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ACTES"DU"SEMINAIRE"DE"DESIGN"URBAIN,"14215"AVRIL"2014,"IUAR,"AIX2MARSEILLE"UNIVERSITE"

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Design"urbain,"projet"urbain,"art"urbain,"composition"urbaine"une"question"de"vocabulaire"?"
Par"Daniel"Pinson"
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"
Rsum"
Le# terme# #urbanisme## de# Pierre# Clerget# (1910)# a# mis# la# pagaille# dans# la# pratique# et# les#
formations# en# France.# Lurbanisme# est# ainsi,# au# plan# acadmique,# une# coexistence# dapproches#
disciplinaires,#ce#qui#naide#pas##une#formation#urbanistique#pluridisciplinaire.#Rflchir##ce#quest#le#
#design#urbain#,##la#suite#de##lart#urbain,#de#la#composition#urbaine,#ou##ct#du#projet#urbain#et#
dautres#approches#des#territoires#peut#aider##y#voir#plus#clair#dans#lurbanisme."
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"
Le"terme"de"Design"urbain"nous"vient"de"la"translation"qubcoise"de"Urban"Design."On"peut"
penser"que"cette"traduction"partielle"a"t"inspire,"plus"ou"moins"spontanment,"par"le"souci"que"les"
francophones2francophiles" du" Canada" ont" de" la" protection" de" la" langue" franaise." On" notera" en"
mme" temps" que" les" Qubcois" ne" sont" pas" parvenus" " aller" jusquau" bout" de" cette" traduction" du"
fait"que"le"mot"Design"na"pas"dquivalent"franais"et"que"son"nonciation"orale"naide"en"aucune"
manire""clarifier"la"densit,"la"profondeur"de"sens"quil"a"en"anglais"et"dans"dautres"langues."Dessin"
et"dessein,"pourtant"de"mme"origine"tymologique,"distinguent,"dans"la"culture"franaise,"la"forme"
et"le"fond,"la"lettre"et"lesprit,"l"o"on"aimerait,"non"quils"les"confondent,"mais"quils"les"associent."
Les"Canadiens"francophones"ont"donc,"pour"des"raisons"qui"ne"nous"sont"pas"prcisment"connues,"
gard"le"terme"Design."
Ainsi" ce" terme" franglais" figure" dans" les" programmes" denseignement" des" facults"
dAmnagement" de" Montral" et" de" Qubec" o" il" trouve" des" dfinitions" assez" prcises1." On" peut"
penser" que" cette" demi2traduction" prend" en" compte" lappartenance" aux" rseaux" des" institutions"
universitaires" nord2amricaines" et," dans" leur" optique," " lexigence" dune" reconnaissance" par" les"
instances" professionnelles," plus" troite" et" plus" forte" quelle" ne" lest" en" France." Nous" verrons" " ce"
sujet"la"place"qua"prise,""partir"des"annes"1950,"lUrban"Design"comme"discipline"en"Amrique"du"
Nord."
Pour"ce"qui"le"concerne,"le"mot""urbanisme","dont"on"sait"quil"est"(maintenant)"un""vieux""
nologisme"franais"nonc"par""le"gographe"Pierre"Clerget"en"1910,"ne"semble"jamais"tre"parvenu"
" sortir" de" lunivers" linguistique" francophone," voire" dorigine" latine," bien" quassez" rcemment," " la"
faveur"dun"retour"des"Amricains"vers"la"culture"Beaux2Arts"franaise,"le"terme"ait"t"repris"par"le"
courant"du"New"Urbanism"ainsi"que"dautres"termes"de"cette"culture"comme"celui"de""charrette".""
Nous"essaierons"den"dire"un"mot"plus"loin."
En" annonce" de" cette" communication," jai" dit" la" confusion" quavait" rpandue" le" mot"
"urbanisme"." Le" monde" anglo2saxon" ne" sy" est" jamais" vraiment" ralli":" il" maintient" la" distinction"
entre" planning" et" design." En" France," la" coupure" entre" larchitecture" et" lamnagement," dans"
lenseignement" suprieur," a" encore" aggrav" cette" confusion," en" interdisant" lutilisation" du" terme"
urbanisme"par"les"coles"darchitecture,"relevant,"selon"les"poques,"dautres"ministres"que"celui"de"
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"Objectifs"du"programme"de"Matrise"individualise"en"design"urbain"de"lUniversit"de"Montral":""Le"but"du"programme"
est" de" former" des" spcialistes" du" design" urbain" aptes" " intervenir" dans" des" milieux" urbains" cibls" par" des" projets" de"
requalification" ou" de" revitalisation," " concevoir" de" nouveaux" espaces" urbains," tant" au" centre" quen" priphries," et" "
concevoir" des" ambiances" urbaines" et" des" lieux" publics" aux" appropriations" multiples." Ces" comptences" ont" trait"
principalement""lanalyse"de"la"forme"urbaine,""la"composition"urbaine,""lvaluation"et""la"gestion"des"projets,"au"travail"
en" quipe" multidisciplinaire." Elles" sappuieront" sur" une" connaissance" des" processus" de" formation" des" ensembles" urbains,"
vus" dans" une" perspective" historique" et" systmique." " la" faveur" dune" approche" interdisciplinaire," laccent" est" mis" sur" le"
dveloppement"dune"capacit"danalyse"des"ensembles"urbains"en"vue"de"la"formulation"de"diagnostics"clairs,"de"mme"
que"sur"llaboration"de"projets"novateurs"et"sur"leur"suivi."""
(2009":"http://www.ame.umontreal.ca/etudes_maitrise/maitrise_ind.htm")"
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lenseignement"suprieur."On"doit"noter"par"ailleurs,"que"jusque"dans"les"annes"1980,"lurbanisme"
na"t"quune"sous2section"de"la"gographie."Dans"notre"universit,"le"dpartement"damnagement"
a" longtemps" t" interdit" dutilisation" du" mot," les" juristes," " contre2courant" dune" histoire" de"
lurbanisme"bien"tablie,"considrant"que"lurbanisme"tait"le"droit"de"lurbanisme."
Ce" sminaire" est" donc" le" bienvenu" pour" rflchir" " la" notion" de" Design" urbain" et" la" resituer"
dans" le" champ" de" lurbanisme." En" effet" ce" nologisme" nest" pas" sans" poser" de" considrables"
difficults"dont"je"pense"quelles"se"sont"aggraves"depuis"une"dcennie."Elles"sont"assez"apparentes"
en" France" et" elles" trouvent" dabord" leur" traduction" dans" lenseignement" de" lurbanisme" et" de" ce"
quon" appelle" lamnagement," comme" je" viens" de" le" signaler." Elles" existent" galement" au" plan"
professionnel""travers"lattribution"du"Grand"Prix"de"lUrbanisme,"dans"lidentification"des"missions"
durbanisme" par" lOffice" Professionnel" de" Qualification" des" Urbanistes" (OPQU":" "Rfrentiel" des"
mtiers"," 2006)" issu" dun" travail" de" concertation" entre" lEtat" et" la" plupart" des" associations"
durbanistes.""
Il" est" ncessaire" davoir" en" arrire" plan" lvolution" professionnelle" et" acadmique" de"
lurbanisme"en"France"pour"y"apporter"un"peu"de"lumire"et"il"est"aujourdhui"indispensable"de"situer"
cette"histoire"dans"lenvironnement"de"la"mondialisation."Mon"propre"angle"de"vue"est""cet"gard"
limit,"aprs"une"courte"priode"dactivit"professionnelle,""mon"travail"denseignant"chercheur,""
Nantes" en" cole" darchitecture" (197321994)," puis" " Aix2Marseille" en" urbanisme" (199422014)," " mon"
exprience" de" coopration" avec" lEcole" dArchitecture" de" Marseille" et" celle" de" lUniversit" Laval" "
Qubec"(Atelier"de"Design"urbain"de"Puyloubier,"2005)"et"de"pilotage"dun"Master"Erasmus"Mundus"
en" Europe" du" Sud" (200722013)." " Tout" cela" a" stimul" ma" rflexion" sur" lurbanisme" et" son" statut" de"
discipline,"entre"art"et"science"(article"sur""lurbanisme"indisciplin","2004).""
Pour"rsumer"la"conclusion"vers"laquelle"je"souhaite"conduire"mon"exercice"de"clarification"des"
"lments" de" langage"" que" je" vais" examiner," je" pense" que" le" terme" durbanisme" (ou" pire"
