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You are on page 1of 15

Triangular Plate

Displacement

Elements

231

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

23.1

23.2

23.3

23.4

23.

23.

Introduction

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Triangular Element Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23.2.1

Triangle Geometry

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23.2.2

Triangular Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23.2.3

Triangular CoordinatesProperties . . . . . . . . . . .

23.2.4

Linear Interpolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23.2.5

Coordinate Transformations

. . . . . . . . . . . .

23.2.6

Partial Derivatives

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23.2.7

Six Node Quadratic Interpolation . . . . . . . . . . .

Cubic Interpolation

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23.3.1

Cubic Interpolation Choice 1: 10 Nodes

. . . . . . . .

23.3.2

Cubic Interpolation Choice 2: 4 Nodes plus 6 Side Slopes . .

23.3.3

Cubic Interpolation Choice 3: 4 Nodes plus 6 Cartesian Slopes .

23.3.4

Cubic Interpolation Choice 4: 4 Nodes plus 6 Cartesian Rotations

The BCIZ Plate Bending Element

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

23.4.1

The Kinematic Constraint . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23.4.2

The Curvature Displacement Matrix . . . . . . . . . .

23.4.3

The Element Stiffness Matrix

. . . . . . . . . . .

Notes and Bibliography

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

232

233

233

233

233

234

234

235

235

236

236

237

238

239

239

2310

2310

2312

2312

2314

2315

23.2

23.1. Introduction

This Chapter presents an overview of finite element models for thin plates using the Kirchhoff Plate

Bending (KPB) model and the Total Potential Energy (TPE) vaariational principle.The derivation

of shape functions for the triangle geometry is covered in the next Chapter.

The purpose of this Chapter is to explain the construction of displacement-based triangular Kirchhoff

plate bending elements through the development of the necessary interpolation formulas. The

resulting element is complete but does not satisfy full normal-slope conformity.

23.2. Triangular Element Properties

We recall the following properties of a straight-sided triangular element, taken from Chapter 15 of

IFEM.

23.2.1. Triangle Geometry

The geometry of the 3-node triangle shown in Figure 23.1(a) is specified by the location of its

three corner nodes on the {x, y} plane. The nodes are labeled 1, 2, 3 while traversing the sides in

counterclockwise fashion. The location of the corners is defined by their coordinates:

xi , yi ,

i = 1, 2, 3

(23.1)

1 1 1

2A = det x1 x2 x3 = (x2 y3 x3 y2 ) + (x3 y1 x1 y3 ) + (x1 y2 x2 y1 ).

y1 y2 y3

(23.2)

It is important to realize that the area given by formula (23.2) is a signed quantity. It is positive if

the corners are numbered in counterclockwise order as shown in Figure 23.1(b). This convention

is followed in the sequel.

(a)

(b)

3 (x3 ,y3)

3

Area A > 0

2 (x2 ,y2)

x

z up, towards you

1 (x1 ,y1)

233

Points of the triangle may also be located in terms of a parametric coordinate system:

1 , 2 , 3 .

(23.3)

In the literature these three parameters receive many names. In the sequel the name triangular

coordinates will be used to stress its close association with this particular geometry.

23.2.3. Triangular CoordinatesProperties

Equations

i = constant

(23.4)

represent a set of straight lines parallel to the side opposite to the i th corner. See Figure 23.2. The

equation of sides 12, 23 and 31 are 1 = 0, 2 = 0 and 3 = 0, respectively. The three corners have

coordinates (1,0,0), (0,1,0) and (0,0,1). The three midpoints of the sides have coordinates ( 12 , 12 , 0),

(0, 12 , 12 ) and ( 12 , 0, 12 ), the centroid ( 13 , 13 , 13 ), and so on. The coordinates are not independent

because their sum is unity:

(23.5)

1 + 2 + 3 = 1.

1 = 0

3

/

2 = 0

2 = 1

/

/

/

/

/ /

/

/

3 = 1

2

3 = 0

1 = 1

Figure 23.2. Triangular coordinates.

Consider a function w(x, y) that varies linearly over the triangle domain. In terms of Cartesian

coordinates it may be expressed as

w(x, y) = a0 + a1 x + a2 y,

(23.6)

where a0 , a1 and a2 are coefficients to be determined from three conditions. In finite element work

such conditions are often the nodal values taken by w at the corners:

w1 , w2 , w3

234

(23.7)

23.2

3

(b)

(a)

5

6

2

2

1

values wi , at corners i = 1, 2, 3; (b) quadratic interpolation of w by

six values wi at corners i = 1, 2, 3 and midpoints i = 4, 5, 6.

