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nach 1204 fehlen einige Hauptwerke, wie J. Lognon, L'Empire latin de Constantinople
et la Principaute de Moree, Paris 1949, und D. Nicol, The Despotate of Epiros, Oxford
1957, whrend Niketas Choniates nach Vsjemirnaja istorija III, 417 statt nach dem griechischen Original zitiert ist. An anderer Stelle behauptet ., da Theodoros I. Angelos
ein Despot war, was nicht zutrifft (vgl. B. Feijani<5, Despoti u Vizantiji i juinoslovenskim zemljama, Beograd i960, S. 53-58) und da er im Jahre 1223, nicht also erst nach
dem Jahre 1224, wie L. Lognon bewiesen hat (La reprise de Salonique par les Grecs en
1224, Actes du VI Congr. intern, d'lt. byz. I. [1950] 141 ff.), in Thessalonike zum Kaiser
gekrnt worden ist. Wo ber die Beziehungen zwischen dem Erzbistum Ochrid und dem
Patriarchat von Nikaia in der 1. Hlfte des 13. Jh. gehandelt wird, htte das Werk von
D. Nicol, Ecclesiastical relations between the Despotate of Epirus and the Kingdom of
Nicaea in the years 1215 to 1230 (Byzantion 22 [1952] 207-228) zu Rate gezogen werden
sollen. In der Behandlung des byzantinischen Feudalismus erwhnt A. auch Thesen,
welche das Bestehen dieser Gesellschaftsform im ostrmischen Reich negieren, wobei er
als Literatur nur Zachariae v. Lingenthal, Geschichte des griech.-rm. Rechts 3 i955, erwhnt, ohne dabei die Abhandlung von P. Lemerle, Esquisse pour une histoire agraire
de Byzance: les sources et les problemes (Revue hist. 219 [1958] 32-74, 254-284; 220
[1958] 43-94) anzufhren. Schlielich ist im Absatz ber Eleutheroi" die Abhandlung
von G. Ostrogorsky, Elefteri. Prilog istoriji seljatva u Vizantiji (Zbornik Filozofskog
Fakulteta I, Beograd 1949, S. 45-62) nicht bercksichtigt.
Es war keinesfalls unsere Absicht, durch diese Bemerkungen den Wert der umfangreichen Monographie von A. mit ihrer komplizierten Problematik herabzusetzen. Durch
die Beseitigung verschiedener Unzulnglichkeiten knnte dieser Beitrag zur Erforschung
des mittelalterlichen Bulgariens und somit auch des Balkans als Ganzen allerdings nur
gewinnen.
Beograd

B. F e r j a n i d

G. Rohlfe, L e x i c o n G r a e c a n i c u m I t a l i a e I n f e r i o r i s . Etymologisches Wrterbuch der unteritalienischen Grzitt. 2. erw. u. vllig, neubearb. Aufl. Tbingen,
Niemeyer 1964. X X X , 629 S. Gebd.
DM64In surveying our studies in a post-war perspective, the fortunate fact is established
that, during these two decades, along with progress in the broader cycle of various
fields, there have been created or have been still appearing in successive installments
over ten lexicographical reference works that facilitate and promote our work in the
study of the Greek language. Among them are Kiessling's Lexicon of the Papyri, 1
the Patristic Lexicon,* the Lexicon of Early Greek Epic, 3 the reverse indices of E.
Locker 4 and C. D. Buck, 5 the latter's Dictionary of Indo-European Synonyms, the
1 Wrterbuch der griech. Papyrusurkunden, begrndet von F. Preisigke, bearb.
und herausg. von E. Kiessling. 4. Band -. Marburg 1944-1966.
2 A Patristic Greek Lexicon, ed. by G. W. H. Lampe. 4 fasc.: -.
Oxford 1961-1965.
8 Lexikon des frhgriechischen Epos, herausg. von B. Snell. 4 Lief.: dc-&v. Gttingen
1955
4 Rcklufiges Wrterbuch der griech. Sprache, ausgearb. von E. Locker. Gttingen
1944.
5 Reverse Index of Greek Nouns and Adjectives by C. D. Buck and W. Petersen.
Chicago [1945]. - This work is very important also for Byzantine Greek, since it includes material pertaining thereto.
A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages,
by C. D. Buck. Chicago 1949.

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index to the two-volume Greek G r a m m a r by E. Schwyzer, 7 two older works again