damnagement)"a"jet"une"grande"confusion"dans"ce"quil"a"voulu"artificiellement"runir"alors"quil"
aurait" fallu," selon" une" catgorisation" pratique" par" les" anglo2saxons," oprer" des" distinctions" et" un"
portage"lgitime"plus"nets"entre"design"et"planning"tout"dabord,"et"dautres"catgories"qui"peuvent"
sy"rattacher"et"pour"lesquelles,"dans"un"premier"temps"je"prfre"utiliser"une"terminologie"anglaise":"
Urban#Studies,"Public#Affairs,"etc."
Pour"ce"travail"de"clarification,"quatre"notions,"des"synonymes"de""Design"urbain""si"on"veut,"
ont"t"retenues"pour""montrer"ce"quil"y"au2del"de"ces"termes":""
1. Projet"urbain,""
2. Art"urbain,""
3. Composition"urbaine,""
4. Urban#Design/Design"urbain""
Le"choix"a"t"fait"de"partir"de"celle"qui"semble"la"plus"familire,"voire"la"plus"galvaude,"la"plus"
""la"mode","pour,"en"tirant"sur"le"fil"de"la"pelote"des"liens"de"parent"ou"de"voisinage,"faire"venir"
les" autres" concepts" jusqu" celui" de" Design" urbain." La" mthode" est" emprunte" " la" gnalogie" de"
Michel"Foucauld"("LArchologie"du"savoir""et""Lordre"du"discours")."Cest,"me"semble2t2il,"celle"
quutilise" Franoise" Choay" dans" le" dictionnaire" de" lAmnagement" et" de" lUrbanisme" pour" dfinir"
l"urbanisme"" (une" dfinition" par" lhistoire" du" concept)," ce" qui" la" distingue" de" celle" utilise" par"
Pierre"Merlin,"co2auteur,"qui,"pour"sa"dfinition"de"l"Amnagement","comme"situe"hors"du"temps,"
reprend" les" dfinitions" substantielles" des" dictionnaires" les" plus" usuels." On" notera" ici" que," si" Merlin"
parle"damnagement"comme"dune"pratique,"Choay"parle"de"lurbanisme"comme"activit"pratique"
et"thorique."
Lordre"de"prsentation"des"concepts"empruntera"donc"un"cheminement"qui,"partant"du"projet"
urbain,"sefforcera"de"mettre"en"vidence"ce"quil"peut"avoir"de"parent,"presquimplicite,"avec"lart"
urbain."La"prsentation"de"ce"terme,"qui"recouvre"une"conception"et"un"courant"de"mise"en"forme"de"
la" ville," nous" permettra," en" considrant" ce" qui" le" distingue" de" cet" autre" terme," daborder" la"
composition" urbaine," sa" rduction" acadmique" et" son" renouvellement," tant" en" Amrique" du" Nord"
quen" France," dans" les" annes" 1970." Nous" ferons" alors" apparatre" le" lien" transatlantique" que" la"
composition"urbaine"renouvele"a""avec"lUrban#Design"lui2mme"repens""Boston,"dans"les"annes"
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1950," " partir" dune" dmarcation" davec" la" conception" fonctionnaliste" impose" au" Mouvement"
Moderne"par"Le"Corbusier."
"
La#notion#de#projet#urbain.#
Cest"celle"qui"est"la"plus"rebattue"aujourdhui"et"elle"est"devenue"totalement"polysmique."Le"
terme"nat"dans"les"annes"1980,"dans"les"milieux"de"larchitecture."La"question"vaut"dtre"examine"
au"plan"thorique,"dans"la"mesure"o"la"notion"de"projet"est"fortement"mise"en"avant,"associe""un"
qualificatif"qui"lui"tait"auparavant"tranger"autant"que"celui"d""architectural""lui"tait"familier."Il"
est"alors"intressant"de"regarder"comment"cette"autre"dmarche"a"t"applique."
Le" concept" de" "projet"" a" t" beaucoup" discut"dans" les" annes" 1970" :" cest" une" notion"
suspecte,"qui,""la"diffrence"de"la"rsolution"de"problmes,"passe"par"trop"de"ttonnement"en"une"
poque"o"triomphe"la"rationalit"absolue."On"veut"donc"percer"le"mystre"de"la""bote"noire""que"
constitue"la"conception"par"projets."Nous"ne"reviendrons"pas"ici"sur"la"somme"importante"de"travaux"
qui"y"ont"t"consacrs."Jean2Pierre"Boutinet""retiendra"notre"attention"avec"son"ouvrage"majeur"sur"
l"Anthropologie" du" projet"" (1990)" dans" lequel" il" interroge" le" projet" comme" processus" cognitif,""
mode"danticipation"n"de"la"pratique"architecturale"et"tendu""toutes"les"dimensions"de"lactivit"
humaine.""
Le"projet"est"une"recherche2cration"par"ttonnement":"il"procde"par"essai/erreur,"et"savre,"
sous" cet" angle," assez" proche" des" pratiques" artistiques." En" raison" de" cette" proximit" devenue"
coupable" " partir" du" XIXe" sicle," au" moment" o" se" sparent" les" "sciences"" et" les" humanits," la"
disqualification" du" projet" ne" cesse" daugmenter," renforce" par" le" conformisme" acadmique," tout"
particulirement"en"architecture."Cette"disqualification"a"connu"son"apoge"dans"les"annes"1960,"au"
moment"o"simposent"les"pratiques"dingnieur,"qui"pensent"en"termes"de"rsolution"de"problmes.""
Depuis,"le"projet"a"t"rhabilit"par"une"nouvelle"vision"de"la"science"qui"doit"beaucoup""des"
pistmologues" comme" Thomas" Kuhn," Edgar" Morin" et" Isabelle" Stengers" :" la" science" nest" pas" une"
vrit" dfinitive" mais" une" succession" de" paradigmes," de" reprsentations" du" rel." Si" son" effort" est"
plac"dans"la"dcouverte"de"lois,"par"la"reproduction"des"phnomnes"existant"par"le"truchement"du"
laboratoire,"la"connaissance"progresse"aussi"par"des"dmarches"danticipation,"comme"lest"le"projet."
Cest" lingenium" de" Giambattista" Vico," redcouvert" par" Jean2Louis" Lemoigne," dont" la" figure"
emblmatique" est" Lonard" de" Vinci," ou" les" modlisations" qulaborent" ceux" qui" mnent" des"
recherches"sur"lvolution"du"climat,"magnifique"exemple"dun"croisement"retrouv"entre"sciences"de"
la"nature"et"humanits."
On" se" devait" de" souligner" cette" dimension" thorique" car" elle" a" contribu" " redonner" " des"
activits"portant"une"double"dimension,"artistique"et"technico2scientifique,"une"aura"quelles"avaient"
perdue.""Larchitecture"et"lurbanisme"en"font"partie.""
Il" est" " prsent" intressant" de" regarder" les" rejaillissements" pratiques" de" ce" double"
renversement":"regain"de"crdit"de"la"dmarche"de"projet,"rinscription"du"projet"architectural"dans"
son" environnement" urbain." Pour" bien" faire," il" aurait" t" judicieux" de" souligner" pralablement" cet"
autre" repositionnement" thorique" qua" t" celui" de" larchitecture" en" regard" de" la" ville" ancienne."
Nous" nous" dispenserons" ici" de" revenir" sur" les" apports" des" diffrentes" coles" dtudes"
morphologiques"nes"en"Europe,"tout"particulirement"en"Italie"et"en"France"dans"les"annes"1960,"
et" leur" importante" contribution" au" renouvellement" de" la" dmarche" de" projet." On" peut" ainsi"
considrer"que"la"dmarche"de"reconqute"du"centre"ancien"de"Bologne,"trs"explicitement"inspire"
par"les"leons"de"la"typo2morphologie,"y"a"puissamment"contribu"(Cervellati"et"alii,"1977)."
Le"projet" est" ds" lors" repens" " travers" les" liens" quil" a" avec" la" ville," son" histoire" et" " sa"
dimension"socitale":"cest"lurbanit"contre"la"technicit,"y"compris"celle"qui"cherche"une"issue""la"
domination" techno2bureaucratique" dans" lutopie"technicienne" comme" les" projets" futuristes" du"
groupe"anglais"Archigram."En"France,"un"des"moments"marquants"de"ce"retournement"concide"avec"
le"Concours"du"PAN"7"de"1975."Ces"comptitions"ouvertes"aux"jeunes"architectes"(moins"de"40"ans)"
avaient"t"lances"par"le"Plan"Construction"du"Ministre"de"lEquipement"pour"la"recherche"dune"
alternative"aux"grands"ensembles."Les"rponses"apportes"aux"premiers"concours"sobstinaient"dans"
la"recherche"constructive."La"7e"session,"prside"par"Bernard"Huet,"rcompensa"les"projets"donnant"
3"

