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ProlegomenonTo a Praxial
Philosophyof Music and Music
It is commontodayto thinkof musicintermsof the aestheticvaluesthathavebeen
as the essenceof Art sinceBaumgarten
(1750).Evenmore,in the Romanticcentury,following WalterPater'sdictum that "all art constantlyaspirestowardsthe conditionsof music"
(Pater1961, 129),musicbecamethe paragonof
or expressionist
of musichave regardedmusicalmeaningand valueas somehowresidingliterallyand absolutely"in" the musicalwork. In
thisview,the aestheticfeaturesof musicare capableof studyand analysis,and thus of cultivationandeducation."Good"music.then,involves
certainaestheticqualitiesthat analysisreveals
"good"in this or that respectby
to be inherently
thisor thatauthority.Furthermore,
the "good"of
musicof any kind is heldto be contemplation
itsown sake. And being musicallyeducatedor
culturedhas been taken for grantedas involving
thestudyand cultivation
of the aestheticdimensionsof"good"musicundertakenfor its own sake.
Insum,the aestheticview of musicand of music
takesthe natureand valueof musicas
beingF-tovariousdegrees and in variousways,
uponthe authority-first and foremost

at leastfor "classicalmusic,"
alsocontinueto takethe aestheticbasisof music
for granted-despite the considerablefuss made
by modernistartists,composers,philosophers
and theoristswho havesoughtto deny or otherwise ridiculethe aestheticaxiologyin either its
or expressionist
However, modernistshave made little headway
in their often anti-aestheticstances--especially
in musicin dissuadingaudiencesthat Art (i.e.,
the Fine Arts) does or shouldserve ends other
than aesthetic.The acknowledgedmasterworks
of the canonhavethusbeenexpandedunderthe
aestheticbannerto incoroorate
musicof the 16th
through18thcenturies,none of which was created,performedor usedwith any notionof Art or
aesthetics.And the canon continuesto serve
familiarold musicto recentnew music. "Good
taste"and connoisseurship
are cultivatedalmost
solelyin connectionwith the aestheticclaimsof
these "classics."

matters.Takingthe valueof
whatthey do for granted,they continueto make
musicbecausetheyclearlyenjoythe experience
and are often rewardedin a variety of ways for
do forfree.Nonetheless,the languageand assumptionsof the
premisehavebecomecommonin their
w o r k . I n d e e d ,i t h a s b e e n a r g u e d t h a t t h e
of musicbeginningat the turn of
century(Goehr1992)was due lessto the
workof theoristsand philosophersthan to the
effortsof countlesscomposersand musicians

Againstthis aestheticideology,a growingvolumeof criticalthinkinghas arisenin a variety of disciplinesand fields (see Appendix)includingin musiceducation(Alperson1991; Elliott
1993a,1993b;Regelski1994). Fromthis array
of contrariness
a new "oraxial"view of music is
beginningto evolveas a correctiveto the institutionalizedaestheticideology.ln the process,new
perspectivesfor music educationhave emerged
(Elliott1994).Whilethe directionsare decidedly
clearand valuable,the detailsof such a oraxial
view are far from establishedor settled. Without
recountingthe variousconclusionscited in the
Appendix,the presentstudywill offerarguments

who soughtfortheiractivitythe intellectual
and highsocialstatusthat had beendeniedthem
when,in the 18thcentury,they were but employees and craftsmanin the serviceof the nobility
and Church(e.9.Denora1993).

