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Initial Results of the
NAVSTAR GPS NTS 2 Satellite
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RoGER L. EASTON,JAMES A. BulssoN ,and THOMAS B. McC~ si~iu

Space Applications Branch
Space Systems Division

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May 25, 1978

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NAVAL RESEARCH LABORATO RY
W hiagtoe, D.C.
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ACCESSION NO. 3.
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Naval Research Laboratory
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READ INSTRUCTIONS
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GPS
Hydrogen maser
Navigation
Cesium frequency standard
Gravity gradient
Relativity
Laser retroretiectors
Navigation Technology Satellite
NTS
Time transfer
Global Positioning System
Atomic clocks

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NAVSTAR

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Navigation Technology Satellite 2 (NTS.2) was successfully launched on June 23, 1977, into a
near-i 2-hour circular orbit. Precise froquency and timing signals are derived from the two cesium fiequency standards. This report discusses the launch and preliminary results, which include verification of
the relativistic clock effect. An International time-transfer experiment Is planned, and a worldwide
synchronization accuracy of less than 100 nanoseconds is anticipated, based on preliminary timetransfer results between Cape Kennedy and the U.S. Naval Observatory. A proposed NASA laser- tracking network will be used to verify the accuracy of the Global Positioning System (GPS) orbits.

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- e~~ L and/or SPECIAL p .1’ CONTENTS $ INTRODU CTION 1 GPS LAUNCH PROCEDURE 1 NTS-2 TRACKING NETWOR K 6 PRECISE TIME AND FREQUE NCY TRANSMI SSIONS 10 FREQ UENCY DETERMINAT ION 10 TIM E TRANSFE R 14 INTERN ATIONAL TIME-TR ANSFER EXPERIMENT 16 LASER OR BIT-VERIFICATION PRO GRAM 16 NTS-2 ACHIEVEME NTS 20 REFERENCE S 21 Acc~sIoN for NTiS UNANNOIJP1CED — White Section Buff ~ Section 0 0 JUSTIFICATION BY aIsIWWN(AYAIIABIUTY COOtS DIII.

~ XL ~ I :~ FIg. I — NTS-2 iv _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~~~~~~~~~~ .

GPS LAUNCH PROCEDURE The GPS launch procedure (Fig. which was required to be within an accuracy of 1second of the specified value of 717.. .Va. three-axis gravity-gradient stabilization with momentum-wheel unloading. wh ich will provide near-instantaneous navigation and timesynchronization service on a worldwide. control of the spacecraft orbit . continuous basis to the DOD community and a wide variety of commercial users. 4) and waiting until it thifts into position for final constellation placement. which have been used for time transfer (61. developed by Comsat. i -: - . Mass. W. • The NRL. The satellite capabilities include verification of Einstein’s relativistic clock shift and a time-interval measurement precision of 3 nanoseconds. The tracking network is coordinated by the NRL control center (NRLCC). 3) and then kicking it into a low-eccentricity drift orbit ( Fig. Patrick AFB .) complemented by Blossom Point. Md. NTS-2 was then acquired and tracked from Blossom Point._________________ INITIAL RESULTS OF THE NAVSTAR GPS NTS-2 SATELLITE INTRODUCTION The successful launch of Navigation Technology Satellite 2 (NTS. First acquisition of signal was made by the NTS tracking station in Panama. consisting of two of the NTS tracking stations (Panama and Chesapeake Bay.. Md. by first launching it into a high-eccentricity transfer orbit ( Fig.. and a worldwide network (GE International Time Sharing) for data acquisition . navigation [7 . which Manuscript su bmitted April 3.8] and orbit determination. 2) requires that the spacecraft be inserted into a preassigned position in the GPS constellation. the most critical tolerance was for the orbital period. Sugar Grove . Md. NTS-2 is also the fourth in a series of NRL technology satellites (Table 1) which have carried quartz [2] rubidium [3] .2) marks the beginning of a new era in navigation and timekeeping history. built by Frequency and Time Systems (FTS). and cesium [4] oscillators into orbit. NTS-2 ( Fig. NTS-2 technological features encompass the world’s first orbiting cesium frequency standards. a nickelhydrogen battery. Millstone. 1) is the first NAySTAR GPS [1] Phase I satellite. now under development at NRL . A set of orbital values and tolerances was specified. The NTS-3 spacecraft . at O817UTC. . Fla. 1978. The scheduled apogee-kick-motor (AKM ) burn at the first apogee was deferred in order to allow processing of measurements from the launch tracking network (Table 2). Calculations of measurement residuals indicated a nominal transfer orbit .973 minutes (nearly 12 sidereal hours). and the Range Measurem ents Laboratory. is scheduled to carry the first orbiting hydrogenmaser [5] frequency standard(s). 1977.built spacecraft was launched into the transfer orbit from Vandenburg Air Force Base on June 23. The prim ary data type for all of the technology satellites has been precise time-difference measurements.