une"plus"grande"part"aux"thmes"de"lurbanit"et"de"lappropriation."Cest"ainsi"que"fut"remarqu"le"
projet" de" Christian" de" Portzamparc" en" faveur" dune" "architecture" urbaine"." Le" projet" magnifie"
lespace" public" " travers" ce" vide" quest" le" jardin" intrieur" de" son" projet" de" logement" (une" sorte" de"
Place"des"Vosges)."
On"peut"dire,"sans"grand"risque"derreur,"que"le"concept"de"Projet"urbain"est"n"du"vaste"dbat"
engag"par"Choay"et"Lefebvre"sur"le"Mouvement"moderne":"il"est"nourri"par"la"critique"de"lurbanisme"
fonctionnaliste," par" la" remise" en" cause" de" ces" objets" clibataires" que" sont" beaucoup" des" oeuvres"
contemporaines,"dessines"dans"lignorance"de"la"ville"existante,"voire"contre"elle,"se"risquera"de"dire"
Bernard"Huet"dans"un"article"clbre"paru"dans"la"revue"AMC"(Architecture,"Mouvement,"Continuit)."
La"dmarche"va"progressivement"se"prciser"et,"quelque"20"ans"plus"tard,"Christian"Devillers""(1994,"
Pavillon" de" lArsenal)" fera" de" cette" question" du" rapport" " la" ville2dj2l" largument" principal" de" sa"
confrence"sur"le"Projet"urbain"et"de"la"critique"contre"la"Loi"dOrientation"Foncire"(LOF)"de"1967":"
cette"loi"majeure"pour"les"urbanisations"futures"ne"pense"lurbanisme"quen"terme"dextension"et"de"
rglementation"des"sols."
Dune"certaine"manire,"et"cest"ce"qui"nous"conduira""parler"de"lArt"urbain"et""en"prciser"le"
contenu," par" limportance" donne" " lhistoire," " la" ville" existante," la" thorie" naissante" du" Projet"
urbain" renoue" avec" lurbanisme" culturaliste" (F." Choay," 1965)";" elle" en" est," en" quelque" sorte," une"
redcouverte"
Il" faut" auparavant" pointer" quelques" expriences" (projets)" majeures" qui" jalonnent" la"
construction" de" la" notion" de" "projet" urbain"" jusqu" la" loi" Solidarit" et" Renouvellement" Urbain"
(SRU)"de"2000."La"dfinition"de"la"forme"tient"dans"ces"projets"toute"sa"place,"nourrie"par"un"retour"
sur"les"valeurs"de"la"ville":"lurbanit"de"la"ville"comme"lieu"de"la"rencontre,"rendue"possible"par"un"
espace"public"requalifi,""dmacadamis","et"le"plaisir"retrouv"de"la"marche."Il"suffit"de"se"rappeler"
lengouement"de"lpoque"pour"la"pitonisation"des"centres2villes."
"
Ill." 1":" le" projet" dAtlanpole" par" C." de" Portzamparc"
(1984"
Nous" choisirons," parmi" dautres," deux" projets"
situs" " deux" moments" significatifs" de" cette"
laboration"de"la"dmarche"de"projet"urbain":"le"projet"
du" technople" Atlanpole" " Nantes," conu" dans" les"
annes" 1980," " une" poque" o" les" dcideurs" pensent"
encore" la" ville" en" extension." " Le" projet" sera" plus" tard"
abandonn" pour" celui," plus" central" et" moins"
monofonctionnel," de" lle" de" Nantes." Le" second"
exemple," labor" " lchelle" communale," concerne" la"
ville"de"Montreuil";"il"obtiendra"le"Prix"du"Projet"Urbain"
du" Ministre" de" lEquipement" en" 1994." Il" a" t" un"
vritable" laboratoire" de" mise" " lpreuve" des"
principales" thses" dfendues" pour" la" dmarche" de"
projet" urbain." La" confrence" prononce" par" Devillers"
en"1996"en"est"grandement"inspire"et"ses"arguments"
mieux" compris" lorsque" lon" se" penche" avec" un" peu"
dattention"sur"le"processus"dlaboration"de"ce"projet,"
pilot" par" un" directeur" du" service" durbanisme"
entirement" engag" dans" la" dmarche" de" projet"
urbain." Autre" chose" est" sa" ralisation," inaboutie," et"
dont" les" raisons" du" semi2chec" mriteraient" dtre"
tudis."
Le"projet"dAtlanpole,"pour"ce"qui"le"concerne,"a"t"confi""C."de"Portzamparc."Le"projet"met"
en"oeuvre"une"composition"bien"structure"(ill."1):"elle"nest"pas"un"exercice"purement"formel";"elle"
porte" un" sens" que" Portzamparc" argumente" " travers" quatre" schmas" suffisamment" clairs":" "les"
4"

