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QoS Provisioning for VoIP Services

over Wireless Networks

Professor Yeali S. Sun (孫雅麗)


Department of Information Management
National Taiwan University
Outline
n Introduction – VoIP requires QoS support
n Technology review and the current
limitations –
n QoS Support in Wireless Networks - 802.11e
(EDCA, HCCA)
n Can the business and customer wait?
n Transparent QoS support and bandwidth
reservation
n Concluding Remarks
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Outline
n Introduction – VoIP requires QoS support
n Technology review and the current limitations –
n QoS Support in Wireless Networks - 802.11e (EDCA,
HCCA)
n Can the business and customer wait?
n Transparent QoS support and bandwidth reservation
n Concluding Remarks

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Reference
n IEEE P802.11e/D12.0, Nov. 2004
n Daquing Gu and Jinyun Zhang, “QoS Enhancement in IEEE
802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks,” IEEE
Communications Magazine, June 2003.
n Sunghyun Choi, Javier del Prado, Sai Shankar N, and Stefan
Mangold, “IEEE 802.11e Contention-Based Channel Access
(EDCF) Performance Evaluation,” ICC 2003.

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IP-based Voice Service
n Compared with traditional circuit-switched telephone
system, many people believe “voice over packet-
switched networks has the potential of delivering a
more cost-effective service solution.”
n But in general, the VoIP quality may be significantly
affected by the dynamics of network load (e.g.,
congestion).
n Thus, providing QoS for VoIP calls is essential to
the business success of VoIP service.
n At least achieve nearly-equal quality of circuit-switch
telephone network.

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Important QoS+Mobility
Management Issues
Secure & Seamless Roaming

Handoff architectures Handoff decision algorithm

Mobility End-to-end Parameter User


QoS guarantees Adoptions: preference:
management
Admission bw, delay, price, bw,
control power, velocity
Horizontal Vertical traffic, etc. power, etc.
integration integration
Resource
allocation
Decision algorithm
Scheduling/
Handoff protocol design
(Mobile IP, 802.11f, etc) Queueing
Security/ Interface selector
Lower layer support
AAA
VoIP - Wireless and Mobile
Fierce Competition in voice services
n Voice services in GSM and finally 3G wireless
systems have been rolled out worldwide
n increasing service rate
n a flexible service mix combining voice, short messages,
data, multimedia and entertainment
n In the meantime, a number of players are exploring
the new business opportunities created by the advance
of new technologies - less expensive than 3G
technologies (e.g., Wi-fi, WiMAX).
n VoIP is considered as a compulsory service (free or
not-free of charge) in addition to any other services.
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Is “Blue Ocean Strategy”
possible in VoIP Industry?
n How to Create Uncontested Market Space and Make
Competition Irrelevant?

n Deployment of wireless IP-based networks, e.g.,


wireless broadband city (無線寬頻城市)
n 目前全球各地包括歐美亞太等地區約有130起以上的「無線寬頻城
市」建置計畫陸續運作中。
n 技術趨勢72%以IEEE 802.11為, WiMAX in the future

n 應用趨勢主要以基本的無線上網為主。

n 多元的加值應用?

n 無線行動裝置以NB、PDA、手機為主

n VoIP的趨勢將會走向VoWLAN (VoIP over WLAN) with

mobility
Outline
n Introduction – VoIP requires QoS support
n Technology review and the current
limitations –
n QoS Support in Wireless Networks - 802.11e
(EDCA, HCCA)
n Can the business and customer wait?
n Transparent QoS support and bandwidth reservation
n Concluding Remarks

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IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN
Technology – its support
for VoIP

n QoS support – IEEE 802.11e


n Mobility support – IEEE 802.11f
(IAPP)

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802.11e: Objectives
n Enhances the basic 802.11 MAC – contention-based
DCF (Distributed Coordination Function) and
optional PCF (Point Coordination Function) to
support QoS in IEEE 802.11 WLAN.
n Adds a new function called a Hybrid Coordination
Function (HCF), including
n Contention-based channel access (EDCA) -
“Differentiated Service” (DiffServ)
• provide traffic priorities
n Controlled channel access (HCCA) - “Integrated
Services” (IntServ)
• provide per-connection QoS through centralized scheduling
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802.11 MAC Architecture
Required for
Contention-
CWmin[AC] Free services
Required for
Required for
Prioritized
CWmax[AC] for non-QoS QoS services parameterized
STA services
AIFS[AC] (optional)
TXOPLimit[AC]
TXOPBudget[AC]
HCF Hybrid
Load[AC] Point HCF
Coordination Contention Coordination
Controlled Function
SurplusFactor[AC] Function Access Access
(PCF) (EDCF) (HCCA)

Distributed Coordination Function

EDCA: Enhanced Distributed


Copyright Channel
2006 Yeali S. Sun. All rights Access
reserved. No part of this document

HCCA: HCF Controlled


VG 12
Channel
or by any means without the prior writtenAccess
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EDCA: Enhanced Distributed
Channel Access
- “Differentiated Service”

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802.11e HCF-EDCA
n Contention-based medium access control method
n Define four access categories (AC) (BK, BE, VI and VO) to
support eight user priorities (UPs).

