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Breakup, War, and

Reconciliation in
the Former
Created By: Sam Wanous for history day 2008.
1946 to 1991
Yugoslavian Ethnic Groups
•Yugoslavia has
many different ethnic
groups, and
•However most of
the people are:
Serbian, Croatian/
Slovenian, or
•These groups come
together in the
middle of the Former
Yugoslavia; which is
now Bosnia.
In the early 1900’s the Ottoman empire controlled the Balkan

Yugoslavia was formed in 1918 after being ruled by many empires

over the years.

In World War II German forces occupied the Balkan area they were
pushed out of the area by Soviet troops.

Tito in comparison to the USSR he liberalized the economy, and gave

many rights to the people; such as travel and trade with other

He allowed people to practice their religions but outlawed extremism

In 1892 Josip Broz Tito was born in Zagreb, Croatia,
which was part of Austria-Hungry then.

He was drafted into the Astro-Hungry army during

World War.

In 1915 he was wounded, and captured by the


During the Russian revolution he helped the


He became part of the communist party, and was

placed in Yugoslavia before World War 2 as the head
of the communist party there.

Tito led formed a opposition army against the Axis.

When the Allies drove the Axis out of Yugoslavia he

was recognized as the formal leader.
Under Tito Yugoslavia’s government was independent from the Soviet

Joseph Stalin (then the Soviet Premier) did not approve of this, and
even threatened to invade Yugoslavia.

However after Stalin died Nikita Khushchev apologized for Stalin’s


He also allowed privatized businesses, and people to travel freely.

The government was also fair to all ethnic groups, which kept religious
extremism down.

He also gave the provinces of Yugoslavia: Serbia, Macedonia, Bosnia,

Croatia, Slovenia, and Kosovo a lot of independence.
Tito died May of 1980.

After Tito’s death, the leaders of each 9 provinces had a “collective

presidency, and elected a president of the group who was the leader
of the “collective presidency”, which led the country.

Many people were pushing for a more unified Yugoslavia.

In 1989 Sloaban Milošević got into the Communist party and became
president of Yugoslavia after Milošević changed the government
dramatically, by taking away many of the rights of Yugoslav citizens.

He also favored Orthodox Serbs, and into his presidency used

“Ethnic Cleansing” to push people of other ethnic backgrounds out
of their homes.
Slobodan Milošević

•Slobodan Milošević was born on

August 29, 1941; In Pozarveac, Serbia.
•He became part of the communist
party in Serbia, and was elected the
Serbian president in 1989.
•Milošević wanted a unified nation
controlled by Serbs.
•In the late 1980’s he led Serbs into
Kosovo to make it part of Serbia.
•He Seized control of Serbia, and
•He got rid of anyone in the
government that didn’t support him.
•Non-Serb ethnic groups opposed him,
and he viewed them as threats.
Yugoslavia Dissolves
• In 1991, due to the problems in
the 80’s and the communist party
dissolving, Yugoslavia broke-up
into 5 smaller countries.

• Milošević disliked this and tried

to get Yugoslavia back together by
going to war with Bosnia and

• His policies of ethnic cleansing

and Yugoslav unification went
into full effect and when executed
were war crimes and crimes
against humanity.
Milošević and His
• In 1991, when Slovenia, Croatia, and Bosnia
broke away from Yugoslavia, and the war
started he ordered that other ethnic were
eliminated, because they opposed him.
• He terrorized the people who either did not
believe as he did or were of different ethnic
• This is called “Ethnic Cleansing”.
• It was a tragedy in history because many
innocent people were killed.
• His men forced people out of their homes
and then looted their homes.
The Roots of the
• In 1991 Yugoslavia dissolved into 5 countries;
Serbia, Bosnia, Croatia, Slovenia, and Macedonia.
•He favored serbs and used “Ethnic Cleansing”
to push out Albanians (They are mostly Muslims)
and Croats (Mostly Roman Catholics) from
•Serbia’s president Slobodan Milošević’s
changed the government, and got rid of most
human rights made many people angry.
•he wanted to bring all the countries from the
former Yugoslavia back under his rule.
•Serbian forces went into Bosnia, and Croatia
to unify Yugoslavia again.
War in The Balkans