inscriptions",""les"fronts",""les"quartiers",""les"constructions"."Dans"lordre"des""inscriptions","
avec"lAxe"Bretagne,"perce"visuelle"et"non"routire,"colonne"vertbrale"de"la"composition,"le"projet"
dit" son" rapport" " la" ville" centre";" cet" axe" est" redcoup" transversalement," tous" les" 400" m," par" des"
alles"pitonnes"qui"le"rattachent""lErdre,"magnifique"affluent"de"la"Loire,"autrefois"villgiature"de"la"
bourgeoisie"nantaise,"et,"dans"les"annes""post"rvolutionnaires""de"la"dcennie"1970,"haut"lieu"de"
la" reconqute" de" ses" rives" privatises." Par" ltablissement" des" "fronts"," formant" une" lisire" nette"
entre"la"nature"et"ce"nouveau"morceau"de"ville,"les"espaces"plants"ne"sont"pas"le"rsidu"fragment"
de" ce" qui" est" par" ailleurs" construit," comme" ils" le" sont" la" plupart" du" temps" dans" lurbanisme"
fonctionnaliste" des" grands" ensembles," inspir" des" thses" de" Le" Corbusier." " En" ce" sens" le" projet" est"
respectueux" de" la" nature" :" les" constructions" ne" sont" pas" disperses" ;" elles" forment" des" ensembles"
dont"les"limites"avec"les"espaces"naturels"sont"clairement"dfinies"(les""fronts")."
Il"en"rsulte"une"densit"qui"trouve"sa"traduction"dans"ce"que"Portzamparc"appelle"les""lots"
libres"."Cette"figure"renouvele"de"la"ville"europenne"classique"prserve"une"catgorie"essentielle"
de" cet" archtype" urbain":" en" revenant" sur" labandon" de" lalignement" sur" la" rue" voulu" par" la" Charte"
dAthnes" (points" 27" et" 60)" qui" donne" des" "objets" clibataires"," Portzamparc" raffirme" la"
prpondrance" de" llot" sur" les" parcelles" difies," confirmant" les" recherches" morphologiques" de"
Panerai"(1975)"et"dautres."Nous"verrons"aussi"en"quoi,"autre"argument"de"proximit"du"projet"urbain"
avec"lurbanisme"culturaliste,"l""lot"libre""de"cette""ville"de"lge"3""prconise"par"Portzamparc,"
fait"cho"aux""lots"ouverts""de"lArt"urbain"des"annes"1920"et"de"ses"nouveaux"quartiers"de"HBM."
"
Ill." 2":" le" projet" urbain" de" la" Ville" de"
Montreuil"(1994)"
"

Alors"
quAtlanpole"
sinscrivait" dans" la" procdure"
drogatoire" des" ZAC," "outil""
juridique" franais" permettant" la"
cration" de" nouveaux" quartiers"
urbains" (en" moyenne" 30" ha)," la"
voie" emprunte" par" la" Ville" de"
Montreuil" vise" " inscrire" la"
dmarche" de" projet" urbain" dans"
celle" de" la" rglementation" en"
vigueur," celle" des" POS," que"
remplaceront" en" 2000" les" PLU."
Elle" y" parviendra" en" faisant" la"
dmonstration" que" le" bien2fond"
dun" plan" durbanisme" ne" rside"
pas" tant" dans" les" rgles"
dutilisation" du" sol" que" dans" les"
orientations" et" les" dispositions"
physiques" des" projets" de" dveloppement" et" damnagement." La" premire" dimension" renvoie" au"
"projet"de"ville","expression"de"la"citadinit,"et""la"seconde"au""projet"urbain","dfinition"physique"
du"prcdent."
Larticulation" entre" projet" de" ville" et" projet" urbain" met" en" avant" le" lien" entre" vie" urbaine" et"
forme" urbaine" (civitas" et" urbs)" :" la" dmocratie" se" substitue" " la" technocratie" (faire" avec" et" non"
seulement"faire"pour)"pour""penser"les"espaces"de"la"ville."Le"projet"technique"trouve"ses"arguments"
dans"lhistoire"de"la"ville,"une"histoire"qui"a"forg"ses"atouts"daujourdhui,"qui"lui"donne"une"identit,"
qui"lui"donne"sa"capacit"de"mobilisation."Le"quartier"des""murs""pches","avec"les"restes"de"ces"
murs"longs"et"serrs"sur"lesquels"les"pchers"palisss"produisaient,""partir"du"XVIIIe"des"fruits"plus"
rapidement" mris" grce" " la" chaleur" emmagasine" par" ces" murs," en" constitue" lemblme." Dans" le"
projet,"lespace"public"prend"une"grande"importance,"dans"une"ville"dont"les"trois"entits"principales"
5"

(Haut2Montreuil,"centre,"Bas2Montreuil)"avaient"t"violemment"spares"par"boulevards"et"bretelles"
autoroutires:"on"notera"parmi"les"propositions"le"concept"d"avenues"paysagres""permettant"de"
requalifier"lespace"public"et"de"relier"les"quartiers"de"la"ville"en"remplacement"des"saignes"de"voirie"
qui"les"divisaient"auparavant"
Bien"dautres"commentaires"seraient""faire"relativement""ce"projet"dont"le"trs"beau"schma"
de" synthse" donne" " lui" seul" lessentiel" des" orientations" (Ill." 2)." Bien" dautres" tudes" de" dtail"
complmentaires" " cette" synthse" apportent" la" dmonstration" quun" POS" (Plan" dOccupation" des"
Sols)"ne"peut"se"rduire""lapplication"automatique"dun"rglement"national";"il"ne"peut"prendre"sens"
quen" rapport" avec" une" connaissance" approfondie" de" la" commune" et" une" implication" de" la"
population"qui"aille"au2del"de"la"traditionnelle"enqute"publique."Cette"faon"de"faire"nest"pas"sans"
rappeler"les"Surveys"de"Patrick"Geddes,"reprises"par"le"courant"de"lArt"urbain"dans"llaboration"des"
plans"dextension"rgis"par"la"premire"loi"durbanisme"en"France,"la"loi"Cornudet"de"1919."
"
"
Lart#urbain,#approche#spcifique#de#lentreOdeuxOguerres#(1919O1939)#
On"peut"ainsi"considrer"que"la"redcouverte,"particulirement"active"dans"les"annes"1970,"de"
lArt" urbain" des" annes" 1920," et" ce," " la" suite" des" premiers" travaux" de" F." Choay" (l" "urbanisme"
culturaliste"),"a"grandement"influenc"lapproche"du""Projet"urbain"."A"ce"sujet,"il"est"admis"quune"
structure," une" institution," a" jou" un" rle" fondamental" dans" la" naissance" de" lart" urbain" :" Le" Muse"
social." Cette" fondation," cre" en" 1995" (C." Chambellan," 1998," J." Horne," 2004)," anime" par" des"
hommes"politiques"de"progrs"(associ""un"capitalisme"clair),"avait""lorigine"la"mission"darchiver"
lhritage" des" documents" de" la" section" d" "Economie" sociale"" qui" prsentait," " loccasion" des"
grandes" expositions" universelles" du" XIXe," les" innovations" en" faveur" de" la" vie" ouvrire." Frdric" Le"
Play,"un"polytechnicien"dont"lapproche"tait"dans"la"mouvance"du"paternalisme"patronal,"en"tait"le"
commissaire" et" les" monographies" sur" la" vie" ouvrire" en" France" quil" y" prsentait" sont" aujourdhui"
reconnues" comme" une" sociologie" pragmatique" de" grand" intrt" pour" la" connaissance" de" la" socit"
industrielle"du"XIXe"sicle"(Kalaora,"Savoye,"1989)."
Au" sein" du" Muse" social" sest" forme" une" Section" dHygine" Urbaine" et" Rurale," " laquelle"
saffilient"de"jeunes"architectes"tels"que"Lon"Jaussely,"Grand"Prix"de"Rome"1903,"laurat"du"nouveau"
concours" dextension" de" Barcelone" (ill." 3)," dont" nous" reparlerons," souvent" en" rupture" avec"
lAcadmie." Il" en" natra" la" SFAU" (Socit" Franaise" des" Architectes" Urbanistes," 1911)" qui" devient" la"
SFU"en"1919."
"

Ill." 3":" le" plan" Jaussely" pour" Barcelone"


(1903) "

