. UnitareanormsforAirportTerminal160
Overallspace/areanormshouldbesuchastoprovideareasonablelevelofservice
for all components required in a Terminal Building. Commercial or Retail area
providing amenities like food & beverages, book shops, counters for car rental,
vending machines, public rest rooms etc., normally require 812 per cent of the
overall area, and should be planned and provided accordingly. This shall be
considered as the builtup area by the planners while providing indoor
infrastructurefacilitiesandtrunkinfrastructurecapacity.
In bigger airports, i.e., with annual passenger traffic exceeding 10 million,
commercialareacouldbeupto20percentofoverallarea.
Table8.25: NormsforAirportTerminals
Sl.No.

NatureofTerminal

AreaNormSqm/
peakhour
passenger(php)

DomesticTerminals

Trafficupto100php

12

Trafficbetween100150php

15

Trafficbetween1501000php

18

Trafficabove1000php

20

Integratedterminalforhandlingbothdomesticandinternational

InternationalTerminals

8.3.

PhysicalInfrastructure

25
27.5

8.3.1. WaterSupply
Theobjectiveofapublicprotectedwatersupplysystemistosupplysafeandclean
water in adequate quantity, conveniently and as economically as possible. Rising
demand of water due to rapid urbanisation is putting enormous stress. While
planning the water supply system for an area, it is evident to consider water
conservationaspects,whichmaybepossiblethroughoptimaluseofavailablewater
resources, prevention and control of wastage of water and effective demand
management.

160

Norms & Standards for Capacity of Airport Terminals, Planning Commission, Government of India.

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8.3.1.1. WaterSupplyStandards
ThewatersupplystandardsasindicatedbytheCPHEEOaredetailedinTable8.26.
Table8.26: WaterSupplyStandards
Recommendedmaximum
watersupplylevels(lpcd)

S.No.

Classificationoftown/cities

Townsprovidedwithpipedwatersupplybutwithoutseweragesystem

70

Citiesprovidedwithpipedwatersupplywhereseweragesystemis
existing/contemplated

135

MetropolitanandMegacitiesprovidedwithpipedwatersupplywhere
seweragesystemisexisting/contemplated

150

Source:CPHEEOManual,1999.

Notes:
i.
ii.

iii.
iv.
v.

vi.

vii.

viii.

ix.

x.

In urban areas, where water is providedthrough public stand posts, 40 lpcd should be
considered
UnaccountedforWater(UFW)isthedifferencebetweenthequantityofwatersupplied
toacity'snetworkandthemeteredquantityofwaterusedbythecustomers.UFWhas
two components: (a) physical losses due to leakage from pipes, and (b) administrative
losses due to illegal connections and under registration of water meters. The above
figuresexcludeUFW,whichshouldbelimitedto15%fornewproposedsystems.
Water requirement for the town/city will be 135 to 150 lpcd. However, water
requirementforinstitutionalbuildingsshouldbeasspecifiedinTable8.27.
ThewaterneedsofthetownwillbepartiallymetbymakingprovisionofRainHarvesting
Structuresinallthebuildings.
Figures include requirements of water for commercial, institutional and minor
industries.Howeverthebulksupplytoeachestablishmentshouldbeassessedseparately
withproperjustification.
Piped water supplies should be designed on continuous 24 hours basis to distribute
water to consumers at adequate pressure at all points (using grid supply system of a
Smartcity).
For towns where one storeyed building is common and for supply to the ground level
storage tanks in multistoreyed buildings, the minimum residual pressure at ferrule
pointshouldbe7mfordirectsupply.Wheretwostoreyedbuildingsarecommon,itmay
be12mandwherethreestoreyedbuildingsareprevalent17mor asstipulatedbylocal
byelaws.
The consumption of water when supply is metred is less compared to that when the
watercharges onflat rate basis.Hence in order toachieve optimal utilisationof water,
meteringisrecommended.
CPHEEO manual specifies design period for various components, broadly 30 years for
civil works and 15 years for electromechanical works. In fixing a design period, the
useful life of structures and equipment employed, taking into account obsolescence as
well as wear and tear, design constraints, rate of population growth etc. should be
incorporatedandintegratedwithoverallplanningofthecity.
PPP should be encouraged and could be introduced in phases, either on Build, Operate
and Own (BOO) or Build, Operate, Own and Transfer (BOOT) basis. Primarily, it is
possibleintwowaysi.e.privatizationoftheexistingwatersupplysystemsandsecondly,
privatization of systems in newly developed townships, housing colonies, business and
commercialcomplexes,etc.

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8.3.1.2. Firefighting
The CPHEEO Manual recommends firefighting water demand as a function of
population,i.e.waterdemandforfirefightingpurpose=100P,wherePstandsfor
forecasted population may be adopted for communities larger than 50,000. It is
desirable that onethird of firefighting requirements from part of the service
storage. The balance requirement may be distributed in several static tanks at
strategic points. These static tanks may be filled from nearby ponds, streams or
canals by water tankers wherever feasible. The pressure required for firefighting
wouldhavetobeboostedbyfireengines.

8.3.1.3. InstitutionalBuildings
Table8.27: WaterrequirementsforInstitutionalBuildingsCPHEEO,1999
S.No. Institutions

Litresperheadperday

Hospital(includinglaundry)
a.noofbedsexceeding100
b.no.ofbedsnotexceeding100

a.450(perbed)
b.340(perbed)

Hotels

180(perbed)

Hostels

135

Nurseshomesandmedicalquarters

135

Boardingschools/colleges

135

Restaurants

Airportandseaports

70

Junctionstationsandintermediatestationwheremailor
expressstoppage(bothrailwayandbusstations)isprovided

70

Terminalstations

45

10

Intermediatestations(excludingmailandexpressstops)

11

DaySchools/colleges

45

12

Offices

45

13

Factories

14

Cinema,concerthallsandtheatres

70(perseat)

45(couldbereducedto25wherebathing
facilitiesarenotprovided)

45(couldbereducedto30wherenobathing
roomsarerequiredtobeprovided)
15

Source:CPHEEOManual,1999.

8.3.1.4. IndustrialUnits
Table8.28: WaterrequirementforIndustrialUnits
Industry

UnitofProduction

WaterRequirementinKilolitresperunit

Automobile

Vehicle

Distillery

Kilolitre(proofalcohol)

122170

Fertilisers

Tonne

80200

Leather

100kg(tanned)

Paper

Tonne

200400

SpecialQualitypaper

Tonne

4001000

Strawboard

Tonne

75100

40

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Industry

UnitofProduction

WaterRequirementinKilolitresperunit

Petroleumrefinery

Tonne(crude)

Steel

Tonne

200250

Sugar

Tonne

12

Textile

100kg(goods)

814

12

Source:CPHEEOManual,1999.

8.3.1.5. Stationwaterrequirements
WaterrequirementfortheStationforvarioususes(perday):

15litresperpassengers(MetcalfEddy)
455litresperemployee(ref:CPHEEOManuals)
Apronwashing10litrespersqmetersasperIndianRailwaysWorkManual(IRWM)
Cleaning/moppingofplatformandfloor5litrespersqm.
Metersandgreeters5litrespervisitor
Catering45litresperpassengers
Gardening/Horticulture22500litresperhectares(IRWM)
Cleaningoftrainsonplatform500litrespercoach(IRWM)
Cleaningoftrainsinwashinglanes3600litrespercoach(IRWM)
Wateringoftrains1800litres/coach(IRWM)
Firefighting(CPHEEONorms)
Commercial45000litresperhectaresperday(IRWM)
UFW15%oftotaldemandfornewsystem(CPHEEO)
75%oftotalcapacityshallbefilledatthestationforlonghaultrains(passingtrains)

Waterrequirementformetrostationcouldbecalculatedbasedonthetypeofstation
(underground or elevated). In absence of any specific norms to calculate water
demand for metro station, the waterestimations can becalculated from the above
mentioned information for stations. Parameters such as staff requirement, HVAC
requirement if station is underground, toilet requirement and passenger
requirementtobeconsideredbasedonthefacilitiesprovidedatmetrostations.

8.3.1.6. DistrictMeterAreaPlanning(Bulkmetering)
Thetermdistrictmeteringisusedtodescribethemethodwherebyflowmetersare
installed on all major supply lines and strategic points within the distribution
system.Themetersshouldbeusedtomonitortheoverallperformanceofthesystem
establishing average daily flows into various districts. District meter areas ideally
consistof2000to5000properties.
Size of the district meter should be such that it is capable of recording night flow
without loss of accuracy and also must be capable of supplying peak flow without
introducingseriousheadloss.
The District Meters should be read at weekly intervals at the same time of day as
previousreadingsofthemeter.

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8.3.1.7. BillingandCollection
RevenuemanagementsystemisanimportantaspectofanyWatersupplySystemas
itgovernsthefinancialaspect.Besidesfixingatariffstructure,billingandcollection
ofrevenueplayanimportantpart.
Thewaterchargestobefixedtakingintoaccounttheabilityofthesystemtomeet
theexpenditureonthefollowingheads.

OperatingCost(excludingestablishmentcost),
EstablishmentCost,
Depreciation,
DebtServices&DoubtfulCharges,
Assetreplacementfund.

Tariffstructureshouldbefixedandrevisedperiodically.Automaticincreaseoftariff
periodically on index basis can also be adopted. Where the same authority also
provides sewerage system, charges for this can also supply through Public stand
post,maybechargedandalsobeincludedasapercentageofthewatercharges.
TherearevariousmethodsbywhichWaterBillingcanbedone.Theuserisadvised
to refer Manual on Operation and Maintenance of Water Supply Systems of
CPHEEOwhilefixingthetariff,billingprocessandcollectionsystem.

