MBS Library Service Citing References in Harvard Style and EndNote

DRAFT Jan 2010 When studying business and management you will often have to include references in the Harvard style in your assignment, dissertation or thesis. Two issues make learning the Harvard style difficult. First, it has variants so there are differences between descriptions of the Harvard style. Second, the citing of electronic resources is not fully covered in most descriptions of the Harvard style. This guide suggests how to address these issues. First you need to choose a specific variant of the Harvard style and use it consistently. This either involves checking your reference list very carefully, or using some reference management software. EndNote is the most used reference management software at the University. Unfortunately, the Harvard default style that comes with EndNote is not very good, especially for references to electronic resources. Second your chosen Harvard style variant should follow good practice for electronic resources (see references section below). For more detail, there is the MBS library service’s “Guide to citing references (Harvard System)” (Hynes 2008), which is based on the University’s Humanities Faculty guidelines (University of Manchester 2006), and others (Anglia Ruskin University 2008), (Harvard Business School 2009). This document concentrates on EndNote, but the main points apply to all reference management software, or doing your references manually. This document is written using EndNote: therefore the Word version can be used to illustrate the differences between EndNote styles. Along with the text, there is an EndNote library for the references, and an EndNote style file based on (Hynes 2008) and (Neville 2007). If you have feedback please leave a blog comment (bizlib247 blog 2009).

Harvard variations
The Harvard style defines the essential parts of a reference, but some formatting can be varied (Neville 2007). For example, some descriptions of the Harvard style have the references list with the complete authors’ names is capitals (Fisher and Hanstock 2002), while others only the initial letters (Bryman and Bell 2007); some put brackets around the year, while others have none; and the precise syntax for the volume number, issue number and page numbers of journal articles varies. It is essential that you select a variant and use it consistently within a document. (Also check the variant you choose satisfies any specific rules that you are required to follow.) Be careful if you use cut and paste to combine references from different places. There are several other citation styles: APA, Chicago, MLA are among the most common. These can be useful: there are more extensive and definitive descriptions of these styles than the brief British Standard available for Harvard. The APA (American Psychological Association) style (APA 2010) is the closest to Harvard in format (Neville 2007). Confusingly, Harvard, and many other US Business Schools, use the Chicago style. The HBS referencing guide is one of the most detailed for electronic resources (Harvard Business School 2009).

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Citing electronic resources
The fact that other citation styles have more detailed descriptions is most evident when looking for advice and examples for citing electronic resources. You must try to identify the author, year and title of the electronic resource, as well as its URL (Universal Resource Locator) and date accessed. The author, year and title will help others confirm that they have retrieved the same document. It is important to include the date accessed when citing e-resources since the web page or file located at a URL may change. If you are citing an e-journal article (or e-book) that also has an identical printed form, the normal reference for a journal article (or book) is sufficient (Garfield 1996) (Glänzel and Moed 2002). (Readers can choose whether they access the printed or electronic versions.) However, the electronic format is appropriate where the journal (or book) is only published electronically, or where you specifically want to highlight your use of the electronic version (Chernin 1988). This document includes some example references for electronic resources. For further information you can consult: books on research methods (Bryman and Bell 2007) or referencing (Fisher and Hanstock 2002;Neville 2007) or online resources (Harvard Business School 2009;Hynes 2008;University of Manchester 2006). Remember that you may have to amend the advice given to match the Harvard variation you have chosen.