Ces" institutions," et" les" hommes"


qui" les" animent," portent" un" contenu"
social," philanthropique," et" ne" limitent"
pas"leur"rflexion"aux"seules"questions"
de" forme." Ils" entretiennent" des" liens"
forts" au" niveau" international,"
notamment" avec" lAngleterre" :" Lon"
Jaussely," prcisment," fait" une"
introduction" " la" traduction" de"
"Ltude"Pratique"des"Plans"de"villes"""
de" Raymond" Unwin," larchitecte" des"
Cits2Jardins"anglaises"de"E."Howard."
Deux"questions"essentielles"sont"
au" centre" de" la" rflexion" du" Muse"
Social":""
- le" logement" social," dit" " cette"
poque" "bon" march"," pour"
6"

lequel"est"prconis,""travers"la"loi"Siegfried"de"1894,"laide"de"lEtat";"
et" le" dveloppement" des" villes" que" viendra" encadrer," avec" les" PAEE" (Plan" dAmnagement"
dEmbellissement" et" dExtension)," la" loi" Cornudet," prpare" avant" la" premire" guerre"
mondiale"et"adopte"en"1919."
Nous"allons"nous"arrter,"en"tenant"compte"des"limites"qui"nous"sont"donnes"ici,""un"examen"
de" lapproche" trs" urbaine" du" logement" conome" qua" t" celle" de" lart" urbain" franais." Pour" cela,"
nous" nous" intresserons" plus" particulirement" au" concours" lanc" par" la" Fondation" Rothschild," en"
1905,"sur"un"lot"de"la"rue"de"Prague,""lEst"de"Paris."Plac"sous"lgide"de"la"loi"sur"la"sant"de"1902,"
le"programme"du"concours"a"une"dimension"sociale"qui"nest"pas"sans"rappeler,"sous"certains"aspects,"
le" Familistre" de" Godin" " Guise," au" nord" de" la" France." Trois" cent" vingt" logements" salubres" et"
conomiques"sont"prvus,"ainsi"quune"cole"mnagre,"et"dautres"quipements"o"saffirment"des"
proccupations"hyginistes"(Dumont,"1991).""
-

"
Ill." 4":" le" projet" de" T." Garnier" pour" la"
Fondation"Rothschild"(1904)"
"

A" loccasion" de" ce" concours" est"


ainsi" invent" l" "lot" ouvert"" que" lon"
peut" considrer" comme" lanctre" de" l"
"lot" libre"" cher" " C." de" Portzamparc."
Deux" projets" avancent" cette" ide" d" "
lot" ouvert" " :" celui" dAugustin" Rey," le"
laurat" du" concours" " (il" poursuivra" une"
carrire" de" conseiller" aux" HBM" de" la"
Seine" et" de" confrencier" international)"
et" celui" de" Tony" Garnier" (ill.4)," dont" le""
projet" exprime" des" ides" neuves," en"
termes" de" construction" et" de" forme,"
dans"lesprit"de"sa""cit"industrielle""et"
de"ses"ralisations"lyonnaises"Llot"ouvert"est"cens"favoriser"la"circulation"de"lair"et"la"pntration"
du" soleil." Si" la" premire" de" ces" exigences" est" entrine" de" longue" date," en" particulier" par"
lorganisation"pavillonnaire"des"hpitaux"comme"celle"des"cits"ouvrires"qui"sen"inspire,"la"seconde"
est" plus" rcente," en" rapport" avec" la" dcouverte" de" la" tuberculose" et" les" premiers" traitements" par"
lexposition" au" soleil" (cf." les" sanatoriums)." A" cet" gard" llot" ouvert" rpond" " lhyginisme" ambiant,"
mais" au" plan" de" la" tradition" dilitaire," il" sinscrit" aussi" dans" la" forme" urbaine" admise" de" llot"
(alignement"sur"la"rue,"commerces"en"rez2de2chausse),"et"perptue"cette"qualit"anthropologique,"
culturelle,"fondamentale,"constitutive"de"la"forme"lot"quest"la"distinction"entre"le"public"et"le"priv.""
"

Ill."5":"le"plan"de"la"Cit2Jardin"de"Suresnes"(1919)"

"
Louverture" de" llot" rpond" ds" lors" " une"
vision" rformatrice" de" lvolution" de" la" ville," " une"
adaptation" aux" avances" de" la" science" mdicale" de"
lpoque,"qui"se"veut"en"mme"temps"respectueuse"
de"la"tradition"urbaine."Llot"reste"donc"pour"l""Art"
urbain"" une" catgorie" essentielle." Cest" une" telle"
catgorie" qui" est" mise" en" place" dans" le" plan"
densemble" labor" par" Alexandre" Maistrasse" pour"
la"Cit2Jardin"de"Suresnes"(Ill."5)."Llot"participe"alors"
dune" composition" densemble" conciliant"les" axes"
majeurs" propres" " une" tradition" de" la" composition"
urbaine" qui" remonte" " la" Renaissance" et" sexprime"
7"

jusqu" Haussmann" et" au2del" (ce" que" nous" allons" aborder" sans" tarder)," dune" part," et" les" rues"
courbes"prconises"par"lAutrichien"Camillo"Sitte,""partir"de"sa"critique"de"lhaussmannisme"("Lart"
de" btir" les" villes," 1889)" et" " de" son" loge" de" lirrgularit," dautre" part."Cette" prfrence" est"
justement"reprise"par"Raymond"Unwin""travers"le"recours"au""pittoresque""quil"propose"pour"les"
premires"cits"jardins"promues"par"Howard"
"
La#composition#urbaine#
On"peut"dire"de"la"composition"urbaine"quelle"est"une"pense"de"la"perspective"applique""
lespace"de"la"ville":"lempire"de"lil"y"rgne"au"dtriment"des"autres"sens."Cest"une"rupture"certaine"
dans"lhistoire"de"la"ville,"mais"aussi"par"rapport""dautres"conceptions"de"lespace"urbain"et"sur"ce"
plan,"pour"qui"la"connat"quelque"peu,""celle"de"la"ville"arabe"dont"on"a"enfin"compris"quelle"ntait"
pas"la"caricature"de"dsordre"mdival"que"lon"a"longtemps"voulu"y"voir"(Pinson,"1996)."
"
Ill."6":"la"Piazza"del"Popolo"vue"par"Piranse"(1750)"""

"
Un" archtype" fondateur" de" cette" nouvelle"
conception"de"lespace"urbain"en"est"le"fameux"plan"
du"Pape"Sixte"Quint,"engag""partir"de"1586"avec"le"
concours"de"larchitecte"Domenico"Fontana."Il"sagit"
pour"ce"pape"de"sortir"Rome"de"son"tat"de"village"
mdival" et" den" faire" la" capitale" du" monde"
catholique." On" y" trouve" laboutissement" des"
rflexions"sur"la"perspective"menes"en"Italie"depuis"
les" travaux" dAlberti" et" les" applications" qui" en" sont"
faites" en" peinture" par" Piero" della" Francesca." Chez"
Vronse,"le"grand"matre"vnitien,"le"dcor"urbain"
qui"forme"le"cadre"de"ses"Cnes"donne"la"mesure"du"
niveau" de" matrise" mais" aussi" de" limportance"
donne" au" cadre" urbain." Comme" lensemble" du" monde" ecclsiastique" " lorigine" de" bien" des"
commandes"picturales,"Sixte"Quint"partage"cette"culture""il"a"reprsent"lInquisition""Venise"2""et,"
en"faisant"appel""larchitecte"Domenico"Fontana,"il"met"en"uvre"cette"culture"dans"la"refonte"de"la"
ville"sainte":"les"glises"majeures"sont"mises"en"relation"visuelle"par"louverture"de"voies"nouvelles"qui"
liminent" tous" les" obstacles" " leffet" perspectif";" des" oblisques" remploys" sont" dresss" pour"
marquer"des"lieux"majeurs"(ill."6)."La"Piazza"del"Popolo,"sur"lancienne"voie"Flaminia,"et"le"Trident"des"
voies" qui" pntrent" au" cur" de" Rome" constituent" lune" des" plus" clbres" figures" de" ce" r2
ordonnancement.""
"
Ill."7":"le"Benjamin"Franklin"Parkway"par"J."Greber"(1917)"