-~~~~ ~~~~ — ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ . 0 ~~~ COW ~~~~~~~~ . • . AND McCASKILL . BU ISSON . ~~ -J — ~~~~~ — Q .~ ~~~~~~~~~~ . -__ ._ .. ~ b — 0~~— 00 0 0 0 0 ~~~ 5.-4 “ 1’s ~4 . — — . ..e ~~~~ ~~~~ I-I 4C0 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 4 2 / I .----- — -. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ . EASTON . — . -.. . . ~~~~~~~~~~~~ .~~~~~~A . ~~~~ —-.s.0 ~~ I t _ ~• -& . ~~~~ ~~ _ _ _ _ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ _ ~~ 010 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .

— - • ~* . NB n.. 3 — Scheduled apogee-kick-motor firing at the first apogee of the tr ansfer orbit to i nsert the NTS-2 into the drift orbit.‘ ~~ NRL REPORT 8232 DRIFT ORBIT FINA O APOGEE 10..• . ml.-_. —. ~~~~. ~~~~—. .— -~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~ — _ -. . (FINA L ORBIT) Fig.— — _ ..— — — _.•- V — — .•~ .-._1_. ml. • 1 • 1 ’ - _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ . — ~~ ~ ~~~ -Á ~~~ : ‘ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 1 .— .-••—. — ~~~ • ~~~~ — - -— .- . (DRIFT ORBIT) II / / PERIGEE 10595 n.~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ •~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ . The AKM was actu ~ ally fired at the six th apogee .- .1 .. (TRANSFER ORBIT) 10523 n... ml.__ .— _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . -- •. seL W% BIJM L Tx ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 5N 3 E ~~~ A (: PERIGEE AT 95.~ .- —• .— •-—-.3 n... .. ~ 4_ _ _ . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ . ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~ — .A . 2 — Lsunch sequence of the NTh -2 Fig. .

The AKM burn was performed at the sixth apogee.-. - —— . 7) - I .2 Radar range Millstone M ass. fi nal orbit — Table 2 — Network for Tracking the NTS-2 Launch to Achieve a Period Accurate Within 1 Second Data Type j Antenna Aperture Station Location Azimuth and elevation Blossom Point Sugar Grove Range Measurements Lab. - .. .— . W.~~~ . Md. resulting in NTS-2 reaching its preassigned position in the constellation of 28± 2 degree.. BUISSON. Va. personnel at the Range Measurements Laboratory at Patrick AFB. west longitude in 5 days. Three velocity increments (Fig. which resulted in a nearcircular drift orbit.. 26 ] has links (Fig. Md. W.. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ .- — -~~---- . 4 Scheduled NTS-2 drift orbit and . — —~~~ — --.--. • ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ . 7) had a larger drift rate than expected. (NRL) Panama Md. A merged orbit solution [91 was performed by the Naval Surface Weapons Center (NSWC). which was compared with the independent solutions using various data subsets.EASTON . The actual drift orbit (Fig. .-i-. af ter drift and adjustments. AND McCASKILL _ Fig. Fla. Z. The prelaunch drift-orbit profile (Fig. and Millstone Radar personnel. 6) was chosen to allow the ascending node of NTS-2 to drift eastward at a nominal value of 5 deg/day.— . ~~~~~~~ _ _ ~_ ~ !s ~~~~~~~~~~ . C. 6 45 12 1.L. 6 45 15 (optically) Range and doppler Blossom Point Sugar Grove Chesapeake Bay Div. Transfer-orbit solutions using measurements from the launch tracking network were independently made by Bendix personnel at Blossom Point. Va. 5) to the GPS master control station. Md.

