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# SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE

Perambalur 621212
Department of Mechanical Engineering
III year VI semester

## ME6603-Finite Element Analysis

Unit I - INTRODUCTION
2 mark Questions
1) What is meant by finite element analysis?
2) What is meant by finite element?
3) State the methods of engineering analysis.
4) Give examples for the finite element.
5) What is meant by node or Joint?
6) What do you mean by discretization?
7) What are the types of boundary conditions?
8) What are the three phases of finite element method.
9) What is structural and non-structural problem?
10) What are the methods are generally associated with the finite element analysis?
11) Name the variational methods.
12) Name the weighted residual methods.
13) What is meant by post processing?
14) What is Rayleigh ritz method?
15) What is natural co-ordinates?
16 mark Questions
1) A simply supported beam subjected to uniformly distributed load over entire span and it is
Subjected to a point load at the centre of the span. Calculate the bending moment and
Deflection at midspan using Rayleigh-Ritz method.
2) Find the deflection at the centre of a simply supported beam of span length l subjected to
Uniformly distributed load throughout its length as shown in fig.1. using weighted residual
method in four types.

3) A simply supported beam subjected to uniformly distributed load over entire span.
Determine the bending moment and deflection at midspan using Rayleigh-Ritz method.

5) Explain the general steps in FEA with the help of a flowchart?
6) Solve the equations using Gauss- Elimination method
2x1 + 4x2 +2x3 = 15
2x1 + x2 + 2x3 = -5
4x1 + x2 2x3 = 0
7) The following differential equation is available for a physical phenomenon.
d2y/dx2 + 50 = 0, 0<x<10, The trial function is, y=ax(10-x)
The boundary conditions are y(0)=0 and y(10)=0
Find the value of the parameter a by (i) Point collocation method
(ii) Sub-domain collocation method (iii) Least squares method (iv) Galerkins method.
8) Describe the types of weighted residual methods.
Unit II One Dimensional Problems
2 mark Questions
1) What does assemblage mean?
2) What is meant by DOF?
3) What is aspect ratio?
4) What is truss element?
5) List the two advantages of post processing?
6) State the assumptions are made while finding the forces in a truss.
7) Write down the expression of shape function N and displacement u for one dimensional
bar element.
8) During discretization, mention the places where it is necessary to place a node.
9) Define frequency of vibration.
10) Differentiate between global and local axes.
12) Define damping ratio.
13) What is meant by longitudinal vibrations?
14) What is meant by transverse vibrations?
15) What is the classification of co-ordinates?

16 mark Questions
1) Derive the shape function and stiffness matrix for one-dimensional bar element.
2) Derive the stiffness matrix [K] for the truss element.
3) For a tapered plate of uniform thickness t = 10 mm as shown in fig, find the displacements at the
nodes by forming into two element model. The bar has mass density = 7800 kg/m3, Youngs modulus,
E = 2x105 MN/m2. In addition to self weight, the plate is subjected to a point load p = 10 kN at its
centre. Also determine the reaction force at the support.

4) Why higher order elements are needed? Determine the shape functions of an eight noded
Rectangular element.
5). Consider the bar as shown in fig.2. Calculate the following:
(i) Nodal displacements, (ii) Element stresses and (iii) Support reactions.
Take
E=2x105N/mm2
P=400kN

6) Consider a four bar truss as shown in fig.2. It is given that E = 2 x 105 N/mm2 and Ae = 625 mm2
for all elements.
i)
Determine the element stiffness matrix for each element.
ii)
Assemble the structural stiffness matrix K for the entire truss.
iii)
Solve for the nodal displacements.

7) Consider a two-bar truss supported by a spring shown in Fig. 2. Both bars have E = 210 GPa and
A = 5.0x10-4 m2 . Bar one has a length of 5 m and bar two has a length of 10 m. The spring
stiffness is k = 2000 kN/m. Determine the horizontal and vertical displacements at the joint 1 and
stresses in each bar.

8. Derive the finite element equation for one dimensional heat conduction with free end convection
9. The structure shown in fig.1 is subjected to an increase in temperature of 80 C. Determine the
Displacements, stresses and support reactions. Assume the following data:
Bronze
A = 2400 mm2
E = 83 Gpa
= 18.9 x 10-6/C

Aluminium
1200 mm2
70 Gpa
23 x 10-6/C

Steel
600 mm2
200 GPa
11.7 x 10-6/C

## Unit III Two Dimensional Scalar Variable Problems

2 mark Questions
1) Distinguish between potential energy function and potential energy functional.
2) What is the difference between static and dynamic analysis?
3) What are the basic steps involved in the finite element modeling.
4) What is discretization?
5) Write down the general finite element equation.
6) State the assumptions are made while finding the forces in a truss.
7) Define total potential energy.
8) State the principle of minimum potential energy.
9) What is the stationary property of total potential energy?
10) State the principle of virtual work?
11) How do you define two-dimensional elements?
12) What is CST element?
13) What is LST element?
14) Define plane strain analysis
15) Write down the stiffness matrix equation for two-dimensional CST element.