"
Elle" sera" reprise" un" peu" partout" en" Europe," "
Marseille" comme" " Versailles," mais" aussi" en"
Amrique" du" Nord," " Washington," dans" le" plan" du"
Major"Pierre"Lenfant"(1791),"puis," au"dbut"du"XXe"
sicle," dans" le" projet" du" Benjamin" Franklin" Parkway"
(ill.7)," dessin" en" 1917" par" le" Franais" Jacques"
Greber" auquel" sera" confi" plus" tard" le" PAEE" (Plan"
dAmnagement," dExtension" et" dEmbellissement)"
de" Marseille" (1931)." Cest" un" savoir2faire" dont" les"
Franais" ont" une" haute" matrise" et" que" les"
Amricains," notamment" Daniel" H." Burnham,"

8"

larchitecte"et"urbaniste"du"Chicago"de"la"fin"du"XIXe,"reprennent"dans"le"mouvement"City#Beautiful,#
en"y"ajoutant"une"dimension"sociale"qui"nest"pas"sans"sapparenter""celle"des"urbanistes"du"Muse"
Social."
La"composition"urbaine"va"par"la"suite"traverser"une"longue"priode"damnsie"dautant"que"Le"
Corbusier,"au"sein"des"CIAM"et""diffrentes"occasions,"se"fera"grand"plaisir"de"confondre"le"courant"
de"lArt"urbain"avec"les""Acadmies","donnant"de"ci"de"l"un"coup"de"griffe""Henri"Prost"comme""
Camillo"Sitte."Chez"les"Modernes,"le"terme"de""composition"urbaine""et,""plus"forte"raison"celui"d"
"embellissement""2"qui"est"affich"dans"la"premire"loi"durbanisme"en"France"(loi"Cornudet"1919"2,"
sont"bannis"de"leur"vocabulaire":"l""esthtique"de"lingnieur","comme"lappelle"Le"Corbusier,"pense"
lorganisation"de"lespace"selon"une"raison"purement"instrumentale."Lhumain"se"rduit""une"srie"
dappareils"comme"la"science"mdicale"les"dsigne"pour"le"corps":"digestif,"circulatoire,"etc.""
"
Ill."8":"la"trame"et"le"paysage"selon"G."Hanning"(1973)""

"
Cest" pourtant" un" architecte" pass" chez" le" grand"
matre"de"la"rue"de"Svres,"Grald"Hanning,"qui"rhabilite"
la" composition" urbaine" dans" les" annes" 1970," en" suivant"
Kevin" Lynch," qui" lui" a" donn" lui2mme" une" place,"
aujourdhui" trop" oublie," dans" "Limage" de" la" cit""
(1969)" (Pinson," 2012)." La" dmarche" de" Grald" Hanning"
(engage" au" sein" de" lIUARIF," lInstitut" dUrbanisme" et"
dAmnagement"dle"de"France)"a"comme"proccupation"
la" qualit" des" paysages," en" Rgion" parisienne," " la" veille"
de" la" ralisation" des" villes" nouvelles" (Hanning," 1974)." Il"
sintresse" " la" trame" parcellaire," et" " la" trame" foncire"
qui" la" dtermine" (ill." 8)." Pour" Hanning," lhistoire" des"
paysages" de" la" campagne" rsulte" du" travail" des"
laboureurs,""travers"le"sens""la"direction"2"des"sillons"et"
la" limite" des" parcelles." Cest" cette" dynamique" qui" a"
engendr" les" territoires" et" donne" les" fondations" dune"
composition" urbaine" future." Si" ce" travail" reste" mal" connu," relativement" isol," et" marqu" par" une"
finalit" oprationnelle," il" est" complmentaire" des" approches" morphologiques" engages" dans" une"
optique" plus" universitaire" tant" en" Italie" quen" France." Ce" qui" les" rapproche" en" particulier," cest"
limportance" donne" au" processus" de" formation" des" tissus" urbains," en" opposition" radicale" avec" la"
doctrine"de"la"tabula#rasa"ou"de"la""page"blanche""qui"caractrise"la"posture"des"modernes."
"
#
LUrban#Design,#
On"situe"lorigine"de"l"Urban#Design"au"moment"o"Jose"Lluis"Sert"ouvre"une"formation"portant"
ce"nom""la"Graduate"School"of"Design"de"Harvard"dont"il"est,"dans"les"annes"1950,"le"doyen."Les"
Qubcois," qui" ont" pourtant" cette" bonne" ide" dviter" les" anglicismes," nont" pu" lui" donner" dautre"
nom" que" celui" de" Design" urbain." Ce" mixte" tmoigne" de" la" difficult" " offrir" une" traduction"
satisfaisante"du"terme"Design"que"les"subtilits"de"la"langue"franaise"ont"distingu"entre"intention"et"
expression" avec" "dessein"" et" "dessin"." En" conservant" le" terme" Design" et," avec" lui," sa" double"
signification,"qui"associe"conception"et"formalisation,"les"Qubcois"pallient"la"rduction"de"sens"des"
termes""dessin",""dessein""ou""composition""qui"auraient"pu"en"tre"la"traduction."
A" vrai" dire" la" distinction" entre" le" Planning" et" le" Design" existe" depuis" assez" longtemps" dans"
lurbanisme" tel" quil" est" pratiqu" et" enseign" dans" le" monde" anglo2saxon." Le" nologisme"
"urbanisme"" na" dailleurs" jamais" eu" un" grand" succs" hors" de" laire" linguistique" latine." Et,"
probablement,"le"pionnier"de"lUrban"Design"est2il"Raymond"Unwin,"le"designer"des"cits"jardins"de"
Ebenezer" Howard," proche" du" Mouvement" Arts# and# Crafts" (fusion" des" arts" et" de" lindustrie)," mais"
aussi" de" Patrick" Geddes," et" de" son" exigence" denqutes" pralables." Une" remarque" simpose"
9"

cependant" ici":" malgr" limportance" que," dans" son" activit" aussi" bien" que" dans" son" engagement"
partisan,"Unwin"donnait""la"dimension"sociale,"la"partie"Design"domine"largement"dans"son"ouvrage"
majeur"quil"intitule":"Town#Planning#in#Practice#:#An#Introduction#to#the#Art#of#Designing#Cities#and#
Suburbs#"(1909)."Le"sous2titre"dit"le"contenu"du"livre"et"lensemble"du"titre"a"ce"mrite"de"souligner"la"
forte"articulation"de"deux"dimensions"aujourdhui"nettement"distingues"en"Amrique"du"Nord,"alors"
que"la"trop"grande"polysmie"du"terme""urbanisme""en"fait"un"fourre"tout,"expos"aux"modes"et"
aux"ambitions"variables"des"disciplines"intresses""un"titre"ou""un"autre"par"le"fait"territorial.#
Cependant,"comme"cela"a"t"dit"plus"haut,"lUrban#Design"ne"sest"vritablement"dmarqu"
du" planning" quau" moment" o" il" a" t" introduit" en" Amrique" du" Nord" par" J.L." Sert." Succdant" "
Walter" Gropius" " la" tte" de" la" GSD" de" Harvard" (Maniaque," 2006)," il" y" ouvre," avec" la" complicit" de"
Jacky"Tyrwhitt,"un"membre"des"CIAM"trop"effac"par"la"domination"masculine"et"auquel"on"porte"une"
attention" plus" grande" aujourdhui" (Shoshkes," 2013)," un" dpartement" dUrban" Design" (195321956)."
Paysagiste" de" formation," cologiste" de" temprament," Jaqueline" Tyrwhitt," a" t" la" rditrice" de"
Geddes" en" 1948," et" elle" a" activement" diffus" sa" pense" au" sein" du" groupe" anglais" Mars" affili" aux"
CIAM."Elle"a"ainsi"nourri"lapproche"architecturale"dune"dimension"sociologique"et"anthropologique"
auparavant"trop"absente."Avec"E."Rogers"et"Sert,"elle"est"lauteur"de"The#Heart#of#the#City"(ill."9),"le"
Coeur" de" la" cit" (1952)," et" sempare" ainsi" dun" thme," lespace" public," que" Jane" Jacobs" avec" Death#
and#Life#of#Great#American#Cities,"1961,"mettra"au"centre"de"sa"critique"de"la"disparition"de"la"rue"
"
Ill."9":"la"couverture"de"The#Heart#of#the#City"(1952)"