8.3.1.8. LeakageControl
Theoverallobjectiveofleakagecontrolistodiagnosehowwaterlossiscausedand
to formulate and implement action to reduce it, to technically and economically
acceptableminimal.
The water losses can be termed into two categories i.e. Physical losses and Non
Physical Losses. The Physical Losses is mainly due to leakage of water in the
networkandcomprisesofphysicallossesfrompipes,joints&fittings,reservoirs&
overflowsofreservoirs&sumps.TheNonPhysicalLossesisduetotheftofwater
through illegal, already disconnected connections, underbilling either deliberately
orthroughdefectivemeters,waterwastedbyconsumerthroughopenorleakytaps,
errorsinestimatingflatrateconsumption,publicstandpostsandhydrants.
Themajoractivitieswhichshouldbetakenupforefficientmonitoringandleakage
controlare:

PreliminarydatacollectionandplanningThewaterdistributiondrawingsaretobestudied
and updated. The number of service connections is to be obtained and in the drawings of the
roadstheexactlocationsofserviceconnectionsmarked.Thedistrictandsubdistrictboundaries
aresuitablyfixedtakingintoconsiderationthenumberofserviceconnections,lengthofmains,
andpressurepointsinthemain.Theexactlocationsofvalves,hydrantswiththeirsizesshouldbe
notedonthedrawings.
Pipe location and survey Electronic pipe locators can be used during survey. These
instrumentsworkontheprincipleofElectromagneticsignalpropagation.Itconsistsofabattery

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operated transmitter and a cordless receiver unit to pick up the signals of preset frequency.
Therearevariousmodelstochoosefrom.
AssessmentofpressureandflowsDataloggersareusedtorecordthepressureandflows.It
is an instrument which stores the raw data electronically so as to be able to transfer it to the
computerwithadatacablelink.Twotypesofportabledataloggersareusedeitherwithasingle
channelordualchannel.Intheabsenceofelectronicequipment,thepressurescanbeascertained
bytappingandprovidingapressuregauge.Flowscanbeassessedbyusingmetersonabypass
line.
Locatingtheleaks Walking and sounding are thetwo general methods or their combination
canbeusedtodetectpossiblelocationofleakages.Leakagecanbedetectedbywalkingoverthe
main looking for telltale signs of presence of water. Whereas sounding is the cheapest and an
effectivemethodofdetectingleaksinamediumsizedwatersupplysystem.Theequipmentused
fordetectingleakagesisdescribedininManualonOperationandMaintenanceofWaterSupply
SystemsofCPHEEO.
Assessmentofleakage To conduct tests for assessment of leak the following equipment are
needed:
Roadmeasurer
Pipelocator
Valvelocator
Listeningsticksorsoundingrods
Electronicsoundingrods

Each method mentioned above is described in Manual on Operation and


Maintenance of Water Supply Systems of CPHEEO and can be referred during
formulationofthestrategy.

8.3.1.9. WaterQualityStandards
ThewaterqualitystandardsasprescribedbytheIndianStandardOrganisationare
tabulatedbelow:
Table8.29: OrganolepticandPhysicalParametersofDrinkingWater
Requirement
(Acceptablelimit)

Permissiblelimit
intheabsenceof
alternatesource

Methodof
Test,ref.to
Remarks
partofIS3025

Colour,Hazen
units,Max

15

Part4

Extended to 15 only, if toxic


substancesarenotsuspected
in absence of alternate
sources

Odour

Agreeable

Agreeable

Part5

Testcoldandwhenheated

S.No.

Characteristics

Testatseveraldilutions
3

pHValue

6.58.5

Norelaxation

PartII

Taste

Agreeable

Agreeable

Parts7and8

Test to be conducted only


after safety has been
established

Turbidity,NTU,
Max

Part10

Totaldissolved
solids,mg/l,
Max

500

2000

Part16

Source:IS10500:2012.

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Note:

It is recommended that the acceptable limit is to be implemented. Values in excess of those mentioned under
`acceptablerenderthewaternotsuitable,butstillmaybetoleratedintheabsenceofanalternativesourcebutupto
thelimitsindicatedunder`permissiblelimitintheabsenceofalternatesourceincol.4,abovewhichthesourceswill
havetoberejected.

Table8.30: Generalparametersconcerningsubstancesundesirableinexcessiveamountsindrinking
water
Requirement Permissiblelimit
Methodoftest,
(Acceptable intheabsenceof
Ref.No.
limit)
alternatesource

SNo.

Characteristics

Remarks

Aluminium(asA1),
mg/l,Max

0.03

0.2

IS3025(Part55)

Ammonia(astotal
ammoniaN),mg/l,
Max.

0.5

Norelaxation

IS3025(Part34)

Anionic,detergents
(asMBAS)mg/l,
Max.

0.2

1.0

AnnexKofIS
13428

Barium(asBa),
mg/l,Max.

0.7

Norelaxation

AnnexFofIS
13428orIS
15302

Boron(asB),mg/l,
Max

0.5

1.0

IS3025(Part57)

Calcium(asCa),
mg/l,Max.

75

200

IS3025(Part40)

Chloramines(as
Cl2),mg/l,Max.

4.0

Norelaxation

IS3025(Part26)
orAPHA4500
Cl.G

Chlorideas
(Cl)/mg/1,Max.

250

1000

IS3025(Part32)

Copper(AsCu),
mg/l,Max

0.05

1.5

IS3025(Part42)

10

Fluoride(asF)mg/l, 1.0
Max

1.5

IS3025(Part60)

11

Freeresidual
chlorine,mg/l,Min

0.2

IS3025(Part26) Tobeapplicableonlywhenwater
ischlorinated.Testedat
consumerend.Whenprotection
againstviralinfectionisrequired,
itshouldbeminimum0.5mg/l.

12

Iron(asFe),mg/l,
Max

0.3

Norelaxation

IS3025(Part53) Totalconcentrationof
manganese(asMn)andiron(as
Fe)shallnotexceed0.3mg/l)

13

Magnesium(asMg.), 30
mg/l,Max

100

IS3025(Part46)

14

Manganese(asMs),
mg/l,Max

0.1

0.3

IS3025(Part59) TotalconcentrationofManganese
(asMn)andiron(asFe)shallnot
exceed0.3mg/l

15

MineralOil,Mg/l,
Max

0.5

Norelaxation

Clause6ofIS

3025(Part39)
Inframed
partitionmethod

16

Nitrate(asNO2),
mg/l,Max

45

Norelaxation

IS3025(Part34)

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Requirement Permissiblelimit
Methodoftest,
(Acceptable intheabsenceof
Ref.No.
limit)
alternatesource

SNo.

Characteristics

Remarks

17

Phenoliccompounds 0.001
(asC6H3OH)

0.002

IS3025(Part43)

18

Selenium(asSe),
mg/l,Max

0.01

Norelaxation

IS3025(Part56)
orIS15303

19

Silver(asAg),mg/l,
Max.

0.1

Norelaxation

AnnexJofIS
13428

20

Sulphate(asSO4),
mg/l,Max

200

400

IS3025(Part24) Maybeextendedto400provided
thatMagnesiumdosnotexceed
30

21

Sulphide(asH2S),
mg/l,Max

0.05

Norelaxation

IS3025(Part29)

22

Totalalkalinityas
Calcium,Carbonate,
mg/l,Max.

200

600

IS3025(Part21)

23

Totalhardness(as
CaCO3),mg/l,Max

200

600

IS3025(Part21)

24

Zinc(asZn),mg/lr,
Max

15

IS3025(Part49)

Source:IS10500:2012.

Table8.31: PermissiblelimitsofToxicSubstances

SNo. Characteristics

Requirement
(Acceptable
limit)

Permissible
limitinthe
absenceof
alternate
source

Methodoftest,Ref.
No.

Remarks

Calcium(asCa)mg/l,
Max

0.003

Norelaxation

IS3025(Part41)

Cyanide(asCN),mg/l,
Max.

0.05

Norelaxation

IS3025(Part27)

Lead(asPb),mg/l,Max

0.01

Norelaxation

IS3025(Part47)

Mercury(asHg),mg/l,
Max.

0.001

Norelaxation

IS3025(Part47)

Molybdenum(asMo),
mg/l,Max

0.02

Norelaxation

IS3025(Part2)

Nickel(asNi),mg/l,Max 0.07

Norelaxation

IS3025(Part54)

Pesticides,mg/l,Max.

Asgivenabove

Norelaxation

Asgivenabove

Polychlorinated
biphenyls,mg/l,Max

0.0005

Norelaxation

ASTM5175

Polynucleararomatic
0.0001
hydrocarbons(asPAH),
mg/l,Max

Norelaxation

APHA6440

10

Totalarsenic(asAs),
mg/l,Max.

0.01

0.05

IS3025(Part37)

11

Tribalomethane:

(a)

Bromoform,mg/lMax

0.1

Norelaxation

ASTMD3973.85or
APHA6232

Mercuryanalyser

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SNo. Characteristics

Requirement
(Acceptable
limit)

Permissible
limitinthe
absenceof
alternate
source

Methodoftest,Ref.
No.

Remarks

(b)

Dibromochloromethane,
mg/lMax

(c)

Bromodichloronethane, 0.06
mg/l,Max

Norelaxation

ASTMD397385or
APHA6232

(d)

Chloroform,mg/l,Max.

Norelaxation

ASTMD397385or
APHA6232

0.2

Source:IS10500:2012.

Table8.32: PermissibleLimitsofRadioactiveSubstances

S.
No.

Characteristics

Requirement
(Acceptable
limit)

Permissible
limitinthe
absenceof
alternate
source

Methodoftest,Ref.
No.

Remarks

AlphaemittersBq/l,
Max

0.1

Norelaxation

Part2

BetaemittersBq/l,
Max

1.0

Norelaxation

Part1

Source:IS10500:2012.

Table8.33: PesticideResiduesLimitsofDrinkingWater
S.No.

Pesticide

Limitug/l

USEPA

AOAC/ISO

Alachlor

20

525.2.507

Atrazine

525.1.8141A

Aldrin/Dieldrin

0.03

508

AlphaHCH

0.01

508

BetaHCH

0.04

508

Butachlor

125

525.1.8141A

Chlorpyriphos

30

525.2.8141A

DeltaHCH

0.04

508

24Dichlorophenoxyaceticacid

30

515.1

10

DDT(o,pandppIsomersofDDT,DDEand
DDD)

508

AOAC990.06

11

Endosulfan(alpha,betaandsulphate)

0.4

508

AOAC990.06

12

Ethion

1657A

13

GammaHCH(Lindane)

508

AOAC900.06

14

Isoproturon

508

15

Malathion

190

532

16

Methylparathion

0.3

8141A

17

Monocrotophos

8141A

18

Phorate

Source:IS10500:2012.

