FIELD REPORT

(26 – 29 December 2008)

____________________________________ 11 March 2009 Submitted to Professor Felicidad A. Prudente, Ph. D.

PAOLO DANIEL C. PARDO

A. INTRODUCTION
This field work aims to document first hand experiences with the existing musical traditions present among the Ifugao people of Uhaj in Banaue. The class, consisting of students of the Music Literature 192 (Field Methods) class of the University of the Philippines in Diliman, Quezon City; namely myself, Valerie Vibar, Laurice Caronan, Dino Pascual and Roan Opiso, along with Dr. Felicidad A. Prudente and Teresa Montes, went to Ifugao on 26 to 29 December 2008 and settled in Lagud Village Learning Inn. As preparation for the field trip, I acted as coordinator and arranged the bus trip, accommodations and additional activities. During field work, activities we conducted include a cultural night at the inn, a trip to a gong foundry, a chat with gong players in Poblacion, Banaue, a visit to the Banaue Museum, and a participation in the Grand Alumni Homecoming of the Uhaj Elementary School. I brought along a Minolta Riva Twin 28 film camera (circa 1990) for still photographs. There was a hesitance to use a digital camera for thinking that the quality would not be the same. Also, I used a Sony Ericsson Walkman mobile telephone to record videos and take supplementary digital photographs. Finally, I brought along my Sony Walkman Cassette Recorder using tapes to record the rituals and music.

B. JOURNAL OF DAILY ACTIVITIES
Friday, 26 December 2008 We left Manila from the Autobus Station near the University of Santo Tomas at around 9:30 PM. Before that, I was extremely excited to go on this Banaue trek with such wonderful students from the Musicology Department. The December cool along with the chill of the bus air-conditioning joined together to instill in us the breeze; the wintry weather so seldom experienced in the Philippines. Arriving in forest-trailed Ifugao, we braised ourselves, putting our knitted sweaters, mittens and bonnets to the grueling test. I was so freaked out, so overjoyed to my wits. I’ve never seen the Rice Terraces in their own context before. And soon, we had arrived… Saturday, 27 December 2008 The Banaue town center was busy, full of people and tricycles. My mobile phone ran out of battery and so I could not contact Santos Bayucca, our host at the Lagud Village Learning Inn, where we were to stay in traditional Ifugao huts amidst a mountaintop setting. What surprised us was the rough, muddy and bumpy dirt road ride via tricycle, a good thirty minutes of wandering and waiting to be at our final destination. As we soon arrived at the inn, we observed that it would take 173 tall steps on the mountainside for us to get there. All students

including myself and our professor Dr. Prudente gulped hard for the challenging ascent. The hike up didn’t bother me. I would often walk around the University of the Philippines for exercise so that didn’t deter me from another dose of physical activity. Panting from the ascent, weary from bearing our luggage, we finally made it to the top. And what a sight it was! It was fairly a medium-sized lot amidst forest greenery where four bale or native Ifugao huts were strategically constructed, each named after a section of the Banaue Rice Terraces. Two were named Mayoyao, the other Hungduan, and lastly,Batad. They were made of wood and the roof of dried bark. The ethnicity of the place exuded, seeming to invite the outsider to come into their unique world. Across the huts, a modern beverage bar, constructed from wood and bamboo, seemed to beckon us for a drink or two. But it was not a martini or a dry sherry which welcomed us, but a special treat of mountain coffee and the sweetest, mildest tea I’ve ever tasted. The four students: Laurice, Valerie, Roan, Dino and I, together with Dr. Prudente and Ms. Montes, another professor, had a glorious time sipping our coffee and tea while awaiting our first Ifugao breakfast. It was definitely modest, not the usual buffets spread for us in Manila, but a quaint traveler’s meal. We had bits of wild boar and the freshest, greenest vegetables one can imagine. Naturally, we had an exquisite time devouring our first meal, as if it were our last. The weariness of our bodies made sure of that. While Dino and I rested, the girls were busy learning to play the Ifugao flat gongs, called gangha, from two young students whose names were Jovany and Hotoy. Spending a lazy but informative late morning, Roan, Laurice and Valerie tried to play the gongs while Dr. Prudente shot a video. Intrinsically, it would take a few more sessions to get the right Ifugao patterns for it to be presentable.

