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ammonia and hydrofluoric acid in aqueous solution

NH3(aq) + HF(aq) NH+4 (aq) + F-(aq)

Example 15.1

Strategy

and one more negative charge (or one fewer positive charge)

than the formula of the corresponding acid.

Solution

NH3 has one fewer H atom and one fewer positive charge than

NH+4 . F- has one fewer H atom and one more negative charge

+

than HF. Therefore, the conjugate acid-base pairs are (1) NH4

and NH3 and (2) HF and F-.

2

Example 15.2

cleaning solution is 0.0025 M. Calculate the concentration of

H+ ions.

Example 15.2

Strategy

We are given the concentration of the OH- ions and asked to

calculate [H+]. The relationship between [H+] and [OH-] in water

or an aqueous solution is given by the ion-product of water, Kw

[Equation (15.3)].

Example 15.2

Solution

Rearranging Equation (15.3), we write

-14

K

1.0

10

-12

w

[H + ] =

=

=

4.0

10

M

0.0025

[OH ]

Check

from the earlier discussion of the reaction of ammonia with

water.

5

Example 15.3

3.2 x 10-4 M right after the cork was removed. Only half of the

wine was consumed. The other half, after it had been

standing open to the air for a month, was found to have a

hydrogen ion concentration equal to 1.0 x 10-3 M. Calculate the

pH of the wine on these two occasions.

Example 15.3

Strategy

We are given the H+ ion concentration and asked to calculate

the pH of the solution. What is the definition of pH?

Example 15.3

Solution

According to Equation (15.4), pH = -log [H+]. When the bottle

was first opened, [H+] = 3.2 x 10-4 M, which we substitute in

Equation (15.4)

pH = -log [H+]

= -log (3.2 x 10-4) = 3.49

On the second occasion, [H+] = 1.0 x 10-3 M, so that

pH = -log (1.0 x 10-3 ) = 3.00

8

Example 15.3

Comment

The increase in hydrogen ion concentration (or decrease in pH)

is largely the result of the conversion of some of the alcohol

(ethanol) to acetic acid, a reaction that takes place in the

presence of molecular oxygen.

Example 15.4

northeastern United States on a particular day was 4.82.

Calculate the H+ ion concentration of the rainwater.

10

Example 15.4

Strategy

[H+]. Because pH is defined as pH = -log [H+], we can solve for

[H+] by taking the antilog of the pH; that is, [H+] = 10-pH, as

shown in Equation (15.5).

11

Example 15.4

Solution

From Equation (15.4)

pH = -log [H+] = 4.82

Therefore,

log [H+] = -4.82

To calculate [H+], we need to take the antilog of -4.82

[H+] = 10-4.82 = 1.5 x 10-5 M

12

Example 15.4

Check

Because the pH is between 4 and 5, we can expect [H+] to be

between 1 x 10-4 M and 1 x 10-5 M. Therefore, the answer is

reasonable.

13

Example 15.5

solution.

14

Example 15.5

Strategy

Solving this problem takes two steps. First, we need to

calculate pOH using Equation (15.7). Next, we use Equation

(15.9) to calculate the pH of the solution.

Solution

We use Equation (15.7):

= -log (2.9 x 10-4)

= 3.54

15

Example 15.5

Now we use Equation (15.9):

pH + pOH = 14.00

pH = 14.00 - pOH

= 14.00 - 3.54 = 10.46

Kw = [H+][OH-] to calculate [H+], and then we can calculate the

pH from the [H+]. Try it.

Check The answer shows that the solution is basic (pH > 7),

which is consistent with a NaOH solution.

16

Example 15.6

Calculate the pH of a

(a) 1.0 x 10-3 M HCl solution

17

Example 15.6

Strategy

Keep in mind that HCl is a strong acid and Ba(OH)2 is a strong

base. Thus, these species are completely ionized and no HCl

or Ba(OH)2 will be left in solution.

Solution

(a)The ionization of HCl is

HCl(aq)

H+(aq) + Cl-(aq)

18

Example 15.6

The concentrations of all the species (HCl, H+, and Cl-) before

and after ionization can be represented as follows:

Initial (M):

Change (M):

Final (M):

H+(aq)

+ Cl-(aq)

1.0 x 10-3

-1.0 x 10-3

0.0

+1.0 x 10-3

0.0

+1.0 x 10-3

0.0

1.0 x 10-3

1.0 x 10-3

HCl(aq)

(-) change indicates a decrease in concentration. Thus,

[H+] = 1.0 x 10-3 M

pH = -log (1.0 x 10-3)

= 3.00

19

Example 15.6

(b) Ba(OH)2 is a strong base; each Ba(OH)2 unit produces two

OH- ions:

Ba(OH)2(aq)

Ba2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq)

be represented as follows:

Ba(OH)2(aq)

Initial (M):

Change (M):

Final (M):

0.020

- 0.020

0.00

Ba2+(aq)

+ 2OH-(aq)

0.00

+ 0.020

0.020

0.00

+2(0.020)

0.040

20

Example 15.6

Thus,

[OH-] = 0.040 M

pOH = -log 0.040 = 1.40

Therefore, from Equation (15.8),

pH = 14.00 - pOH

= 14.00 - 1.40

= 12.60

Check Note that in both (a) and (b) we have neglected the

contribution of the autoionization of water to [H+] and [OH-]

because 1.0 x 10-7 M is so small compared with 1.0 x 10-3 M

and 0.040 M.

21

Example 15.7

solution:

HNO2(aq) + CN-(aq)

22

Example 15.7

Strategy

reaction will be shifted to the right, favoring HCN and NO-2, or to

the left, favoring HNO2 and CN-. Which of the two is a stronger

acid and hence a stronger proton donor: HNO2 or HCN? Which

of the two is a stronger base and hence a stronger proton

acceptor: CN- or NO-2 ? Remember that the stronger the acid,

the weaker its conjugate base.

23

Example 15.7

Solution

In Table 15.2 we see that HNO2 is a stronger acid than HCN.

Thus, CN- is a stronger base than NO-2 . The net reaction will

proceed from left to right as written because HNO2 is a better

proton donor than HCN (and CN- is a better proton acceptor

than NO-2 ).

24

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