_Ei.:E ~~~ • EPHEMERIS MESSAGE NRL CENTER EPHEMERIS __ 1~~~MASTER I CONTROL I STA TION DATA CONTROL NAVAL 1 WEAPONS LA B ORATORY NTS—2 STATUS & CLOCI DATA ~ NT S— 2 TRACKING DATA EPHEMERIS__ Fig.i ~~~~~~~ -~~— . ~~~ BURN TO CONTROL 0 0 PERIOD ECCEN BURN T FINAL ORBIT 3 A X IS STA BLE N I • I 2 I I 4 6 I I 8 I I 10 12 14 16 18 DAYS FROM START OF DRIFT ORBIT PI g... 5— NTS-2 command and telemetry links 25-I 4 z op 1 ~ - 0 z - ~~~0 — L. — — .. ~~~~~ . —• ~~~~~~~~~ —..~ ..-.-a& - ~~~~~~~~~~~ . - - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .10 — — II. 6 — Prelaunch NTS-2 drift-orbit profile ~~~~~~~ &. ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ r NRL REPORT 8232 ’ ~~PIIL MEM[ TRACKING GPS NRL BPSTS TRACKING STATIONS _.

BUISSON . and for polar motion studies. • NTS-2 follows a constant-ground-track orbit with an inclination of 63 degrees..L. AND McCASKILL 70 AKM BUR N • Z Z cn\ 50 ~ V INCREMENT ~. for independent orbit determination. 8.5 to 1meter per second were used to increase the spacecraft period .. 7 — Actual NTS-2 drift-orbit adjustments ranging from about 0.L_J_ I iso I PR 4SA ~ I I ‘ I I 200 DAY OF YEAR(1977 ) Fig.._.. Figs. The final drift orbit of NTS._J.S..2 in the GPS Phase I constellation is given by Fig. 0.48 m/s - MICROTHRUSTS - / C ESIUM OSC ON - 20 _ I I_ I I l_. NTS-2 TRACKING NETWORK The NTS-2 tracking network (Table 4) consists of U. Occasional orbital maneuvers of the spacecraft are performed . The final orbit . the overseas sites are operated by personnel from England and Australia. The locations shown for the five Navigation Demonstration System satellites are possible positions..S. and CBD respectively . to maintain the ascending node within the GPS specifications . stations in Chesapeake Beach . following adjustments. The NTS-2 measurements are used by these cooperating countries for time comparison with the U. and the associated GPS specifications. all under the direction of NRLCC. Table 3 presents a summary of four of the NTS. Md.2 orbital parameters as a function of time.. was achieved 15 days after launch.. excepting small microthrusts.L.. The network provides almost complete tracking coverage of NTS-2. Figure 13 shows that only a small segment of the 6 __ _ _ _ ~~ _ _ _ _ _ 4 _ - -~~~~~ ..L. United States stations are ope!ated by Bendix Field Engineering._I.J__. AUS . (CBD). ~~‘ 4° 1. and in the Panama Canal Zone (PMA) and of overseas stations at the Royal Greenwich Observatory in England (RGO ) and at the Lunar Laser site in Australia (AUS).EASTON . RGO ..L._ A_. Three-axis gravity-gradient stabilization and solar-panel deployment was achieved within 18 days after launch.. as necessary . 9 through 12 depict the portions of the NTS-2 orbit when the spacecraft is above the horizon from PMA . the final satellite positions will be determined later.. Naval Observatory (USNO)...

— - — -----. .94 0.9 0.0004 63. 201 ‘IJ 120 W 60W Fig.0002 63.012 63.4 — 180 714.4 — 273 717.002 63.00032 63.973 *Orbit adjusted .956 0.00034 63.3 — 717..80 230 717.35 295 717.967 0. Or bit adjusted by microt hrugt .0004 63. 8 — NAVSTAR GPS Phase I orbit traces.3 28.44 28.67 28±2 _* 192 — C 202 * ** ** GPS Specifications I: — ~ 0.jI ~~ I~~ IJ3 . Longitude of Ascending Node Inclmation (deg) 17~7 704. ___.10 83 ± 0.3 28.04 0.0003 63.— -- -- ~~~~~.-— •.5 0.003 717.4 — 184 717.946 0. The Phase I constellation consists of the NTS-2 and five Navigation Demonstration Satel- Table 3— NTS-2 Orbital Parameters - - Day (1977) - - - Period (mm ) Eccentricity ..43 28.-~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ — —— A ~~~~ 4 — 4~ ~~~~~.48 718.-— .984 0. I - I L ~~ • — .I? NRL REP O RT 8232 p7 ’ ~ 80N - ~~ I ~~~~~~~~~~~ - i ~ O SO’ .