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Table8.34: BacteriologicalQualityofDrinkingWater
S.No.

Organisms

Requirements

Allwaterintendedfordrinking:

(a)

E.Coliorthermotolerantcoliformbacteria

Shallnotbedetectableinany100ml.sample

Treatedwaterenteringthedistributionsystem

(a)

EColiorthermotolerantcoliformbacteria

Shallnotbedetectableinany100ml.sample

(b)

Totalcoliformbacteria

Shallnotbedetectableinany100ml.sample

Treatedwaterinthedistributionsystem

(a)

EColiorthermotolerantcoliformbacteria

Shallnotbedetectableinany100ml.sample

(b)

TotalColiformbacteria

Shallnotbedetectableinany100ml.sample

Source:IS10500:2012.

8.3.1.10. LandrequirementforWaterSupplySystem
Identification of land for water infrastructure is an essential parameter. It is
necessarytoearmarklandforWaterTreatmentPlant(WTP)inDevelopmentPlans.
Alsolandforoverheadreservoirs,pumpingstationsshouldbemarkedatthezonal
level or local area plan level. However land requirement may vary based on the
capacity of WTPs and upgradation of technology. Below is the table, which
recommendslandrequirementbasedondifferentcapacity.
Table8.35: RecommendedlandRequirementbasedoncapacities
S.No.

IdentifiedCapacities

LandRequirement(Hectares)

5MLD

0.10

10MLD

0.19

50MLD

0.93

100MLD

1.87

200MLD

3.73

500MLD

9.34

Source:

CPHEEO.

Note:Additional0.63haoflandcanalsobeconsideredforstaffquarters

8.3.1.11. DesignPeriodforWaterSupplyComponents
Table8.36: DesignPeriodforWaterSupplyComponents
S.No.

Components

StoragebyDams

50

Infiltrationworks

30

Pumping

Pumphouse(civilworks)

30

ii

Electricmotorsandpumps

15

Watertreatmentunits

15

Pipeconnectiontoseveraltreatmentunitsandothersmallappurtenances

30

Rawwaterandclearwaterconveyingmains

30

Clearwaterreservoirsattheheadworks,balancingtanksandservice
reservoirs(overheadorgroundlevel)

15

Distributionsystem

30

Source:

ManualsonWaterSupplyandTreatment,1999,CPHEEO.

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

Designperiod(inyears)

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InfrastructurePlanning
National Water Policy, 2012 by Ministry of Water Resources was formulated to
govern the water resources planning and development along with its optimum
utilisation. The Policy provides following recommendations regarding urban
settlements:
Urbanwatersupplyandsewagetreatmentmustbeintegratedalongwithitsbilling,
Least water intensive sanitation and sewerage systems with decentralized sewage treatment
plantsshouldbeincentivized.
Waterreusemustbeencouragedinurbansettlements,
Urban domestic water systems need to collect and publish water accounts and water audit
reportsindicatingleakagesandpilferages,whichshouldbereduced.
In urban and industrial areas, rain water harvesting and desalinisation where techno
economicallyfeasible,shouldbeencouragedtoincreaseavailabilityofutilizablewater.

State Governments shall draft State Water Policy for decentralised or micro level
watermanagementtoyieldbetterresults.

8.3.2. Sewerage&Sanitation
8.3.2.1. NationalUrbanSanitationPolicy
TheaimoftheNationalUrbanSanitationPolicy(NUSP),2008istotransformUrban
India into communitydriven, totally sanitized, healthy, and liveable cities and
towns.
BasicfeatureslaiddowninNUSPgivenbelowshouldbeadheredforplanningofthe
cities
Citiesmustbeopendefecationfree
Must eliminate the practice of manual scavenging and provide adequate personnel protection
equipmentthataddressesthesafetyofsanitationworkers
Municipalsewageandstormwaterdrainagemustbesafelymanaged
Recycle and reuse of treated sewage for nonpotable applications should be implemented
whereverpossible
Solidwastecollectedanddisposedofffullyandsafely
Servicestothepoorandsystemsforsustainingresults
Improvedpublichealthoutcomesandenvironmentalstandards.

Theobjectiveofpublicwastewatercollectionanddisposalsystemistoensurethat
sewage or excreta and sullage discharged from community is properly discharged,
collected,transported,treatedtotherequiredlevelofdegreeandfinallydisposed
offwithoutcausinganyhealthorenvironmentalproblems161.
AsperCPHEEOmanual,80%ofwatersupplymaybeexpectedtoreachthesewers
howeveritrecommendsdesigningthesystembyconsideringminimumwastewater
flowof100litrespercapitaperday.

161

FurtherdetailsareaalsoavailableinNationalMissiononsustainableHabitat,Adaptation&MitigationMeasuresinthefelid
ofWatersupply&Sanitation,CPHEEO,MoUD

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Table8.37: RecommendedDesignPeriodforSewerageSystemsComponents
S.No

Component

Recommended
DesignPeriod
(Years)

Clarification

Collectionsystemi.e.
SewerNetwork

30

The system should be designed for the prospective population


of30years,asitsreplacementisnotpossibleduringitsuse.

PumpingStations
(CivilWorks)

30

Duplicating machinery within pumping station would be


easier/cost of civil works will be economical for full design
period.

PumpingMachinery

15

Lifeofpumpingmachinerygenerally15years

SewerageTreatment
Plant

30

The construction may be in a phased manner as initially the


flows may not reach the designed levels and it will be
uneconomicaltobuildthefullcapacityplantinitially.

EffluentDisposaland
Utilisation

30

Provision of design capacities in the initial stages itself is


economical.

Source:ManualonSewerageandSewageTreatment,CPHEEO.

8.3.2.2. DecentralisedWastewaterManagementSystem(DWMS)
DWWMhasemergedovertheperiodoftime,whichreducestheloadofcentralised
wastewatertreatmentunit.AsperMoUD162,Decentralizedwastewatermanagement
maybedefinedasthecollection,treatment,anddisposal/reuseofwastewaterfrom
individual homes, clusters of homes, isolated communities, industries, or
institutionalfacilities,aswellasfromportionsofexistingcommunitiesatornearthe
point of waste generation. In case of decentralized systems, both solid and liquid
fractionsofthewastewaterareutilizednearthepointofits origin,exceptinsome
cases when a portion of liquid and residual solids may be transported to a
centralizedpointforfurthertreatmentandreuse.
MoUD (Guidelines for Decentralised Waste Water Management, MoUD 2012) in
association with Indian Institution of Technology (IIT)Madras has developed
guidelinesonDWWM,whichrecommends15yearsofdesignperiod forDWWM,if
possible. Another way to design a DWWM is to estimate the present day capacity
andplanthesystemforanadditional20%capacity.Further,thedetailedguidelines
as mentioned in Draft Manual on Sewerage and Sewage Treatment of CPHEEO
(December 2013) can be referred while developing DWWM units in a city which
elaborates siting criteria, components and other design consideration including
wastewatercharacteristicsandwastewatertreatment.

8.3.2.3. CentralizedvisavisDecentralizedSewageTreatmentSystems
While the conventional sewerage may be a comprehensive system for sewage
collection and transport, it also remains as a highly resourceintensive technology.
Consequently,highcapitalcost,andsignificantO&Mcostofthissysteminhibitsits

162

GuidelinesforDecentralizedWastewaterManagement.

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InfrastructurePlanning
widespreadadoptioninallsizesofurbanareas.TheimplementationofCentralized
Wastewater Management System (CWMS) should not be considered as the only
option available for collection, transportation and treatment of sewage. There are
certainfactors,whichgoverntheselectionofoptionsbetweenCWMSandDWMS.
Recognizing the many applications and benefits of sewage reuse, some important
pointsmaybekeptinviewsuchas;
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)

Reviewoftheimpactofthepopulationgrowthrate
Reviewofpotentialwaterreuseapplicationsandwaterqualityrequirements
Reviewofappropriatetechnologiesforsewagetreatmentandreuse
Consideringthetypeofmanagementstructurethatwillberequiredinthefutureand
Identification of issues that must be solved to bring about water reuse for sustainable
developmentonabroadscale.

It has been emphasized that if sewage from the urban and semi urban areas
werereusedforavarietyofnonpotableuses,thedemandonthepotablewater
supplywouldbereduced.
The choice of appropriate technology also depends on several factors such as
compositionofsewage,availabilityofland,fundsandexpertise.Differentoperation
and maintenance options have to be considered with respect to sustainable plant
operation, the use of local resources, knowledge and manpower. A flow diagram
showingthedecisionmakingstepsisgiveninfigure8.3.

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Figure8.3: DecisionTree:Selectingthewastewatermanagementsystem(Onsite,Decentralizedor
Conventional)

Source:GuidelinesforDecentralizedWastewaterManagement,MoUD.

8.3.2.4. EffluentStandards
As per MoEF, the general effluent standards for discharging the waste water are
givenintablebelow:
Table8.38: GeneralEffluentStandardsforDischarge
Standards
SNo.

Parameter

ColourandOdour

Inland
surface
water

Public
Sewers

Landfor
Irrigation

MarineCoastalareas

Alleffortsshouldbemadetoremovecolourandunpleasantodourasfaras
practicable

SuspendedSolids
mg/g,Max.

100

600

200

Forprocesswastewater100

Forcoolingwatereffluent10per
centabovetotalsuspendedmatter
ofinfluent.

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InfrastructurePlanning
Standards
Inland
surface
water

SNo.

Parameter

Particulatesizeof
suspendedsolids

Shallpass850
micronIS
Sieve

(a)Floatablesolids,max.3mm

(b)Settleablesolids,max.850
microns

pHValue

5.5to9.0

5.5to9.0

5.5to9.0

5.5to9.0

Temperature

Shallnot
exceed50C
abovethe
receiving
water
temperature

Shallnotexceed50Cabovethe
receivingwatertemperature.

Oilandgreasemg/l,
Max.

10

20

10

20

Totalresidual
chlorinemg/m,Max

1.0

1.0

Ammonicalnitrogen
(asN),mg/l,Max.

