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Arduino

For other uses, see Arduino (disambiguation).

In 2005, Massimo Banzi, with David Mellis (then an


IDII student) and David Cuartielles, added support for
the cheaper ATmega8 microcontroller to Wiring. But instead of continuing the work on Wiring, they forked (or
copied) the Wiring source code and started running it as
a separate project, called Arduino.[4]

Arduino, sold as Genuino outside the U.S. and U.K.,


is a hardware and software company, project, and
user community that designs and manufactures computer open-source hardware, open-source software, and
microcontroller-based kits for building digital devices The Arduinos initial core team consisted of Massimo
and interactive objects that can sense and control phys- Banzi, David Cuartielles, Tom Igoe, Gianluca Martino,
ical devices.[1]
and David Mellis.[5]
The project is based on microcontroller board designs,
produced by several vendors, using various microcontrollers. These systems provide sets of digital and analog
input/output (I/O) pins that can interface to various expansion boards (termed shields) and other circuits. The
boards feature serial communication interfaces, including
Universal Serial Bus (USB) on some models, for loading programs from personal computers. For programming the microcontrollers, the Arduino project provides
an integrated development environment (IDE) based on
a programming language named Processing, which also
supports the languages C and C++.

The name Arduino comes from a bar in Ivrea, where some


of the founders of the project used to meet. The bar was
named after Arduin of Ivrea, who was the margrave of the
March of Ivrea and King of Italy from 1002 to 1014.[6]
Following the completion of the Wiring platform, its
lighter, lower cost versions[7] were created and made
available to the open-source community. Associated
researchers, including David Cuartielles, promoted the
idea.[5]

2 Hardware

The rst Arduino was introduced in 2005, aiming to provide a low cost, easy way for novices and professionals
to create devices that interact with their environment using sensors and actuators. Common examples of such
devices intended for beginner hobbyists include simple
robots, thermostats, and motion detectors.
Arduino boards are available commercially in preassembled form, or as do-it-yourself kits. The hardware design specications are openly available, allowing the Arduino boards to be produced by anyone. Adafruit Industries estimated in mid-2011 that over 300,000 ocial Arduinos had been commercially produced,[2] and in 2013
that 700,000 ocial boards were in users hands.[3]

An early Arduino board[8] with an RS-232 serial communication interface (upper left) and an Atmel ATmega8 microcontroller
chip (black, lower right); the 14 digital I/O pins are located at the
top and the six analog input pins at the lower right.

History

Colombian student Hernando Barragn created the development platform Wiring as his Masters thesis project
in 2004 at the Interaction Design Institute Ivrea (IDII)
in Ivrea, Italy. Massimo Banzi and Casey Reas (known
for his work on Processing) were supervisors for his thesis. The goal was to create low cost, simple tools for nonengineers to create digital projects. The Wiring platform
consisted of a hardware PCB with an ATmega128 microcontroller, an IDE based on Processing and library functions to easily program the microcontroller.[4]

An Arduino board historically consists of an Atmel 8-,


16- or 32-bit AVR microcontroller (although since 2015
other makers microcontrollers have been used) with
complementary components that facilitate programming
and incorporation into other circuits. An important aspect of the Arduino is its standard connectors, which
let users connect the CPU board to a variety of interchangeable add-on modules termed shields. Some shields
1