Australia Royal Greenwich Obs. AND McCASKILL Table 4 . England Bendix Bendix Australian personnel I British personnel A site of the Division of National Mapping. C. Fig.. Md. 9—Panama NTS-2 coverage Fig. BUIS8ON . Lunar Laser site*.EASTON. Panama. — NTS-2 Tracking Network . Z. Station Location Operator CBD . 10—Royal Greenwich Observatory NTS-2 eoverage 8 Station Abbreviation CBD PMA AUS RGO .

11—Australia NTS. of the NTS-2 orbit 9 I I ~ b - - - - - - • ~~~~~~ k_.F. 12—Chesapeake Bay Division NTS-2 coverage PANAMA Fig.2 coverage _ Fig. I 3— Noncov.-~ ~~~~ L .! ~~~~~ - —- - _ - - NRL REPORT 8232 H Fig.rag.

1977.a side. thus allowing for unniediate analysis of any cesium frequency adjustment performed by NRLCC. 14) uu the first attempt on day 190. designated as PRO-5. The PRNSA was activated on day 200 (Fig. was locked up ( Fig. a n d ot her parameters associated with GPS operation. —Portable clock (twice per year) . The cesium standard was locked following solar-panel deployment. —TV (daily). at 1418 UTC following a VCXO frequency tune to bring the PRO. r • Panama: — Three cesium standards. —Portable clock (twice per year). clock difference [121. 9). • FREQUENCY DETERMINATION • GPS requirements for the NTS-2 mission called for cesium-controlled frequency operation after full power was available. PRECISE TIME AND FREQUENCY TRANSMISSIONS Precise frequency signals for NTS-2 transmissions are obtained from one of the two [41 cesium frequency standards built by FTS. following solar-panel deployzner%. quartz-only mode was used for the first 15 days after NTS-2 launch. — Loran C. • Australia: —Five cesium standards. which requires less power.5 quartz 10 - . The first FTS cesium standard to be used . Each cesium standard may also be operated in a quartz oscillator mode. which allowed full power operation. AND McCAS KILL • NTS-2 orbit is not observable by the NTS network. Time-difference measurements between the spacecraft clock and ground-station clocks re made through special receivers [10. spacecraft-qualifIed • NTS-2 timing information is continuously transmitted in two modes:. NTS-2 is tracked for one complete revolution every day.r’i - EASTON.111 which measure time difference by comparing a a waveform similar to that transmitted by the spacecraft. called the Orbit Determination and Tracking System (ODATS). • England: —Three cesium standards. and a Psuedo Random Noise Subsystem Assembly (PRNSA). Noteworthy is the coverage obtained from Panama ( Fig.tone ranging system. BUISSON. The reducedpower. —Portable clock (once per year) . —Portable clock trip to USNO (once per week). 7). Each of these stations has at least three cesium standards whose offsets (independent of NTS-2) are related to USNO master clock 1by timing links as follows: • CBD : —Three cesium standards. while the nickel-hydrogen battery was the sole power source. fr equency difference . These measurements are then used to determine the spacecraft orbit .