FJMEVol. r No r 1996

t. theticphilosophies Thus the intentof this prolegomenonis to provokediscourse.and performingactions.and constituencies.techniqueand skill.not unlikedescribinga particularly guishedsuch practicalknowledgeand "doings" fromtheoretical or rationalknowledgefor its own skillfulplay in sportsas "beautiful.."nor doesit simply of "good"or"practiced" tech production. lt involved on the suitabilityof results. The aisthetikosof heightened awarenessof the perceptualof things (gualra).ptaxts makingthings.physisornature). In this regard.the notionol theoriabears which the practitionersets up a "practice"(e.doingthings. involvedthe kind of for its own sake. a close resemblanceto the type of knowledge professions extolledas the basisand benefitof the aesthetic then. Unlikethe fixed ends or "goods"conand Aristotlein particular.was involved volvesthe kind of cognitiveactivity(dianoia)thal with the poeisisof deliberately"making"or pro.but was not a desiredor highly regardedqualityof whatwas made. was therefore were grouped the useful and pIg. are intendedto focussuch for the purposeof advancingthe nodiscussions tion that musicis "a doing"guidedby a phronesis for "rightresults"in humanterms far more basic a n d u l t i m a t e l yf a r m o r e s i g n i f i c a ntth a n t h e psychologism. theoila involved the inevitableever-changing 'pure'. nature. the value of which is taken for granted ! Noveltyor creativitywas a featureof the actionof making or producing. In this category phronesis.will needto be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . then. not createdby humans(i." sake. (see Dunne 1993).suchas worksof art. tice"on theirclientsor constituents.analysis."therefore.criticism.and others."In t music is seen not as aesth " Aristotleknew it.In particular. and new techniques.not the inof these orecedentsin Aristellectualized beautyclaimedtoday for the aes. or improved mediawere exploitedonly with regardto reaching such agreedupon "goods"by ever-improved and novelmeans.has beenassociatedwiththe"reflection-in-action" ducingsomething.sculptureand litera. Such doings.and the gainingof the timeless. and from technicalskill neededto reproF o r t h e G r e e k s .notto presumeto be the finalword on the matter. such as medicine.e.nectedwith techne. The distinctionhas been re. "goods.In namelythe kind of intellect.but they are nc standing. or compositional edgeoftencalled"musicia ing in musicianship and the of productive techniques are sical praxis. thetic response. (alsfhesls)simply involvedthe direct perception A praxialphilosophy of musicprofitsfrom of sensations.though not necessa formsoftenstt tional-analytic tory.a praxia phy of musictakesfullyinto what musicis "goodfol' in i siderationof "goodmusic."goods"of humanconductin terms of desirable ture-+ut what today are knownas the FineArts.issuessuch as thosearguedhere.d_ucliye_afis.especiallyin contrastto things o f " t h e r e f l e c t i v ep r a c t i t i o n e r ("S c h o n 1 9 8 3 ) .The endsto which fechnewere put were acceptedas given. However." namelythe processof makingor producinga result. was seenas guidedby the injunctionto get proper such as teaching.directconsideration Musiikkikasvatus Vsk. In "practice"today associatedwith those fields in to be rationallycontemplated this.9.feelingsand intuitions. m a i n l y c o n c e r n e dw i t h c o n s i d e r a t i o no f t h e among which were music.v Th other Encyclopedists).r Nro r 1996 totle. The praxialphilos does notfocuson meretech technique.rationalcontrievedin recenttimes in aestheticsand in the templationof thepi4. This as actingand "making"music. with humanconductsuch as ethicaland political 'fromtechneandtheoria actions.w e i g h e d a n d c o n t e s t e d .intellectualknowledgethat was disinterestedas far as oracticaluse and thus was edge connectedwith them.any . sense surelyhas a pragm praxis. In short. it shouldbe