Priority to Access Category Mappings

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EDCA Channel Access Control
n Each AC is an enhanced variant of the DCF
n Contends for transmission opportunities (TXOPs)
n TXOP is a time period that a station has the right for transmission
n Each AC uses a different set of channel access parameters.
DCF EDCA
n CWmin n CWmin[ACi]
n CWmax n CWmax[ACi]
n DIFS n AIFS[ACi] = aSIFSTime + AIFSN[ACi]*aSlotTime
AIFSN

For 0 = j < i = 3
n CWmin [ j ] = CWmin [i] ,
n CWmax [ j ] = CWmax [i ],
n AIFS [ j ] = AIFS [ i]
EDCA Channel Access Control

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TXOP
n During an EDCA TXOP
n A station may transmit multiple MPDUs from the same AC
n A SIFS time gap between an ACK and the subsequent frame
transmission
n This multiple MPDUs transmission is referred to as
“Contention-Free Burst (CFB)”

CFB Timing Structure


TXOP (cont’d)

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Reference Implementation Model
at a Wireless Station
Packets from upper layer

Separate Tx
queueing

ACBK ACBE ACVI ACVO

VG 19
Wireless Channel Access
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Performance Evaluation of EDCA
n A simulation using OPNET 802.11b PHY module 11Mb/s
n The original 802.11 MAC was modified to support the EDCF access
function and did not consider other traffic parameters such as TXOPs.
n Four stationary IEEE802.11 wireless stations in ad hoc mode.
n Per station, there are four AC queues.
n CWmin = 31, CWmax = 1023, and Slot-Time = 20 μs.
n Each traffic class has an equal portion of the total data traffic in terms of
average number packets generated per unit time.
n The packets had the same size of 1024 bytes and remained constant during
the simulation.
n The packets of BK (AC(0)), AC(1), and AC(2) were generated according
to Poisson process with a mean interarrival time equal to 0.0001 s.
n AC(3) packets were generated at a constant rate to simulate a voice source.

Daquing Gu and JinyunCopyright


Zhang, “QoS Enhancement in IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area
2006 Yeali S. Sun. All rights reserved. No part of this document
Networks,”
VG 20 IEEE Communications Magazine,
may be reproduced, stored Juneor2003.
in a retrieval system, transmitted in any form, YLS-02/13/2006
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Medium Access Delay for Different ACs

BK

BE
Delay
(sec)

VO
VI

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Throughputs for Different
ACs

VO

Throughput
(bps)

VI

BE BK

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Performance Evaluation of CFB
by simulations
n Simulate four voice stations and four video stations
with and without CFB
n Without CFB: only one frame is transmitted per TXOP
n With CFB: TXOPlimit
• Voice : 3 msec
• Video : 5 msec

Sunghyun Choi, Javier del Prado, Sai Shankar N, and Stefan Mangold, “IEEE 802.11e
Contention-Based Channel Access (EDCF) Performance Evaluation,” ICC 2003.
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Comparative Performance
Evaluation

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Total Data Drop Rate (bps)
Significantly
reduce station
channel access
contention
probability

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Total Channel Throughput (bps)

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“Voice” Packet Delay (sec)

Delay
(sec)

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“Video” Packet Delay (sec)

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EDCA: What’s needed
additionally?
n Class differentiation is still based on contention
resolution approach

To well support VoIP service


n Need admission control mechanisms to control the
traffic load in VO to assure absolute VoIP
performance
n Protect and Guarantee QoS for the existing VoIP calls from
the new ones (of the same class).
n Need traffic control mechanisms to prevent hostile
traffic marking as VO class
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EDCA: admission control
n The HC may use the ACM (admission control
mandatory) subfields advertised in the EDCA
Parameter Set element to indicate the admission
control is required for each of the ACs.
n Each AC in a QSTA maintains two variables,:
n admitted_time - the medium time allowed by the HC in a
dot11EDCAAveragingPeriod
n used_time - the amount of time used in a
dot11EDCAAveragingPeriod
n These two parameters are set to zero at the time of
association.
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EDCA: QoS-guaranteed for a
VoIP call (1/3)
nA QSTA (VoIP caller) sends a service request
using the traffic specification (TSPEC)
signaling, i.e.
n ADDTS (add traffic stream) request,
n A traffic stream (TS) is a set of packets (MSDUs)
to be delivered subject to a particular TSPEC QoS
parameter values.