made available: Sophocles' Lexicon of Byzantine Greek 8 and Du Cange's Glossarium, Frisk's Greek Etymological Dictionary, 10 Andriotis' Etymological Dictionary of
Modern Greek, now in a second edition, 11 and Rohlfs' second edition of his Etymological Dictionary of the South Italian Greek, which is, in fact, a new work. All these
welcome reference works, being of inestimable value in themselves, are also of great
importance for their influence on the direction a n d depth of research work generally
in studies in the field and especially in that of the Greek language.
T h e Niemeyer publishing house is entitled to congratulations for producing an impeccable, handsome volume, set in excellent type, printed on good paper, a n d including an infinitesimal number of misprints.
Let me first present the author's aims, the method in which the work is laid out, and
my j u d g m e n t about whether these goals have been achieved or not.
Rohlfs' etymological lexicon collects a n d explains (or in many cases tries to explain)
etymologically the Greek elements in the South Italian dialects a n d systematically
subjects to a historical interpretation the vocabulary in southernmost Calabria (zone
of Bova) a n d in southernmost Apulia (Salento, formerly Terra d'Otranto). This work
was based on fresh material collected by the author in twenty years between 1937 and
1964 (except for the war years 1940 on a n d through 1947) a n d has enjoyed the advancements in etymological science for over 30 years. In details, the following points
deserve our attention:
1. New and old material. R.' work has been twofold. On the one hand, an essential
part of it was the on-the-spot checking of the material collected by Morosi (partly used
also b y Pellegrini a n d Lefons), so that R. either verified what was sound or eliminated
nonexistent material or corrected defectively recorded material. On the other hand,
much fresh material was available for this lexicon through R.' own collections made for
his Dialectal dictionary of the three Calabriae (1932-39) and the Vocabulary of the
Salentinian dialects (1956-61), and the available material from Sicily was substantially
expanded through the author's five journeys (years 1937/49/61/62/63). Furthermore,
new comparative vocabulary data were recorded by the author in journeys to important
dialectal areas in Greece since 1938 and especially in the postwar period (so Peloponnesus, Kerkyra, Kephallenia, Euboea, Crete, Cos, Carpathos, Rhodes).
2. Toponymy. T h o u g h this is part of the preceding point 1, it merits special mention.
Toponomastic material is included only by selection for two main reasons: (a) for the
illustration of obsolete, rare, or prototype (non-derived) words, a n d (b) for grounds of
linguistic geography to document the earlier, wider expansion of a given word. 12
7
Ed. Schwyzer, Griechische Grammatik. Mnchen. 1: 1939. 2: herausg. von A. Debrunner 1950. 3: Register, ausgearb. u. herausgeg. von D. J. Georgacas 1953.
8
E . A. Sophocles, Greek Lexicon of the Roman and Byzantine Periods (from B. C.
146 to A. D. 1100). 2 vols. New York 1957.
Du Cange, Glossarium ad scriptores mediae et infimae graecitatis. Lugduni 1688.
Reprinted in Paris, 1948; Graz, 1958.
10
H j . Frisk, Griechisches etymologisches Wrterbuch. Heidelberg, Winter 1954-.
Vol. 1, i960, (to ) 1966. (It is continued.) In the meantime (April 1967), there
has appeared the first of the four volumes of P. Chantraine's Dictionnaireetymologique
de la langue grecque. Histoire des mots. Paris 1967.
11
N. P. Andriotis, ' . Athens 195 1 2 n d ed.,
Thessaloniki 1967.
12
Salento ( = Terra d'Otranto) is covered by G. Rohlfs, Neue Beitrge zur Kenntnis der unteritalienischen Grzitt. Munich 1962 [see on this my review in Beitrge
zur Namenforschung 1968]; Calabria is covered by G. Alessio's Saggio di toponomastica calabrese. Biblioteca dell'Archivum Romanicum, 25. Firenze 1939; and
Sicily by the latter's L'elemento greco nella toponomastica della Sicilia (Bollettino del
Centro di studi filologici e linguistic! siciliani). Palermo, vols. 1, 3, 4, 1953-56.

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Abteilung

3. Origin and age of the Greek dialects in Italy. R. still represents the theory of the
direct dependence of these dialects, without break in their continuity, on the antique
Hellenism of Magna Graecia, a theory he has defended for more than forty years
(since 1924). Though the theory is sound, it seems that Koine-speaking and, later, Byzantine Greek speaking immigrants were carriers of additional traits that cannot be
explained from the times of the earliest colonizations.
4. The etymological preparation, arrangement, and method.
Materials bearing no reference derive from R.' own collections. In each entry, only a
selection of the provincial forms is given and the materia] from Calabria is indicated
precisely by villages, while for Otranto the general indication Otrantine is used. In entries of verbs, also inflectional forms are given. A good innovation is that, along with
the forms of the words, also contextual possibilities are offered.1*
For his etymological apparatus, R. naturally had as a basis the first edition of his
lexicon and, furthermore, references and suggestions for improvements made by six
reviewers of his first edition, whom he names (p. XI), many improvements and new
results of knowledge coming from G. Alessio (beside many other failing attempts by
the same author), and studies published in journals and other collective volumes.
In methodology, R. being conscious thereof in etymological investigation, refers to
the views of the critical and seasoned etymologist M. L. Wagner: 1 4 " T h e good etymologist must have fancies (Einfalle) but also a sound capacity of judgment, self-criticism,
and patience. Good etymologies cannot be improvised nor be constructed in sets. They
are the fruits of long-lasting labor, rigorous methodology, and a happy combining
faculty".
More closely seen, as entry there is normally set up either the ancient Greek form of
the word or, when the case demands, a late Greek or a Byzantine Greek or a Mod.
Greek word form or even a word through naming its earliest appearance. Asterisked
are reconstructed etyma; and a boldface dot preceding the entry signifies that it is not
to be evaluated as etymon but it simply transcribes in Greek script a word of obscure
etymology. The meanings of the entries are normally given in German but those of the
dialectal forms mostly in Italian to preclude the risk of an obscure translation into
German.
Three surveying map drawings present the territories in Italy whose Greek speech
is described and etymologized in this lexicon, viz. South Calabria (Greek speech zones
in the 16th century and today) and Salento = Terra d' Otranto (Greek speech zones in
the 14th and 15th centuries and today).
The virtues of this new etymological lexicon of South Italian Greek are high in
aspects such as firsthand research, bibliographical exhaustiveness, methodical arrangement of the content, and etymological interpretation. Actually, its success was a foregone conclusion, since already his first edition was a landmark in 1930; any improvement on that would have added to its value.
The meritorious Nestor of linguists in the Romanic and Greek fields, however, conducted persisting field work in South Italy and research during the period 1930-1964,
the results of which lie in several volumes." These results are crystallized also in his
etymological lexicon, the outcome of work toward a recompostion of his first edition
18 Mostly drawn from Testi neogreci di Calabria. I (Roccaforte), care of G. Rossi
Taibbi; II (Rochudi, Condofuri, Bova, indices), care of G. Caracausi. Palermo 1959.
14 M. L. Wagner, Cultura neolatina 3 (1943) 24.
15 G. Rohlfs, Dizionario dialettale delle Tre Calabrie. Milano-Halle, 1932-39 (comprising the dialects of the Calabrian provinces Catanzaro, Cosenza, and Reggio); idem,
Historische Grammatik der unteritalienischen Grzitt. Mnchen 1950; idem, Vocabolario dei dialetti salentini. 3 vols. Mnchen 1956-61 (comprising the dialects of the
provinces Brindisi, Lecce, Taranto, including Otranto Greek); etc. See Rohlfs, Etymologisches Wrterbuch*, p. X X V , wherein six more items are listed.