noted. Praxis.on the other distinction.forthe Greeks.e. Thus musicaloraxisi the aestheticsenseremini derstandingof theoriaas r andve activitycontemplated It is usefulin this regardt knowledgefromthe timeof was r into the Renaissance "philosophy" (Alperson199 tionalityof the Enlightenm its modernscientific-ana in relationto practice(i.Ratherit inTechne.such practitioners do not "pracresponseas it is known today. this respect technewas seen in terms we today deliberationand observationthat dutifullyreflects referto as craft.usuallyin connection Praxis wasdistinguished bytheGreeks.realizingor acco Technique andmusiciansh l n c o r d i n gt o t h e m u s i c a e musical"goods"sought--a determined onlyin reflectio incrediblevarietyof "good throughouthuman history existenceof a phronesiso guide any musicalpraxisa key to any praxialaccountc A praxialaccount( thus takesintoconsiderat oects of all instancesin wh sic"is "made"or "done. ends and goals--{he "right results'-for clients Thus Aristotleclearlydistinof an aes.such or "right results"for particularsituations. was far removedfrom the formal and exp r e s s i v e m e a n i n g s a t t r i b u t e db y m o d e r n aestheticiansto aestheticresoonsiveness. All such skilledactionwas susceptible theticattitude. a e s t h e t i c m a t t e r s duce a preliminaryattemptto focuson the changes and challengesa praxialview presentsfor any understandingof musicalvalue and hence for musiceducation.techneinvolved a meaning today often associatedwith "technology. Thesefirst steps.lf the praxialviewis to gainthe definitionand distinctionit warrants.technologies. This is not. gaxE requied "doings-in hermeneutictheoryof Gadamerand the critical action"becauseits knowledgewas connectedwith vagariesof human theory of Habermas.referredto "practical" knowledgeand activity.. the "practice"associatedwith beginning music lessons..then.romanticismand elitismof aesof musicand musiceducation.always concernedwith specificqL situatedness of music-ma By situatedness is r rianshavecalled"occasio sic composedor performe occasions.

Onlywiththe radid'theory" takeon oftheEnlightenment tionality meaning itsmodern scientific-analytic-technical (i.l i v eadn d " m a d es p e c i a l " rianshavecalled"occasional 1988. Thepraxialphilosophy of musicalso and doesnotfocuson merefechne--performance knowltechnique.buttheyare not sufficient realizing for its "goods.withRameau andthe inrelation to practice Theoryin this modern otherEncyclopedists). Rather.w h i c hl i f e i s w e l l . r No r 1996 .alwaysmustbe withspecificquestions involved the concerned anduse. or thetechnical compositional trainoftencalled"musicianship.intellect or talentfor HighCulture." or accounting standing. In short. contemplated activity It is usefulin thisregardto recallthat musical fromthetimeof theGreeksuntilwell knowledge was valuedas "theory"or intotheRenaissance "philosophy" (Alperson 1994). it maywellcontinue although to serveasa meaningfuldivertissement for performers who get togetherfor'recreational' performance.totle. duringwhichdrinking andothersocializing wouldbe themainfocusof Todaysuchmusiccanhardlyexpectto attention. in the esotericrathoughnotnecessarily formsoftenstudiedintheconservational-analytic I0ry.Thusmusicaloraxisis notseento existin of Aristotle's unsensereminiscent theaesthetic of theoriaas rationalor intellectual derstanding andvaluedforitsownsake. governs the"goods" soughtas the"rightresults.goalsand ends. rolein musicas surelyhasa pragmatic sense praxis. (Regelski Nordoesit existto be cultivated by an eliteof esthetes whohavethetime.Inthispraxial view..Thusthe oresumption of meaningor valueas transcending timeand placegivewayin the praxialviewto a specific consideration of the meaning andvalue of "themusic"in thistimeandplace. sic"is"made" musicis seennotas aestheticin its "goods. Situatedness.The determined varietyof "goods"servedby music incredible