Reference Management Software (EndNote)
EndNote (EndNote 2007) is the most used reference management software application at the University. It is excellent for creating your own personal database of references, and the Cite While You Write (CWYW) facility allows you to easily insert citations into a Word document. Most electronic journal databases support importing citation information into your EndNote database (or other reference management software). EndNote helps make sure that all your references are in a consistent style. CWYW automatically creates a references list in the style you select, based on the citations in your document, and updates the complete document if you change your selected style. There are hundreds of styles: most are the styles for specific journals, and some are more generic (e.g. APA, Author-date, Harvard, Numbered). EndNote CWYW is excellent for making a consistent set of references. However, the EndNote default Harvard style [2009 version] is a specific Harvard variant and differs from University recommendations (University of Manchester 2006;Hynes 2008). The EndNote Harvard style capitalises authors’ names, omits edition information on books, and does not provide full information for all electronic resources. There are solutions to this problem. You can define your our style in EndNote. You can select the APA style, which is closer to the University recommendations than the Endnote Harvard style, select the EndNote style for a journal that satisfies your requirements, or download an EndNote Harvard style from the Web. This document was created using a modified version of the default Harvard style. EndNoteWeb is a component of EndNote available to all University of Manchester students through the University’s Web of Knowledge subscription. It is free. In contrast, the University has a license for EndNote desktop application on cluster and staff PCs but users have to buy a licence to use it on their own PC/laptop. EndNote Web does not have the full features of EndNote, but includes all the core essentials (EndNote Web 2007), and 10,000 references is sufficient for most people. You cannot modify the reference styles in EndNote Web but several Harvard variants are available.

Common Queries on Harvard
Surprisingly there is no official connection between Harvard University, or Harvard in general, and the Harvard citation style. It is believed that an English visitor to Harvard University library introduced the phrase “Harvard system” to refer to the system of bibliographic reference that he

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had seen there (Chernin 1988). This explains why the benchmark for the Harvard style is two British Standard BS 1629 and BS 5605 (British Standards Institution 1989) (British Standards Institution 1990) – not the easiest documents to use as an initial guide - and why the Harvard Business School citation guide describes the Chicago not Harvard style (Harvard Business School 2009). One of the minor differences in descriptions of the Harvard style is the use of italics, bold or underlining. Emphasis is given to the title of a book (Bryman and Bell 2007), the name of a journal (Glänzel and Moed 2002), or the title of a thesis (Chun 2001). In the vast majority of journals and books this is done through italics. Occasionally bold is used. Some publications mention the use of underlining rather than italics. This was very common when theses were produced on a manual typewriter and italics was not practical. The MLA style encourages underlining: to “avoid ambiguity” (Neville 2007, p.73). Studying business and management, there are some resources that are often omitted in a general “How to reference” guide. The following list identifies some of the most common. How do I reference? Article – see (Garfield 1996) (Glänzel and Moed 2002) Article online – see (Badge and Scott 2009) Book – see (Neville 2007), (Bryman and Bell 2007), (EndNote 2007) Book chapter – see (Eyon et al. 2008) Company Analysts’ Report – see (Meltz and et al 2009) (Valuengine inc. 2010) Company Annual Report – see (Google 2009) Government Report – see (Walker 2009) (Financial Reporting Council 2008) Market Research Report – see (Mintel 2009) Thesis – see (Chun 2001) Video online – see (City University London n.d.) Web page – see (University of Manchester 2006) There is insufficient space in a short note for an exhaustive list. In particular, this list does not mention government papers and specialised law resources. For more detail you can consult (Hynes 2008;Anglia Ruskin University 2008;Neville 2007) There is an argument that many of the difficulties in learning the Harvard style of referencing arise indirectly from the fact that there is no organization with responsibility for it. The flexibility that this has given the style contributes to its popularity, but also makes using reference management software like EndNote a little more difficult.