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for a third of a century. No wonder, therefore, that the material worked out in the new
ed. increased by more than 56%. The bibliography (in abbreviation) in the present ed.
extends to 244 items (and these do not include everything used) as against 155 items in
the first, though twelve pages covering a list of dialectal sources in the first ed. were
eliminated in the second. The word index in the second ed. takes up 40 (larger) pages,
while it takes 87 in the first, the reason for this difference being again the elimination
of the separate index of Greek words in Greek script, a total of 16 two-column pages
in the first ed., which would have taken, on account of new added material, many more
pages in the new ed. The main body of the lexicon is also considerably augmented.
Thus, while the numbered entries of the first ed. run to 2733, the unnumbered - and
counted by me - of the second ed. reach the figure 4861, followed by some 41 addenda
(pp. 586-588)." In pages, while the first ed. ran to 394 and its actual lexicon took 305
pages, the second ed. takes 629 pp. and the lexicon itself 588 pp., with a net addition of
235 pp. Furthermore, the arrangement in the first ed., according to which each entryword with its main meaning was, as a rule, assigned a whole line but more often than
not covered only part of it, was eliminated in the new ed.; the space thus saved, however, does not amount to many more pages because the arrangement in the new ed.
leaves on the left side continuous indented space and the lines are 43 per page as against
50 lines of the old ed. In any case, the content of the new book was on the whole augmented by more than 50%.
Let a few examples taken at random illustrate the improvements over the old edition
ist ed.
313. knigliche Herrschaft"
Bov. va&ilia regno" (nur im Gebet) PellB, otr. vasilia regno dei cieli" MorO 162
2nd ed.
'knigliche Herrschaft': bov. va&ilia ,regno* nur im Gebet PellB, otr. vasilia
'regno' dei cieli'. Topon.: Basilia ctr. ( = contrada, Flurname) dei Locri( regg.)
ist ed.
314. Knig"
Otr. vasilia Knig" MorO 166 entspricht der ngr. Form .
2nd ed.
'Knig': otr. vasilia id. (MorO 162) ist nicht volkstmlich; das volkstmliche
Wort ist .
The improvement is evident in many respects. Further, the verb 'als Knig
herrschen' takes four lines in the first edition but eight lines in the second. The increment here consists of the discussion of the phrase 6 and of synonymous
expressions inSalento and Bova as well as a fresh interpretation with the corresponding
reference replacing a wrong interpretation along with an old reference. The entry 'Basilienkraut' took 13 lines in the old ed., but 8 lines in the new: in the latter
some forms of the word are discarded, others corrected, while detailed references to
Morosi, Marzolla, Nittoli, etc. are replaced by AIS ( = Atlante italiano-svizzero) 1382.
The entry 'kniglich' in the 1st ed. mentioned one single name Basilik in
one line and contained nothing else, but in the new ed. it comprises 8 lines and five place
names, an explanation, and two references. The entry 'Basilisk' (Lat. regillus) improves on the first ed., though the space is increased only slightly (by half a line).
In addition, a new entry of five lines is added in the new ed.: = Lat. basilisca
'herba regia', where is accommodated also the form vasilisko (Soleto of Otranto)
'finocchio selvatico' (taken from the entry ) and grouped with other forms
and the gloss 'specie di finocchio selvatico'.
On the same page, beside of the first ed. we now find also the entry ;
beside and * of the old ed., we have in the new ed. and * but also new entries: *, , and . The entry (for Mod.
M

A. Karanastasis, (1964-65) 184, estimates more than


5,000 for the second ed., but he obviously did not count the entries.

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Gr. 'cover 1 [of animals] in the ist ed. is not missing in the 2nd but has been set
under the new entry * with no reference to made [though, I think,
must have been the entry and is the blend with ]). Then the set of
new entries figure in the new ed.: , , , , , , , , , 'husten' (here, instead of in of the ist ed.,
the Bovese verb 'cough' is given, though this should be under the entry ),
etc. A t the same time, the entry has been transferred under in the
2nd ed. and appears further below as 'roar*.
It is impossible for anyone, in a restricted review, to single out the many felicitous
interpretations contained in this lexicon or to list disagreements with or strictures of
the author's suggestions. Discussion of such items pertains to special research. A few
responsible generalizations are in order and may suffice. The first one is that the high
value and significance of this work is clearly visible in its long preparation, in its strong
bibliography, and in the strength of each lexical entry. The most important merits of
the book requiring mention are these:
(1) Rich lexical material, giving a fuller and a trustworthy picture of South-Italian
Greek;
(2) Eradicating ghost-words and all kinds of nonexistent speech forms that were deformed by the early material recording collectors (by the way, ghost-words and
ghost-forms could better be relegated to a list as an appendix instead of receiving
the undeserved status of discussion and figuring in the main body of the lexicon,
even though they are rejected);
(3) The onomastic part of the material is, on account of its conservatism, very instructive for the language; and the author presents much more onomastic material in
this ed.;
(4) More numerous etymologies and better etymological discussions constitute the
stock of this book than that of the ed. of 1930.
As demerits or weaknesses there may be noted the following two points: 1. A number
of established entries do not represent the correctly expected form. E. g., the late Koine
(occurring in inscriptions and papyri) neuter termination form in -iv for the South-Italian Greek form -2 is always given as -, which was classical and learned from Koine
down to our time. E. g., Mod. Gr. and Bovese rupciii lead to ,
, not to ^; Bovese Sufi and Sift 'trough' ('truogolo') go back to
rather than to ; : sik0ti\ : %imeri; : yni; bv:
vambdki, etc. Still worse is Middle Greek , while the really genuine form in
late Byz. times was from Turk, laryk, so zarikkji 'sandali di pelle grezza' in
the dialects of the Province Cosenza in Northern Calabria. Similarly, though the entry
- (p. 147) explains the adjs. in - from earlier -, yet some adjs. are unexpectedly given in entries like (for Otrantine ), (for Erusafino), etc.; it is obvious, however, that such forms are not ancient but later ones. Let
me list a few more:
for (iierigrio 'Kichererbsen, die hart bleiben' is a better entry than *
(7), and better than (124). R. has set an entry , though most of the
forms are accented (areo, area). The starting-point of the analogical shift of the
accent in lies in forms like fem. , gen. , , . The accent in
probably stems from ( = ), to which were formed m.
and , f. .
neut. 'flour' is the right entry and not (25). The author certainly explains the word as dimin. of but one wonders why the diminutive should not
be given as entry, as, in fact, has been done by the author in countless other cases.
'yawn* and not (36) should be the entry, and so the derivative lanaRanimmata Otr. = ), not (ibid.).
* 'yawning' (whence * >- ; cf. the haplology in Bovese angaio
s. v. ) is the entry, following suit with the preceding, and not (24); cf.
also Mod. Gr. 'to pant' fr. .

