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IASExam:SOLIDWASTEMANAGEMENT
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IAS Exam : SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT


14-JUN-2016

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Solid Waste Management is one of the critical parts of the sustainable development which is a
core issue of Environmental Concern world over. Civil Services (IAS) Exam always asks questions
from these core areas. The number of questions is increasing from these areas in the IAS Prelims
Exam as the Environmental Concern is also increasing at the societal level. As we can see in the
IAS Prelims Previous Year Question Papers, the questions from this section are increasing.
Solid materials which are unworkable

and undesirable, non compostable induced from

residential, industrial and commercial activities in a given area, whose biodegradation is


incomplete is solid waste. Of the total waste generated only 22-28% of waste is only processed
and treated. Solid waste has posed serious threat to survival of mankind. By 2030 total generation
of waste is about to increase to 165 million tonnes from 62 million tonnes.
Denition: OECD denes solid waste management as the supervised handling of waste material
from generation at the source through the recovery processes to disposal.
Present scenario:
Total Waste generated annually: 62 million tonnes

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Out of 62 million
Plastic waste is: 5.6 million tonnes
Biomedical wastes is: 0.17 million tonnes
Hazardous waste generated is : 7.90 million tonnes
E-waste : 15 lakh tonnes
Present scenario of waste management:
Total waste collected : 43 million tonnes
Total waste treated : 11.9 million tonnes
Total dumped in landlls : 31 million tonnes

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Astha Singh
astha.singh.01@cuj.ac.in
7759991357
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Classication of Solid Waste

Gender

1. Based on its origin: domestic, industrial, commercial, construction or institutional.


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2. Based on its contents: organic material, glass, metal, plastic paper

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3. Based on its hazard potential: toxic, non-toxin, ammable, radioactive, infectious

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microorganisms and other living beings into methane, water, carbon dioxide and other living
organisms using composting, aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, fermentation and other
similar processes.
The inorganic waste is composed of material other than plant and animal matter such as

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Organic waste and Inorganic waste


Organic waste is also called as biodegradable waste. Organic waste can be disintegrated by

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synthetics, dust, glass and sand.

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E-waste and solid waste


Electronic waste is dened as electronic products that have turned into nonessential, redundant,
non operational obsolete and attained end of their useful life.
Solid wastes can be non biodegrable, non compostable solid, semi-solid, liquid or containerized
gaseous material such as agricultural residue, demolition waste, industrial waste , mining debris,
municipal garbage, and sewage slit. Dredging of liquid wastes leaves behind solid sedimentation,
so some parts of liquid waste materials are contemplated as solid waste.
Though less than 1/10th of solid waste is e-waste , its amount is increasing 2-3 times faster than

CA Bulletin (English) of the Week 10 August to 12 August 2016

remaining stream of waste. Only 2.3 million out of 20 million computers was put for service in
1998, i.e only around 10% was recycled.
Solid Waste and pollution
Solid waste causes pollution to environment in following ways:
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Untreated solid waste emits greenhouse gases


When burnt/ unburnt solid waste emit toxic fumes and particulate matters
When left unsegregated and disposed safely they accumulate in open landlls.
They contaminate ground water by leaching of chemical and organic compositions.
They pollute water bodies by rain water/ood water run o when disposed carelessly.
Governing rules and regulations
1. National action plan on Climate change
It emphasised role of informal sector in recycling system of solid waste management.

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2. National Environment Policy, 2006


It recognises and strengthens the role of informal sector in collecting and recycling of various
kinds of waste.

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Big Decisions

3. Plastic Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2011


It helds municipality responsible for plastic waste management in following aspects
To involve waste pickers and other agencies in waste management

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To make sure open burning of plastic waste is not allowed.


4. Electronic Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2011:
It emphasised that collection centres should be established by individuals/
groups/associations to collect e-waste.
5. Bio-medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998
It provides for categories of BM waste and include broad spectrum of institutions under this
rules. It also requires every occupier to establish a treatment facility with authorisation of SPCB
and should be renewed every three years.

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6. Batteries (Management and Handling) Rules, 2001


It regulates the disposal of used lead acid batteries and others. It requires the bulk consumers
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to le half yearly
returns
with SPCB and allow import ofBest
batteries
onMaterial
registration with RBI
and MOEF.

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7. The Hazardous Wastes (Management, Handling and Transboundary Movement) Rules, 2008
It provides for regulation of all encompassing matters dealing with hazardous waste. In this
context Basel convention 1992 was signed and ratied in India for transboundary movement
and disposal of hazardous waste.
8. The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974, amended 1988
It prohibits the disposal of polluting matter, untreated sewage into land, water bodies, wells
and in sewers. It mandatory to get prior authorisation of SPCB for obtaining new outlet for
discharge of sewage.
9. Municipal solid waste Management and Handling rules -2000
It mandates the urban local bodies for solid waste management. But it is not given required
attention.
Solid Waste Management rules 2016
After 16 years Government of India has updated solid waste management rules in 2016. The
salient features of SWM rules 2016 are:
Rules are applicable not only to municipal areas but also to urban agglomeration, census
towns, Indian railways, SEZ, pilgrims places and so on
Generators are responsible for waste segregation
Partnership between waste generators and local bodies in swachh Bharat has been introduced
Composting or biomethanation should be applied for processing bio-degradable waste.
5% of total total area of SEZ should be allotted for recovery and recycling facility
Waste generated in construction sites and demolition sites should be disposed o according to
construction and demolition waste management rules, 2016.
In hilly areas landlls should not be constructed. Transfer station should be constructed at
suitable location.
Problems of solid waste management:
At Source
unscientic and unsystematic storage of waste at source
No systematic segregation of Bio degradable and non Bio degradable waste
open drains and large drains passing across the city are clogged because of continuous
dumping
The land lling is the common method of waste disposal in Indian cities is unhealthy practice
with severe environmental implications .
At processing and recycling areas
Non establishment of formal processing and recovery units.
only informal sector or untrained people are involved in recovery and recycling activities.
children and old people are pooled for sorting and segregating waste
Rag pickers and scavengers are not provided protective clothing.

Solutions to Solid Waste Management


Masses should educated for behavioural change in storage and disposal of waste
Penalty should be strictly awarded similar to developed countries
Municipal bodies should probe in media to educate masses in separation of waste.
Notied safe areas should be allotted for disposal of hazardous waste
For dry and wet waste community bins should be allotted.
Waste from construction and demolition site should be collected on site rather than pilferage
in public places.

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Instead of landlling, vermicomposting should be used


Adequate numbers municipal employees should be recruited and trained
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NGOs and Related
community
participation should be encouraged

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Conclusion
Though solid waste management is a serious theart it can be eciently solved with behavioural
change in people ,stern action of

concerned implementers of rules and commitment of

government.

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