The expression in triangular coordinates makes direct use of these three values:

1

w1

w(1 , 2 , 3 ) = w1 1 + w2 2 + w3 3 = [ w1 w2 w3 ] 2 = [ 1 2 3 ] w2 . (23.8)

3

w3

Expression (23.8) is called a linear interpolant for w. See Figure 23.3(a).

23.2.5. Coordinate Transformations

Quantities which are closely linked with the element geometry are naturally expressed in triangular

coordinates. On the other hand, quantities such as displacements, strains and stresses are often

expressed in the Cartesian system x, y. We therefore need transformation equations through which

we can pass from one coordinate system to the other.

Cartesian and triangular coordinates are linked by the relation

1

1

1 1 1

2 .

x = x1 x2 x3

y1 y2 y3

3

y

(23.9)

The first equation says that the sum of the three coordinates is one. The second and third express

x and y linearly as homogeneous forms in the triangular coordinates. These simply apply the

linear interpolant formula (23.8) to the Cartesian coordinates: x = x1 1 + x2 2 + x3 3 and y =

y1 1 + y2 2 + y3 3 .

Inversion of (23.9) yields

1

1 x2 y3 x3 y2

2 =

x3 y1 x1 y3

2A x y x y

1 2

2 1

y2 y3

y3 y1

y1 y2

x3 x2

x1 x3

x2 x1

1

1 2A23

x =

2A31

2A 2A

y

12

y23

y31

y12

x32

x13

x21

1

x .

y

(23.10)

Here x jk = x j xk , y jk = y j yk , A is the triangle area given by (23.2) and A jk denotes the area

subtended by corners j, k and the origin of the xy system. If this origin is taken at the centroid of

the triangle, A23 = A31 = A12 = A/3.

235

From equations (23.9) and (23.10) we immediately obtain the following relations between partial

derivatives:

y

x

= xi ,

= yi ,

(23.11)

i

i

i

i

2A

= y jk ,

= xk j .

2A

(23.12)

x

y

In (23.12) j and k denote the cyclic permutations of i. For example, if i = 2, then j = 3 and k = 1.

The derivatives of a function w(1 , 2 , 3 ) with respect to x or y follow immediately from (23.12)

and application of the chain rule:

w

w

1 w

w

y23 +

y31 +

y12

=

x

2A 1

2

3

(23.13)

1 w

w

w

w

=

x32 +

x13 +

x21

y

2A 1

2

3

which in matrix form is

w

1

x

w =

2A

y

y23

y31

x32

x13

w

1

y12 w

x21

2

w

3

(23.14)

Consider next the six-node triangle shown in Figure 23.3(b). This element still has straight sides,

and nodes 4, 5 and 6 are located at the midpoint of the sides. In Chapter 16 of the IFEM course

it was shown a function w(x, y) that varies quadratically over the element and takes on the node

values wi , i = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, can be interpolated in terms of the triangular coordinates by the

formula

q

N1

q

N2

q

N

(23.15)

w = [ w1 w2 w3 w4 w5 w6 ] 3q .

N4

q

N5

q

N6

q

q

N2 = 2 (22 1)

N5 = 42 3

N1 = 1 (21 1)

N4 = 41 2

N3 = 3 (23 1)

N6 = 43 1

(23.16)

The geometry is still defined by (23.9) because we are not permitting nodes 4,5,6 to be away from

the midpoint positions. Similarly, the partial derivative expressions of 23.1.6 remain valid.

236

23.3

CUBIC INTERPOLATION

s1

3

(a)

9

1

(b)

s2

s1

2

0

2

s3

s3

s2

Figure 23.4. Nodal configurations for two forms of cubic interpolation of w(x, y) over triangle:

(a) interpolation by ten values wi at corners i = 1, 2, 3, thirdpoints i = 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and

centroid i = 0; (b) interpolation by four wi values at corners i = 1, 2, 3 and centroid i = 0,

plus six side slopes (w/s2 )1 , (w/s3 )1 , (w/s3 )2 , (w/s1 )2 , (w/s1 )3 and (w/s2 )3 .