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'echo' is the entry for endal, etc., and not * (146), because and endalo are - contract verbs, while Cretan is from * (-<5).
The verb was correctly edited in Hist. Lex. 2 (1939) 277. ' from Apulia
(Kalimera) can hardly be anything but = . A. Karanastasis* suggestion (. [1964-65] 186 f.) of a verb (from ) changing
into d is unnecessary.
- and ov- (in *, , ) are, actually, two sets of words
which, though synonymous, are not identical derivationally. The noun neut.
occurs in the Koine. 17 I wrote twice on the matter 18 and even Rohlfs himself states in
the 2nd ed. s. - (373) that - is "ausgegangen von -, , ". Inadvertently, however, the author, when editing the above entries with -,
was entangled in the error of others who erroneously put together and discussed and as one entry. 1 But we have to state that (whence Mod. Gr.
and, with from oj, ) and are from --- (from earlier *of ), which
was originally tetrasyllable (so in Aristophanes), 10 but is from -; so also
is one word but a different one, a compound with its first
member from one word and from a different one, etc. In the same way, - (cf. - Pap. Oxy. 937. 29, etc.) appears in 'pomegranate 111 beside
'idem'. 82 Thus, Mod. Gr. has (and with from oj) from (which
is attested)** and, on the other hand, from , and from 24
(this from ) and fr. (this from ). In the light of the above,
Otrantine rtia f. 'pomegranate tree 1 is from , Otr. ruia is (without 8) equivalent to
Otr. rudia 'idem', i. e. , and Otr. riiSi 'pomegranate 1 is from 'idem 1 . Rohlfs
sets u p as entries:
for riia,
for ruea,
for rudia, and
for rtidi.
We may not accept the suggested identical origin of ^ 'stream' and m. 'rhu,
coriaria' (this attested since Solon) as both belonging to .25 It seems to me, howevers
that the stem - may have crossed with that of 6 6 1* and
m. f. 'rhus coriaria' (Engl, sumach) and 'the fruit of the sumach' 47 and caused the
creation of the set of words with - such as etc.
'of barley' is the entry for both Otrantine krisino and Bovese kri&in, not
two entries: & and *. The only difference is analogical shift of the accent:
: Hermippus (historicus) 2, F H G 3, p. 35 [3rd/2ndcent. B. C.]; Phrynichos
[2nd cent. A. D.]; Pap. Flor. 150, 2 [3rd cent. A. D.]; Ostraca Mich. 91, 3
[3rd cent. . D.].
" Classical Philol. 48 (1953) 244; . 5 (1957) >5* f

* . . 4-15. s. . , includes also the noun ; Wrterbuch der griech.


Papyrusurkunden 4, 371, s. . , includes also .
20
The tetrasyllable entity of the word is proved by the spelling ,
where means z, i. e. .
21
: Pap. Oxy. 1757, 17 [2nd cent. A. D.]: , listed under
as ; see Wrterb. d. griech. Papyrusurkunden 2 (1925-27) 444; occurs
also in Aetios (6th cent. A. D.].
28
: Menander, papyri [2nd cent. A. D.].
28
Boissonade, Anecdota Graeca 3, 413.
M
Hesychius' gloss - is rather a late marginal note that in copying
crept into the text of the lexicon; I see namely in the gloss the fem. noun f.
(earlier ) 'pomegranate tree'.
25
Strmberg, Pflanzennamen 52.
* Diocles (medicus) fr. 140, ed. M. Wellmann (Berlin, 1901).
27
See Liddell-Scott-Jones s. v. .
17

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cf. sitino = 'of wheat' and adj. with neut. (569) under the same
entry; so also Otr. afsino = Mod. Gr. fr. , . rodind 'reddish' = dial.
Mod. Gr. fr. .
'to lament for and over the dead person' is the entry for Otrantine morolio,
i. e. a new compound from , and cannot be accommodated under the
older (so Rohlfs 334), which is a deriv. of .
* f. is the entry and not (444), since is the ancient and
the modern form of this fish name.
'somewhere' is the entry, not (366); the former is indefinite from
, the latter is relative and would have meant 'wheresoever. Cf. Georgacas,
. Z. 44(1951) 155
should be the entry for the Ital. loan-translation fierrufusu\ the
form 'iron rod etc.' (454) from Karpathos cannot well stand as an entry in
the South-Italian Greek dictionary.
is the entry for Bovese sinnefidzi etc. and (-) or (-)
are irrelevant.
neut. would be the source word under which to place the name Parafidli\ not
under (552; which should be = 'horse's hoof; cloven hoof, etc.'but also
'spur of a mountain'.)
f. 'she-goat', being the augmentative to (here again not )
in the pattern: fr. (), is also the expected entry, not (568), for the
South-Ital. Gr. word is accented jimera. Or it was accented instead of
after 'she-goat' (syn. m. 'he-goat', f. 'she-goat') (Anth. P. 9, 317).
2. Discussion of many etymologies suggested by scholars between 1930 and 1964 is
often missing. Some such etymologies were not taken into consideration or were readily
rejected. I will not insist on this but mention three examples:
The noun meliiuni etc. 'ant' is probably from *, this a deriv. of
'honey-eater 1 , as is a deriv. of -*- 'ant', but the author, who
has not seen my exposition on , , , etc. (. . 43 [95]
3 6 - 2 ) , sets up an entry * (325).
The explanation of the game designation karake 'heads of tails' from () (. Peruzzi and D. Georgacas, Vox Romanica 18 [1959] 107) is lightly dismissed as doubtful.
The adj. asklni 'castrated' (phr. kridri asklni) is explained with reservation from
'grossa scheggia di legno' but the correct etymology is dismissed as not convincing. Yet, both anc. Gr. and South-Ital. Gr. asklni mean the same thing
'castrated': the collocation could easily result in () 'castrated ram' = kridri asklni (in which the a- comes from the plur. kridria sklnia).
Almost a parallel is skjdmos (Karpathos) and idmo (Otranto) from anc.
'hyoscyamus niger' (syn. Mod. Gr. , , ) ( literally
'swine bean').
I know that most of my work was not consulted by the author and from going over
some hundreds of items it appears that the work of many others escaped the author's
attention.
Rather a merit than a dement is another point, viz. that the author left many an
entry without an etymon. It is to his credit that he carefully refrained from fanciful
suggestions instead of trying to explain everything. One of the reasons for not explaining more words, however, is that Prof. Rohlfs has been so active and prolific a scholar
that he could not, probably, devote more time to his lexicon than he has; otherwise
he would perhaps have been able to offer hundreds of etymologies for many of the obscure words, especially if he had been able to check more words in the materials on file at
the Archives of the Historical Lexicon. As it is now, in etymologizing such words there
remains a great deal of work waiting for the etymologists.
R.' etymological lexicon is an achievement of the first rate and, indeed, an indispensable and irreplaceable tool in our studies, for which scholars on the international level