humanhistoryclearlypointsto the throughout existence of a phrcnesEof "rightresults"that guideanymusicalpraxisandthatare thusthe keyto anypraxialaccountof music." Certainly edge perfection ingin musicianship andthe practiced toanymutechniques arenecessary ofproductive to undersicalpraxis. And. then.Consider."music" is understood andvalin promoting uedin termsof itsfunction the"right results" for humansBeingmostfully human. forexample. situatedness of music-making musicmusttakesuchoccasions intoconsideramusical tionconcerning anyclaimsforitspresent value. for specifichistorical (Dissanayake Musicandallthehuor performed siccomposed However. command theraptattention of concertaudiences. the praxialphilosophy of music herefocuseson the roleof music"in addressed is notmeantwhathisto."Music's sideration " contradistinction to aesthetic claimsmadeforthe disinterestedness of music. chamber takesintospecificconsidSituatedness erationas a partof musicalunderstanding and valuing humancontext andpurposes thespecific forwhichmusicis produced. any praxialphilosophy of man arts are seenas universalhumantraits.action"for ordinarypeopleas a key meansby Bysituatedness music"----that is. thelongand"light" divertimento Mozartcomposed as background or "cocktail" musiclortheoccasionof a socialevent" Itisthedirectantithesis have ofwhataestheticians arguedto be thetranscendental and traditionally disinterested oualities of music." created or producedin the presentfor contemporary humanor socialneeds.the praxialviewunderstands thevalueof musicas centrally conditionedby itsrelation to lifeandthespecificconditionsof its use. occasions. A oraxialaccountof music all aslhustakesintoconsideration pectsof all instances in which"muor"done.musicis not accurately or adequately regardedintermsof theaesthetic paradigmleft overfromthe Romantic bourgeois institutionalizing of Art ("fine" or refinedArt)as HighCulture '1994). Rather. socialstatus." nordoesit simplya matter techniques of of"good" or"practiced" production. a praxialphilosophyof musictakesfullyintoaccount whatmusicis "goodfor"in anyconof "goodmusic." therefore. z> r I I- r-: - t b- varyconsiderably acTechnique andmusicianship to the musicalends in question-the cording "goods"sought---and musical theirsuitabilityis onlyin reflection uponsuchends.e.Mesmer.1992).

at ogy and the consequent As least.The is ill-conceived sucha comparison accordmusicservesto or religioncanandwillvaryconsiderably Butin thisandotherexamples. lt is an mediumfor dictableandsatisfying aestheticdisinterestedness. 1980).1992. 1991. 1983a. t h n o m u s i c o l o g"is"or "is goodfor. froma praxialperspective andthe varietyof "rightresults"by whichthisar. greatest value. Musiikkikasvatus vsk. the humanandsocialpurposes calling sibilityand ubiquityof certainmusicshavebeen includes (andevensomecriti.asidef detractsfrom "rightre "good"inquestion isno "rightresults" themus the tention.This future.focusof.and pointsto its values.Park Musicisa choicebywhichindividuals basichumanactionsin pre1993Fnot in abstractand abstruseclaimsfor changeor enhance ways.SmithandSimpson andwillcontinue education isconingto basichumanneedsanddesires.forthitspresence.1992. ple.A agencythatservesa ht meaningmadepossi ln fact."Thus.Musicas religious saythat. situatedness of thatparticular humanneedsand interests.the experienced pastandthe ing. 1983b.mandedby othermusicalpractices. whatis mostfully actualizing and"making special" practical forBecoming more avenue Themultitudinous waysinwhich human. myadoption ortranscendental someidealmetaphysical Theyarerootedinsteadin thesituated andhighly 1992)of thetermactionlearning." savefor the rarifiedmusical someotherkindof humanoraxisthatwasnotfor that is unpopular to a concertas a listenertastesof the few is said(bythem!)to reflectthe and of music--going is a validandvaluable musicalpraxis.Reimerand ethological ac." Further.hasno