50

50

50

TotalKjeldahl
Nitrogen(asNH3),
mg/l,Max

100

100

10

FreeAmmonia(as
NH3),mg/l,Max.

5.0

5.0

11

BiochemicalOxygen
demand(3daysat
270C),mg/l,Max.

30

350

100

100

12

ChemicalOxygen
Demand,mg/l,Max.

250

250

13

Arsenic(asAs),
mg/l,Max.

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

14

Mercury(asHg),
mg/l,Max.

0.01

0.01

0.01

15

Lead(asPb),mg/l,
Max

0.1

1.0

2.0

16

Cadmium(asCd),
mg/l,Max

2.0

10

2.0

17

Hexavalent
Chromium(asCr+6),
mg/l,Max.

0.1

2.0

1.0

18

TotalChromium(as
Cr.),mg/l,Max.

2.0

2.0

2.0

19

Copper(asCu),mg/l,
Max.

3.0

3.0

3.0

20

Zinc(asZn.),mg/l,
Max

5.0

15

15

21

Selenium(asSe)
mg/l,Max

0.05

0.05

0.05

Public
Sewers

Landfor
Irrigation

MarineCoastalareas

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Standards
Inland
surface
water

SNo.

Parameter

22

Nickel(asNi),mg/l,
Max

3.0

3.0

5.0

23

Cyanide(asCN),
mg/l,Max

0/2

2.0

0.2

0.2

24

Fluoride(asF),mg/l,
Max

2.0

15

15

25

Dissolved
Phosphates(asP),
mg/l,Max

5.0

26

Sulphide(asS),
mg/l,Max

2.0

5.0

27

Phenoliccompounds
(asCSHSOH,mg/l,
Max

1.0

5.0

5.0

28

Radioactive
materials:

Alphaemittermicro
curie/ml

107

107

108

107

Public
Sewers

Landfor
Irrigation

MarineCoastalareas

Betaemittermicro
curie/ml

106

106

107

106

29

Bioassaytest

90%survival
offishafter
96hoursin
100%effluent

90%
survivalof
fishafter
96hoursin
100%
effluent

90%
survivalof
fishafter
96hoursin
100%
effluent

90%survivaloffishafter96hours
in100%effluent

30

Manganese(asMn)

2mg/l

2mg/l

2mg/l

31

Iron(asFe)

3mg/l

3mg/l

3mg/l

32

Vanadium(asV)

0.2mg/l

0.2mg/l

0.2mg/l

33

NitrateNitrogen

10mg/l

20mg/l

Source:

EnvironmentProtectionAct,1986.

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8.3.2.5. RecommendednormsforSewageanditsuses
Therecommendedtreatedsewagequalityisproposedtobeachievedforthestated
reuseasgiveninthetablebelow:
Table8.39:RecommendedupperlimitsoftreatedSewagequalityforspecifiedactivitiesatpointof
use

S.No. Parameter

Toilet
flushing

Fire
Protection

Vehicle
Exterior
washing

Non
contact
impound
ments

Landscaping,Horticulture&Agriculture

Cropswhichareeaten

Horticulture, Nonedible
GolfCourse crops

Raw

Cooked

Turbidity
(NTU)

<2

<2

<2

<2

<2

AA

<2

AA

SS

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

30

TDS

2100

pH

6.5to8.3

Temperature
0C

Ambient

Oil&Grease

10

Nil

Nil

Nil

10

10

Nil

Nil

Minimum
Residual
Chlorine

0.5

Nil

Nil

Nil

TotalKjeldahl 10
NitrogenasN

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

BOD

10

10

10

10

10

20

10

20

10

COD

AA

AA

AA

AA

AA

AA

AA

30

11

Dissolved
Phosphorous
asP

12

Nitrate
10
NitrogenasN

10

10

10

10

10

10

13

Faecal
Coliformin
100ml

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

230

Nil

230

14

Helminthic
Eggs/litre

AA

AA

AA

AA

AA

<1

<1

<1

15

Colour

Colourle
ss

Colourless

Colourless

Colourless

Colourless

AA

Colour
less

Colour
less

16

Odour

Asepticwhichmeansnotsepticandnofoulodour

Source:

DraftManualonSewerageandSewageTreatmentSystems,CPHEEO2013.

In order to achieve desired water quality, excess chlorination, granular activated


carbon adsorption / Ozonation and/ or various kind of filtration including
membrane are recommended. For recreational impoundments for nonhuman
contact,residualchlorineisnotrequiredsoastoprotectaquaticspeciesoffloraand
fauna.
AspertheManualofSewerageandSewageTreatment,thefollowingprovisionsare
tobefollowedforusageoftreatedsewage,sludgeandbiogasutilization:

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a.

b.
c.
d.
e.

Reuse of treated sewage should be taken up after discussions between ULB, water boards,
PHEDs/JalNigamsandthepublic,asthecasemaybe.Variouspossiblereusemethodssuchas
farmforestry,greenbeltdevelopmentandlawnsinroadmedians.
Utilizationofsludgeinpublicareasisnotpossibleduetoissuesofpublicacceptanceandhence
itisbesttofocusonfarmforestry.
Utilizationofalternativeenergy,likeinplantenergytobeharnessedfrombiomethanationand
toevaluatetheambienttemperaturesuitabilityorhearingofsludgevseconomics.
Reuseoftreatedsewagetoaminimumextentof20%byvolumeshallbemandatorilyexplored
andtheproposeduseforachievingthis20%targetshallmandatorilyformpartoftheCSP.
Utilizationofsludgeasaconstructionmaterial(asporouspavement,bricksetc.)

8.3.2.6. RecyclingofWasteWater
Various sewage treatment technologies, given below, are adopted in sewerage
system to treat wastewater up to secondary level, as per the effluent standards in
Indiaaswellasinotherpartsoftheworld.Thesetechnologiesare:
1. ActivatedSludgeProcess(ASP)
2. WasteStabilisationPondSystems(WSPS)
3. UpflowAnaerobicSludgeBlanketProcess(UASB)
4. DuckweedPondSystem(DPS)
5. FacultativeAerateLagoon(FAL)
6. TricklingFilter(TF)
7. BiologicalFiltrationandOxygenatedreactor(BIOFOR)Technology
8. HighrateActivatedSludgeBioforFTechnology
9. FluidizedAeratedBed(FAB)
10. SubmergedAerationFixedFilm(SAFF)Technology
11. CyclicActivatedSludgeProcess(CASP)

The salient features and comparison of these technologies in terms of their


applicability,landrequirement,capitalcostandoperationandmaintenance(O&M)
costaregivenintablebelow.
Table8.40: FactSheetforVariousTreatmentProcess
S.No. RecyclingTechnique

Applicability

Themostwidelyusedoption
fortreatmentofdomestic
wastewaterformediumto
largetownswherelandis
scarce.
Inwarmconditions
WasteStabilisation
Easylandavailability
PondSystems(WSPS)
Wherepowersupplyis
expensive,loworunreliable.
Wheresocialpreferencefor
aquaculture
Thesuitabilityofthis
UpflowAnaerobic
technologymaybedoubtfulas
SludgeBlanketProcess
astandalonesecondary
(UASB)
treatmentoption
DuckweedPondSystem Lowstrengthdomestic
wastewaterafter
(DPS)
sedimentationwithinfluent
BOD<80mg/L
ActivatedSludge
Process(ASP)

Land
Requirement
(PerMLDin
Hectares)
0.150.25

24

0.30.5

0.82.3

1.54.5

0.060.1

0.20.3

2.53.6

0.080.17

26

1.54.5

0.18

URDPFIGuidelines,2014.MinistryofUrbanDevelopment

CapitalCost
O&MCost
(perMLDin
(Million/Year/MLD)
INR)

331

InfrastructurePlanning

S.No. RecyclingTechnique

Land
Requirement
(PerMLDin
Hectares)

Applicability

Incombinationwithexisting
WSP
Easylandavailability
Asapolishingpondforan
existingactivatedsludgeplant
orothertechnologybased
STPs.
Standalonesystem
FacultativeAerate
Asapretreatmentunitfor
Lagoon(FAL)
WSP
Asanupgradationoptionfor
overloadedWSPs.
Standalonesystemifoperated
TricklingFilter(TF)
atslowrates
Asahighrateroughingfilter
forhighBODwastewater
IncombinationwithASP
BiologicalFiltrationand
Oxygenatedreactor
(BIOFOR)Technology
HighrateActivated
SludgeBioforF
Technology

CapitalCost
O&MCost
(perMLDin
(Million/Year/MLD)
INR)

0.270.4

2.22.9

0.150.2

0.250.65

Notavailable,
butslightly
lowerthan
ASP

0.04

6.58.1

0.86

0.08

5.2

0.18

Smalltomediumflowsin
0.06
35
0.60.75
congestedlocations
Sensitivelocations
Decentralisedapproach
Relivingexistingoverloaded
STPs.

Smalltomediumflowsin
10
SubmergedAeration
0.05
7
1.14
congestedlocations
FixedFilm(SAFF)
Sensitivelocations
Technology
Decentralisedapproach
Relivingexistingoverloaded
tricklingfilters
11
CyclicActivatedSludge Smalltomediumflowsin
0.10.15
NotAvailable Expectedtobehigher
congestedlocations
Process(CASP)
thanASP
Sensitivelocations
Decentralisedapproach
Relivingexistingoverloaded
tricklingfilters
Source:CompendiumofSewageTreatmentTechnologies,NationalRiverConservationDirectorate,MOEF,2009.
9

FluidizedAeratedBed
(FAB)

Land availability plays an important role in providing such facilities. Land


requirement may vary based on the technology adopted for sewage treatment.
However, it is evident to mark the required land on development plan. It is
recommended to decide the most suitable technology in advance based on the
variousparametersasgiveninAppendixLofVolumeIIB.

8.3.2.7. SeptageManagementPlanningandImplementation163
Foreffectiveseptagemanagementplan,robustdataonseptagearrangements,their
quantityand locationsof its generationetc. are required. The ULBswould need to
make arrangements to collect baseline data, like type of latrine disposal, effluent
disposal arrangement, size, age, when it was last cleaned, access to the onsite

163

AdvisoryNoteSeptageManagementinUrbanIndia,2013,MoUD.