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QSTA describes the
requirements of a traffic stream
QoS

The minimum set of TSPEC


parameters
n Surplus Bandwidth Allowance
n Mean Data Rate
n at least one of the “Maximum
n Nominal MSDU Size
Service Interval” and “Delay
n Minimum PHY Rate Bound”
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Definitions
n Maximum Service Interval:
n the maximum interval between the start of two successive SPs (Service Periods).
n During a service period, one or more downlink unicast frames are transmitted to a
QSTA and/or one or more TXOPs are granted to the same QSTA.
n Service Start Time:
n It indicates to QAP the time when a QSTA first expects to be ready to send frames
and a power-saving QSTA will be awake to receive frames.
n Mean Data Rate:
n It specifies the average data rate, in units of bits per second not including the MAC
and PHY overheads.
n Delay Bound:
n It specifies the maximum amount of time allowed to transport an MSDU of the TS.
n It is measured between the arrival of the MSDU at the local MAC layer and the start
of successful transmission or retransmission of the MSDU.
n Minimum PHY Rate:
n It specifies the desired minimum PHY rate to use for this TS, in units of bits per
second.
n Surplus Bandwidth Allowance:
n It specifies the excess allocation of time (and bandwidth) over and above the stated
application rates requirement to transport an MSDU belonging to the TS in this
TSPEC.
EDCA: QoS-guaranteed for a
VoIP call (2/3)
n HC calculates the Medium Time based on the
information in the TSPEC of the request.
n The admission control algorithm and the Medium
Time calculation used by the HC is an open issue.
n Afterthat, the HC sends back the derived
Medium Time in the TSPEC element in the
ADDTS response to the QSTA.

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EDCA: QoS-guaranteed for a
VoIP call (3/3)
n When QSTA received the ADDTS response frame, it
updates its admitted_time for a particular AC as
follows:
admitted_time += dot11EDCAAveragingPeriod
* Medium Time
n After a successful or unsuccessful MPDU
transmission attempt, the used_time is updated.
n If used_time is larger than admitted_time, the
corresponding AC is not allowed to transmit any data
frames until the used_time is reset.
n If needs more time to send the data frame, a QSTA
sends a new request for more admitted_time to the
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VG 36 YLS-02/13/2006
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EDCA: Admission Control (cont’d)

n It is an on-demand service
n the TSPEC requirement

n The actual performance of the EDCA relies on


the choice of proper admission control and
scheduling algorithms based on the TSPEC
values.

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HCCA (HCF Controlled Channel
Access)
- “Integrated Services”

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HCCA: Introduction
n QAP and QSTAs
n A hybrid coordinator (HC), typically
collocated with a QAP.
n HC
n has higher medium access priority than non-AP
QSTAs to transfer traffic from itself to stations.
n manages channel access (e.g., allocate
transmission opportunities (TXOPs) to non-AP
QSTAs)

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HC: main functions
n Admission control
n HC decides whether to admit a HCCA service request
n If admitted, HC schedules the delivery of downlink traffic
and QoS CF-poll (for uplink traffic) to meet the QoS
requirements of the stream as specified in the TSPEC.
n During the polled TXOP, the QSTA must not violate the
TXOP limit.
n Scheduling the downlink and uplink transmissions
in HCCA TXOPs for those admitted traffic streams
n Communicating the CF-poll schedule to the QSTA
that have HCCA admitted traffic streams
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HC Operations
n The HC waits for a PIFS channel idle to gain access to the
WM to start a CFP or a TXOP in CP.
n Contention-Free Period (CFPs ); Contention Period (CPs),;
Service Interval (SIs); Controlled Access Phase (CAPs).
HC: Service Schedule
n HC establishes a Service Schedule for the non-AP QSTA
n QSTA confirms by returning an acknowledgement frame.
n The HC communicates the CF-poll schedule and may update
the Service Schedule at any time by sending a Schedule
element in a Schedule QoS Action frame.

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HCCA: establish a QoS-
guaranteed VoIP call
n HCCA provides parameterized QoS service
n A QSTA (VoIP caller) sends a service request
using the traffic specification (TSPEC)
signaling, i.e.
n ADDTS (add traffic stream) request,
n A traffic stream (TS) is a set of packets (MSDUs)
to be delivered subject to a particular TSPEC QoS
parameter values.