functionbeyondcontemplation. accesa result.butis notthesolereasonor occasion Dipert1993.Blaukopf1992).In termsof praxis. Whatmusicis" o be servedto greater greesby a particular P arei musicalpractices ceptibleto improvem practiceand otherforn the Praxially.habitualor (Zolberg (Blacking 1995). in distinction to aesthetic of art and Musicserves.Keiland Feld1994.butno something Theadolesc "foolingaround"(actu in < tar is not engaged one'swildestimagina goingaesthetic respo of musicin celebratio aes ingsis alsoneither its meansor ends.thebewildering diversity of musicsis seento betweenthe recentlyremembered humanneeds.musicis understood countsof thearts(Dissaanayake and inlenltpnaltU that E i b e s f e l d1t9 8 9 a .musicis clearlynotthecenmaticconsequences a definingpart of actsof living=allandanyof them!Thisis notto tral focus.for example.e.musicforadvertising periorto musicfor concerts.The mindfulness "action"from reactive. it wouldbe Thusmusic aginablewithoutits music---that evidence of theirlackof"goodness. (Reimer 1989. caseof a concert. for a to expectfrom churchmusicthe "goods"depraxialphilosophy of music."themusic"is clearlya central for To a praxialphilosophy of music.1 9 8 9 b )e. more. Takeaway"themusic"andyou ideologues heldbyaesthetic is unimcal theorists. ever.becausemillions larlyto an unimaginable varietyof musics.Merriam the"humanities" anthropology of music(Kaemmer 1964)and art (Layton1991). suchas Adorno[1967.the "goods"of musicare not attributed (Regelski 1981.however.philosophies a corehumannatureand.whilemusicthatcommands the participant greatestpopularityis correspondingly of peoplelistenreguleastval. Said1991)andpopular culture(Aronowitz understanding andgroups 1993.the aesthetic and thus not "goodm of suchm attensivity . soecificconditions of the hereand now{o curqualityof "goodtime" Forpraxialphilosophy andactionlearnrent life.Jacobs1971. Insteadof understan of the humanconditi nice.thepraxis. concert (or vice-vers basedmusicis setfort fact.losophy of musicin andthrough Hence to cernedto isa primary lifehasto by thefullness musicserveshumansand enhanceslife have fullyaliveor enlivened beendisplacedin musicaldiscourseand Thatit cando a keyto herd1991. 1986.distinguishes (Price mindlessbehaviorand activity.a majorand essen.a praxial to be 'instrumental'in resoond.artscriticism music. it hasbeen musiceducation Smith in distinction to theaesthetic phr1991).1976])as changethepraxis!Becausea "concert" is.offerbeyondmerelysurviving. whate it serves degree sults"areatstakethatit That is not to saythati praxiscannotbe"bette entlyis. then.therefore. r Nro r 1996 z6 themus During in w alwaysmeaningful tributedto its oresenc joins the congregation a keYs of heterophony practiced choirsingsa E a pleasingtoneandbal of interestata concerti of tl ence and function "makespecial" theocc is "9 music.the praxis(see.Eibl.sociology 1990.musicis bestunderstood for peopleengagedin the 75). In othercases.but is nonetheless worship.. for examis farthegreatesP in the worldis notmad tening. lts usesand function serveandsatisfyfundamental avidlyanticipated studyof the abundance of musicsis centralto the studyof arethosedetailedin anycompetent andto anyunderstanding ofwhat 1993.173intermsof itsprag. values(seelllbelow) ide (i. "makespecial"is "goodfof--a wide arrayof i n g t o g o v e r n i n g c o n d i t i o n rse l a t i v et o t h e religiouspractice.It mustbe.the valueof in termsof itsusein human 1988. tialpartofwhatmusic"is"and"isgoodfor.Thusit is unthinkable ray of needsand interestsare servedis.the verypopularity. The aesthetii fortheubiqu therefore.Inthe clearlya validmusicalpraxis(Wolterstorff process-values musical of onechurch fromthefirst. ideolof theaesthetic ticebythe institutionalizing il notionthat FineArt. therefore.forexample.Shep. Thepraxisof musicalwaysandcentrally acceptance. realm.As "music" faultyor dysfunctiona obe slavish situations.