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system,arrangementfordisposalofeffluent,ifanyofexistinginstallations,toplan
for workable desludging schedules. It is advisable to divide the city into different
sanitaryzones(ifnotalreadydone)andcarryoutthebaselinesurveyinoneorafew
ofthesezones,pilotdesludgingareawiseschedulestolearnoperationalissuesand
devisesolutions,beforeupscalingtotheentireULBcanbetakenup.Theselection
ofzonecouldbebasedonavailabilityofseptagedisposalsitesexistingSTPscould
bepotentialseptagedisposal/applicationsitesortrenchesprovidedinsolidwaste
landfillsitesorsuitableurbanforestrysiteswheretheseptagetrencheswouldserve
to fertilize the plants. In order to be economical and financially competitive, it is
suggested that households in demarcated septage management zone should be
within20to30kmtraveldistancefromtheidentifiedtreatmentanddisposalsites.
Furtheratwostepprocessistobefollowedforselectionofthetreatmentsystem:
1. Todeterminetheappropriatetreatmentoptiononthebasisofsizeoftown,landavailability,
proximity/availabilityofsewagetreatmentplantsandproximitytoresidentialareas;and
2. To conduct a technoeconomic feasibility to choose the most appropriate technology on the
basisofcapital,operationsandmaintenancecosts.

Thestepsinplanningandimplementingseptagemanagementaregivenbelow:
3. Collectdataonthehouseholdsandotherpropertieswithonsitearrangementsinthecity.
4. Listoutthemunicipal,privateandotherseptictank/pitcleaningservicesactiveinthecity
5. Identify catchmentwise land for septage treatment facility such as use existing STP where
available;oracquirelandifnotavailableforconstructionofseptagetreatmentfacility
6. Formulatedraftregulationsforseptagemanagement
7. Choosetechnologyforseptagetreatment:preparedesignofSeptageTreatmentandDisposal
Facility(STDF)alongwithoperationsandmaintenancecosts
8. ConducttechnoeconomicfeasibilityoftheSTDF
9. Implementconstructionofseptagemanagementanddisposalfacility
10. Purchasevehiclesandvacuumtrucksetc.
11. Launchawarenesscampaign
12. Initiatetrainingandcapacitybuilding
13. Providecleaningservicesincrementallyinareascompletingsurveysoftanksandpits.

Further, the guidelines for selection of Septage management disposal system are
summarizedinTable8.41.

Table8.41: GuidelinesfortheselectionofSeptagedisposalsystem
Town/
Category

Conditions

Recommended
Technologies

Capital
Cost

UnseweredClass
III,IVandV
townsandrural
communities

Remotelandarea
availablewith
suitablesiteand
soilcondition

Sludgedrying
bedsandwaste
stabilizationpond

Landavailablebut
closeto
settlements

Lime
stabilization,
sludgedrying
bedsandwaste
stabilizationpond

O&MCost

Management

Low

Low.User
feesto
recover
O&Mcosts

Municipalityorprivate
(ifimplementedby
privatesectorthrougha
managementcontract)

Lowto
medium

Lowto
medium.
Userfeesto
recover
O&Mcosts

Municipalityorprivate
(ifimplementedby
privatesectorthrougha
managementcontract)

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Town/
Category

Recommended
Technologies

Capital
Cost

Inadequateland
areawith
unsuitablesiteand
soilcondition,but
availableSTP
capacitywithin20
30kmdistance

DisposalatSTP

Landareaavailable
withsuitablesite
andsoilcondition
butcloseto
settlements

O&MCost

Management

Lowto
medium

Lowto
medium.
Userfeesto
recover
O&Mcosts

Municipality

Lime,
stabilization,
sludgedrying
bedsandwaste
stabilizationpond

Lowto
medium

Lowto
medium.
Userfeesto
recover
O&Mcosts

Municipalityorprivate
(ifimplementedby
privatesectorthrougha
managementcontract)

Inadequateland
area,butavailable
STPcapacity

DisposalatSTP

Medium

Medium.
Userfeesto
recover
O&Mcosts

Municipalityorprivate
(ifimplementedby
privatesectorthrough
contract)

Inadequateland
area;noavailable
STPcapacity

Disposalat
independent
mechanical
treatmentfacility

High

High.User
feesto
recover
O&Mcosts

Municipalityorprivate
(ifimplementedby
privatesectorthrougha
managementcontract)

ClassIandmetro
cities

AvailableSTP
capacity

DisposalatSTP

Medium

Medium.
Userfeesto
recover
O&Mcosts

Municipalityorprivate
(ifimplementedby
privatesectorthrougha
managementcontract).

NoavailableSTP
capacity

Disposalat
independent
mechanical
treatmentfacility

High

High.User
feesto
recover
O&Mcosts

Municipalityorprivate
(ifimplementedby
privatesectorthrougha
managementcontract).

Partiallysewered
mediumsize
(ClassIITowns)

Conditions

Source:AdvisoryNoteSeptageManagementinUrbanIndia,MoUD2013.

8.3.2.8. RecommendedNormsforPublicToiletsinPublicArea
Thegeneralstandard/guidelinesforpublictoiletsinpublicareaandmodifiednorms
for public toilets in public places and roads recommended in the draft CPHEEO
manualaregivenbelow.
Table8.42: NormsforPublicToiletsinPublicArea
TYPE

NormsforToilets

PublicToilet

On roads and for open areas: @ every 1 Km, including in parks, plaza, open air theatre,
swimming area, car parks, and fuel stations. Toilets shall be disabledfriendly and in 5050
ratio(M/F).ProvisionmaybemadeasforPublicRooms.

Signage

Signboardsonmainstreetsshallgivedirectionsandmentionthedistancetoreachthenearest
public convenience of visitors. Helpline number shall be pasted on all toilets for
complaints/queries.

Modes

Payanduseorfree.Inpayandusetoiletsentryisallowedonpaymenttotheattendantorby
insertingcoinandusergets1520minutes.

Maintenance/Cleaning

Thetoiletshouldhavebothmenandwomenattendants.Alternativelyautomaticcleaningcycle
covering flush, toilet bowl, seat, hand wash basin, disinfecting of floor and complete drying
aftereachusecanbeadopted,whichtakes40seconds.Publictoiletsshallbeopen24hours.

Source:DraftManualonSewerageandSewageTreatmentSystems,CPHEEO2013.

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8.3.3. Drainage
As per CPHEEO manual on Sewerage and Sewage Treatment System, sanitary
sewersarenotexpectedtoreceivestormwater.Strictinspection,vigilance,proper
designandconstructionofsewersandmanholesshouldeliminatethisfloworbring
it down to a very insignificant quantity. Therefore, it is evident to plan a separate
systemtocarrystormwater.

8.3.3.1. EstimationofStormwaterrunoff
Duringrainfallperiodstherecanbeaconsiderableamountofstormwaterthatdoes
notinfiltrateintothegroundsurfaceandmostofthisbecomestheexcessoverland
flowordirectsurfacerunoff.Therearemanycontributingfactorsforanalysingthe
quantity and temporal variations of this flow; these include geology of the land,
topography,geography,rainfallintensityandpatternandthelandusetype.
Estimationofsuchrunoffreachingthestormsewers,isdependentontheintensity
and duration of precipitation, characteristics of the tributary area and the time
required for such flow to reach the sewer. There are various methods available to
calculate the runoff, the two of the below mentioned methods can be adopted to
calculaterunoff:
1.
2.

RationalMethod
KirpichEquationMethod

RationalMethod

Itisbasedontheassumptionthattheentireprecipitationoverthedrainagedistrict
does not reach the sewer. The characteristics of the drainage district, such as,
imperviousness,topographyincludingdepressionsandwaterpockets,shapeofthe
drainagebasinanddurationoftheprecipitationdeterminethe fractionofthetotal
precipitation which will reach the sewer. This fraction known as the coefficientof
runoffneedstobedeterminedforeachdrainagedistrict.
The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) guidelines on urban flood
managementhasprescribedthatallfuturestormwaterdrainagesystemsforpeak
flow for any city should be designed after taking into consideration a runoff
Coefficientofupto0.95164usingtherationalmethod.Therunoffreachingthesewer
isgivenbytheexpression,
Q=10CiA

Where Q is the runoff in m3/hr;


C is the coefficient of runoff
i is the intensity of in mm/hr and
A is the area drainage district in hectares.

164

Source:NationalDisasterManagementGuidelinesUrbanFloodmanagement,2010.

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It may be reiterated that Q represents only the maximum discharge caused by a
particularstorm.
The portion of rainfall, which finds its way to the sewer is dependent on the
imperviousnessandtheshapeofthedrainageareaapartfromthedurationofstorm.
The percentage of imperviousness of the drainage area can be obtained from the
records of a particular district. In the absence of such data, the table below may
serveasaguide.
Table8.43: Runoffcoefficientsforstatedsurfaces
S.No.

TypeofArea

CommercialandIndustrialArea

ResidentialArea

3
Source:

PercentageofImperviousness
7090

HighDensity

6175

LowDensity

3560

Parksandundevelopedareas

1020

NDMA.

Whenseveraldifferentsurfacetypesorlandusewhichcomprisethedrainagearea,acompositeor
weightedaveragevalueoftheimperviousnessrunoffcoefficientcanbecomputed,suchas:
I=1/Ax(A1xI1+A2xI2+A3xI3++AnxIn)
Where,thesubscriptsrefertorespectivesubdrainageareatypes,andAisthetotaldrainagearea.
KirpichEquationMethod165
Thetimeofconcentrationisdefinedasthetimeittakesforadropofwaterintheremotestpointina
drainage basin totravel tothe outlet. As calculationmethods go, the Kirpich formula is one of the
mostwidelyusedmethods.
Tc= 0.01947 X L0.77 S-0.385
Where:
Tc=Timeofconcentration(hours)
L=Maximumlengthofwatertravel(m)
S=surfaceslope,givenbyH/L(m/m)
H=differenceinelevationbetweentheremotestpointinthedrainagebasinandtheoutlet(m)
The Kirpich equation is normally used for natural basins with welldefined channels. If there are
many undefined channels that are grassed or vegetated throughout, the Kirpich formula will likely
underestimatethetimeofconcentration,andsoafactorof1.31.5shouldbeadded.Ifmostofthe
drainagebasinsarenonnatural(inurbansystem)withconcreteorothersmoothchannels,theresult
shouldbedecreasedabout4060%.