-.). Combining these results ~ (Table 5) produced a frequency offset of +7. 1977 . the cause of the small differences are being investigated . .10.1 pp iO’ was measured. Closer frequency synchronization to the UTC rate is obtainable by use of cesium C-field tuning. - • 11 - •—- - - _ ~ ~~ - ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ — -~~~~ — .0) val u es measure the offset of the spacecraft clock with respect to the clock at the Panama station.5 pp 1012 with respect to the Panama clock. ~~ CESIUM LOCKUP AT 141SZ AT I40~2 /* (T—O) SLOPE / ‘I • I 1300 14 00 TIME 1500 1500 PP 1012 1700 TIME IDAY S 1977) IHOURS) Fig.6 pp 1013 was measured.. 1977. where CBD denotes the clock used for the CBD receiver. Figure 18 represents a plot of ~ NTS CBD. 20. Figure 14 presents the values of the theoretical range minus the observed range (T -0) [131 . Before the C-field tune was applied.6 pp 1012 produces an NTS measured value of +443.“_— __ S ~ . a frequency offset of 10..7 pp 1013.6)) pp iOfl . Table 6 presents the preliminary results of the C-field tune. 1977 (14 Oct. a ~ C-field tune of six bits was applied. 15 — Shift in the cesium frequency offset . Inclusion of the Panama frequency offset of + 0. The (T .. the NTS-2 frequency offset was redetermined using the NRL Chesapeake Bay Division (CBD) station. 14 Lockup of the cesium frequency stan dard on day 190 . which exceeded the expected value of 7. which are calculated from measurements collected at a 1-minute interval from the Panama site.0 pp 1012 oscillator frequency close to the cesium resonance frequency. or 14.9 pp iO’ . Figure 19 is a plot of the (T -0) values after the Cfield tune. a split logarithmic scale is used so that positive and negative values of frequency offset with respect to UTC(USNO) may be included over a large range.0 pp 1012 gives a diffe rence of -1. Knowledge of the station clock offset with respect to the USNO master clock (MC) permits the spacecraft to be referenced to USNO.1 pp 1012 . 16) through the use of a frequency synthesizer [4] .9 pp 1012 .5 pp 1013. On day 215. Figure 17 presents a plot of UTC(USNO MC No.8 pp 1013 by 6. The net measured change was (.5 Fig. The (T -0) slope gives the frequency offset of + 442.3 pp iOfl . These (T -0) values yield a measure of the spacecraft clock offset with respect to the Panama clock. the NTS-2 PRO-S output signal was offset (Fig. A frequency history of NTS-2 since launch is presented by Fig. Figure 15 presents a plot of (T -0) values [13) from Panama over a 6-day span. 1) minus UTC(CBD).NRL REPORT 8232 4CC _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ SATELLITE TCA AT 1402 wj - ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ I ~~0 9 o ~~ / I- •IAlI Ic ~ I Tz TUNE I o- - — 1 100 - I 1-0 . a resultant frequency of -6.0 pp 1O’ .1 -(-24 . — • 442. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ — . On day 287. The slope of this line yields a frequency offset of 18. w hich Is close in value to Einstein’s theoretical relativi stic freque ncy shif t of 445. Comparison of this value to the predicted value of the relativistic offset of + 445.. which provides a resolution of 1.

00 DAYS OFFSET -42.0 pp - RMS : ~ 190 Fig. 16 _. 1977 . AND McCASKILL 5€ 4~f / / / ( TIME (HOURS) Effect of relativity correction . as measured with respect to the Chesapeake Bay Division (CBD) clock Fig.CBD 12 I --- ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ . — -34 -36 EPOCH 224.776 M FREO. on day 215. 17 200 210 220 230 TIME (DAY S 1977) 240 250 260 — Frequency offset determined by the clock rate between the CBD clock and the U SNO clock: USNO . OFFSET -18. • ! . BUISSON ._ _ -~~ _ -- ~~~~~~~ -- EASTON .

0 pp 1013 (Fig. e ~~. . I I I I EPOCH 291 DAYS OFFSET 841.. 1977) was 7.022 RMS ~ . ~~ Difference of the two determinations above is NTS-2 USNO(MC 1) = 7. — — Six-bit adjustment of the C field ..056 4 846 - - -i • - - 261 262 263 264 TIME (DAYS 1977) 265 266 267 Fig.610 FREO. 12).- ---. S • 840 - - 288 I 289 I 290 I 291 293 ~~ DAY 1977 I 294 296 Fig.00 DAYS OFFSET 844. .— -— — .. 13).-.037 FREQ. OFFSET -10.6 pp 10’s 842 - 0. . 19— Frequency offset determined by the clock rate between the NTS-2 clock and the CBD dock (N TS . applied on day 287 (Oct. 1 8 — Frequency offset determined by the clock rate between the NTS-2 clock and the CBD clock : NTS .CBD Table 5 — NTS-2 Cesium-Oscillator C-field Adjustment CBD — USNO(MC 1) via portable clock trips = 18._ •_ __ .- ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~— . S 841 - .—.._ . .CED) 18 _ • -. 14.-- S I ~~~~ . - -- - .- -- • ~~~ ~~~~~~~~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .~~ _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~~~~~~~ • —•— ~~ ‘ .1 ~~ pp RMS .8 pp iO’~ . CBD NTS-2 via satellite range observations = 10. OFFSET -24.1 pp 1O (Fig. 5 I— 5 .9 pp 1013 ..NRL REPORT 8232 846 EPOCH 263.