andinways goingaesthetic aesthetic ideology) will be detrimental dredsof waysin whichchildren andadolescents andthusnot "goodmusic"{or example. for examplethrough ceptible practice andotherformsof musicaleducation.if the are andlearnto be social. meaning madepossible involved bythe music. Whethet for instance. the churchserviceis not a (orvice-versa. "rightreit serveswhatever degree areatstakethatit is"goodfor. fortheubiquity therefore. socialor individual butthepragmatic benefits of thatpraxisarenever strictlymusical. joins in singing a hymn in a the congregation heterophony of keys and versions. endsor purposes thatareneverentirely or purely("intrinsically") musical. for example.Eventhere.Thereis alwaysa larger "practicing") "fooling witha gui.all musicis "functional" in someresoect. based In percentage fact.Duringthe musicalpraxis. or someotherhutaris notengagedin concertmusicor.butnotessential.musicalpraxis{or all involved.existential. the Beingand Becoming with practic*ts "making musical special" of human Infact. however.the serviceis alwaysmeaningfulin ways that can only be attributedto its presence.Such is "good"to the music.The such the"goodtime"resulting '?ight results" the musicis not"good"forthisin. process-values Musical mayprovide theprimary occasion fora particular"good"servedthatmusicis'instrumental'(in wildest imagination. in producing one's or under. agency the"good" or servedwithoutthe definingpresence of music. Perhaps maybe "good"for themusicin question someotherpraxis. Thereis. Instead musicas a centraltrait of understanding it is reduced to a "frill"ofthehuman condition. ingsisalsoneitheraesthetic norrarefied in either itsmeansor ends. However.Similarly. In a praxial view. responsiveness. per se are musicalprocess-values onlymoreor lesscentralto anddefiningofthepraxis:ina concert more. Thecentralrole uniqueto musical incelebrations. theyhave percognitive.or a highly practiced choirsingsa Bach choralein tune.for the largestvarietyof musicalpraxes. intellectual around"(actually. thereare hun(i.Whatmusicis"goodfor"can ently beservedto greateror lesserdegreesby a particular praxisand all practicesare alwayssusmusical to improvement. something thoughfor theirown saketakesattentionaway fromthebrideandgroomratherthancontributing theirpartto thespecialmeaning of theoccasion.. and audiencealike-is Theadolescent forwhom"goodtime"is never"purely"musical.byfarthegreatest of musicmade intheworldis notmadeexpressly forconcertlistening. of musicin humanlife.e.suchasa concert. validityto the traditional aesthetic distinctionbetween"pure music"attendedto for its ownsakeand"functional music" for the sakeof thisview.thepragmatic sense)inbringing to Be. r No r 1996 : i . andwheremusicalprocess-values are primaryamongthe "goods"served.natureand extentof this uniquecontribution is As "music" thepraxisis to somedegree theprimaryfunction tention. inmany is "music.forexample. if themusic timeand events--isuniqueand availablein no detracts from"rightresults"intended. music's"goodness" willbe a "goodfor" someintentions.Thus.performer.Without fromitsownpraxis. attensivity of such musicalprocess-values as plentyof opportunities to develop FJMEVol." slavishobeisance situations. ordysfunctional. Evenwhenhighlypracticed technical levelsof performance areinvolved.Theyare alwayspartlyexistentialin contributing totheactions of humansBeing human. ritualsandothergatherofmusic Tobe sure. in churchor for dancingor ceremonialuse.importantsocial. thenthe othermannerand eacheventwill be uniouein "good" inquestion is notservedwell. to musicalprocess(seelll below)asthoughfortheirownsake values In schools." sults" Thatis notto saythat any musical praxis cannot be"bette/'than it presis. in any. in caseswhereliturgyconcert musicis set for concertperformance). andvalueof anypraxisthat faulty Thus.with a pleasing toneandbalanceworthy it isthepresofinterest at a concert. however. A musicpraxisis an act of intellectual and otherhuman"goods"can be thatservesa humanpraxis. enceandfunction of the musicto "make soecial" the occasion.existential.asidefromconcerts.lessso. therefore. Praxially. composer.Theaestheticideologyfailsto account.