Once the war broke out the Serbs quickly

advanced into Bosnia in 1991 and Kosovo in 1998.
Serbia had most of the Yugoslav military so they
had an advantage.
In the captured countries Albanians(Mostly
Muslims) were harassed and killed by Milosevic’s
Then the U.S. and NATO (North Atlantic Treaty
Organization) got involved.
The International
Community's Involvement
• In October 1995 NATO’s IFOR
(Operation Joint Endeavor) went into
Bosnia as a fighting force to get the
Serbs out.
• In January of 1996 NATO’s SFOR
(Stabilization Force)replaced IFOR,
and they helped stabilized Bosnia.
NATO’s flag
• In 2005 the European Union’s EUFOR

replaced SFOR, and continued their

mission in Bosnia.
• European Union, and United Nations
peace-keeping forces are still in
Bosnia, and Croatia today.
What We Heard in The
News About Serbia and
• We heard a lot about serb atrocities
like in Srebrenica, and Hac where
they killed many Muslims and
Albanians in safe havens.

• In 1995 U.S., and NATO forces went

into Bosnia to get Serbian forces out.

• The bombing of Belgrade, the Serb

Capital, and many key bridges in the
country in order to get them to
withdraw from Kosovo. A Building in Serbia after
the NATO bombings.
• The arrest of Slobodan Milošević
Kosovo In The News

• However we heard the most

about Kosovo.

• Serb Forces went into

Kosovo and committed
some of the worst
atrocities since World
War 2.

• The UN (United Nations)

Went into Kosovo along with
NATO’s KFOR to drive the
Serbs out and give aid to the
people of Kosovo.
Milošević is Replaced
and Tried

In 2000 Milosevic was replaced by Zoran

Živković who led an uprising in Belgrade that
took Milosevic out of power, by arresting him.

On October 29 2001 Milosevic’s trial at the

International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia
The Resolution and
After The NATO Bombings, Milošević was arrested, and the Serbs
pulled out of Bosnia, and Kosovo.

NATO and the European Union are still there as aid but almost all
fighting has stopped.

However there are still problems politically like corruption and bribes-
When someone in a government position gets money to make a decision
or uses their position to benefit them or a group.

The biggest problem is the economy which greatly suffered largely

because of the war and government mismanagement under Milošević.
Kosovo Declares
Under the Former Yugoslavia Kosovo
had lots of autonomy, however after
Yugoslavia broke apart

Kosovo declared It’s independence on

Sunday, February 17, 2008.

The Serbian government opposes

Kosovo’s independence, and still
believes that Kosovo is part of Serbia.
The Growing Economy
Even though the economy was destroyed, international aid programs, the local
people and government are rebuilding, which is a triumph for the people of all
the countries.

They are starting with agriculture which at this time is their strongest industry.

30% of Kosovo’s GDP (Gross Domestic Product) is Agriculture.

NATO, the European Union, and USIAD helping with teams of people and

One other goal of these organizations is to have more businesses in the former
Yugoslavia since most things are imported at a high price.

Scrap steel is the one of the largest sources of revenue in Kosovo

Specialized industries are a very good start because a lot of people can have jobs and there isn’t a
lot of competition.
Rebuilding, and
•After so much conflict, the countries in the former
Yugoslavia have suffered economically, and socially.
•However with the help of the International community
they are rebuilding, to do that though different ethnic
groups have to compromise with each other.
•Some people are reluctant to compromise with other
ethnic groups however because they blame them for the
•They know that that they need to, for the sake of their
Relationship Between
Beliefs, Government
and Events
I think this topic is very important to history since it represents two major
turning points in the Balkan area in both government and beliefs; first the Tito
form of Communist government. In this government extremism was subdued and
everyone had basic rights. Also he tried to keep the economy from Collectivization,
but still helped keep it stable. This contributed to a stable country where the people
wouldn’t revolt against the government because they had say in it. Then
Milosevic, greatly influenced by the belief of preeminence in government, religion
and people. When he took their rights away and let the economy fall the people
recognized he was not the right person to be in power, and saw how he lied and
killed many non-Serbs for no reason. He used fear and the church to convey his
ideas after the breakup; because the people were afraid of what would happen he
became popular, but when the people found out, his own people (the Serbs) rose up
against him.
Thank You For
Created by Sam Wanous for History Day
Special Thanks to USAID/KCBS