"
Sert" et" Tyrwhitt" font" aussi" volontiers" rfrence" aux"
rflexions" du" philosophe" Martin" Buber." Auteur" autrichien" de"
"Le" je" et" le" tu"" " (1938)," ce" penseur" est," par" excellence," le"
philosophe"de"la"rencontre,"de"la"relation,"en"opposition"avec"
le""je""solitaire"de"Descartes."Cette"rfrence"permet"ainsi""
Sert"et"Tyrwhitt"de"se"dmarquer"de"lapproche"technicienne"
qui" entache" lurbanisme" franais" et" tend" " le" limiter" " la"
question"du"logement,"pense"de"manire"quantitative""sans"
sa" relation" avec" la" ville." La" grille" de" Tyrwhitt," ci2dessous," qui"
ajoute," aux" dimensions" ou" fonctions" prsentes" chez" Geddes"
et"Le"Corbusier,"celles"de"Doxiadis"2"avec"lequel"elle"fondra"la"
revue" et" le" courant" Ekistics," alternative" au" CIAM" et" au" Team"
Ten" 2" ," dnote" clairement" ce" qui" va" progressivement" la"
sparer"de"la"premire"modernit."
"
"
GEDDES"

LE"CORBUSIER"

DOXIADIS"

Place"
Work"
Folk"

Recreation""
Working"
Living"
Transportation"

Nature"and"Shells"
Society"
Anthropos"
Networks"

"
Cette"ouverture"anthropologique,"qui"fait"cho""lintuition"dautres,"en"Europe,"comme"Aldo"
Van" Eyck," est" atteste" par" la" matire" prsente" et" discute" dans" les" sminaires" de" la" formation"
dUrban# Design" de" Harvard" (o" interviennent" notamment" Jane" Jacobs" et" Kevin" Lynch)" et" on" peut"
considrer"que"cette"approche,"mme"si"son"influence"est"reste"limite,"a"laiss"une"empreinte"loin"
dtre" ngligeable." Une" des" manifestations" rcentes" de" lUrban" Design" sest" ainsi" exprime" dans" le"
courant" du" New" Urbanism" (Andrs" Duany," Elisabeth" Plater2Zylberk)," apparu" dans" les" annes" 1980."
Son"inspiration"nest"pas"sans"devoir"au"Vieux"Continent"et""sa"dfense"de"la"ville"europenne"dans"
les" annes" 1975," porte" par" les" dclarations" de" Palerme" et" de" Bruxelles." La" charte" adopte" par" le"
10"

New" Urbanism" est" pour" sa" part" un" manifeste" en" faveur" de" la" ville" dense" et" non" motorise." Si" ce"
courant" a" t" trs" critiqu" pour" avoir" commis" Celebration," la" ville" de" Walt" Disney," et" sa"
compromission" avec" les" Gated# Communities," Cynthia" Ghorra2Gobin" reste" beaucoup" plus" nuance"
dans" le" bilan" quelle" dresse" de" ce" courant" en" 2004." Son" influence" est" relle":" il" est" notamment" "
linitiative" des" "Charettes"," sessions" intenses" de" conception" substantielle" et" formelle," en"
collaboration" troite" avec" tous" les" acteurs" intresss" par" un" projet," au" premier" plan" desquels" sont"
placs"les"habitants."Cette"mthode,"qui"tire"son"nom"du""coup"de"feu""de"dernire"minute"avant"le"
"rendu"" du" projet" 2" transport" en" charrette" " bras" " travers" les" rues" de" Paris" pour" laffichage" in#
extremis"dans"la"Melpomne"de"lEcole"des"Beaux"Arts,"est"une"alternative"stimulante"aux"mthodes"
conventionnelles"de"planning,"tenant"la"plupart"du"temps"trs""distance"les"populations"directement"
concernes"par"lamnagement"en"cours"dtude"puis"de"ralisation."
Le" Design" urbain" est" pratiqu" par" les" collgues" du" GIRBa" (Groupe" Interdisciplinaire" de"
Recherche" sur" les" Banlieues)," quipe" du" CRAD" (Centre" de" Recherche" en" Amnagement" et"
Dveloppement)"de"Universit"Laval"de"Qubec,"en"particulier"par"Carole"Desprs,"Andre"Fortin"et"
Genevive" Vachon." Elles" lui" ont" apport" de" nouveaux" fondements" thoriques" en" mobilisant" " cet"
effet"le"concept"d""Agir"communicationnel""emprunt""Jrgen"Habermas."Ce"concept"permet"de"
mieux"comprendre"lintersubjectivit"qui,"avec"ses"quatre"formes"de"rationalits,"est""la"base"de"la"
dmarche"collaborative":"
"Scientifique"(le"vrai)"
"Ethique"(le"bon)"
"Technique"(le"possible)"
"Esthtique"(le"beau)"
Applique" depuis" le" dbut" des" annes" 2000," la" mthode" peut" concerner" lchelle"
mtropolitaine" comme" des" chelles" plus" restreintes." A" cet" gard," le" "Pacte" Myrand"," projet"
damnagement" dun" fragment" du" domaine" de" lUniversit" Laval" initi" en" 2008" (ill." 10)," dont" les"
minutes" ont" t" archives" avec" une" grande" prcision," constitue" un" exemple" accompli" de" cette"
dmarche.""
"
Ill." 10":" le" plan" de" masse" pour" le" "Pacte" Myrand","
Universit"Laval,"Qubec"(2008)""

"
Le" grand" mrite" du" GIRBa" est" prcisment"
davoir" thoris" une" dmarche" qui," certes," trouve"
des" quivalences" en" Europe";" mais" elles" ont"
rarement" dpass" le" stade" dune" pratique"
empiriste," telle" que" celle" des" "scnarios""
pratique" par" beaucoup" durbanistes," et," au" plan"
pdagogique,"par"lIAR"(les"trois"tapes":"diagnostic,"
scnarios" contrasts" 2" au" fil" de" leau," raisonnable,"
ambitieux" 2" ," approfondissement" du" scnario"
prfrentiel)." Mais" la" dimension" collaborative" y" est"
la"plupart"du"temps"rduite""la"portion"congrue":"la"
participation"
des"
personnes"
directement"
concernes" est" limite" " peu" de" chose," entre" ces"
deux" extrmes" que" sont" la" contestation" partisane," collective" ou" solitaire," et" la" pesante" obligation"
lgale"de"la""concertation""quon"sefforcera"de"faire"rentrer"dans"les"cadres"de"la"pense"savante"
dtenue"par"les"dcideurs"et"les"techniciens."
#
#
Conclusion##
"
Moins"vague"que"le"terme"durbanisme,"moins"restrictif"que"le"terme"de"composition"urbaine,"
le" concept" de" Design" urbain" est" intressant" pour" "dsigner"" " la" fois" le" contenu" du" projet" et" sa"
formalisation."Comme"nous"avons"essay"de"le"montrer"dans"le"prsent"article,"ce"terme"ne"peut"se"
11"