8.3.4. RainWaterHarvesting
Rain water harvesting and conservation is the activity of direct collection of rain
water.Theconservationofrainwatersocollectedcanbestoredfordirectuseorcan
berechargedintothegroundwater.Themaingoalistominimiseflowofrainwater

165

KSubramanyapg247,45.

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throughdrains/nallahstotherivers.Itisaknownfactthatthegroundwaterlevel
isdepletingandhasgonedowninthelastdecades.Thustherainwaterharvesting
and conservation aims at optimum utilisation of the natural resource i.e. rain
water166. Many states such as Tamil Nadu167, Kerala168, and Delhi169etc. have made
mandatorytheadoptionofrainwaterharvestinginnewconstructions.Itissuggested
toalltheotherStatestomandaterainwaterharvestinginalltheirnewconstruction
works. Also, continuous monitoring of the performance of the rainwater harvesting
structuresisalsorecommended.

8.3.4.1. Basicrequirementofartificialrecharge 170


A. Availabilityofnoncommittedrunoffinspaceandtime;
B. Identification of suitable hydrogeological environment and sites for augmenting
subsurfacereservoirthroughcosteffectiveartificialrechargetechniques.

If the above mentioned criteria are satisfied, the following criteria need to be
evaluatedforplanningtheartificialrechargescheme:
C. IdentificationofArea
Areaswheregroundwaterlevelsaredecliningonregularbasis.
Areaswheresubstantialamountofaquiferhasalreadybeendesaturated.
Areaswhereavailabilityofgroundwaterisinadequateinleanmonths.
Areaswheresalinityingressistakingplace.
UrbanAreawheredeclineinwaterlevelisobserved.
D. Hydrometerologicalstudies
Rainfallpatterninthearea.
Evaporationlossesfromthearea.
Climatologicalfeaturesthateffecttheplanningofartificialrecharge.
E. Hydrologicalstudies
Insituprecipitationonthewatershed.
Surface(canal)suppliesfromlargereservoirslocatedwithinbasin.
Surfacesuppliesthroughtransbasinwatertransfer.
Treatedmunicipalandindustrialwastewaters.
HydrologicalinvestigationsaretobecarriedoutintheWatershed/Subbasin/basin
fordeterminingthesourcewateravailability.
F. Soilinfiltrationstudies
Controltherateofinfiltration.
Prerequisitestudyincasesofartificialrechargethroughwaterspreadingmethods.
InfiltrationratescanbeestimatedbysoilsinfiltrationtestsusingCylinderorflood
infiltrometersinstruments.
G. Hydrogeologicalstudies
Firstly,tosynthesizealltheavailabledataonhydrogeologyfromdifferentagencies.
Studyofsatelliteimageryforidentificationofgeomorphicunits.
Regional Hydrogeological maps indicating hydrogeological units, both at shallow
anddeeperlevels.
Water table contours to determine the form of the water table and the hydraulic
connectionofgroundwaterwithrivers,canalsetc.

166

ManualonRainWaterharvestingandConservation,CPWD.

167

TamilNaduMunicipalLawsOrdinance,2003.

168

TheKeralaMunicipalityBuildingRules,1999.

169

CentralGroundWaterBoard.

170

GuideonArtificialRechargetoGroundWater,CGWB.

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Depths to the water table (DTW) for the periods of the maximum, minimum and
meanannualpositionofwatertable.
Ground water potential of different hydrogeological units and the level of ground
waterdevelopment.
H. AquiferGeometry
Data on the subsurface hydrogeological units, their thickness and depth of
occurrence
Disposition and hydraulic properties of unconfined, semiconfined and confined
aquifersinthearea
I. ChemicalQualityofSourceWater
Qualityofrawwatersavailableforrechargeisdetermine
Treatmentbeforebeingusedforrecharge
Relation to the changes in the soil structure and the biological phenomena which
takeplacewheninfiltrationbegins
Changesexpectedtotheenvironmentalconditions.

8.3.4.2. ArtificialRechargeTechniques171
A variety of methods have been developed to recharge ground water. Most of the
artificialrechargetechniquesarebrieflydescribedbelow:
1.

2.

3.
4.

Directsurfacetechniques,by
Flooding
Basinsorpercolationtanks
Streamaugmentation
Ditchandfurrowsystem
Overirrigation
Directsubsurfacetechniques,by
Injectionwellsorrechargewells
Rechargepitsandshafts
Dugwellrecharge
Boreholeflooding
Naturalopenings,cavityfillings.
Combinationsurfacesubsurfacetechniques,by
Basinorpercolationtankswithpitshaftorwells.
IndirectTechniques,by
Inducedrechargefromsurfacewatersource.
Aquifermodification

Althoughnotwoprojectsareidentical,mostusevariationorcombinationofdirect
method, direct subsurface, or indirect techniques. A schematic diagram of the
artificialrechargemethodsusedisgivenasflowchartbelow.

171

SelectCaseStudiesRainWaterHarvestingandArtificialRecharge,CentralGroundWaterBoard

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Figure8.4: FlowchartshowingthevariousArtificialRechargePractices

Source:

ManualonArtificialRechargeofGroundwater,MinistryofWaterResources,CGWB.

Thebriefonartificialrechargemethodshasbeengivenbelow. Thesemethodsand
detailed methodology has been explained in Manual on Artificial Recharge of
Groundwater172, prepared by Ministry of Water Resources, Central Ground Water
Board(CGWB).
1. DitchandFurrowMethod
2. LateralDitchPattern
3. DendriticPattern
4. ContourPattern
5. SpreadingBasinorPercolationTanks
6. GullyPlug/CheckDam/NalaBund/GabbionStructures
7. DugWellRecharge
8. RechargeShafts/Pits/Trenches
9. ArtificialRechargethroughInjectionWell
10. InducedRechargefromSurfaceWaterSources
11. SubsurfaceDykes/UndergroundBandharas

172

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Figure8.5: DitchandFurrowMethod

Figure8.6: RechargePit:

Source: ManualonArtificialRechargeofGroundWater

Source: ManualonArtificialRechargeofGroundWater

Figure8.7: ContourPattern

Figure8.8: Injectionwell:

Source:

Source:

ManualonArtificialRechargeofGroundWater

ManualonArtificialRechargeofGroundWater

8.3.5. Electricity
BasedontheestimatedrequirementsofpowersupplyaspertheNationalElectricity
Policy published in 2005, the recommended consumption is 1000 units per Capita
per year or 2.74 kWh per capita per day demand which included domestic,
commercial,industrialandotherrequirements.
The actual estimation of power can be made based on the industrial development
(typeandextent),commercialdevelopment,domesticandotherrequirements.The
provision of one electric substation of 11KV for a population of 15,000 can be
consideredasgeneralstandardforelectricitydistribution.
Ministry of New and Renewable Energy has come out with strategic plan for new
and renewable energy sector for the period 201117. Ministry has identified local
bodies as one of the main users who can be encouraged to utilise energy from
biomassandurbanwasteetc.ANationalRatingSystemGRIHAhasbeendeveloped,
to promote green buildings, which is suitable for all types of buildings in different
climatic zones of the country. A green building designed through solar passive
concepts and including active renewable energy systems can save substantial

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conventional energy apart from generating energy for meeting various
requirementsindifferentseasons.

8.3.6. SolidWasteManagement
MunicipalSolidWaste(MSW)isthetrashorgarbagethatisdiscardeddaytodayin
ahumansettlement.AccordingtoMSWRules2000MSWincludescommercialand
residentialwastesgeneratedinamunicipalornotifiedareasineithersolidorsemi
solidformexcludingindustrialhazardouswastesbutincluding treatedbiomedical
wastes.Wastegenerationencompassesactivitiesinwhichmaterialsareidentifiedas
nolongerbeingofvalue(beinginthepresentform)andareeitherthrownawayor
gathered together for disposal. The following table indicates the waste generation
per capita per day for estimation and forecast of waste generation for future for
planningpurposes:
Table8.44: WasteGenerationPerCapitaperDay
S.No.

Landusetype

Estimatedwastegeneration

Residentialrefuse

0.3to0.6kg/cap/day

Commercialrefuse

0.1to0.2kg/cap/day

Streetsweepings

0.05to0.2kg/cap/day

Institutionalrefuse

0.05to0.2kg/cap/day

Source:ManualonSolidWasteManagement,CPHEEO2000

8.3.6.1. Systematicprocess
Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) refers to a systematic process that
comprisesofwastesegregationandstorageatsource,primarycollection,secondary
storage, transportation, secondary segregation, resource recovery, processing,
treatment, and final disposal of solid waste. For effective MSWM following steps
should be followed, hence appropriate considerations should be made at planning
stage.Tomeetzerowaste/landfillsite,thecompleteSWMsystematicprocesscould
befollowedtoreducewastedisposalatlandfillsiteornodisposalatall.Someofthe
bestpracticesofsolidwastemanagementaregiveninAppendixMofVolumeIIBfor
reference.GIS/GPS/ICTtechniquesforSolidWasteManagementneedtobeusedfor
Landfill site selection, site assessment of illegal dumpsites, routing efficiency for
solidwastecollectionandmonitoringwastecollectionperformance.

8.3.6.2. Storageofwaste
Storage of waste at source is the first essential step of Solid Waste Management.
Everyhousehold,shopandestablishmentgeneratessolidwasteondaytodaybasis.
Thewasteshouldnormallybestoredatthesourceofwastegenerationtillcollected
foritsdisposal.
Biodegradablewasteandnonbiodegradablewasteshouldbecollectedinseparate
binsfromthesource.