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Georgacas: G. Rohlfs, Lexicon Graecanicum Italiae Inferioris

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will owe a heavy debt of gratitude to the author for causing a trail-blazing impetus toward advancement of our researches. In fact, no man was better qualified in both the
Greek and the Romanic fields to present us with this grand opus. Indeed, the author,
trained in linguistics and in Romance linguistics as well as in classics and having a
deep knowledge of the Greek, Latin, and Italian languages and dialects, has been a
uniquely qualified scholar to cope with this type of work, viz. languages in contact and
etymology. On the other hand, outstanding scholarly syntheses that are provocative
and much consulted by many do generate more research in the field and therewith lead
to accelerated progress in the investigation of the details; and naturally the outcome
of the many details undergoing scrutiny anew by present and future scholars is the
need for another new synthesis. It is, therefore, predictable that the definitive etymological dictionary of South-Italian Greek (the term definitive taken in its relative value)
is still to come some time in the future, maybe after one or two generations, then
probably as a collective work rather than one man's achievement. This will obviously
be the case with the definitive etymological lexicon of ancient Greek, although H.
Frisk's excellent reference work is about to be completed soon now, while Chantraine's
etymological dictionary of ancient Greek, rather in the style of the Latin counterpart
by Emout and Meillet, has already begun to appear. Yet, these generating and meritorious scholars will have imprinted their personal stamps on our scholarly pursuits for
centuries.
A P P E N D I X : NOTES TO THE A D D E N D A OF ROHLFS' LEXICON
Of the 41 entries of the addenda some are crossreferences, two are of obscure origin,
and seven are reconstructed or postulated entrywords. I allow myself the following few
notes that may be of some use either to the author or to other etymologists but which
also illustrate how complicated the etymological work on South-Italian Greek is.
. Bovese ta poppiamata 'persone morte di fame' is explained by Rohlfs
from . I would suggest the noun from (which is commonly ); is 'temporary fastening to a point' (Hist. Lex. 2,553 b) and
'the child conceived at an advanced age of the parents' (Arch. Hist. Lex., ms. 659,
p. 23). The South Italian Greek form poppiamata does not show -mm- for -zm- () but
the derivation is certain because 'preso da una malattia' (Thera) is poppiamino 'morto di fame; disperato' in Bova. The reason for the form poppiamino is
probably that it was formed anew from the present '. The pronunciation
with -pp- may be due to folketymology vnth. poppa 'breast', dare la poppa 'breast-feed',
poppante 'baby at the breast'.
'kneaded without leaven' is probably a Koine word and through the
form [ftzimos] and by folketymology with 'seven' yielded the common
Mod. Gr. . An anonymus of the Middle Ages says: ot
.1 The editor Ermerins clarifies it as follows: " nomen, rei si adaptatum est, panem indicabit spontanea fermentatione sine paratum."* Thus (already in Hippocrates) and are synonyms signifying
'unleavened' and used about bread. Mod. Gr. means also 'unleavened', as
was explained by a historian of the sciences in 19178 Unfortunately, the sense 'aus
vielen Teigen gemacht' had been postulated in 1905 by P. Kretschmer* and this is
1 ' . . ( ), ch. X X V : " , in: Anecdota medica graeca e codicibus mss. exprompsit F. Z. Ermerins, Med.
Doct. (Lugduni Batavorum. 1840), p. 275.
* Op. cit., 274 f.
* M. Stephanidis, 29 (1917), . , p. 176-78.
* P. Kretschmer, Der heutige lesbische Dialekt (Wien 1905), p. 587, addendum (to
p. 134, line 18 from bottom).