Cubic interpolants for w are fundamental in the construction of the simplest Kirchhoff plate bending

elements using the TPE functional. The complete two-dimensional cubic polynomial has 10 terms.

There are several choices for the selection of nodal values that determine that interpolation. Several

important ones are examined next.

23.3.1. Cubic Interpolation Choice 1: 10 Nodes

Next consider the ten-node triangle shown in Figure 23.4(a). This element still has straight sides.

Nodes 4 through 9 are placed at the thirdpoints of the sides as indicated. The tenth node is placed

at the centroid and is labeled 0.

In a Homework of the IFEM course it was shown that a function w(x, y) that varies cubically over

the element and takes on the node values wi , i = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0, can be interpolated in

terms of the triangular coordinates by the formula

N c1

1

N2c1

c1

N3

c1

N4

w = [ w1 w2 w3 w4 w5 w6 w7 w8 w9 w0 ]

N5c1 .

c1

N6

.

.

.

N0c1

237

(23.17)

N1c1 = 12 1 (31 1)(31 2)

N4c1 = 92 1 2 (31 1)

N5c1 = 92 1 2 (32 1)

N6c1 = 92 2 3 (32 1)

N7c1 = 92 2 3 (33 1)

N8c1 = 92 3 1 (33 1)

N9c1 = 92 3 1 (31 1)

N0c1 = 271 2 3

(23.18)

The geometry is still defined by (23.9) because we are not permitting nodes 4 through 9 to be away

from the thirdpoint positions as well as forcing 0 to be exactly at the centroid. Similarly, the partial

derivative expressions of 23.1.6 remain valid.

23.3.2. Cubic Interpolation Choice 2: 4 Nodes plus 6 Side Slopes

Consider now a variant of the cubic interpolation over the triangle as shown in Figure 23.4(b).

This element still has straight sides. In addition to values at the corners 1,2,3 and the centroid 0,

we we specify the side-slope corner derivatives w jk = (w/s j )k . There are six combinations:

w21 = (w/s2 )1 , w31 = (w/s3 )1 , w32 = (w/s3 )2 , w12 = (w/s1 )2 , w13 = (w/s1 )3 and

w23 = (w/s2 )3 . The resulting interpolation is

N c2

1

N2c2

c2

N3

c2

N4

w0 ]

N5c2 .

c2

N6

.

.

.

N0c2

(23.19)

N1c2

N3c2

N5c2

N7c2

N9c2

= 12 (1 + 32 + 33 ) 71 2 3

= L 12 (1 22 1 2 3 )

= L 12 (1 22 1 2 3 )

= 32 (31 + 32 + 3 ) 71 2 3

= L 31 (3 12 1 2 3 )

N2c2

N4c2

N6c2

N8c2

N0c2

= L 31 (3 12 1 2 3 )

= 22 (31 + 2 + 33 ) 71 2 3

= L 23 (2 32 1 2 3 )

= L 23 (2 32 1 2 3 )

= 271 2 3

(23.20)

and L jk denotes the length of the side joining corners j and k. The function of the corrective terms

1 2 3 is to make the first nine functions (23.20) vanish at 0.

238

23.3

CUBIC INTERPOLATION

27

0

0

w1

0

0

0

w

0

0

0

w3

0

4L 12

20

w4

1

0

2L 12

7

w5

=

0

0

w6 27 0

0

0

0

w7

7 2L 31 0

w8

w9

20 4L 31 0

w0

0

0

0

0

0

0

27

0

0

0

0

0

7 2L 12 0

20 4L 12 0

20

0

4L 23

7

0

2L 23

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

27

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

7 2L 23 0

20 4L 23 0

20

0

4L 31

7

0

2L 31

0

0

0

w1

0

0 w21

0 w31

0 w2

0 w32

0 w12

0 w3

0 w13

0

w23

w0

27

(23.21)

This choice is similar to the previous one but the corner derivatives are taken with respect to the

directions x, y of the Cartesian reference system. The notation used for the slopes is wx1 =

(w/ x)1 , w y1 = (w/ y)1 , wx2 = (w/ x)2 , w y2 = (w/ y)2 , wx3 = (w/ x)3 and w y3 =

(w/ y)3 . The resulting interpolation is

N c3

1

N2c3

c3

N3

c3

N4

w0 ]

N5c3 .

c3

N6

.

.