GreencolouredbinsWastebinsforbiodegradablewaste

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Whitecolouredbinsstorageofrecyclablewastes
Blackcolouredbinsstorageofotherwastes

8.3.6.3. Primarycollectionofwaste
PrimarycollectionofwasteisthesecondessentialstepofSolidWasteManagement
activity.Primarycollectionsystemisnecessarytoensurethatwastestoredatsource
is collected regularly and it is not disposed of on the streets, drains, water bodies,
etc.
Local bodies should arrange for the primary collection of waste stored at various
sourcesofwastegenerationbyanyofthefollowingmethodsorcombinationofmore
thanonemethod:

Doorstep collection of waste through nonmotorised and motorised vehicles with active
communityparticipation.
Collectionthroughcommunitybins
Doorsteporlanewisecollectionofwastefromauthorised/unauthorisedslumsorcollectionfrom
thecommunitybinstobeprovidedintheslumsbylocalbodies

8.3.6.4. WasteStorageDepots
ThisisthethirdessentialstepforanappropriateSolidWasteManagementSystem.
All the waste collected through Primary Collection System, from the households,
shops and establishments has to be taken to the processing or disposal site either
directly necessitating a large fleet of vehicles and manpower or through cost
effectivesystemswhicharedesignedtoensurethatallthewastecollectedfromthe
sourcesofwastegenerationistemporarilystoredatacommonplacecalled"Waste
Storage Depots" and then transported in bulk to the processing or disposal sites.
Such temporary arrangement for storage of waste is popularly known as dust bin,
dhalavs,etc.Thisfacilityhastobesodesignedthatthesystemsynchronizeswiththe
system of primary collection as well as transportation of waste. Locations for
bins/depotsofappropriatesizeshouldbeidentifiedatplanningstage.

8.3.6.5. Transportationofthewaste
Transportation of the waste stored at waste storage depots at regular intervals is
essential to ensure that no garbage bins/containers overflow and waste does not
litter on the streets. Hygienic conditions can be maintained in cities/towns only if
regularclearanceofwastefromtemporarywastestoragedepots (bins)isensured.
Transportationsystemhastobesodesignedthatitisefficient,yetcosteffective.The
system should synchronize with the system of waste storage depot and should be
easilymaintainable.
The schematic diagram of SWM process is shown in Figure 8.9. The detailed
descriptionofabovementionedstagesaregiveninManualonMunicipalSolidWaste
Management,CPHEEO.

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Figure8.9: SchematicSolidWasteManagementProcess

Source:

ModifiedfromtheToolkitforSolidWasteManagementJawaharlalNehruNationalUrbanRenewalMission,MoUD.

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8.3.6.6. SolidWasteTreatment173Technologies
Therearevarioustechnologiesavailablefortreatmentandprocessingofwasteinan
environmentally sound manner. However, a technology suitable for one may not be
appropriateforothers.Thecomparisonofthesetechnologiesisshownintablebelow:
Table8.45: ComparisonofDifferentSolidWasteTreatmentTechnologies
Element

Composting

Refuse
derivedfuel

Technicallyand
economically
feasiblesizeof
operationper
dayfreshwaste

50TPDand
above

100TPDand
above

1TPDatsmallscale
andabove50TPDat
largerscalesofpure
organicwaste

500TPDand
above.Dueto
highmoisture
inourwaste,
suitableonly
for
segregated
drywaste.

500TPDandabove
duetohighmoisture
inourwaste.Suitable
onlyforsegregated
waste.However,sizes
assmallas1050TPD
ofwasteareavailable
forcommercialsale
butnotadvisabledue
tohighrunningcosts.

Adopted
Capacityfor
study

500TPD

500TPD

500TPD

500TPD
Plant

500TPD

Landrequired
foradopted
capacities

6Ha

3Ha

4Ha

10Ha

4Ha

Waste
Characteristics

Moisture
Content>50%

Moisture
Content<45%

MoistureContent
>50%

Moisture
content<45%

MoistureContent
<45%

OrganicMatter
>40%

VolatileMatter
>40%

OrganicMatter>40%

NetCalorific
Value>1200
Kcal/Kg

NetCalorificValue
>1200Kcal/kg

Biomethanation

C/NRatiobetween
2530

C/NRatio
between2530

Gasification
/Pyrolysis

Incineration

Waste
Suitability

Suitablefor
MSW
Characteristics
ofIndia

Notsuitablefor
MSW
characteristics
inIndiabut
workablewith
useofAuxiliary
Fuel

SuitableforMSW
characteristicsof
organicwastein
India

Notsuitable
forMSW
characteristic
inIndiabut
workable
withuseof
AuxiliaryFuel

Notsuitable,dueto
highmoistureinour
waste.

Typical
investmentfor
assumed
capacities
(excludingcost
ofland)

INR1720Cr.
Fora500TPD
Plant

INR1720Cr.
Fora500TPD
Plant

ApproximatelyINR
7580Crfora500
TPDPlant

INR8090Cr.
For500TPD
Plant

NA

Recurringcost

INR300per
tonofinput
waste

INR290per
tonofinput
waste

INR100perton
inputwaste

NA

Recoverable

250Kgsof
compostper
tonofwaste

200Kgspellets
pertonof
waste

80cumofbiogas/
tonofwasteplus200
Kgsofmanure/ton

NA

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Element

Composting

Refuse
derivedfuel

Biomethanation

Gasification
/Pyrolysis

Incineration

Volume
reduction

4555%

5565%

5565%

>80%

>80%

Environmental
issue

Impuritiesin
composedue
tomixed
waste,tracesof
heavymetals,
leachaterunoff

Problemsin
burning
exhaust

Problemsifmixed
feedstock

Ashhandling
andAir
Pollution

AshhandlingandAir
Pollution(emissionof
particularmatter,
chlorinated
compoundsdioxins/
furans)

Technology
Reliability

Running
successfullyin
India

Running
successfullyin
integrated
facilities

Smallscaleorganic
treatmentplant
operationalbut
mixedwastelarge
scaleplantsfailedin
India

Insufficient
operational
experience
forMSW

OnlyPlantinIndia
failedduetomismatch
inwastequality.MSW
2000has
recommendedfor
incinerationofwaste
onlyafterdoinga
wastesuitability
analysisandproviding
adequatefluegas
managementmethods.

Limitation

LargeLand
Requirement,
Non
acceptanceof
compostassoil
enrichenerin
someareasof
theCountry
Process
dependshighly
onfactorssuch
aswaste
quality&
climatic
conditions

Fluff/Pellets
canbeuseda
fuelinlarge
industries,e.g.
Incementkilns
withnecessary
permissions
fromthePCBs
andrequired
pollution
control
measures.

Thetechnology
requirespre
segregated
homogenous
biodegradablewaste
asmixedwaste
retardsefficiencyof
theprocess.Hence
applicabilityis
limitedtohighly
organicand
homogenouswaste
streamslikemarket
wastes.

Requires
wastewith
highcalorific
value.
Expensive
fluegas
remediation
methodsto
attain
achievable
outputs.

Expensivetechnology,
wastecriteriamust
havelowmoisture
contentandhigh
calorificvalue,which
isnotfoundinIndian
Waste.Costlyfluegas
remediationmethods
toattainachievable
outputs.

Source:

ToolkitforSolidWasteManagementJawaharlalNehruNationalUrbanRenewalMission,MoUD.

8.3.6.7. DisposalofWaste174
Wasteaftertreatmentmustbedisposedinamannerthatdoesnotcreateanyinstance
of environmental pollution and public nuisance. The MSW Rule 2000 defines waste
disposal as an activity, which involves final disposal of municipal solid wastes in
terms of the specified measures to prevent contamination of groundwater, surface
waterandambientairquality.
Thelandfilldesignshallbeaimedtominimizethefollowing:
Theingressofwaterintothelandfill,
Theproductionofleachate,itssubsequentoutflowanduncontrolleddispersionsintosurrounding
aquaticenvironment,
Theaccumulation,migrationanduncontrolledreleaseoflandfillgasintotheatmosphere.

174

ToolkitforSolidWasteManagementJawaharlalNehruNationalUrbanRenewalMission,MoUD.

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The detailed description of disposal of waste can be referred from Toolkit for Solid
WasteManagementJawaharlalNehruNationalUrbanRenewalMission,MoUD.

8.3.6.8. LandfillGasExtraction(LFG)175,176
The waste deposited in a landfill gets subjected, over a period of time, to anaerobic
conditions177.Thisleadstolandfillgasproductioncontainingabout4555%methane.
Thismethanecanberecoveredthroughanetworkofpipesandutilisedasasourceof
energy. Landfill gas extraction systems adds to efforts to reduce Climate Change
initiativesasithelpsreduceGreenHouseGasemissionsthroughavoidanceoflandfill
gas(mainlycomprisingofmethane)intotheatmosphere.
Waste composition is the most important factor in assessing the LFG generation
potentialandtotalyieldatasite.Inorganicandinertwasteswillproducelittleorno
LFG; more organic wastes will produce greater amounts of LFG on a per unit mass
basis. Similarly moisture content in waste also impacts the LFG generation from
waste.Fore.g.highlyorganicwastessuchasfoodwastesareabletoproduceLFG,but
comprisesoflargewater,whichinherentlydoesnotproduceLFGbutwillaidtherate
ofLFGevolution.
While planning for LFG, pH and Nutrient content of the waste should also be
considered. The generation of methane in landfills is greatest when neutral pH
conditionsexist.Numeroustoxicmaterials,suchasheavymetals,canretardbacterial
growthinportionsofasiteandconsequentlyslowgasgeneration.Anotherparameter
that influences the LFG generation rate is the particle size and density, which may
affectthetransportofnutrientsandmoisturethroughoutthelandfill.

8.3.6.9. RegionalSolidWasteManagement178
ARegionalMSWProjectmeansaprojecttoeither:
1. Developand/orconstructand/oroperate,maintainand/ormanageanytypeofnewRegional
MSWFacility;or
2. Convert and/or redevelop an existing MSW facility or system from being a facility used by a
single Authority into a Regional MSW Facility. A Regional MSW Project can cover, within its
scope, any existing MSW management facilities or systems within the jurisdiction of an
Authority.