The sun would soon set and as is custom in the mountains, activities would turn to supper. We chatted while awaiting the next meal, which we later found out to be composedof Ifugao rice of the red variety, long green beans topped with tomatoes, and a rare native chicken adobo. We smiled upon seeing another source of nourishment. This is not to mention our first taste of tapuy, the native rice wine offered to us by our host, Santos. We relished every singlemoment of our supper. Afterwards, more students were coming in for the cultural presentation arranged by Santos. The youth from Uhaj, ranging from 12 to 18 years old, prepared to wear their traditional costumes, take note, in the cold and foggy weather. As soon as everything was ready, Santos gave a rather lengthy introduction regarding the culture and customs of the Ifugao. This was to ensure our understanding of the presentation beforehand. As the show commenced, we were entranced, our eyes fixated on the colorful costumes and earthy demeanor of the rituals. The first ritual was an offering to the gods. Real chickens and pigs were to be sacrificed but because of budget constraints, only a reenactment took place. The next thing that took place was a circle dance. The boys and girls danced, waving their arms like eagles. Immediately after, a courtship dance using blankets took place, with three gangha players providing the background music. It was a test to see if the boy would be able to get the girl’s sweet response upon catching her with his own blanket. If the girl’s response was positive, she would succumb to the blanket. If not, she would move away from it. As part of audience participation, everybody including another set of guests from Manila was asked to join in the dances. All this time, the sound of the gongs captivated the participants.

As the evening turned to early morning, we finally rested and awaited another day to arrive. Sunday, 28 December 2008 In the morning, we set out for Poblacion, the main industrial town of Banaue. We first had brunch then ventured into the handicraft shop of the Blas Family, whose patriarch was known as a skilled gangha player. Together with his friends, he showed us the rudiments and techniques of performing the native instrument. The set of three gongs had their own distinctive names and each were introduced to us by them. The whole event lasted an hour and we soon left to go to our next stop: the gong foundry. The trip by jeepney to the foundry took around thirty minutes along a hilly highway. As we got there, we discovered that the foundry doubled as a woodcarver’s studio. I figured instantly that this was only practical, for the Ifugaos are primarily skilled carvers. The production of gongs only cost much more and more work was entailed in it. We went back to Banaue to see the Banaue Museum, now owned by the family of the late American anthropologist,H. Otley Beyer, who spent most of his life in Ifugao teaching Filipinos about indigenous cultures. The collection housed many artifacts of the Ifugao, Bontoc, Kalinga and other ethnolinguistic groups of the Cordillera mountains. As our full day came to a close, we once again had dinner at the inn, savoring the scrumptious dishes prepared for us by the womenof the village. After dinner, we gathered around a warm bonfire, with everyone chatting with each other, just waiting for the evening to end. Of course, shots of tapuy were shared, amidst the laughter and frivolity of the smoke-emitting fire.

While we exchanged stories of our experiences, the Ifugao folk conjured and created special native names for each of us. Mine, “Puggyuwon,” meant “wealthy fellow,” to my surprise. Sadly though, it was our last night at Banaue and tomorrow, we were to return home. Our sojourn into the mountains had come to an end. Monday, 29 December 2008 As we were packing and preparing our things for our trip home, Santos called us after breakfast. He summoned us to the middle of the village inn and bestowed on each of our necks a choker necklace with a shiny brass pendant. The pendant’s design was a traditional Ifugao emblem that signified our union with the landscape, the mountains and that we were blessed to have visited their homeland. We felt touched and grateful for our stay. Everyone was so nice to us and will never forget this. As day drew on, we said our farewells and rode the bus home.