2
communicate with the Arduino board directly over various pins, but many shields are individually addressable
via an IC serial busso many shields can be stacked
and used in parallel. Before 2015, Ocial Arduinos had
used the Atmel megaAVR series of chips, specically the
ATmega8, ATmega168, ATmega328, ATmega1280, and
ATmega2560. In 2015, units by other producers were
added. A handful of other processors have also been used
by Arduino compatible devices. Most boards include a
5 V linear regulator and a 16 MHz crystal oscillator (or
ceramic resonator in some variants), although some designs such as the LilyPad run at 8 MHz and dispense with
the onboard voltage regulator due to specic form-factor
restrictions. An Arduinos microcontroller is also preprogrammed with a boot loader that simplies uploading
of programs to the on-chip ash memory, compared with
other devices that typically need an external programmer.
This makes using an Arduino more straightforward by allowing the use of an ordinary computer as the programmer. Currently, optiboot bootloader is the default bootloader installed on Arduino UNO.[9]
At a conceptual level, when using the Arduino integrated
development environment, all boards are programmed
over a serial connection. Its implementation varies with
the hardware version. Some serial Arduino boards contain a level shifter circuit to convert between RS-232
logic levels and transistortransistor logic (TTL) level
signals. Current Arduino boards are programmed via
Universal Serial Bus (USB), implemented using USBto-serial adapter chips such as the FTDI FT232. Some
boards, such as later-model Uno boards, substitute the
FTDI chip with a separate AVR chip containing USBto-serial rmware, which is reprogrammable via its own
ICSP header. Other variants, such as the Arduino Mini
and the unocial Boarduino, use a detachable USB-toserial adapter board or cable, Bluetooth or other methods,
when used with traditional microcontroller tools instead
of the Arduino IDE, standard AVR in-system programming (ISP) programming is used.

HARDWARE

imila[lower-alpha 1] , Duemilanove[lower-alpha 2] , and current


Uno[lower-alpha 3] provide 14 digital I/O pins, six of which
can produce pulse-width modulated signals, and six analog inputs, which can also be used as six digital I/O
pins. These pins are on the top of the board, via female
0.1-inch (2.54 mm) headers. Several plug-in application shields are also commercially available. The Arduino
Nano, and Arduino-compatible Bare Bones Board[10] and
Boarduino[11] boards may provide male header pins on
the underside of the board that can plug into solderless
breadboards.
Many Arduino-compatible and Arduino-derived boards
exist. Some are functionally equivalent to an Arduino and
can be used interchangeably. Many enhance the basic Arduino by adding output drivers, often for use in schoollevel education, to simplify making buggies and small
robots. Others are electrically equivalent but change
the form factor, sometimes retaining compatibility with
shields, sometimes not. Some variants use dierent processors, of varying compatibility.

2.1 Ocial boards


Further information: List of Arduino boards and compatible systems
The original Arduino hardware was produced by the Italian company Smart Projects.[12] Some Arduino-branded
boards have been designed by the American companies
SparkFun Electronics and Adafruit Industries.[13] As of
2016, 17 versions of the Arduino hardware had been
commercially produced.
Example Arduino boards
Arduino Diecimila in Stoicheia
Arduino Duemilanove (rev 2009b)
Arduino UNO
Arduino Leonardo
Arduino Mega
Arduino MEGA 2560 R3 (front side)[a]
Arduino MEGA 2560 R3 (back side)[a]
Arduino Nano
Arduino Due
(ARM Cortex-M3 core)
LilyPad Arduino (rev 2007)

An ocial Arduino Uno Revision 2 with descriptions of the I/O


locations

Arduino Yun

The Arduino board exposes most of the microcontrollers I/O pins for use by other circuits. The Diec-

1. ^ Arduino - ArduinoBoardMega2560.
duino.cc.

ar-

3.1

Sample program

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2.2

Shields

Arduino and Arduino-compatible boards use printed circuit expansion boards called shields, which plug into the
normally supplied Arduino pin headers. Shields can
provide motor controls for 3D printing and other applications, Global Positioning System (GPS), Ethernet,
liquid crystal display (LCD), or breadboarding (prototyping). Several shields can also be made do it yourself
(DIY).[14][15][16]
Example Arduino shields

setup(): a function that runs once at the start of a


program and that can initialize settings.
loop(): a function called repeatedly until the board
powers o.
After compiling and linking with the GNU toolchain, also
included with the IDE distribution, the Arduino IDE employs the program avrdude to convert the executable code
into a text le in hexadecimal coding that is loaded into
the Arduino board by a loader program in the boards
rmware.