rduire""une"dfinition"qui"permettrait"simplement"de"le"distinguer"de"synonymes"ou"de"termes"qui"
lui"sont"proches."Cest"bien"plus"par"son"histoire,"par"lhistoire"de"la"conception"et"de"la"production"
urbanistiques," quon" peut" lapprhender," une" histoire" qui" limplique" dans" les" discussions" anciennes"
o" sentrecroisent" les" apports" de" connaissances" techniques" et" sociales" permettant" de" saisir" la"
matrialit"de"la"ville"comme"ses"idalits,"les"unes"et"les"autres"plus"sensibles"en"dmocratie."
Le" terme" a" par" ailleurs" cet" avantage" par" rapport" au" concept" de" "projet" urbain"" de" ne" pas"
dissoudre" sa" dimension" dartefact" matriel" dans" les" largissements" et" confusions" de" sens" qua"
connus" le" terme" "projet"" (Jean2Pierre" Boutinet" en" a" fort" bien" reconstitu" les" tapes" historiques"
successives"(Boutinet,"1990)."Le"concept"de"Projet"urbain,"mme"sil"a"t"initialement"formul"par"
des"architectes"critiquant"une"dmarche"fonctionnaliste"niant"les"contextes"historiques"et"urbains,"a"
eu" tendance" " recouvrir" une" srie" de" significations" trop" larges," comme" le" terme" urbanisme," qui" ne"
permettent"pas"de"lire"clairement"ce"quest"le"Planning"compar"au"Design."
Ainsi,"le"concept"de"Projet"urbain,"dabord"rhabilit"par"les"architectes"dans"les"annes"1980,"
alors" quil" est" disqualifi" par" la" science" positive" des" ingnieurs" au" profit" de" la" "rsolution" de"
problme"," fouill" par" la" science" politique" (Pinson" G.," 2009)," chappe" progressivement" au" champ"
urbanistique" pour" glisser" progressivement" vers" une" acception" qui" a" tendance" " nen" retenir"
finalement,"dans"le"champ"multidisciplinaire"de"lurbanisme,"que"ce"la"gouvernance"politique"en"fait,"
alors"que"le""rcit""ininterrompu""de"la"dcision"(Sfez,"1973)"qui"est"au"principe"de"la"fabrication"de"
la"ville,"ne"peut"senvisager"sans"les"oprations"conceptuelles"et"techniques"qui"font"surgir"lartefact,"
le"conduit,"dans"lincertitude"qui"marque"cette"action"et"ses"mandres,"vers"sa"ralisation"et"vont"le"
soumettre""lpreuve"des"usages"sociaux."
Lurbanisme" est" la" rencontre" entre" un" processus" sociopolitique" complexe," de" plus" en" plus"
complexe"en"dmocratie,"qui"le"prcde"et"le"suit"en"permanence,"celui"du"Planning,"et"un"procs"de"
production" (le" Design)" qui" dtermine" rtroactivement" le" premier" en" mme" temps" quil" en" dpend."
On" ne" peut" concevoir" lurbanisme," lui" reconnatre" une" existence" comme" discipline," sans" admettre"
cette"forte"identit"qui"en"fait"un"mixte"didel"et"de"matriel"(Godelier,"1984)."Lurbanisme"contient"
donc" intrinsquement" ces" deux" dimensions," mais," mot" n" tardivement" dans" la" langue" franaise"
(1910";" le" terme" amnagement" est" bien" plus" ancien)," il" est" fortement" conditionn" dans" sa"
signification"par"lcart"particulirement"accus"qui"sest"creus,"et"tout"particulirement"en"France,"
depuis"la"moiti"du"XIXe"sicle,"entre"le"droit"et"la"technique,"entre"lUniversit"et"les"Beaux"Arts."Or"
lurbanisme"cest"lUrban#Planning"et"lUrban#design"et,"du"fait"quil"intgre"le"projet,"quil"est"donc"
un" mode" de" connaissance" qui" ne" se" construit" pas" seulement" par" lobservation" distancie," par"
lanalyse,"mais"aussi"par"l""ingenium""(Vico"cit"par"Lemoigne,"2002),"par"linvention,"il"ne"peut"se"
rduire""aux"Urban#Studies,"autre"domaine"dans"lesquelles"les"sciences"analytiques"intresses"par"le"
nouvel"objet"dtude"que"constitue"la"ville"se"sont"engouffres"depuis"quelques"dcennies."""
#
#
Bibliographie##
"
Boutinet,"Jean2Pierre,"Anthropologie#du#projet,"Paris":"PUF,"1990."
Cervellati,"Pier"Luigi,"Scannavini,"Roberto"De"Angelis,"Carlo,"La#nouvelle#culture#urbaine:#Bologne#face#
#son#patrimoine,"Paris":"ditions"du"Seuil,"1981."
Chambellan,"Colette"(dir.),"Le#Muse#social#en#son#temps,"Paris":"Editions"Rue"dUlm,"1998."
Devillers,"Christian,"Le#projet#urbain,"Paris":"Editions"du"Pavillon"de"l'Arsenal,"1996."
Desprs,"Carole,"Vachon,"Genevive,"Fortin,"Andre,"Implementing"Transdisciplinarity:"Architecture"
and" Urban" Planning" At" Work" in" N." Janssens" &" I." Doucet" (Eds)," Transdisciplinary# Knowledge#
Production# In# Architecture# And# Urbanism,# Urban# and# Landscape# Perspectives," 2011," Volume" 11," p."
33249.""
Dumont,"Marie2Jeanne,"Le#logement#social##Paris,#1850O1930,"Lige":"Mardaga,"1991."
Kaloara," Bernard" " avec" A." Savoye" 2," Les# inventeurs# oublis,# Le# Play# et# ses# continuateurs," Champ"
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12"

Ghorra2Gobin," Cynthia," La# thorie# du# New" Urbanism" " Perspectives# et# enjeux," Paris":" Centre" de"
documentation"de"lUrbanisme,"2004."
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Hanning," Grald," La# composition# urbaine.# Trois# textes# de# Grald# Hanning," Paris":" IAU" le2de2France,"
2013."
Lemoigne," Jean2Louis," " Lgitimer" les" connaissances" interdisciplinaires" dans" nos" cultures," nos"
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scientifique,"Paris":"LHarmattan,"2002,"p."25236."
Maniaque,"Caroline,""Harvard"Graduate"School"of"Design,"une"chambre"dcho"pour"les"CIAM","in"
J.2L." Bonillo," C." Massu," D." Pinson" (dir.)," La# Modernit# critique,# autour# du# CIAM# 9# dAixOenOProvence,"
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Panerai,"Philippe,"Castex,"Jean,"Depaule,"Jean2Charles,"Formes#urbaines,#De#llot##la#barre,""
Pinson," Daniel," "Fs" et" Aix," contact" et" spectacle" ou" les" conditions" culturelles" de" la" forme" et" de" la"
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Frey"a"t"publie"par"les"Editions"Parenthses,"Marseille,"en"2013)."
"
"
Illustrations#
"
1. le"projet"dAtlanpole"par"C."de"Portzamparc"(1984)"(Agence"C."de"Portzamparc)"
2. le"projet"urbain"de"la"Ville"de"Montreuil"(1994)"(Ville"de"Montreuil)"
3. le"plan"Jaussely"pour"Barcelone"(1903)"(Cit"de"lArchitecture"et"du"Patrimoine)"
4. le"projet"de"T."Garnier"pour"la"Fondation"Rothschild"(1904)"(M.2J."Dumont)"
5. le"plan"de"la"Cit2Jardin"de"Suresnes"(1919)"(Muse"de"Suresnes2Ren"Sordes)"
6. la"Piazza"del"Popolo"vue"par"Piranse"(1750)"(Harris"Brisbane"Dick"Fund)"""
7. le"Benjamin"Franklin"Parkway"par"J."Greber"(1917)"(Fairmount"Park"Art"Association)"
8. la"trame"et"le"paysage"selon"G."Hanning"(1973)"(IAU"le2de2France)"
9. la"couverture"de"The#Heart#of#the#City"(1952)"(Ed."Imbernon,"Marseille)"
10. le"plan"de"masse"pour"le""Pacte"Myrand","Qubec"(2008)"(GIRBa,"Universit"Laval,"Qubec)"

13"