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HCCA: establish a QoS-
guaranteed VoIP call (cont’d)
n It is a polling service
n based on the TSPEC of the admitted traffic streams
n Per-call– similar to traditional connection-
oriented service
n The actual performance of the HCCA relies on
the choice of proper admission control and
scheduling algorithms based on the TSPEC
values.
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HC Operations
n The HC waits for a PIFS channel idle to gain access to the
WM to start a CFP or a TXOP in CP.
n Contention-Free Period (CFPs ); Contention Period (CPs),;
Service Interval (SIs); Controlled Access Phase (CAPs).

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HCCA Issues
VoIP packet generation n QSTA-poll scheduling
process n Polling order (e.g., round-
n Inter-packet arrival time robin, weighted round-
n E.g., 20ms robin, on-demand), weights
n Packet size depending on (e.g., centralized scheduling
codec using weighted fair
n E.g., G.729 . queueing), CFP repetition
rate, etc.
How fast the “server” (AP poll n Parameters
on the station) will come n E.g., parameters MaxDuration,
CFPMaxDuration, SI, TXOP,
back to VoIP stations/flows? etc.
n Subject to delay jitter and n Determine which STA
throughput currently has the right to
n Admission Control transmit by POLLING
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HCCA Admission Control
n Shall base on the service policy, available capacity,
and the condition of the channel as well as the service
requirements of traffic streams.

n The 802.11e draft specifies some normative behavior


of the scheduler and design guidelines for HC
admission control.

n Vendors are free to implement any optimized


algorithms in the scheduler.

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A traffic stream QoS requirement
and service schedule

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HCCA admission control
Step I: - compute the Scheduled Service Interval (SI).
n The scheduler finds the minimum “m” of the Maximum
Service Intervals of all admitted streams.
n The scheduler computes the Scheduled Service Interval as a
number lower than “m” and of a submultiple of the beacon
interval.
n Each admitted stream will be served every Scheduled Service
Interval.

• An admitted stream “i” has the Maximum Service Interval 60ms


and the beacon interval is 100ms.
Copyright 2006 Yeali S. Sun. All rights reserved. No part of this document

• The Scheduledor Service


VG 49
Interval
by any means without may
the prior written be of50ms.
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HCCA admission control
Step II – compute the TXOP duration for the stream.
n First find the number of MSDUs (Ni) (pkts/sec) arriving at
the Mean Data Rate during the SI for stream i.
 SI × ρ i 
Ni =  
 Li 
n Mean Data Rate (ρi) (bits/sec), Nominal MSDU Size (Li) (bits/pkt),
the Scheduled Service Interval (SI); Maximum MSDU size (M=2304
bytes); overheads (O)
n Compute the TXOP duration as follows: (Why TXOP is
bounded by M? I thought a station can transmit more than
one packet N i × Li M
TXOPi = max( + O, + O)
Ri Ri

time to transmit Minimum reserved


Ni frames at Ri time interval
HCCA admission control
n Step III: the ACU determines whether to admit the
stream:

TXOPk +1 k TXOPi T − TCP


+∑ ≤
SI i =1 SI T

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Comparison of HCF HC and
PCF PC
n Both are polling-based approach.
But
n The HC may have frame exchange with QSTAs
during both the CP (Contention Period) and the
CFP (Contention Free Period).
n The HC can grant a QSTA a polled TXOP with
duration specified in a QoS (+)CF-Poll frame.
n QSTAs may transmit multiple frames separated by
a SIFS interval within a given polled TXOPs.
n TXOP is upper bounded by the TXOP limit
specified by QAP.
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Issues
n When will the EDCA and/or HCCA-capable
wi-fi products be available to support VoIP
service (and emerging triple-play services)?

n Can the business wait?

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Outline
n Introduction – VoIP requires QoS support
n Technology review and the current
limitations –
n QoS Support in Wireless Networks - 802.11e
(EDCF, HCCA)
n Can the business and customer wait?
n Transparent QoS support and
bandwidth reservation
n Concluding Remarks
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Content-aware Intelligent VoIP
Communications
n Invented in January 2003
n DCF-based wireless LANs
n The ideas were
n to achieve consumer-oriented Plug-and-Play
(zero configuration) VoIP service/multimedia
services in WLAN

n No modification to end devices


n Put the intelligence on AP

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or by any means without the prior written permission of the author.
QoS AP
n Performs SIP packet interception,
content inspection and modification to
achieve transparent, automatic VoIP call
classification and bandwidth reservation.
n QoS guarantees for VoIP calls
n Transparent network address & port
translation (NAPT) for SIP-based VoIP
calls
Copyright 2006 Yeali S. Sun. All rights reserved. No part of this document
VG 56 may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, YLS-02/13/2006
or by any means without the prior written permission of the author.
SIP-based VoIP Call:
Simple Example
SIP Phone
SIP phone
Call Server Callee
Caller
INVITE
INVITE
100 Trying
100 Trying