16 mark Questions
1) Evaluate the element stiffness matrix for the triangular element shown in fig. under plane stress
Condition. Assume the following values: E=200 GPa, =0.25, t=1 mm

2) Evaluate the element stresses for the triangular element its three nodes are (x1,y1)=( 20, 30),
(x2,y2)=(80, 30) and (x3,y3)=(50, 120) under plane stress condition. Assume the following values:
E=210 GPa, =0.25, t=10 mm. The nodal displacements are
u1 = 2.0 mm, v1 = 1.0 mm, u2 = 0.5 mm, v2 = 0.0 mm, u3 = 3.0 mm, v3 = 1.0 mm
3) Derive the finite element equation for Torsional Bar element.
4) Derive the shape function for CST element, & give the name, formulaes in [K],[B]&[D] matrix.
5) Evaluate the element stiffness matrix for the CST element at its three nodes are (x1,y1)=( 0, 0),
(x2,y2)=(6, 0) and (x3,y3)=(3,5) under plane strain condition. Assume E=200 GPa, =0.25, t=1 mm
6) Compute the element matrix and vestors for the element shown in figure.
When the edges 2-3 and 3-1 experience convection heat loss.

7). A furnace wall is made up of three layers, inside layer with thermal conductivity 8.5 W/mK, the
middle layer with conductivity 0.25 W/mK, the outer layer with conductivity 0.08 W/mK. The
respective thicknesses of the inner, middle and outer layer are 25 cm, 5cm and 3cm respectively.
The inside temperature of the wall is 600 C and outside of the wall is exposed to atmospheric
air at 30 C with heat transfer coefficient of 45 W/m2K. Determine the nodal temperatures.
8). A steel rod of radius r=1 cm, length L=5 cm and thermal conductivity k=70 W/cmC is exposed
at one end to a constant temperature of 140C. The atmospheric air of temperature 40C with a
convection coefficient of 10 W/cm2C. Determine the temperature distribution. The region can
be discretized into 2 elements and 3 nodes.
Unit IV Two Dimensional Vector Variable Problems
2 mark Questions
1) What is axisymmetric element?
2) What are the conditions for a problem to axisymmetric?
3) Give the stiffness matrix equation for an axisymmetric triangular element.
4) What are the ways in which a three dimensional problem can be reduced to a
two dimensional approach.
5) What is the difference between natural co-ordinates and simple natural coordinate?
6) Give examples for essential (forced or geometric) and non-essential (natural) boundary
conditions.
7) What are h and p versions of finite element method?
8) Write the four basic sets of elasticity equations.
9) Distinguish between plane stress and plane strain problems.
10) What is polynomial type of interpolation functions are mostly used in FEM?
11) Define magnification factor.
12) What are the types of Eigen value problems?
13) State the principle of superposition.
14) Define Dynamic Analysis.
15) What are methods used for solving transient vibration problems?
16 mark Questions
1) Derive the shape functions for an axisymmetric triangular element.
2) Derive an expression for the strain-displacement matrix for an axisymmetric triangular element.
3) The nodal coordinates for an axisymmetric triangular element at its three nodes are
(r1, z1)= (30, 10), (r2, z2) = (50, 10), (r3, z3) = (40, 60). Determine the strain displacement
matrix for that element.

4) Evaluate the element stiffness matrix for an axisymmetric triangular element shown in fig.
Take following values: E=210 GPa, =0.25 (dimensions are in mm)

5) ) Evaluate the element stiffness matrix for an axisymmetric triangular element shown in fig.3.
Take following values: E=210 GPa, =0.25 (dimensions are in mm)

6) To determine the element strains for an axisymmetric triangular element at its three nodes are
(r1,z1)=(3,4), (r2,z2)=(6,5) and (r3,z3)=(5,8) . The displacements are u1 = 0.002, w1 = 0.001,
u2 = 0.001, w2 = -0.004, u3 = -0.003 & w3 = 0.007. (All dimensions are in cm)
Unit V Isoparametric Formulation
2 mark Questions
1) What is the purpose of isoparametric elements?
2) Write down the shape function for 4 noded rectangular elements using natural co-ordinate system.
3) Define super parametric element.
4) What is meant by sub parametric element?
5) What is meant by iso parametric element?
6) Is beam element an isoparametric element?
7) What is the difference between natural co-ordinates and simple natural coordinate?

8) Give examples for essential (forced or geometric) and non-essential (natural) boundary
conditions.
9) What are the difference between 2 Dimensional scalar variable and vector variable elements?
10) What are the types of non-linearity?
11) Name the four FEA softwares?
12) Define body force (f).
13) Define traction force (T)
14) What is point load (P)
15) Define shape function.
16 mark Questions
1) Derive the stiffness matrix equation for 4 noded isoparametric quadrilateral element.
2) Write short notes on (a) Uniqueness of mapping of isoparametric elements.
(b) Jacobian matrix (c) Gaussian quadrature integration technique.
3) Evaluate the integral I= (a1+a2x+a3x2+a4x3) dx using the three point Gauss integration
4) Evaluate the following integral using two point Guassian quadrature.
I = 2 (1-2x)2 (4-y-5) dx dy
5) Use Gaussian quadrature rule (n=2) to numerically integrate xy dx dy
6) Derive the shape function and jacobian matrix for a 4 noded rectangular element.
7) Consider the isoparametric quadrilateral element with nodes 1-4 at (0, 0) (2, 0) (2, 1) (0, 1)
respectively. Determine the following, (Assume plane stress condition)
a). Jacobian matrix
b). Element stresses
Take E= 2x105 N/mm2: v= 0.25: u= [0, 0, 0.003, 0.004, 0.006, 0.004, 0, 0]T = 0, = 0
8) For a four noded rectangular element shown in fig.5. Determine the following.
(i) Jacobian matrix
(ii) Strain displacement matrix
(iii) Element strains
(iv) Element stresses