C. REFLECTIONS
The trip to Banaue made me realize many things. It made me appreciate how much I had in life and how enriching life is in a big city. For the Ifugaos, lives are very modest, simple; almost stagnant. Without ready technology, they rely on their traditions to live their daily routine. Hopefully, I in my small way can help extend some help to them to continue their customs and rituals. Known as dying phenomena, cultural traditions of ethnolinguistic groups will continue to fade away if shown no support and interest. Only a handful of the youth, as seen in Uhaj, are willing to sustain their skills in the performance of native songs and dances. In an interview, half were willing to become local shamans or mumbaki because of the offerings of chickens and pigs they would receive. The other half would definitely want to reach Manila, in an effort to widen their horizons, albeit hopefully. I want to sincerely help in the preservation of their culture. My dream would be to teach U.P. students their music, and make it a part of the curriculum. It is a big dream, but I am willing to dream it. The complex rhythms of the Ifugao are really something else, so deeply organized that it would be worthwhile to transcribe it and document the music fully. Who knows, out of the ten children who

performed for us, only five may become interested in passing on the tradition to their own children in the future. The trip also reminded me to become a simple person. I only need so much to survive in life, and this helps me choose only the necessary things to pursue my interests. It is desired that I would like to try to live in the mountains after this semester. The experience has profoundly affected me, in an honest-to-goodness way.

D. CATALOGUE
1. Cassette Tape (Sony on Sony Cassette-Recorder) Tape 1 Side A Item 1 Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Participated by Uhaj Kabataan Cultural Night, requested by U.P. Diliman Students 27 December 2008 Tape 1 Side B Item 1 Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Participated by Uhaj Kabataan Cultural Night, requested by U.P. Diliman Students 27 December 2008 Tape 2 Side A

Item 1 Blas Family Residence, Poblacion, Banaue, Ifugao Participated by the Blas Family and Friends Gangha Lecture-Performance, requested by U.P. Diliman Students 28 December 2008 Tape 2 Side B Item 1 Blas Family Residence, Poblacion, Banaue, Ifugao Participated by the Blas Family and Friends Gangha Lecture-Performance, requested by U.P. Diliman Students 28 December 2008 2. Still Photos (Kodak Film on Minolta Riva Twin 28 Film Camera) Roll 1 Negative 0 “Welcome drinks!” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Valerie Vibar, Dino Pascual, Tusa Montes, Laurice Caronan, Roan Opiso 27 December 2008 Negative 1 Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Dino Pascual, Paolo Pardo, Laurice Caronan, Roan Opiso 27 December 2008 Negative 2 Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Dino Pascual 27 December 2008 Negative 3 Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Santos Bayucca, Tusa Montes, Laurice Caronan, Roan Opiso 27 December 2008

Negative 4 Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Valerie Vibar, Dino Pascual 27 December 2008 Negative 5 “The surrounding lodgings” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao 27 December 2008 Negative 6 “The breakfast begins” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao 27 December 2008 Negative 7 “Pet turkey and dog at the lodgings” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao 27 December 2008 Negative 8 “Presenting…tapuy!” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Santos Bayucca, Dino Pascual 27 December 2008 Negative 9 “Ifugao mountain rice” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao 27 December 2008 Negative 10 “Setting the dinner table 1” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Uhaj Kabataan 27 December 2008 Negative 11 “Setting the dinner table 2” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Uhaj Kabataan 27 December 2008 Negative 12 “Vegetable dinner” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao

Dr. Fe Prudente, Tusa Montes, Dino Pascual 27 December 2008 Negative 13 “Photo op at dinner” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Roan Opiso,Laurice Caronan, Valerie Vibar 27 December 2008 Negative 14 “Mayoyao hut (backstage)” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Uhaj Kabataan 27 December 2008 Negative 15 “Opening the relic box” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Santos Bayucca 27 December 2008 Negative 16 “Cultural Night: Offering to the Gods 1” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Uhaj Kabataan 27 December 2008 Negative 17 “Cultural Night: Offering to the Gods 2” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Uhaj Kabataan 27 December 2008 Negative 18 “Cultural Night: Offering to the Gods 3” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Uhaj Kabataan 27 December 2008 Negative 19 “Cultural Night: Sacrificing pigs”

Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Uhaj Kabataan 27 December 2008 Negative 20 “Cultural Night: Mumbaki incantation 1” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Uhaj Kabataan 27 December 2008 Negative 22 “Cultural Night: Preparing the sacrificial chickens” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Uhaj Kabataan 27 December 2008 Negative 23 “Cultural Night: Ritual ensues” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Uhaj Kabataan 27 December 2008 Negative 24 “Cultural Night: Preparing to dance” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Uhaj Kabataan 27 December 2008 Negative 25 “Cultural Night: The circle dance 1” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Uhaj Kabataan 27 December 2008 Negative 26 “Cultural Night: The circle dance 2” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Uhaj Kabataan 27 December 2008 Negative 27 “Cultural Night: The boys” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao

Uhaj Kabataan 27 December 2008 Negative 28 “Cultural Night: Preparing the Blanket Dance” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Uhaj Kabataan 27 December 2008 Negative 29 “Cultural Night: Gangha Trio” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Uhaj Kabataan 27 December 2008 Negative 30 “Cultural Night: Blanket Dance commences” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Uhaj Kabataan 27 December 2008 Negative 31 “Cultural Night: Blanket Dance” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Uhaj Kabataan 27 December 2008 Negative 32 “Cultural Night: Courtship through fabric” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Uhaj Kabataan 27 December 2008 Negative 33 “Cultural Night: Roan joins in” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Roan Opiso, Uhaj Kabataan 27 December 2008 Negative 34 “Cultural Night: Jovany dances with a tourist” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao

Jovany, Uhaj Kabataan 27 December 2008 Negative 35 “Cultural Night: Tour guide’s turn” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Uhaj Kabataan 27 December 2008 Negative 36 “Cultural Night: Enjoying gangha” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Uhaj Kabataan 27 December 2008 Roll 2 Negative 0 “Having lunch” Restaurant at Poblacion, Banaue, Ifugao Paolo Pardo 28 December 2008 Negative 1 “No spitting moma” Banaue Tourist and Police Assistance Center, Banaue, Ifugao 28 December 2008 Negative 2 “The Banaue mountains” Banaue Jeepney Terminal, Banaue, Ifugao Paolo Pardo 28 December 2008 Negative 3 “Group photo” Banaue Jeepney Terminal, Banaue, Ifugao Laurice Caronan, Valerie Vibar, Roan Opiso, Paolo Pardo Tusa Montes, Dino Pascual 28 December 2008 Negative 4 “My field work companions” Banaue Jeepney Terminal, Banaue, Ifugao Dr. Fe Prudente, Laurice Caronan, Valerie Vibar, Roan Opiso, Tusa Montes, Dino Pascual,

28 December 2008 Negative 5 “Modeling an Ifugao headdress” Banaue Jeepney Terminal, Banaue, Ifugao Dino Pascual, Tusa Montes, Paolo Pardo, Valerie Vibar 28 December 2008 Negative 6 “At the gong foundry / woodcarving studio” Ifugao 28 December 2008 Negative 7 “The workplace and furnace of the foundry” Ifugao 28 December 2008 Negative 8 “Sitting to talk” Gong Foundry,Ifugao 28 December 2008 Negative 9 “More materials” Gong Foundry,Ifugao 28 December 2008 Negative 10 “The gong mold 1” Gong Foundry,Ifugao 28 December 2008 Negative 11 “The gong mold 2” Gong Foundry,Ifugao 28 December 2008 Negative 12 “The technical tools of gongmaking” Gong Foundry,Ifugao 28 December 2008 Negative 13 “Beginning the demonstration” Gong Foundry,Ifugao 28 December 2008 Negative 14 “The demo 1”