180 Ringing
180 Ringing
200 OK
200 OK
ACK
ACK

Media Session
Bye
Bye
200 OK
200 OK
Transparent, Automatic QoS
Provisioning for wi-fi VoIP
Intranet

QoS AP Router
SIP phone
Streaming Media
Server
SIP softphone

#1: SIP packet


interception and
content inspection/
modification

SIP
Web
Video SIP VoIP phone
Client
browser VoIP phone
System Architecture

Transparent SIP QoS & NAT


Provisioned System SIP
Protocol
Session FSM
Manager
Packet Packet
Type Content
Classifier Parser QoS
MediaInfo Manager
Manager

• IP address
• RTP ports,
• Codec type
• etc.
Transparent, Automatic QoS
Provisioning for wi-fi VoIP
Intranet

QoS AP Router
SIP phone
Streaming Media
Server
SIP softphone

#2: VoIP
admission control

SIP
Video
Web Copyright Client SIP VoIP phone
browser may be reproduced, stored in a retrievalVoIP
system, orphone
2006 Yeali S. Sun. All rights reserved. No part of this document
VG 60 transmitted in any form, YLS-02/13/2006
or by any means without the prior written permission of the author.
VoIP Call Admission Control

n Manage the bandwidth of both the upstream and


downstream traffic.
n Automatically and transparently learn SIP call signaling
messages and bandwidth requirements (e.g., codec type)
of a VoIP call to guarantee QoS.
n A maximum allowable number of calls
• e.g., maximal 6 intra-WLAN G.711 VoIP calls or 12 WAN-WLAN
VoIP calls to receive good communication quality in 802.11b.

n Regulate unwanted traffic to prevent bandwidth


waste.

Copyright 2006 Yeali S. Sun. All rights reserved. No part of this document
VG 61 may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, YLS-02/13/2006
or by any means without the prior written permission of the author.
Transparent, Automatic QoS
Provisioning for wi-fi VoIP
Intranet

QoS AP Router
SIP phone
Streaming Media
Server WAN

LAN
softphone
WLAN

#3: Upstream
traffic control

SIP
Video
Web Copyright Client SIP VoIP phone
browser may be reproduced, stored in a retrievalVoIP
system, orphone
2006 Yeali S. Sun. All rights reserved. No part of this document
VG 62 transmitted in any form, YLS-02/13/2006
or by any means without the prior written permission of the author.
SIP_NAT for wi-fi VoIP
n SIP_NAT – ALG approach
n Automatically learn the private IP and port number of VoIP
phones at SIP call registration phase
n Maintain private and public IP address and port number
translation table
n Perform VoIP call – SIP packets and RTP packets –
address and port modification
n The goal is to enable transparent VoIP
communications over the Internet.

Copyright 2006 Yeali S. Sun. All rights reserved. No part of this document
VG 63 may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, YLS-02/13/2006
or by any means without the prior written permission of the author.
Transparent SIP_NAT for wi-fi
VoIP
Internet
SIP
server
QoS AP Router
SIP
Streaming Media
server
Server

#1: SIP registration


and INVITE packet
interception and
content inspection

#2: NAPT table


creation and
SIP
maintenance
Web
Video SIP VoIP phone
Copyright Client
VoIP phone
2006 Yeali S. Sun. All rights reserved. No part of this document
VG 64 browser may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, YLS-02/13/2006
or by any means without the prior written permission of the author.
Interoperability Test

vonage.com

Copyright 2006 Yeali S. Sun. All rights reserved. No part of this document
VG 65 may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, YLS-02/13/2006
or by any means without the prior written permission of the author.
Concluding Remarks
n QoS in IEEE 802.11
n EDCA - Different random backoff times to provide differentiated
services.
n The relative performance is not easy to control.
n HCCA – per-call is good but more complex – haven’t seen any vendor
commitment/product

n WiMAX QoS support is even more complex.


n Wireless, mobile VoIP definitely is the way to go.
n Wirelss Mesh-based VoIP network
n The technological challenge remains to the QoS support of
ensuring compatible end-to-end performance across wired and
wireless networks as in GSM/3G networks.
Copyright 2006 Yeali S. Sun. All rights reserved. No part of this document
VG 66 may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, YLS-02/13/2006
or by any means without the prior written permission of the author.