3.1 Sample program

Multiple shields can be stacked. In this example the


top shield contains a solderless breadboard.
Most Arduino boards contain an LED and a load resistor
connected between pin 13 and ground which is a conve Dragino Lora Shield allows the user to send data and
nient feature for many tests.[19]
reach extremely long ranges at low data-rates.
A typical program for a beginning Arduino programmer
Screw-terminal breakout shield in a wing-type for- blinks a light-emitting diode (LED) on and o. This promat
gram is usually loaded in the Arduino board by the manufacturer. In the Arduino environment, a user might write
Adafruit Motor Shield with screw terminals for consuch a program as shown:[19]
nection to motors
#dene LED_PIN 13 void setup() { pinMode(LED_PIN,
Adafruit Datalogging Shield with a Secure Digital OUTPUT); // Enable pin 13 for digital output. } void
(SD) card slot and real-time clock (RTC) chip
loop() { digitalWrite(LED_PIN, HIGH); // Turn on the
LED. delay(1000); // Wait one second (1000 millisec HackARobot Fabric Shield designed for Arduino
onds) digitalWrite(LED_PIN, LOW); // Turn o the
Nano to hook up motors and sensors such as gyroLED. delay(1000); // Wait one second. }
scope or GPS, and other breakout boards such as
WiFi, Bluetooth, RF, etc.

Software

The Arduino project provides the Arduino integrated development environment (IDE), which is a cross-platform
application written in the programming language Java.
It originated from the IDE for the languages Processing
and Wiring. It is designed to introduce programming to
artists and other newcomers unfamiliar with software development. It includes a code editor with features such
Power LED (red) and integrated LED on Line 13 (green) on Aras syntax highlighting, brace matching, and automatic duino compatible board, made in China
indentation, and provides simple one-click mechanism
to compile and load programs to an Arduino board. A
program written with the IDE for Arduino is called a
sketch.[18]

3.2 Other IDE

The Arduino IDE supports the languages C and C++ using special rules to organize code. The Arduino IDE supplies a software library called Wiring from the Wiring
project, which provides many common input and output
procedures. A typical Arduino C/C++ sketch consist of

Arduino programs may be written in any programming


language with a compiler that produces binary machine code. Atmel provides a development environment for their microcontrollers, AVR Studio and the

newer Atmel Studio, which can be used for programming


Arduino.[20][21]

Development

TRADEMARK DISPUTE

OBDuino, a trip computer that uses the on-board


diagnostics interface found in most modern cars
Ardupilot, drone software and hardware
ArduinoPhone, a do-it-yourself cellphone[28][29]
GertDuino, an Arduino mate for the Raspberry Pi[30]
Water quality testing platform[31]
Homemade CNC using Arduino and DC motors
with close loop control by Homofaciens[32]
DC motor control using Arduino and H-Bridge[33]

6 Recognitions
The Arduino project received an honorary mention in the
Digital Communities category at the 2006 Prix Ars Electronica.[34]
Arduino-compatible R3 UNO board made in China with no Arduino logo, but with identical markings, including "Made in Italy"
text

7 Trademark dispute

Arduino is an open-source hardware. The hardware reference designs are distributed under a Creative Commons
Attribution Share-Alike 2.5 license and are available on
the Arduino website. Layout and production les for
some versions of the hardware are also available. The
source code for the IDE is released under the GNU General Public License, version 2.[22]

In early 2008, the ve cofounders of the Arduino project


created a company, Arduino LLC,[35] to hold the trademarks associated with Arduino. The manufacture and
sale of the boards was to be done by external companies,
and Arduino LLC would get a royalty from them. The
founding bylaws of Arduino LLC specied that each of
the ve founders transfer ownership of the Arduino brand
to the newly formed company.