Gong Foundry,Ifugao 28 December 2008 Negative 15 “The demo 2” Gong Foundry,Ifugao 28 December 2008 Negative 16 “The demo 3” Gong Foundry,Ifugao 28 December 2008 Negative 17 “Back to woodcarving” Gong Foundry,Ifugao 28 December 2008 Negative 18 “With Roan in Banaue” Banaue Jeepney Terminal, Banaue, Ifugao Paolo Pardo, Roan Opiso 28 December 2008 Negative 19 “Around the open fire” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Uhaj Kabataan 28 December 2008 Negative 20 “Checking out the technology” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Tusa Montes, Valerie Vibar, Roan Opiso, Uhaj Kabataan 28 December 2008 Negative 21 “Heartwarming” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Uhaj Kabataan, Santos Bayucca, Dr. Fe Prudente 28 December 2008 Negative 22 “Sharing the heat” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Uhaj Kabataan 28 December 2008

Negative 23 “Fire and tapuy” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Uhaj Kabataan 28 December 2008 Negative 24 “Talking it out” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Santos Bayucca, Dr. Fe Prudente, Uhaj Kabataan 28 December 2008 Negative 25 “Smoke gets in our eyes” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Uhaj Kabataan 28 December 2008 Negative 26 “Campfire’s burning” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Uhaj Kabataan 28 December 2008 Negative 27 “Uhaj youth 1” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Santos Bayucca, Dr. Fe Prudente, Uhaj Kabataan 28 December 2008 Negative 28 “Uhaj youth 2” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao Uhaj Kabataan 28 December 2008 Negative 29 Inn” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao 28 December 2008 Negative 30 “Changing landscapes” “Early morning view from Lagud

Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao 28 December 2008 Negative 31 “Ifugao still life” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao 28 December 2008 Negative 32 “Lagud Village seen from the Inn” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao 28 December 2008 Negative 33 “The hike down” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao 28 December 2008 Negative 34 “Parade to Uhaj 1” Highway, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao 28 December 2008 Negative 35 “Parade to Uhaj 2” Highway, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao 28 December 2008 Negative 36 “Parade to Uhaj 3” Highway Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao 28 December 2008 Negative 37 “Parade to Uhaj 4” Highway, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao 28 December 2008 3. Video (Sony Ericsson mobile telephone) Video 1 (MOV00017) Item 1 “View of Banaue from Lagud” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao 27 December 2008 Video 2 (MOV00018) Item 1 “Batad hut”

Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao 27 December 2008 Video 3 (MOV00027) Item 1 “Introducing the patting” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao 27 December 2008 Video 4 (MOV00028) Item 1 “Vegetarian lunch 1” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao 27 December 2008 Video 5 (MOV00040) Item 1 “Vegetarian lunch 2” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao 27 December 2008 Video 6 (MOV00042) Item 1 “Post performance interview 1” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao 27 December 2008 Video 8 (MOV00043) Item 1 “Post performance interview 2” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao 27 December 2008 Video 9 (MOV00044) Item 1 “Post performance interview 3” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao 27 December 2008 Video 10 (MOV00045) Item 1 “Post performance interview 4” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao 27 December 2008

Video 11 (MOV00046) Item 1 “The morning view 1” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao 28 December 2008 Video 12 (MOV00047) Item 1 “The morning view 2” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao 28 December 2008 Video 13 (MOV00048) Item 1 “Bestowing the tokens” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao 28 December 2008 Video 14 (MOV00049) Item 1 “Brunch” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao 28 December 2008 Video 15 (MOV00050) Item 1 “Blas Family gong sessions” Blas Residence, Poblacion, Banaue, Ifugao 28 December 2008 Video 16 (MOV00051) Item 1 “The Bonfire” Lagud Village Learning Inn, Lagud, Uhaj, Banaue, Ifugao 28 December 2008

E. APPENDICES
Ifugao Names of Visitors Laurice Paolo Dino Tusa Valerie lady Roan Dr. Fe Immaya Ginay always rejects suitors old and industrious Bugan beautiful lady Puggyuwon tall and rich Aliguyon hunter Bungayen lady shaman Inchorna always a single

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