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PRE STRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

SHAIK BADEMIYA
Structural Design Engineer
+91-99080 16786

Overview

What is PSC
Application of Prestressing
RCC & PSC
Stressing and Grouting Materials
Procedure
Comparison RCC & PSC
Observations

The need for PSC Structure

Is there a possibility to counteract the vertical forces ?


Prestressing helps in counteracting the vertical forces. How?

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

It involves inducing high compressive forces to the structure/section so that


the load carrying capacity of the structure/section is enormously
increased and the external loads are counter acted to a desired extent

Earlier attempts
1) Force fitting of metal bands on wooden barrels
The metal bands around the barrel induce a state of initial hoop
compression to counteract the hoop tension caused by filling of liquid in
the barrels
Figure shows the wooden barrels
wounded with steel metal bands

Earlier attempts
2) Pre-tensioning of spokes in a bicycle wheel. The pre-tension is

applied in the spoke to such an extent that there will always be


a residual tension in the spoke

Fig: spokes of a bicycle wheel in pretension

Earlier attempts
The concept of Prestressed concrete is also not new. In 1886, a patent was
granted for tightening steel tie rods in concrete blocks. This is analogous to
modern day segmental constructions.
Early attempts were not very successful due to low strength of steel at
that time.
Since we cannot prestress at high stress level, the prestress losses
due to creep and shrinkage of concrete quickly reduce the effectiveness
of Prestressing.

Applications of PSC In Bridges

Superstructure
Girder
Slab

Applications of PSC In Bridges

Sub-structure
Precast

PSC piles
Precast PSC piers

Applications of PSC In Other structures

Buildings
Slab
Portal

frame

Railways
Sleepers

Difference between RCC & PSC

RCC
Concrete

is good in compression and Steel is good in Tension


Tensile strength of concrete is neglected.
The failure strain of concrete is so low that the reinforcement has to hold the
cracked sections together
When the concrete cracks the strains are transferred to steel
In order to avoid failure, the stress in the steel is to be limited

Steel acts as a tension flange in RCC structures


Steel plays passive role in RCC

Difference between RCC & PSC

PSC
Steel

is primarily used for inducing Prestressing forces


There is no need to limit the stress in steel in order to control the cracking of
concrete
The whole section will be under compression even under service condition
and so there is lesser possibility of developing a crack in PSC structure
Hogging can be observed in the structure after the prestress forces applied
Steel plays a active role in PSC

ADVANTAGES OF PSC

The cross section is fully used in case of Prestressed members


Dead loads are reduced considerably
Have high shear resistance when compared with RCC members
Low shrinkage
Low creep and permeability
Deflections are less and so more stiffer
More resistance to impact and vibration

Types of Prestressing
Types of Prestress

PRE-TENSION

INTERNAL

POST- TENSION

EXTERNAL

Prestressing system

Pre-Tensioning
Tendons

are stressed before the concreting is done


Tendons are stressed singly or in groups and are generally anchored to the
abutments by steel wedges
Bond is the main factor in transfer of stress to concrete
Ex : Hoyers Long line process
Generally employed in case of mass production

Pre-Tensioning

Pre-Tensioning

Casting of Railway sleepers

Curing of Railway sleepers after strands are cut

Prestressing Systems

Post-Tensioning
Tendons

are stressed after concrete achieving sufficient strength to withstand


the stresses
End bearing is the main factor for stress transfer
Space between the tendons are grouted 24hrs after stressing
Ex: Freyssinet System , Magnel System , Gifford Udall System
Used in case of long span bridges

Post-Tensioning

Concreting Done

Stressing

Grouting

Post-tensioning

First stage stressing

MATERIALS USED IN PSC

High strength concrete


HTS (High Tensile Steel ) strands
HDPE(High Density Polyethylene) Duct

In both RCC and PSC we use only two materials i.e. concrete and steel
but their structural behavior is quite different

Forms of Prestressing steel

Wires
Prestressing

wire is a single unit made of steel

Strands
Two,

three, seven wires are wound together to form

a prestressing strand

Forms of Prestressing steel

Tendon
A

group of strands or wires are wound to

form a prestressing tendon

Cable
A

group of tendons form a prestressing cable

Bars
A

tendon can be made of single steel bar.