.

(23.22)

N0c3

N1c3

N3c3

N5c3

N7c3

N9c3

= 12 (1 + 32 + 33 ) 71 2 3

= 12 (y21 2 y13 3 ) + (y13 y21 )1 2 3

= 22 (x32 3 x21 1 ) + (x21 x32 )1 2 3

= 32 (31 + 32 + 3 ) 71 2 3

= 32 (y13 1 y32 2 ) + (y32 y13 )1 2 3

N2c3

N4c3

N6c3

N8c3

N0c3

in which xi j = xi x j and yi j = yi y j .

= 22 (31 + 2 + 33 ) 71 2 3

= 22 (y32 3 y21 1 ) + (y21 y32 )1 2 3

= 32 (x13 1 x32 2 ) + (x32 x13 )1 2 3

= 271 2 3

(23.23)

This interpolation is the same as the previous one, with some rearrangements. The rotational degrees

of freedom at the corners are introduced using the relations x = w/ y and y = w/ x.. The

239

resulting interpolation is

N c4

1

w = [ w1 x1 y1 w2 x2 y2 w3 x3 y3

N2c4

c4

N3

c4

N4

w0 ]

N5c4 .

c4

N6

.

.

.

(23.24)

N0c4

in which the Nic4 are the same shape functions of Choice 3 with some sign and index changes:

N1c4

N4c4

N7c4

N0c4

=

=

=

=

N1c3 ,

N4c3 ,

N7c3 ,

N0c3 .

N2c4 = N3c3 ,

N5c4 = N6c3 ,

N8c4 = N9c3 ,

N3c4 = N2c3 ,

N6c4 = N5c3 ,

N9c4 = N8c3 ,

(23.25)

One of the simplest Kirchhoff plate bending elements1 was presented in 1966 by Bazeley, Cheung,

Irons and Zienkiewicz [66]. This is called the BCIZ element after the authors initials.

This element can be derived from the cubic interpolation choice 4 (23.24). The technique appears a

bit mysterious at first. Basically one can construct a 10 10 plate stiffness matrix. Freedom w0 at

the centroid can be statically condensed out and the resulting 9 9 stiffness used in finite element

analysis. Unfortunately the static condensation destroys curvature completeness and the solutions

will not generally converge, as emperically shown in Tochers thesis [770]. The idea behing the

BCIZ element is that elimination of the centroidal DOF is done in such a way that completeness is

maintained, using a kinemtic constraint.

23.4.1. The Kinematic Constraint

As explained above, we seek a kinematic constraint to eliminate w0 in terms of the nine connector

DOFs:

w1

x1

y1

w2

(23.26)

w0 = [ aw1 a x1 a y1 aw2 a x2 a y2 aw3 a x3 a y3 ] x2

y2

w3

x3

y3

1

Historically the first triangular plate bending element that satisfied completeness and invariance. This element is also

important as the motivation for development of the patch test.

2310

23.4

Substituting this into any of the 4 choices of the previous section, w0 is eliminated. For choice 4:

w = [ w1 x1 y1 w2 x2 y2 w3 x3

N c4 + a N

w1 0

1

N2c4 + a x1 N0

c4

N3 + a y1 N0 .

y3 ]

..

.

N9c4 + a y3 N0

(23.27)

in which N0 = 271 2 3 is the same for all choices. To determine the as in (23.27) we impose

the condition that all constant curvature states must be exactly represented. This is a completeness

condition. Constant curvature states are associated with quadratic variations of w, which are defined

by the 6-node interpolation (23.16). The procedure is as follows:

(i)

(ii) Take the cubic interpolation choice 4 (23.24) and express the value of w4 , w5 and w6 in terms

of the nine connection DOF w1 through y3 by setting 1 , 2 and 3 to appropriate midpoint

coordinates.

(iii) Eliminate w4 , w5 and w6 from (i) and (ii) to get (23.26) and hence (23.27). The resulting

formula is called the BCIZ interpolation. The associated N s are the BCIZ shape functions.

It can be shown that the constraint is

q = [1/3, (2x1 + x2 + x3 )/18, (2y1 + y2 + y3 )/18,

1/3, (x1 2x2 + x3 )/18, (y1 2y2 + y3 )/18,

1/3, (x1 + x2 2x3 )/18, (y1 + y2 2y3 )/18]

The derivation of the entries of (23.28) is the subject of a homework Exercise.