frequency determination..J. 10. 20—History of the NTS-2 frequency offset TIME TRANSFER Preliminary time-transfer results have also been obtained. Owens Valley . and (MOBALAS) Haystack. these results are obtained with a single-channel 335-MHz receiver [141 and are not corrected for ionospheric delay. Figure 22 presents NTS.1 time-transfer results between the NASA station at Cape Kennedy and USNO via the CBD-ground-station link to USNO.: . and five additional sites... measured with respect to the satellite clock back to UTC(USNO). C-FIELD TUNE HIGH Fig..— —• —•--—• ~ —._______________________ EASTON . . ~~~~ ~ ~ ~~ -~~~~~ . — -. — )0 ’ ~ QUARTZ f I0 ~~~ NIS-2 LAUNCH IC ’ )U I: lO W - I - l0 CESIUM I I I ~ 10 12 I RELATIVITY I CORRECTION .-•. ~~ - ~~~~~ ~ . The results in Fig. telemetry bit insertion. Figure 21 depicts the technique and the links which are used to relate a time difference . 23 present time-transfer results using identical ground-station equipment but with measurement obtained from the NTS-2 spacecraft. AND McCASKILL Table 6—Preliminary Results (Nov. .. 14 ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ .6 pp io’~ . The time-transfer results are of interest to the precise time and time interval (PTTI) community but also are significant for the GPS community. 1977) of the NTS-2 C-field Adjustment Preliminary measurement: NTS-2 USNO(MC 1) — -6. (RAMLAS) Patrick AFB. a— ~~~~~~ . BUISSON. because four simultaneous time transfers measured between a user and four GPS satellites form the basis of a GPS navigation and time synchronization. A NA8A laser orbit-verification network will use receivers such as used at the Cape Kennedy station and will consist of (STALAS) Goddard . and USNO(MC 1) uncertainty. Being investigated : value of bit change . •- ~~~~~~~~ • —_ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - • — -_____________________________________________________ ---—--- • — —-—---——— ‘-————- —. Goldstone..

• - -- _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .-•- - - ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ - - - - ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ i t NRL REPORT 8232 SATELLITE ATE ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ SATELLITE CENTRAL STATION Fig.- .7 40 I I so I DAY 1977 FIg. transfer between the NASA Cape Kennedy station and USNO 1 - ~I - 15 1 . - - . - . 21 — Technique of time transfer by the navigation-technolo gy segment of the NAVSTAR GPS I I I I ‘- -2 . .1 tim. ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ • • ‘ ~~~~ • RMS 2I3 n . . 2 2 — NT8..3 g..

23— NTS-2 time transfer between the NASA Cape Kennedy station and USNO INTERNATIONAL TIME-TRANSFER EXPERIMENT As a result of the encouraging time-transfer results.. Initially . It-is anticipated that a worldwide time synchronization accuracy of 100 ns or less will be achieved by this effort. AND MCCASKILL U I I -2- >.- . — — •• — ~ ~~ I RMS lOO n. ~~ ~~~~~ . • Make laser-network observations. an international time-transfer experiment has been planned in 1978.- ~~~~~~~~ EASTON . an mdependent orbit will be calculated . • Determine the long-range station position stability. BUISSON . -L~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ . Table 7 lists the different participants from seven countries.~~~~~~~ ~ . Extensive use will be made of the single-channel 335-MHz receiver. • Refine the coefficients of geopotential. An un portant part of the laser program is to obtain near-simulaneous laser and time-difference observa.. tions at colocated sites which will be used for precise clock analysis in addition to orbit determination.. laser returns will be used to verify one component of the orbit at the time of the observation .• # . ~~~~~~~ TT ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ - ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ : — . • NTS-2 is equipped with a laser retroreflector similar to that which the NTS .~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ - .i had .— F- . later as more laser stations track NTS-2. ionospheric delay will be minimized by using measurements at the time of closest approach of NTS-2. - -7 - 8 • - — 240 I 250 DAV 1977 I 260 Fig. U 4 .•. These and other objectives are summarized as follows: o • Resolve the scale bias problem.• ~~~~~~~ - ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ -— . One element of the retroreflector is designed for light emitted in the ultraviolet region. In addition to the NASA ¶ 16 ‘ -.- ~~ .1 and NTS-2.• -.. Figu res 24 and 25 show the retroreflector elements for NTS. • Determine precise GPS orbits. . LASER ORBiT-VERIFICATION PROGRAM A laser program to verify the GPS orbit accuracy has been started . - U - - U 4 : ~ • — — ~~~~~ — . and • Evaluate the hyd rogen m aser..