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330

now followed by Rohlfs' "gut gesuert' (586), i. e. 'well leavened'. As I know from the
late Prof. Stephanidis, he supplied Prof. Kretschmer with information about many
such terms, but Stephanidis twelve years later wrote his study about the term . There is, therefore, no doubt that is a folketymological form of , and that the two scholars, Kretschmer and Rohlfs, were misled by folk etymology.
The adj. has survived and yielded derivatives in Mod. Greek:
aftozmus "bread whose yeast is made of foam made during kneading of powder of
chick-peas with hot water 1 in the dialectal speech of Imbros,
ftozmus and ftdzmus 'a fine sort of bread' in the speech of Lesbos. 5
ftozmus in the speech of Kydoniae,
ftozmus name of a plant in Lemnos,
in the speech of Livisi, 7
in Lesbos,
aftuzmdi ('8) in Imbros,
adj. in the speech of Madytos. 10
Mod. Greek has, furthermore, the following forms: , , , , which designate 'a bread well risen, kneaded with no yeast but instead treated through a special treatment of chick-peas' (Psachn in Euboea).
It seems that P. Kretschmer's thinking about caused Prof. Rohlfs to think
of that as the entry word for the South-Italian pittatdsima, pittatdsimu 'specie di focaccia' in the dialects of Cosenza in North Calabria, which he explained in
(p. 15) as a compound of pitta, Gr. . There are two objections to this suggestion,
1) the numeral appears in Bova and Otranto Greek in the forms eftd,fta, etd, ettd
but never as pitta, in other words intervocalic -- either was assimilated into -tt- or
changed into -ft- (and assimilated into -/-), and 2) common Mod. Greek has ft for pt,
so eftdzimo (written ) but never .
It seems to me that for the South Italian forms pittatdsimu (which corresponds to
) and pittatdsima (equivalent to plur. ) we can hardly suggest that
was transformed to * and that a blend oi pitta (i. e. ) + [] ended m pittatdsima. We would be closer to what really happened if we postulate
this course: the neut. plur. or ' became by folketymology
() [eftdzima] or [ftazima] and then blended with the synonymous noun pitta:
ta pittatdsima and sing, to pittatdsimu.
kataliha 'un imbroglio di fili' (586) is correctly assigned to the verb . In
many parts of Greece the meanings of this verb are 'to wear out (shoes, clothes) (syn.
, Mod. Gr. , )', 'to break the fasting by eating meats etc.', 'to consume' (cf. ), 'spend', 'destroy', 'kill'; catalimino appidi 'rotten pear' in
Bova (Pellegrini, p. 135), cria katalimino 'spoiled meat' in Bova (Pellegrini, 145);
there also are these derivatives: (and ) 'wearing out (of clothes
etc.)' and catalimo 'idem' (Pellegrini, 145; Morosi 170); f. in Crete '
', m. ' , , etc.' and
'he who wears out clothes fast' in Chios. We should, then, understand derivs. and * f.
Stephanidis, op. cit., 176; Kretschmer, op. cit., 134, 587.
* 5, 97' . Mousaios, (Athens 1884),
51
8 Stephanidis, loc. cit.
. Andriotis, 42 (1930) 182.
10 Archives of the Historical Lexicon (ms of Sophronios Stamoulis, p. 192). A t the
same institute I received information on aftozmus from Imbros and ftozmus from
Lemnos.
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(Mod. Gr. ) 'new wine, must'. - Bovese mustdri 'must' is correctly traced by Rohlfs (586) to . The slight modification I suggest is to trace
it to Byz. Gr. , deriv. of Byz. ; 'must' is attested in the Mod.
Cyprian dialect (three attestations in the Arch. Hist. Lex.); mustdri of Bova (Morosi,
p. 43; Pellegrini 56, 193; Comparetti 18) cannot be a deriv. from Lat. mustum (so
Pellegrini, Bova, p. 193). On the other hand, the adj. is a deriv. from m. with suff. -: hence "boats (of the island of Idra) transporting
must' (Seriphos). The term is attested: Crusius, Turcograecia 333; Agapios,
48; Meletios, . ' , 277; Matthaios metrop., '
2078 (. Legrand, B V G 2); Kyprianos, " , p. 47; compd. f.: . Dapontes, Legrand, Bibl. Hellin. 18, 2, p. 275.
. - Bovese murhrvu (Mor. C. 110) and muriguo 'io sonnecchio' (to doze,
slumber, to nod to sleep) are correctly derived by R. from Koine 'to be foolish'
( L X X Is. 44, 25) (syn. , ). The Koine verb is well attested in
Mod. Gr. dialects: 'to be stupefied* (Imera, Pontos), (Nisyros), (Pediada, Crete), (Rhodes), (Cyprus),
(Livisi), etc., and is deriv. of 'silly, foolish'; cf. 'to be silly' (syn. ), 'to be level' (fr. ), , and , etc.
. - The form affdcu in the speech of Reggio (Grotteria, Mammola) 'fico
non ancora maturo' is added to Bovese (b, g) siko affdti 'fico immature', this in turn is
derived from . Indeed, () would be the basis for the Bovese form.
This word, taken into the new edition, was missing in the first but the author does not
seem to be aware of the fact that the word occurs in Mod. Gr. dialects: Chios,
Chios (Kardamyla), Icaria, and Rhodes (-- represents anc. Gr. --), '
Lesbos (Plomari) with plural 'unripe grapes', and that this derives from the
Koine Gr. noun ,11 spoken . The entry form was dictated by
the use of the phrase siko affdti, the latter word of which appears in adjectival function,
as in pap. ; however, only nouns in -tv lost their -<?- from -tov but
the adjectives do not. So I would suggest that in the phrase above affdti is a noun in
adjectival function (cf. in Rhodes ot , ' ). On the
other hand, the noun affdcu 'unripe fig1 can hardly be explained directly from anc.
; its accent leads us rather to the assumption of a formation *affdkos as augmentative to affdkin (Mod. Gr. )-. There are augmentatives from -
nouns such as , , . Anc. Gr. m. has survived in
Tsakonian: dp^aka (plur. op^dku) 'unripe, sour grapes' (syn. in Mod. Gr. , ). Or, if affdcu should derive from , we have to assume shifting of
the accent; regarding the termination -u cf. idfaru from * (Rohlfs, E W 587),
if this tracing should be correct.
'Wildhafer* has these forms in South Italian iiidparu, zirdparu, paru, and iajdparu, all in the sense 'avena selvatica'. Rohlfs suggests (170) either a
pre-Hellenic origin or that the word contains the anc. Gr. adj. 'empty' as its
second component and he compares for its first component; in the addenda (586),
he reminds us that should be considered under the entry (291). I have
a suggestion to make: the only connection I can find is Calabrian zilla (Latinized
psilla, this in turn derived from the Gr. adj. 'bald, deprived') and the S. Ital.
zirdparu (which I consider the earlier S. Ital. form) would have come from zilldparos<-*, with the loss of the -0-, so * (cf. from *).
xovla f. 'sand'. - R. connects with this the name Konia for the area in the vicinity
of Roccaforte, Bova (255) and the village name Acconia in the vicinity of Curinga
(dialectal speech in the province Catanzaro in Middle Calabria) (586). I do not contest
this but think that it is one possibility. It seems to me that another is this: From
'whetstone' an adj. * is derivable, which actually is warranted by anc.
11

22

Hist. Lex. 3 (1941), 3 1 1 a .

