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~ PERSONALITY ~

Definiton Of Personality
According to Allport, "Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those
psychophysical systems that determine his characteristics behavior and though" (Allport, 1961, p.
28)
While Hilgard defines personality as the arrangement or configuration of individual characteristics
and ways of behaving that determine one's unique adjustment to his environment.
Hilgard, p. 594
Allport, 1961, p. 28

Theories of Personality

TYPE THEORIES OR CONSTITUTIONAL TYPES


According to this theories human subjects can be classified into smaller number of
types, each have characteristics in common that is being different from other types.
(General Psychology by Kahayon & Aquino, p 238)

1. Physical (Body Types)


1. William Sheldon
- he base his theory on the three layers of tissue in the human embryo, (endoderm,
mesoderm and ectoderm). On this three human tissue, one may dominated others.
a. Endomorphy roundness, heaviness , (focused on digestive system)
b. Mesomorphy- stockiness and good muscular development. (focused on
musculature & circulatory system)
c. Ectomorphy- long stingy, skinny body. (Focused on nervous system)

The three major human personality traits according to Sheldon:


a. Visceratonia- love of physical comfort, enjoys companionship , eating , deep
sleep , relaxation under alcohol, and family relations.
b. Somatotonia- assertiveness, love of adventure, enjoy ment of exercise, love
or risk, physical courage, indifference to pain, aggressiveness under alcohol.
c. Cerebrotonia- restraint in posture, hypersensitivity to pain, sensitivity,
avoidance of social contacts, resistance to alcohol.
(General Psychology by Kahayon & Aquino, p 238)

2. Ernst kretschmer
-a German psychologist who attempted to relate physical attributes to character.
(Physique and Character). He found out that certain body types are associated on
certain mental disorders.

a. Pyknic- rounded full face, short neck, stock build, short limbs, mood fluctuations
and a tendency to extroversion and manic-depression.
b. Asthenic- thin and angular, introverted and a tendency to schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia- is the name for psychopathic reactions characterized
by withdrawal, disturbances in emotional and affective life and
depending upon the type, presence of hallucinations, delusions,
negativistic behavior and progressive deterioration.
c. Athletic- strong, solid muscular build and comparable introverted tendencies.
d. Dysplastic- characterized by bodily disharmony and due to hormonal
imbalancement. The behavior and personality are imbalance.
2. Behavior
1. Carl Jung
-A Swiss psychoanalyst & founder of Analytic Psychology. He classified
personality on sociability character.
Attitudes types
a. Extrovert- a tendency to direct the personality outward rather than
inward toward the self. Friendly, talkative, social in nature, express
feelings openly. Accommodates readily to new situations.
b. Introvert- orientation inward toward the self, shyness, social
withdrawal and tendency to talk less, self centered, unable to adjust
easily in social situations.
(General Psychology by Kahayon & Aquino, p. 242)

TRAIT THEORIES
These are theories which consider the consistency of behavior and classifies according
to the degree to which they can be described in terms of a number of traits.
1. Gordon W. Allport
According to him the traits are the basic units of personality. Every
persons develops a unique traits.
Cardinal Disposition characteristics so pervasive influencing all aspects
of behavior. Some people become reference personalities because of their
cardinal traits like a sexy individual called Marilyn Monroe, the strong one is
Superman.
Central traits a few traits that centrally describe their personalities ex. If
we describe someone as being vivacious, sociable, we are describing his
central traits.
Secondary traits traits expressing relatively isolated interest or modes of
responding, ex. Shaving the right side of the face before he left every
morning is a particular mode of responding;.
These 3 traits according to Allport make up a persons personal
disposition which is unique for each individual.
2. Raymond B. Cattell
He uses the factor analysis techniques created by Spearman to create
his own personality Taxonomy.

16 Personality dimensions according to Cattell.


1. Abstractedness- imaginative vs. practical.
2. Apprehension- worried vs. confident
3. Dominance- forceful vs. submissive
4. Emotional stability- calm vs. high strung
5. Liveliness spontaneous vs. restrained
6. Openness to change flexible vs. attached to familiar
7. Perfectionism controlled vs. undisciplined
8. Privateness- discreet vs. open
9. Reasoning- abstract vs. concrete
10.Rule consciousness- conforming vs. non-conforming
11.Self- reliance- self sufficient vs. dependent
12.Sensitivity- tender-hearted vs. tough-minded
13.Social boldness- uninhibited vs. shy
14.Tension- impatient vs. relax
15.Vigilance suspicious vs. trusting
16.Warmth outgoing vs. reserved
(www.abouthealth.com)

DEVELOPMENTAL THEORIES
A. Sigmund Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory

Theory of Personality Structure


Theory of Personality Development
Theory of Personality Dynamics

Theory of Personality Structure


- Freud suggest that there are three basic aspects of personality
1. Id instincts
2. Ego reality
3. Superego morality