F- I — NRL REPORT 8232 Table 7 — Participants in the Planned International Time-transfer Experiment ] Organization NA SA Goddard Space Flight Center Country U.S. France England Australia U. U. 2 4 — NTS-1 laser retroref lector 17 _ _ • .S.S. Naval Observatory Naval Research Laboratory National Bureau of Standards The Bureau Internationale de l’Heure (Bill) The Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO ) The Division of National Mapping (DNM) The National Research Council (NRC) The Radio Research Laboratories (RRL) The National Research Laboratory of Metrology (NRLM) The Institut fi ~ir Angewandte Geodasie Canada Japan Japan Germany ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ __ ~1 :‘i~~~~~~~~ -F ’~ • r4 ~ _ - ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 1 Fig. U.S.S. U.

im plementation of a more accurate laser pulse should iraprove these results. Addi tional laser observations may be obtained from stations at Grasse (France). NTS tracking network Patrick AFB Measurement Resolution 48 cm 15 cm 1to 2 arc seconds network. SAO.- ~~-~~~~~~~ --~~~~~~~~~~~~ EASTON .) Table 8 • • • — Typical Resolution of Orbit Measurements Data Type Stations Time difference Laser Optical NA SA . Table 8 presents measurement resolutions from some of those stations with NTS tracking capability. Orroral Valley (Australia). Natal (Brazil). Hopkins. 18 - _ _ _ _ _ _ - . Arizona. these four stations are Arequipa (Peru). Wetzell (Germany). and Mt. DeIf (Holland). 2 5 — NTS-2 Laser retro refiector . (The square object is a matchbook to show the size. Hopkins (Arizona). site. Figures 26 and 27 present the residuals referenced to the NTS-2 orbit. BU ISSON . and Tokyo. Germany .. Laser returns have already been obtained from SAO Mt. AND McCASKILL • Fi g. and Australia . The noise levels of 6 and 5 ns are typical of the expected laser-measurement noise level for this laser configuration . four of the six stations in the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) network are capable of making laser observations on NTS-2. The measured biases of 56 and 17 ns provide preliminary verification of the NTS orbit.

•————— . 0333 t o 0403 hours 14 BIAS I7NS SIGMA 5 N S 12 10 * 8 K 6xx K ~~ -I . Arizona. 50 60 70 80 OBSERVATION NUMBER FIg. 1977 . 0 320 to 0338 hours 19 I ~~ .-~~~~~~~~~ _ -~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ —‘-- fl— ~~~~~ _ . site for day 238 ..J -— I L~~ _ K _ _ —• ~~~~~~~~ — —•—-— •-_. - ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 12BIAS 56 NS SIGMA 6 NS - 8x 6- • ~~~~~ — 4.NRL REPORT 8232 1.ON NUMBER I 20 Fig. Hopkins. 40 .•—__-- ~~~~~~~~ • — ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ - -- _ .2 -: - ~~ C I I N K K I ~~ tIN XX 0 K -4 x K x iI~ Nt x ININIM INI K K K K * Xx N I I MINI K K K K -8 K I I INI N NI ~ IN K -6 xx x xx K K K K I I K -10 0 10 20 30 I • • . 1977 . ~~~2 - x -xx x X C t i l l I M I K K I 1 1 1 1 uJ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 X K K K -6- - K -10 -12 K O 5 • 10 I 15 • O8SERvAT. I • • • • i I. 26— Laser-return residuals from the SAO Mt. 27 — Laser-return residual s from the Mt. Hopk ins site for day 241 .