The diameter of bar is much larger than that of wire

Post-tensioning materials
Wedges

Anchor cone
Bearing Plate

Stressing operation
Stressing Operation
Pre Tensioning/Post tensioning bed
Hydraulic Jacks
Hydraulic pump
LRPC strands Low Relaxation Prestressing Cables
Anchorages
Anchor

cone
Bearing plate
Wedges

Stressing equipment

Stressing jack

Bearing plate assembly

Stressing materials

Different types of HTS Strands


Corrugated HDPE Ducts

Grouting
Grouting Operation
Grout cap
Grout agitator
Grout pump
Cement bags
Admixture- Cebex 100
Ice cubes

Grouting Equipment
Grout pump

Grout Cap

Grout Agitator

RCC & PSC Comparison

Concrete calculation
Steel calculation
PSC material cost estimation
Time estimation

PSC & RCC Comparison


Design Details

Comparative statement between PSC & RCC I Girder


length of girder =

Description

PSC Girder

25.573 m

PSC Girder
Quantity
rate

1 Concrete quantity
22.3508 cu.m
2 Additional steel
reinforcement in RCC
girder
3 Cable strands psc girder 40 nos

Savings/exc
ess

RCC Girder
Quantity
4500

130

100579

rate

27.2866 cu.m

4300

117332

16753

3231.00

55 kg/m3

177705
0

177705
-146544
47915

146544

S.No PSC Girders


1
2

Casting bed is required for 7 days


Uncracked section design- so
highly durable, and less
maintenance

Bending Moment due to

Self weight of Girder


1472
1674*
Self weight of Deck slab
1569
1569
shuttering load
245
SIDL
1279
1279
Live Load
2927
2927
*- Due to increase in cross section
The BM are taken from DN 705, vide Page no 11
For the same BM design for RCC Girder sheets are attache

Additional steel Quantity


In PSC Girder
(-)8x 25.573x3.14x10^2/4x7850/10^6

Comparison

RCC Girder

-126.06977

RCC girders
Casting bed is required for 14 days
RCC section is cracked one and may
require periodical surface painting, being
near to seashore

In RCC Girder( design steel at bottom face is 22 nos of 32


8x26x3.14x.032^2/4x7850
1312.5099
8x24x3.14x.032^2/4x7851
1211.5476
6x22x3.14x.032^2/4x7852
832.9390
32

Slab hogging

I GIRDER CASTING AT SITE

SHAIK BADEMIYA
Structural Design Engineer
+91-99080 16786

Procedure Casting of Girder

Understanding the drawing


The

first and foremost thing in any construction activity is to understand


deeply the working drawings related to that particular structure/section.
Identifying different silent features present in the drawings and have to be
ready with them
Identifying the grade of steel and concrete to be used for that structure
Preparation of Bar Bending Schedule
Constructing reinforcement cage as per BBS and drawing.

Step by step process of casting girder

Reinforcement cage preparation


Alignment of end shuttering plate
Spiral reinforcement
Shuttering on one side
Cable profiling
Shuttering complete with shutter vibrators and dummy pipes
Concreting

Casting bed prepartion

Reinforcement cage

Profiling & Shuttering

Casting of I Girder

Concrete cubes for strength assessment

Stressing & Grouting

Stressing and Grouting

Girder erection

Pre requisites

For starting the Prestressing operation we need to careful about some


design principles
Concrete

strength achieved
What type of stressing i.e. one end stressing or two end stressing
How many cables are present and at what time each cable is to be stressed
Ready with the values of modified elongation and modified pressure that to
be achieved

Stressing

Requirements
Strength

of concrete
Design elongation
Design Force
Order of Stressing
No. of strands in respective cable
HTS strand test report

Stressing Calculations
Revised Elongation (mm)

Theo. Elongation X Theo. 'E' Value X Theo. 'A' Value


Actual 'E' Value X Actual 'A' Value

=
-5 % Value:
Modified Gauge Pressure (kg/cm2) :

+5 % Value:
Jacking Force (Ton) X 1000
Ram Area X Jack Efficiency

-5 % Value:

+5 % Value:

HTS Test report

Grouting

Ice cubes
Cement bags
Admixture Cebex 100
Thermometer

Spiral reinforcement