Anglia Ruskin University. (2008). University Library Guide to the Harvard Style of Referencing [Online]. Available: http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/files/Harvard_referencing.pdf [Accessed 18 Dec. 2009]. APA. (2010). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Badge, J. & Scott, J. (2009). Dealing with plagiarism in the digital age. EvidenceNetWiki [Online]. Available: http://evidencenet.pbworks.com/Dealing-with-plagiarism-in-thedigital-age [Accessed 05 Jan. 2010]. bizlib247 blog. (2009). References - Harvard citation style [Online]. Available: http://bizlib247.wordpress.com/2009/12/04/references-harvard-citation-style/ [Accessed 22 Dec. 2009]. British Standards Institution. (1989). BS 1629: 1989. Recommendations for references to published material. London: British Standards Institution. British Standards Institution. (1990). BS 5606: 1990. Recommendations for citing and referencing published material. London: British Standards Institution.
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Bryman, A. & Bell, E. (2007). Business Research Methods (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chernin, E. (1988). The ''Harvard system'': a mystery dispelled. British Medical Journal [Online], 297(6655), 1062-1063. Available: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1834803/?tool=pmcentrez [Accessed 23 Dec. 2009]. Chun, R. (2001). The Strategic Management of Corporate Reputation: aligning image and identity. Ph.D., University of Manchester. City University London. (n.d.). Understanding Plagarism and How to Avoid It [video] [Online]. Available: http://www.city.ac.uk/library/ls_nsq/learn_research_supp/lrstrain/plagiarism.html [Accessed 18 Dec. 2009]. EndNote. (2007). EndNote X1 User's Guide. (s.l.): The Thomson Corporation. EndNote Web. (2007). EndNote Web versus EndNote [Online]. Thomson Reuters. Available: http://www.myendnoteweb.com/help/en_us/ENW/h_features.htm [Accessed 23 Dec. 2009]. Eyon, R., Fry, J. & Schroeder, R. (2008). The Ethics of Internet Research. In: Fielding, N., Lee, R. M. & Blank, G. (eds.) The SAGE Handbook of Online Research Methods. London: SAGE. Financial Reporting Council. (2008). The Combined Code on Corporate Governance [Online]. Available: http://www.frc-pob.org.uk/corporate/combinedcode.cfm [Accessed 04 Jan. 2010]. Fisher, D. & Hanstock, T. (2002). Citing References: A Guide for Users. Oxford: Blackwell. Garfield, E. (1996). When to cite. Library Quarterly, 66(4), 449-458. Glänzel, W. & Moed, H. (2002). Journal impact measures in bibliometric research. Scientometrics, 53(2), 171-193. Google. (2009). Google 2008 Annual Report [Online]. Available: http://investor.google.com/order_archive.html [Accessed 05 Jan. 2010]. Harvard Business School. (2009). Citation Guide: 2009 - 10 Academic Year [Online]. Available: http://www.library.hbs.edu/guides/citationguide.pdf [Accessed 21 Dec. 2009]. Hynes, J. (2008). Guide to citing references (Harvard system) [Online]. Manchester Business School - Library Service. Available: http://www.mbs.ac.uk/corporate/libraryservices/documents/citationguide.pdf [Accessed 15 Dec. 2009]. Meltz, M. A. & et al. (2009). [J.P. Morgan report on] The McGraw-Hill Companies - 07 Dec 2009. Investext Investment Research Reports [Online]. Available: Thomson Research http://research.thomsonib.com/ [Accessed 05 Jan. 2010]. Mintel. (2009). Books - UK - December 2009, Market Research Report [Online]. Available: http://reports.mintel.com/sinatra/reports/display/id=395633 [Accessed 05 Jan 2010]. Neville, C. (2007). The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagarism. Maidenhead: Open University Press. University of Manchester. (2006). How to Reference (Faculty of Humanities) [Online]. Available: http://www.humanities.manchester.ac.uk/studyskills/assignments/reference/ [Accessed 22 Dec. 2009]. Valuengine inc. (2010). Amazon.com, inc. - 04 Jan 2010. Investext Investment Research Reports [Online]. Available: Thomson Research - http://research.thomsonib.com/ [Accessed 05 Jan. 2010]. Walker, D. (2009). A review of corporate governance in UK banks and other financial industry entities: Final recommendations 26 November 2009 [Online]. HM Treasury. Available: http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/d/walker_review_261109.pdf [Accessed 04 Jan 2010].

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