Although the hardware and software designs are freely


available under copyleft licenses, the developers have requested that the name Arduino be exclusive to the ofcial product and not be used for derived works without
permission. The ocial policy document on use of the
Arduino name emphasizes that the project is open to incorporating work by others into the ocial product.[23]
Several Arduino-compatible products commercially released have avoided the Arduino name by using -duino
name variants.[24]

Applications

See also: List of open-source hardware projects


Xoscillo, an open-source oscilloscope[25]

At the end of 2008, Gianluca Martinos company, Smart


Projects, along with Microsoft, registered the Arduino
trademark in Italy and kept this a secret from the other
cofounders for about two years. This was revealed when
the Arduino company tried to register the trademark in
other areas of the world (they originally registered only in
the US), and discovered that it was already registered in
Italy. Negotiations with Gianluca and his rm to bring the
trademark under control of the original Arduino company
failed. In 2014, Smart Projects began refusing to pay
royalties. They then appointed a new CEO, Mr. Musto,
who renamed the company to Arduino SRL and created
a website named arduino.org, copying the graphics and
layout of the original Arduino.cc. This resulted in a rift
in the Arduino development team. All Arduino boards
are still available to consumers, and the designs are open
source, so the implications of this are uncertain.[36][37][38]

In May 2015, Genuino was created around the world as


another trademark, held by Arduino LLC, and is currently
Arduinome, a MIDI controller device that mimics being used as Arduino LLCs brand name outside of the
the Monome
US.[39]
Scientic equipment[26] such as the Chemduino[27]

See also

[18] Programming Arduino Getting Started with Sketches.


McGraw-Hill. Nov 8, 2011. Retrieved 2013-03-28.

Comparison of single-board computers

[19] Blink Tutorial. Arduino.cc.

Intel Edison

[20] Using Atmel Studio for Arduino development. Megunolink.com. Retrieved 2013-01-18.

List of Arduino boards and compatible systems

[21] Using AVR Studio for Arduino development. Engblaze.com. Retrieved 2013-01-18.

IOIO

[22] The arduino source code. The arduino source code.

Notes

[23] Policy. Arduino.cc. Retrieved 2013-01-18.


[24] Freeduino Open Designs. Freeduino.org. Retrieved
2008-03-03.

[1] Diecimila means ten thousands in Italian


[2] Duemilanove means two thousands nine in Italian

[25] xoscillo A software oscilloscope that acquires data using an arduino or a parallax (more platforms to come).
Google Project Hosting. Code.google.com. Retrieved
2013-01-18.

[3] Uno means one in Italian

10

References

[26] Pearce, Joshua M. 2012. Building Research Equipment


with Free, Open-Source Hardware. Science 337 (6100):
13031304. (open access)

[1] Arduino - Introduction. arduino.cc.


[2] How many Arduinos are in the wild?" About 300,000.
Adafruit Industries. May 15, 2011. Retrieved 2013-0526.
[3] Arduino FAQ With David Cuartielles. Malm University. April 5, 2013. Retrieved 2014-03-24.
[4] Home. arduinohistory.github.io.
trieved 2016-03-06.

2016-01-01.

Re-

[5] David Kushner (26 Oct 2011). The Making of Arduino.


IEEE Spectrum.
[6] Justin Lahart (27 November 2009). Taking an OpenSource Approach to Hardware. The Wall Street Journal.
Retrieved 7 September 2014.
[7] Rhizome - Interview with Casey Reas and Ben Fry.
2009-09-23. Retrieved 2014-08-23.

[27] Kubnov, S. and lgr, J., 2015. ChemDuino: Adapting


Arduino for Low-Cost Chemical Measurements in Lecture and Laboratory. Journal of Chemical Education,
92(10), pp.1751-1753.
[28] ArduinoPhone. Instructables.com (2013-07-17).
trieved on 2013-08-04.