Byzant. Zeitschrift (61) 1968

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332

II.

Abteilung

neut., a sort of medicine, which is nothing but the neut. of such an adj., and by a
noun * f., which is attested in Mod. Gr. akond "whetstone* in Kalavryta of
Achaia and akutid in A i t o l i a . u (To consider the name as the outcome of an * is
hardly possible because -- [rjk] would have appeared as -rjg- and not as -kk- in the
name.) In the way of realia, there are place names in Greek which render the explanation fitting, so ol pi. fem. (Chios, Laconia), (Kalavryta) and plur.
(Carpathos, Crete), etc.
. - The term pajeroRorto 'specie di pastinaca selvatica' from Roccaforte,
Bova, is connected by R. (587) with a reconstructed adj. * (390), under which
paxerb n. *il grasso' (Bova) is placed. While the semantic aspect is possible, the
form of the word is rather prohibitive for such linking; the -j- of pajerbs leads to
'frosty, cold' both in the Koine and in Mod. Gr. 1 * The sense 'hard' must be
very old; indeed, the meaning 'coagulated' is the nearest to it since 'power
of coagulation 1 and 'more coagulated 1 are attested in Aretaeus (2nd
cent. A . D.). T h u s we have and , whereas par/erb 'il grasso' could
be *.
T h e entry ' A r t Tuffstein' is Mod. Greek and was set up to embrace
only the South-Italian forms with initial k- in place of (kdsparo Otranto, kdrparo
ibid., kasparu, krparu, ksperu, krperu Lecce, kdsparu, krparu Tarento) (387 f.
and 587). T h e words are explained by R. from Mod. Gr. , concerning which
he names six islands and Macedonia in which the word as well as four senses of it are
found; the antiquity of the term is suggested by the epithet for Apollo; the
author postulates a pre-Hellenic source for the Balkan-1llyric substratum. Indeed, the
word must have been ancient Greek, because it covers the southern Greek speech
territory of today: as placename (iklosich-Mller, A c t a et diplomata
4,248), in Crete (Anopoli, Sfakia), Amorgos, and in Karpathos, in Andros
(cod. of 17th cent.), with various meanings on the islands and Kyzikos
and also on islands ('sort of soft, fragile stone' etc.); derivatives: ,
, (toponyms: , ), and name of
a village (Chios) and another toponym on Amorgos, toponym
in Rhodes and in Evrytania ( Acta 1, 293),
Crete (Argyroupolis), (Crete, Icaria), ; and (Apyranthos in Naxos), , , , ; verbs (Sfakia in Crete), (Crete),
(Andros), etc. 14 Synonyms in dialects are , , , ,
, all designating varieties of stone not necessarily identical. There is no
better explanation than a blend of with adjectives starting with karpwithin South-Italian, as R. (587) well suggested. Alessio's suggestion about krparu
1 1 Hist. L e x . 1 (1933), 358b: is explained as a deriv.
of -mediev.
, .
l s is common Mod. Gr. [pajerbs]
'frosty' or 'cold' (syn. ), e. g.
; about beans, e. g. in Corinthia (Aigion) (syn.
, whose is not edible), [pajurbs] of plants of wooden texture (opp. ) (Euboea) and [palurbs] (Stropones in Euboea:
), (Karystos in Euboea: from pajurbs), (e. g. ) 'fruit with hard peal' (Kourouni in Euboea); the verb in
-: '' ( , - ) (Corinthia), ol (the okra, Kourouni), (Trikala in
Corinthia), ol (Soudena in Achaia),
'are not tender* (Mazeika in Achaia), ,
(Stropones); deriv. verbs in -: in Middle Euboea, in Karystos;
and in -: in Karystos.
M Information from the Arch. Hist. Lex. (Academy of Athens).

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being the earliest form15 is refuted by the very fact that is proved a Greek
word in Greece.
adj. 'made of sackcloth' is the entry for the South-Ital. words sdiiinu
pannolino di tessuto grossolano' (uere Windel) and sdriino (Otr.), sdrcinu (Cat.)
(447 and 587), not . Rohlfs traces it to Old It. sargano 'panno grossolano' and
holds that it was in part influenced by the adj. . An examination of the files
of the Arch. Hist. Lex. proved that is the answer to our problem. Indeed,
from an adj. is explained the neut. noun 'woman's dress made of
sackcloth' in Megisti (i. e. ) but in Megisti is a gold-woven cloth.
The fem. noun 'sack woven of goat's wool' occurs in Elis (the sack was equivalent to two ) but accented was used in Mani and Arcadia
(Piana) to designate a sack of 70 okes, e. g. ,
(Mani); in Laconia (Kambos, Kardamyli) 'large sack'. It is, therefore,
and the Catanzaro form sdiiinu that were influenced by Old. It. sargano 'coarse wollen cloth' and yielded the forms sdrcinu in Catanzaro and sdriino in Otranto and not
vice versa.
etc. - ibfaru 'Smaragdeidechse' in the dialectal speech of Catanzaro in Middle
Calabria (village of San Vito) has been brought into connection with (Rohlfs
587), since there are in S. Italian Greek also the following terms for 'lizzard':
(according to Rohlfs 450 from anc. *), , *(, *(, ,
*, *, and of the Siculian substratum. The dial, form
iofaru, however, has a i - which no other form shows (z- is found in some forms:
zafrdia, zefrdta, and ziafrata, zofrata, zofrbfi beside za- and zi-, zafrbtu and zcarfbtu
beside zia- and zi-). Since there are forms zafrbtu and zarfbtu from * 'lizzard'
(beside iefrb and zafrb, in my opinion, from *), the form ibfaru has to have
come from iaforu*-sdoros () with an anaptyctic -o- in Italian, so that savrobecame saforo. The initial phoneme z- has been adequately explained by R. (450)
from ps- () of 'fragile'. The examples for {ps) -* are legion zzalitidda
(and azzalidda) in Otranto from *&, zzarb in Bova (and krapa zzdra in
Reggio, krapa azzdra in Catanzaro) from , zennb 'magro' in Otranto from ,
zzima in Bova and Otranto from *| \J>sivzma~\ (according to Rohlfs from
), zilla 'tigna' from */7/--.6, zziKaliii in Bova, ziKala in Catanzaro, etc.
The entry for Bovese strambal&nnonda 'barcollando' should be
from () 'sort of swing made of rope, into which a dog or cat
was passed' (Samos); derivative - would mean 'to swing, to rock' and
- (also in Samos). The verb 'dislocate, sprain' (common
Mod. Gr.) is from adj. 'crooked' (Samos), so also synonymous dial,
(Androniani in Euboea): . The two words seem to be etymologically unrelated.
is the entry and not *, as it has been set up for the Bovese word
fdrzoma etc. 'a handful of grain reaped and bound with a grain stalk' (77), syn. in common Mod. Gr.; in the addenda reference is made to it for the influence of
'partition wall' (in a house) on * (so S. Caratzas, . Z. 53 [1960],
361) with a question mark. In fact, the derivation of * from Lat. balteus
'waistband, girdle' raises more questions than it answers because intermediary links
implied such as *1 and verb * are missing. Caratzas' explanation of
Byz. 'partition' from Lat. falsus 'false' on the ground that the partition was
a 'false wall' () does not stand a closer test. Though the early Byz. term
has the sense 'ship's timbers' in Demetrius astrologus (Catal. Cod. Astrolog.
8 [3]. 98), yet it is the same as the late Byz. 'wall partition' (Prodrom. 1.
226) and as the Mod. Gr. with its various meanings. The anc. Gr. term
neut. 'a piece cut off or severed, portion' has survived in Mod. Gr. as
15
22