Thus,RegionalMSWFacilitiesorRegionalMSWProjectswouldhelptheAuthorities
tosharetechnicalexpertise,costsofdevelopmentandmanagementofinfrastructure.
For the implementation of the Regional MSW Projects, state governments may
incorporate a public limited company or statelevel utility (whichmay be called the

175

ToolkitforSolidWasteManagementJawaharlalNehruNationalUrbanRenewalMission,MoUD

176

LandfillGasManagementFacilitiesDesignGuidelines,MinistryofEnvironment,BritishColombia

177

OrganicCompoundsaretransformedintomethane(CH4),CO2,andWaterinanatmospheredevoidofoxygen.

178

GuidanceNoteonMunicipalSolidWasteManagementonaRegionalBasis,MoUD

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State MSW Management Company Limited/Utilitythe Company/Utility) for the


purposes of identifying and enabling the development of Regional MSW Projects
within the state. The Company/Utility may create a body of expertise in the
development,implementationandfinancingofRegionalMSWProjectsforthebenefit
ofthestate.Theutilitymaybebackedbyappropriatelegislation.
The Company/Utility would have to be supported by the state government through
issuance of adequate administrative instructions/ directions/policies. The state
government may facilitate the process where Authorities are unable to provide for
adequateservicesinaconsultativemanner.
InordertoensureabalancedframeworkfortheimplementationofaRegionalMSW
ProjectthroughsuchaCompany/Utility,aframeworkshouldbeestablishedwhereby
a Project Coordination Committee for each project is constituted which comprises
representatives of each participating Authority and the Company/ Utility; and
important project decisions during the project development, implementation and
operationalstagesaretakenthroughthiscommittee.
IntheeventthattheRegionalMSWProjectisimplementedthroughthePPProute,the
BoardoftheProjectCompany(SPV)soconstitutedwithaprivatesectorparticipant,
willhavenomineesoftheparticipatingAuthorities,stategovernmentaswellasthe
Company/Utility. The Project Coordination Committee, overseeing project
implementation,wouldalsohaveanomineeoftheselectedprivatesectorparticipant.

8.3.6.10. Specialprovisionsforhillyareas179
Citiesandtownslocatedonhillsshallhavelocationspecificmethodsevolvedforfinal
disposal of solid wastes by the municipal authority with the approval of the
concernedStateBoardortheCommittee.
The municipal authority shall set up processing facilities for utilization of biodegradable organic
wastes.
Theinertandnonbiodegradablewasteshallbeusedforbuildingroadsorfillingupofappropriate
areasonhills.
Becauseofconstraintsinfindingadequatelandinhillyareas,wastesnotsuitableforroadlayingor
fillingupshallbedisposedofinspeciallydesignedlandfills.

179

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Case study Solid Waste Management in Bruhat Bangalore Mahanagar Palike (BBMP)180
TheBruhatBangaloreMahanagarPalikehasareaof800sq.km,whichaccommodatesthepopulation
of78Lakh.EstimatedMSWgenerationprojectionfor2009,fromalltheBBMPzonesis3000tpd.BBMP
aimstoadoptzerowastemanagementorreducingthequantityofinertsthatgoestolandfillsbyless
than10%byrecyclingwhereverpossible.
WasteCollectionSystem
About 70% of the MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) activity starting from primary collection to disposal
hasbeenoutsourced&30%ismanagedbyBBMP.Acombinationofalternativesisadopted,suchas:
There are about 4300 Pourakarmikas (Sweepers) of BBMP & 10000 Pourakarmikas (Sweepers)
fromcontractorwhoperformsDoortoDoorcollection&sweepingactivities.
In some of the new zones the DoortoDoor collection activity is entrusted to Self Help Groups
(SHGs),whicharebasicallybelowpovertywomensgroups.
InsomeoftheresidentialareastheResidentialWelfareAssociations(RWAs)areinvolvedinDoor
toDoorcollection&decentralizationofcompostingthewaste.
DecentralizedProcessingPlants
SomeoftheareaswhereRWAsareperformingDoortoDoorcollection,thewasteissegregatedat
source&theorganicwasteiscompostedinthecommunityinasmallscale.
BBMPhassetupa15toncapacitydecentralizedplanttoprocessorganicwasteaswellasrecycle
theplastic,metaletc.
BBMPhasestablishedadecentralisedonetoncapacityaerobiccompostingunitatMalleshwaram
market(WestZone)usingorganicwasteconvertor.
Dry waste collection centres has been set up for recycling the dry materials like plastic, paper,
glass,metalsetc.

180

www.bbmp.gov.in

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Figure8.10:BBMPmodelofSWM

Source:

www.bbmp.gov.in.

Processing&Disposalsites
InordertocomplywithMSWrules,BBMPhassetupprocessing&disposalfacilitiesonPPPmodel.
Followingaretheprocessing&disposingfacilities:
Table8.46: DisposalandProcessingSite
S.no.

Nameoftheproject

Capacityoftheplant

Technologyadopted

M/sRamky

600MTPD

AerobicComposting&scientificlandfill

M/sS.G.R.R.L

1000MTPD

Wastetoenergy(Presentlycomposting&landfilling
theinert&combustible.materialarestoredfor
RDF)

M/sTerrafirma

1000MTPD

Integratedsystemwhere
composting,vermicomposting,biomethanizationis
followed

Source:

M/sOrganicWasteIndia
pvtltd(yettostart)

1000MTPD

Integratedsystem
(yettocommission)

BBMP.

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ConstructionWaste181
As per Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), Indias construction industry generates around 14
million tonnes of waste every year. A recycling unit makes imminent sense as it could solve two
problems: dispose tons of debris dumped illegally every day and will make a sound replacement to
riversand,whichcausesecologicaldegradation.
TheKarnatakaStatePollutionControlBoard(KSPCB)hasdirectedtheBruhatBengaluruMahanagara
Palike (BBMP) to set up a unit at a site in Mallasandra (on Hessarghatta road), which is already
designated as a municipality dump yard for construction waste. A unit is developed to crush and
process 50 lorryloads of debris every day. Some of the salient features of this effort are shown in
picturebelow:
Figure8.11:ProcessingofConstructionWasteatMallasandra,Bangalore

Source:

TheHindu,Bangaloreedition,Date:19Jan2014

Approachadopted&actionstaken:
ThecombinationoftechnologiesforprocessingofMSWattemptedforsustenance&viability.
Generally around 30 to 40 per cent of inert rejects, which includes recyclables, are going to the
scientificlandfill.
Attemptisbeingmadetoutilizealltherecyclables.
Small quantity of Waste Plastic are segregated and used in the construction of pavement roads.
About8%ofPolyblendismixedintheasphalt
There is an exposure of converting the plastics into diesel by following depolymerisation
technology,whichisyettobeimplementedinlargescale.
To bring in accountability for the distance travelled by the vehicles GPS/GPRS Based Tracking
systemisimplemented.
CCTVcamerashavebeeninstalledatalltheprocessingsitesattheentryandexitpointstoviewthe
vehiclesreached.
Also aticketingsystem usingHand Held Device, which collectthedataand send it to the central
serverformonitoringandanalysisisinplace,
TheentiretrucknumbersandoperationscheduleisautomaticallydownloadedtotheHandHeld
devicethroughGPRS.

181

http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/bangalore/debrisispreciousdontjustdumpit/article5590977.ece

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8.3.6.11. Construction&Demolition(C&D)Waste
Asperthe(draft)ConstructionandDemolitionWasteRules,largewastegeneratorsof
500MTaretoprocess(recycleandreuse)constructionanddemolitionwasteatthe
siteminimum20%ofprocesswasteatthesiteforreconstructionpurposesmeeting
structural requirements. Recent initiatives of MoUD at the Redevelopment of East
KidwaiNagar(Delhi)GovernmentResidentialComplexhaveshownthatitispossible
to provide for 100 per cent recycling and reuse of C&D Waste at the construction/
demolition site itself in a decentralised mode. Such models obviate the need for
transportingtheC&Dwastetoacentralisedunitandalsofortransportingthereuse
materialsuchasbricks,totheconstructionsites.Thiswouldbecosteffective,besides
environmentfriendlyandwouldalsoavoidmovementofthewasterelatedtransport
vehiclesthroughthecity.

8.3.6.12. MunicipalSolidWaste(Household)
Whileregionalandcentralisedwasteprocessinghasbeentriedoutovertheyears,the
availabilityoflandfillsitesisbecomingagrowingproblem,asresidentsdonotlikea
land fill site in their vicinity. Many cities had set up landfill sites and plants on the
outskirts,butsuchoutskirtshavegraduallybecomepartofthecity,owingtonatural
outgrowth, and the residents have started agitating for removal of the landfill. A
viable solution has been tried out in the New Moti Bagh Government Residential
ComplexinDelhi,whereinasmallplantof3to5tonnecapacitysetupinlessthana
quarter of lad recycles the household and green waste into fuel cake and manure.
Smallplantsmakesortingeasyandavoidtheneedforanycollectionpoint.Carefully
planned,therecyclingprocesscandoawaywiththeneedforlandfillaltogether.The
financial viability of any waste recycling system would depend on (a) reuse of the
recycledmaterialand(b)levyofsomeuserfeeonthosewhogeneratethewaste.

8.3.6.13. NuclearorRadioactiveWaste
Nuclearorradioactivewastemeansanywastematerialcontainingradionuclidesin
quantities or concentrations. The disposal of such waste include the release of
radioactive material to the environment in a manner leading to loss of control over
the future disposition of the radionuclides contained therein and includes
emplacement of waste materials in a repository beings or animals or in research
activitiesinthesefieldsorintheproductionortestingofbiologicalwaste.Suchwaste
must be managed through Atomic Energy (Safe Disposal of Radioactive Wastes)
Rules,1987.

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8.3.6.14. EWaste
EwasteorelectronicwastemeanswasteElectricalandElectronicEquipment(EEE),
whole or in part or rejects from their manufacturing and repair process, which are
intended to be discarded. The Ewaste (Management and Handling) Rules 2011
shouldbefollowedfordisposalofEWaste.

8.3.6.15. BioMedicalWaste
Hospital waste/Biomedical waste is generated during the diagnosis, treatment or
immunizationofhumanbeingsoranimalsorinresearchactivitiesinthesefieldsorin
the production or testing of