Re-

[29] DIY Cellphone, MIT


[30] Raspberry Pi Spy. Introducing the GertDuino Add-on
Board for Raspberry Pi. Retrieved on 2014-11-09.
[31] Bas Wijnen, G. C. Anzalone and Joshua M. Pearce, Opensource mobile water quality testing platform. Journal of
Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, 4(3) pp.
532537 (2014). doi:10.2166/washdev.2014.137 open
access
[32] CNC V2.0. Homofaciens.de . Retrieved on 2016-02-24

[8] Hardware Index. Arduino Project. Retrieved 2013-1210.

[33] Arduino Robot Motor Control. DarkBlueBit.com. Retrieved on 2016-04-16

[9] Optiboot Bootloader for Arduino and Atmel AVR. Retrieved 2015-10-01.

[34] Ars Electronica Archiv. Retrieved 2015-03-27.

[10] Bare Bones Board.


[11] Boarduino.
[12] Redirect.... smartprj.com.
[13] Schmidt, M. ["Arduino: A Quick Start Guide"],
Pragmatic Bookshelf, January 22, 2011, Pg. 201
[14] Arduino breadboard shield: $10 & 10 mins. todbot blog.
[15] Arduino Shields for Prototyping. tigoe.net.
[16] Jonathan Oxer. Arduino Shield list. Retrieved 5 Nov
2013.
[17] Arduino Software Release Notes. Arduino Project. Retrieved March 11, 2016.

[35] Business Entity Summary for Arduino LLC. Mass.gov.


State of Massachusetts.
[36] Allan, Alasdair (6 March 2015). Arduino Wars: Group
Splits, Competing Products Revealed?". makezine.com.
Maker Media, Inc. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
[37] Banzi, Massimo (19 March 2015). Massimo Banzi:
Fighting for Arduino. makezine.com. Maker Media, Inc.
Retrieved 21 April 2015.
[38] Williams, Elliot (28 March 2015). Arduino SRL to Distributors: We're the Real Arduino"". Hackaday.com.
Hackaday.com. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
[39] Arduino Announces New Brand, Genuino, Manufacturing Partnership with Adafruit. Make:. 16 May 2015. Retrieved 17 May 2015.

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11

Further reading

Getting Started with Arduino; Massimo Banzi,


Michael Shiloh; 262 pages; 2014; ISBN 1-44936333-4.
Make: Sensors; Tero Karvinen, Kimmo Karvinen,
Ville Valtokari; 400 pages; 2014; ISBN 978-14493-6810-4.
Arduino For Dummies; John Nussey; 446 pages;
2013; ISBN 978-1118446379.
Programming Arduino Next Steps: Going Further
with Sketches; Simon Monk; 2013; ISBN 9780071830256.
Exploring Arduino: Tools and Techniques for Engineering Wizardry; Jeremy Blum; 384 pages; 2013;
ISBN 978-1118549360.
Arduino Workshop: A Hands-On Introduction with
65 Projects; John Boxall; 392 pages; 2013; ISBN
978-1593274481.
Beginning C for Arduino: Learn C Programming for
the Arduino and Compatible Microcontrollers; Jack
Purdum; 280 pages; 2012; ISBN 978-1430247760.
Programming Arduino:
Getting Started With
Sketches; Monk Simon; 162 pages; 2011; ISBN
978-0071784221.
Make: Electronics (Learning by Discovery); Charles
Platt; 352 pages; 2009; ISBN 978-0596153748.

12

External links

Ocial website, Arduino LLC


Arduino The Documentary at the Internet Movie
Database, Vimeo
Installing additional Arduino libraries
Arduino cheat sheets
An online platform and collaboration platform for
Arduino users
Arduino Board Pinout Diagrams: Due, Esplora,
Leonardo, Mega, Micro, Mini, Nano, Uno
Evolution tree for Arduino
Massimo Banzi interviewed on the TV show Triangulation on the TWiT.tv network
Massimo Banzi interviewed on the TV show FLOSS
weekly on the TWiT.tv network

EXTERNAL LINKS

Arduino, LLC v. Arduino S.R.L. et al; Federal


district court docket from the United States Courts
Archive
Intel Edison Kit for Arduino (Hardware Guide),
Intel, February 2015