Studi Salentini 14 (1962) 317.

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Abteilung

(plur. ): so in Kythnos, Paros, Skopelos, Schinoussa, Syme, in Paros,


all in varying senses, one of them being ' ' on the sides of the
millstones (island of Schinoussa), another 'board covering the inner wall of a boat
close to its keel' (Kythnos), etc. The verb 'to cover with boards, to level with
boards' (syn. ), e. g.
(Kythnos), '
(Pontic of Kotyora), partic. 'floored'. Hence, 'floor* (Pangaio
in Macedonia) and > 'partition wall made of wooden boards and dividing
a room into two sections' (Epirus, Kerkyra, Elis [eparchia of Olympia], Paxi, West
Macedonia [Katafygi]), 'the covering of the floor with boards' (Zichna), 'the railing
of the stairway1 (Serres in E. Macedonia). In the phonemic body of the Bovese word
there is nothing forbidding: Bovese fdrzoma is equivalent to \farsoma\; the
consonant cluster -rs intervocalically changes to -rz-\ cf. -> South-Italian Gr.
, jerzu, fir zu etc., and -* , -* fsa but also frsa and
fdrza. The Byz. by-form shows a false "restoration" of -Is- for original -rs-.
& 'louse'. - The explanation offered by R. (588) is fine. I take the opportunity to
explain the Italian influence on the Ionian Islands. While the term for 'louse' is common Mod. Gr. [psira] and dial, [Jlira], the Ionian islands that had been
Italian possessions show the Italian influence: f. [pidda]'louse' or 'large louse'
in Kephallenia and 'louse' in Zakynthos and Paxi, and btka in Kythera. Taking into
account the augmentative sense in Kephallenia ('large louse') we arrive at the explanation of as augmentative form to ; the latter is explicable from Italian pidocchio, probably through the plural pidocchi 'lice'; cf. , ,
, etc. from the corresponding plurals maccarotii, pantaloni, scacchi (sing, scacco), etc.
A substantial study appeared meanwhile: Henry and Renee Kahane, Greek in
Southern Italy, Romance Philology 20 (1967) 404-438. [Discussion relating to 300
entries of Rohlfs' lexicon; thus the authors present: I. Ambiguities of presentation,
408-410; II. Byzantine and modern Greek notes, 410-422; III. Romanica, 422-425,
IV. Etymologica, 425-436],
Another review of Rohlfs lexicon is: Robert Schmitt-Brandt, Gnomon 39 (1967)
518-20. [The reviewer does not seem to know the problem well nor any other works of
Rohlfs (he mentions only Griechen und Romanen, 1924)].
On asklni the Kahanes (p. 426) suggest as the source Aragonese cisl&n *onetesticled' (Span, cicln fr. Arab, siqlab 'eunuch', this fr. sclavus); the connection
appears unconvincing.
On kdsparo etc. Rohlfs dealt extensively in his Neue Beitrge zur Kenntnis der
unteritalienischen Grzitt (Mnchen 1962), p. 179, where he includes also information on the entry form the Arch. Hist. Lex., which I used above.
Grand Forks, North Dakota (USA)

D. J. Georgacas

J. Mossay, La mort et l'au-del dans saint Gr6goire de Nazianze. [Universite de Louvain. Recueil de travaux d'histoire et de philologie. 4e serie, fascicule 34.]
Louvain, Bibliotheque de l'Universite - Publications Universitres de Louvain, 1966.
XV, 376 S. FB 375M. Justin Mossay, pretre du clergi diocesain de Lifege, a revise et mis jour la these
doctorale dactylographiee qu'il a presentee en mai 1963 la Faculte de Philosophie et
Lettres de l'Universite de Louvain. C'est sous la presente forme abregee et amendee que
nous la lisons aujourd'hui imprimee sous le titre: La mort et l'au-del dans saint
Gregoire de Nazianze. Elle constitue assurement l'un des meilleure volumes publies
dans la quatrieme serie du Recueil de travaux d'histoire et de philologie.
D'emblee, je n'eprouve aucun scrupule declarer que, parmi les ouvrages en langue
franchise relatifs Grigoire de Nazianze, celui-ci occupera une place tres honorable, tant
cause de la rigueur de la methode scientifique qu' cause du bon sens et de la largeur de

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