These three components of personality are presumed to work in unison under the
organization of the Ego. Interpersonal conflict, according to Freud, involves the interaction
of the Id, Ego and the Superego.
Theory of Personality Development
- The five psychosexual stages through which Freud presumed all children traverse
are the Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency and the Genital stages.
1. Oral (first 2 years of life) sucking, biting, chewing the erogenous zone is
mouth.
2. Anal (between 12-30 months) bowel and bladder control the erogenous zone is
anus. Toilet training is related to this period. During the second year of life, the
child is encouraged to control elimination of waste instead of behaving
reflexively.
3. Phallic (between the third and sixth year of life) genitals, masturbation
Oedipus complex- son affection to mother

Electra complex- daughter affection to father


Penis envy - female child is curious about the attributes of male
child.
4. Latency (period of repressed sexual activity between 6 and puberty) school
stage, libido decrease, no interest on opposite age.
5. Genital (stage of normal adulthood) sexual awakening, adulthood
(My notes)

Theory of Personality Dynamics


- This theory aims at the motivational and emotional components of personality.
According to Freud, man inherits the life instinct and the death instinct (Libido and
Mortido)
1. Life instincts (Libido) - include urges which have to do with the survival
of the organism. They derive their energy from the libido.
2. Death instincts (Mortido) are the destructive urges of man.

Freud believes that only a limited store of libido or mental energy is in man. A large
amount of libidinal energy is invested in the sex urge. Sex is used broadly by Freud
to apply various forms of cutaneous satisfaction or bodily pleasures.

LEARNING THEORIES
A. Karen Horneys Anxiety Theory
- In this theory, the social influences in the development of the child for example
parental threats and domination, tension and conflict between parents, being
required too do much or being mistrusted, by criticism, coldness, indifference
which child deals in certain ways forming a pattern of neurotic needs . the
neurotic needs for approval and affection is developed if the child learns to cope
with anxiety by running to mother for affection and approval.
B. Alfred Adlers Superiority and Compensation Theory
- Adler said that because we strive for superiority, we are always seeing ways in
which we fall short of our aspirations and hence, ways in which we are influenced.
We then compensate by striving hard to overcome this inferiority ex. The bully in
the class is merely hiding an inferiority complex which he is striving hard to
conceal by acting superior.
(LEARNNG THEORIES - General Psychology by Kahayon & Aquino, p. 241-242)

~ EMOTION ~
Definition of Emotion
Emotion is effective states involving a high level of activation, visceral changes and strong feelings.
Theories of Emotion
1. J.B Watson
-Found three primary emotions present in a newborn infant, fear, rage and love. Fear
was elicited by loud noise, by dropping and usually consisted of crying and random
activities. Rage was the result of restraint in movement and is done by the baby by
thrashing, bated breath and crying. Love was aroused by stroking and petting, it is by
smile, laughter and cessation of crying of the baby.
- Watson believes that these primary emotions become modified as they are conditioned
to other stimuli for example a simple rage of infant becomes righteous indignation of
one asserting his rights.
2. James-Lange Theory
-he argued that an event causes physiological arousal first and then we interpret this
arousal.
EVENT AROUSAL INTERPRETATIONS EMOTIONS

3. Cannon-Bard Theory
- This theory argues that a person experience arousal and emotion at the same
time.
AROUSAL
EMOTION

EVEN

4. Schachter-Singer Theory
- According to this theory, an event causes physiological arousal first, then the
person must identify a reason for this arousal, then he is now able to experience it
and know what emotion will be reacted.
EVENTAROUSALREASONING EMOTION
5. Lazarus Theory
- He states that a thought must come before any emotion, or arousal. A person must
think first in his situation before he experience emotion.
AROUSAL
EMOTION

EVENT

(allpsych.com & General Psychology by Kahayon & Aquino, p. 244)

~INTELLIGENCE ~
Intelligence refers to intellectual functioning.

Theories of Intelligence
1. Charles Spearman Two-Factor Theory
- According to him all intellectual ability can be expressed as the result of the
operation of two factors.
General intellectual (g) which is common to all abilities
Specific factor (s) which is specific to any ability but different in any case
- The specific tend to cancel each other, so that in the long run most of what
accounts for an individual intelligence.
2. Louis L. Thurstone - Primary Mental Abilities
- His factor analysis of test given to large number of individuals indicate that there
are at least seven primary mental abilities.
Verbal ability- the ability to understand and use verbal concepts effectively.
Number the ability to carry out fundamental arithmetic operations quickly
and correctly.
Spatial the ability to deal with objects in space
Perceptual- the ability to identify objects quickly and accurately
Memory- the ability to retain and relearn information
Reasoning- the ability to perceive and use abstract relationships in the
solutions of problems.
Word fluency the ability to think of words fluently.

3. Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences.


The eight intelligences Gardner described are:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Linguistic- spoken and written language


Logical-mathematical- number skills
Musical- performance or composition skills
Spatial ability to evaluate and analyze visual world

5.
6.
7.
8.

Bodily-kinesthetic- dance or athletic abilities


Interpersonal- skill in understanding and relating to others
Intrapersonal- skill in understanding the self
Nature- skill in understanding the nature world.

9. Linguistic- spoken and written language


10.Logical-mathematical- number skills
11.Musical- performance or composition skills
12.Spatial ability to evaluate and analyze visual world
13.Bodily-kinesthetic- dance or athletic abilities
14.Interpersonal- skill in understanding and relating to others
15.Intrapersonal- skill in understanding the self
16.Nature- skill in understanding the nature world.