13
13.1

Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses


Text

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Kku, Delirium, Darkwind, Kragen, Glenn, Scott, Donio, Mulad, Greglocock, Nv8200pa, Taxman, Val42, Klaus Leiss, Dumbledad,
Scruss, Raeky, Knobunc, DocWatson42, BenFrantzDale, Ds13, Mcapdevila, Micru, Jorge Stol, Cmkpl, Halosix, Abdull, Thorwald,
Imroy, Discospinster, ArnoldReinhold, Duchamp~enwiki, Bender235, PutzfetzenORG, Jantangring, Bobo192, Smalljim, R. S. Shaw,
Giraedata, Trevj, Jdabney, Nasukaren, Radical Mallard, Velella, Marasmusine, Mindmatrix, Danmaz74, Pol098, Ruud Koot, Eyreland, SDC, CharlesC, DustyDingo~enwiki, Sprague, Royan, Magister Mathematicae, Rjwilmsi, Koavf, Patrick Gill, Salix alba, MZMcBride, Allen Moore, Intgr, Lmatt, Tedder, Chobot, ATH500, Remmelt, Hydrargyrum, Bovineone, Geertivp, Tkbwik, Wrachelson,
Venix, Warrenm, Elkman, Wknight94, Arthur Rubin, Cedar101, Dspradau, Petri Krohn, Red Jay, Back ache, JLaTondre, Snaxe920,
Kingboyk, Mardus, Sbassi, Zlogic, Attilios, Lethalmonk, SmackBot, Gracehoper, Faisal.akeel, DMellis, InverseHypercube, McGeddon,
Misto, Arny, NickGarvey, Amatulic, Adamfeuer, JennyRad, Thumperward, Salvor, George Church, Deli nk, Randomskk, Chendy, Dro
Kulix, Frap, Alphathon, OrphanBot, JonHarder, Grhabyt, Stepho-wrs, Mwtoews, Ihatetoregister, Salamurai, Pfhyper, RickO5, Ian Spackman, Dejudicibus, Toggio, IronGargoyle, TerryKing, Hu12, Courcelles, Sreeram shankar, Fabrice Florin, Amalas, Pfagerburg~enwiki,
Drinibot, Yaris678, Cydebot, Mike65535, Meno25, Nick Wilson, Gogo Dodo, SimenH, ShadowGuy, Neoforma, ClarkMills, Abqsteve,
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Vbscript2, Misiu mp, Tintin192, Treekids, Denisarona, Kookish, ImageRemovalBot, Stephensb42, TerribleTadpole, Shloimeborukh, ColorfulNumbers, GreenSpigot, VQuakr, Machee, Gbarberi, Niceguyedc, Blanchardb, TjeerdVerhagen, Lessogg, Craigbic, Crazyburns, Awickert, Alexbot, Vancircuit, A Pirard, Arjayay, Jinlye, Chaosdruid, Apparition11, DumZiBoT, Darkicebot, XLinkBot, H0dges, NobbiP,
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Borg4223, WikiEditingResearcher, RaphaelQS, Htbwmedia, Ashishbuntybhaiya, Carafriez, Toastcoast, Rajib.hyderabad, Andreafermi,
ScotXW, Snakomaniac, WAYNELYW, 32RB17, Bad Dryer, Timofteandrei, Lagoset, Cman21031, Scarlettail, Dsprc, Darkness Fallss,
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495

13.2

Images

File:Ambox_current_red.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/98/Ambox_current_red.svg License: CC0


Contributors: self-made, inspired by Gnome globe current event.svg, using Information icon3.svg and Earth clip art.svg Original artist:
Vipersnake151, penubag, Tkgd2007 (clock)
File:Arduino-compatible_R3_UNO_Sku066313-01.jpg
Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/66/
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AVR USB Board (le) Original artist: banggood.com
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