• .I _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ EABTON . This proposed network includes possible laser tracking at the operational TRAN ET sites.:_ -- — .-~ - — . - ‘ -- _ _ _ .-—. which are un der the direction of the Defense Mapping Agency.-~~~~~~ K - - - —- . _ _ ~~~~~~~~~~~ — - • - ~~~ . • worldwide timing system synchronization.---~~~ ——-. 4 ._ K ~0 _ . I • measurement of the earth rotation rate... AND McCASKILL - - • LASER SITES F ig.~~~~~~~~ a_ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ . Other GPS objectives that are being pursued are : • satellite clock analysis. • demonstrated orbit stability and controllability. • verification of relativity theory .~ K - . NTE-2 ACHiEVEMENTS GPS objectives that have been achieved to date are: • launch insertion into the GPS constellation position.. • first cesium frequency standard in space. 28 — Proposed laser network for precise orbit track ing - A proposed laser network for precise orbit tracking is shown in Fig. 28.- - - - I . • error budget determination . BUIS8ON. • • navigation with the Navigation Demonstration System Sat ~ Iites. • refinement of the coeffic ients of geopotential .1 20 - I •-_ ~~~~ __ —_ I —~~~ ~~~ S .

” NSWC/DL TR-3565.” in the Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting. G. 8. R. McCaskill.2 Cesium Beam Frequency Standard for GPS. 164-177 (Summer 1976). “NAV STAR Global Positioning System (GPS). Easton . J.S GOVENN U KINT Pu NTING OFFICE .” pp. ” National Telecomm un ications Con ference . 21 ___________ _ _ _ ‘U. et al. Apr.B.B.B.L. Easton. Buisson. 1972.W. T. 637-664 in the Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting.1-1 to 41. Smith .and Rubidiurn-Oscifiator Frequency-Stability Results. J. Aug. 1976.” NRL Report 7478. 1974 . 1976.” NRL Report 7932. Morgan . June 27 . Lynch . “TIMATION Navigation Satellite System Constellation Study .. Buisson . et a!. White. 10.. 3-12 in the Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Precise Time and Time In terval (PTTI) Applications and Plan ning Meeting. R. et a!. “Navigation Technology Satellite (NTS) Low Cost Timing Receiver.A . “Quartz Crystal Oscillator Development for TIMATION . 5. and A . Buisson. O’Toole. Buisson . J. J. July 1976. 18.W. 1975. 1976. 41. 2). Silverman . “A Navigation Technology Satellite Receiver. 4.B. Raymond . Dec. 1ff .. Bartholomew. Navigation Technology Satellite (NTS. J.B.” NRL Memorandum Report 3324. T. Buisson and T. P. Oct. McCaskill. “Celest Computer Program for Computing Satellite Orbits.” pp.IMIN 2N1-K5O ’0041 I-S - . 6. “The Hydrogen Maser Program for NAVSTAR GPS.” NRL Report 7703. 9. McCaskffl . “Quartz. 14. T.1). B.W. T.A. D.W. Woodger.” Navigation.-- _ _ _ _ . Oct.A. I. 1972 . L. Institu te of Navigation 23 (No. and C. 25.. 12. and D.H.P. 1976.B. J.A. H.- ~~-~~~~~~~~~ . 1977.L. “Precise Worldwid Station Synchronization via the NAVSTAR GPS. 1971. “International Time Transfer Between the U.A. 2.” NRL Report 7389. June 17.” in the Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting. pp. B uonaguro . Buisson. McCaskill and J. Parkinson. Naval Observatory and Roy al Greenwich Observatory via the TIMATION II Satellite. 1976.A.1-5. L. “NTS . J. Vol. 1976. Landis.” NRL Report 7252.” Goddard Space Flight Center Report X-814-77-205. C.r I ___________ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ NRL REPORT 8232 £ REFERENCES 1. “Principles and Techniques of Satellite Navigation Using the TIMATION II Satellite.S. 11. and J . 7. Lynch . 13. McCaskill. Raymond . J. - - - • 3. and T. “Navigation Technology Satellite (NTS) Low Cost Timing Receiver Development. Con fe r ence R ecord . 12.A. “A Sequential Range Navigation Algorithm for a Medium Altitude Navigation Satellite. Weaver. McCaskill.