2311

(23.28)

(a)

(b)

0.33333

0.33333

0.33333

0.33333

0.33333

0.33333

Figure 23.5. The two 3-point Gauss integration rules for triangles, which are

useful in the computation of the plate element stiffness matrix K.

Numbers annotated near sample points are the weights.

Once we have an interpolation formula for w, as in (23.27), the curvatures over the plate element

can be evaluated by double differentiation of the shape functions with respect to x and y. The

resulting relation can be expressed in matrix form as

w1

x1

y1

w/ x 2

x x

x2 (23.29)

2x y

2 2 w/ y y

B31 B32 B33 B34 B35 B36 B37 B38 B39

y2

w3

x3

y3

or

= Bu

(23.30)

The entries Bi j are linear in the triangular coordinates 1 , 2 and 3 .

The derivation of the entries of the B matrix is the subject of a homework Exercise.

23.4.3. The Element Stiffness Matrix

For this displacement element, the stiffness matrix is given by the usual formula

BT DB d

K=

(e)

(23.31)

where (e) is the element area, D is the plate rigidity matrix that relates moment to curvatures (see

9.3.2) and B is the curvature-displacement matrix defined in (23.30).

If D is constant over the element, as frequently assumed, the integrand of K is quadratic in the

triangular coordinates. If so the integral can be done exactly using one of the two 3-point Gauss

rule presented in Chapter 23 of IFEM. The two rules are reproduced below for convenience:

1

F(1 , 2 , 3 ) d = 13 F( 23 , 16 , 16 ) + 13 F( 16 , 23 , 16 ) + 13 F( 16 , 16 , 23 ).

(23.32)

A (e)

2312

23.4

1

A

(e)

F(1 , 2 , 3 ) d = 13 F( 12 , 12 , 0) + 13 F(0, 12 , 12 ) + 13 F( 12 , 0, 12 ).

(23.33)

The second one is called the midpoint rule because the three sample points are at the triangle

midpoints. These rules are depicted in Figures 23.5(a) and (b), respectively. Both are exact up to

quadratic polynomials in the triangular coordinates, which is what is needed for the plate stiffness

matrix.

2313

The foregoing shape functions were first developed and presented in terms of triangular coordinates in the

1966 thesis [211].

2314

Exercises

Triangular Plate Displacement Elements

EXERCISE 23.1 [A:15] Check that the shape functions given for cubic interpolation choice 4 satisfy the

conditions of being 1 for the associated DOF, and zero for all others. For example N2 , which is associated

with x1 , must satisfy

N2 (1, 0, 0) = 0,

N2

(1, 0, 0) = 1 = x1 ,

y

N2

(1, 0, 0) = 0 = y1 ,

x

etc.

(E23.1)

Note: It is sufficient to verify N1 , N2 , and N3 because the next six shape functions are obtained by cyclic

permutation of subscripts. N0 is easy to check since its corner value and corner slopes are zero.

EXERCISE 23.2 [A:15] Using the chain rule and the results of 23.1.6, show that the following formula can

2w

2

2x

w

y2

2

2 xwy

y2

2

x32

23

2

2

x13

y31

2

2

1 y12

x21

= 2

2y31 y12

2y12 y23

2x13 x21

2x21 x32

2w

2

1

2

T w2

2x32 y23

2

2x13 y31

2w

2x21 y12

32

2(x32 y31 + x13 y23 )

2w

1 2

2(x13 y12 + x21 y31 )

2w

2 3

2w

3 1

(E23.2)

EXERCISE 23.3 [A:15] Derive the expression for the a s in (23.27) following the procedure outline in that

EXERCISE 23.4 [A:25] Program the BCIZ element starting from the interpolation formula provided by the

the curvature-displacement matrix B and one of the 3-point

Gauss rules given in 233.3 to evaluate K(e) = (e) BT D B d. Assume that D = (h 3 /12)E in which both the

thickness h and the 3 3 stress-strain matrix E are constant over the element, and supplied through arguments.

EXERCISE 23.5 [A:15] Evaluate K(e) of the BCIZ element for a triangle with corners at (0, 0), (2, 1) and

(1, 3), fabricated with isotropic material of E = 120 and = 0, and constant thickness h = 1. As a check,

compute the 9 eigenvalues; three of them should be zero and six positive.

2315

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