" to theseoualiaas self-sufficient that this is or has been the case does not mean Furthermore. are informedand infusedby qualitiesthat are unique to music.reasonsfor this demiseof amateurperformance larly the Western canon of concert Art-music.or with less refineda tonethan a professional. dancingand socializingto popularmusic---that kind of "goodtime"is apparentlywhat it is "good and requirelittleadult for"-are relatively'natural' intervention.does not in anyway detractfromthe meaningfulnessof the musicalpraxisfor that amateur as or for like-mindedinformalaudiences---+uch appreciativefamily.may be moreor lessrigorous say. In distinctionto the ephemeralvaluesclaimedfor the aesthetic response. That is not to say that ordinarypeopleno longer ill make music in any way. or for appreciative "amateur"audiencesof familyand friends.musicalpraxishas its own process-values. theseoualiacan be attendedto moreor lessas a 'taught'toassoprime goal of intentionality and thus of attention ards"that audienceshavebeen (attensiveness).ceptualand motor skills.Al"musicianship"---that are variableand uniquefor thoughthereis notenoughspaceto argueit here.They are not servedin the same ways or--in some cases-€t all by other formal or informalofferingscommonin schools.. such as listenlng.are self-validating self-motivating.despitee musicians-forexamp Andr6Previnin jazz an neces sic--.classes. As lateas the turn of the century. dio.they involvepitch. c a n b e a t t r i b u t e dt o t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d professionalization the "standof music-making. aspectsof what in conservatorycirclesis called musicseemsto be approachingextinction.Thesequalities--what I have here called "musicalorocessvalues"----are a particularway in which absoluteterms at least.s a shiftof attention ag thusa shiftof musical a ch signalsor produces "thegoodness" expect as well. In some practices.particu.the"training" worksagainstcompete anotheroraxis.each that it ought to be the case for non-professionals Thus who wish to participatein this or any othermusi. lt is in the well acceptedthat amateurmusic-making 'salons'offriendsas a "serious"and homeand musicalpraxiswas all butwipedout wide-spread of performance. That a givenamateuror groupplays.t y p i c a l l y requiresome formalinstructionif the praxisis to be most valuable.rhythm/ form of musicalpraxiswherepeoplespecifically timbreandthe like-.less perfectly in tune.and patrithe praxisany otic celebrating Musical process-valuesI take to be thosequaliagivento soundby humansby which birthdays. volvingsolelyEurocen effectf dictablynegative comesto'appreciatine 'ava sicof 'modern'and (Pratt1992) performers It isimportant to eachpraxisvarygreatly mu larwayof actualizing wayof fore."parlors" of most middleclass homes were centrally equippedwith a piano.itsparticular calvalue.and the by the professionalization gudic o r r e s p o n d i nrgi s e o f t h e c o n c e r t .Whileit mays values thancanb involve estmoreor lessirresoe (i. because they de-in holidays suchas Christmas.Zanzig 1932). pitchaccuracyand their cal oraxis. t Nro I 1996 z8 is equa vocaltechnique of then therequirements ine wouldbe amusingly era singerattempta pe or Afric tionalJaoanese Infact.The musicianship music.Thus the "goods"servedby involvementin ensembles. highfidelityrecordingand othernew media.and amateurmusic-makingwas an importantfeatureof familylifeand entertainment(Loesser1990.fraternaland socialgroups.However. and executionvary greatlyfromone organization requiredby. "good"tone. a n d t h e s n o b b e r yp r o f e s s i o n aml u s i c i a n s name but a few.e.time can be seenas"good'-that is.praxisto is uniqueto concerningsuch musicalprocess-values.well'spent--even thoughprofessionalartistryis not attained. ing intentionality of theI socialactionof amate su Certain"refinements a concertof suchmus our primeprocess-va "rightresults"of camar Weresomeone to insis musicalprocess-valu mean and its available mightbecomemoreor lf I amunable I thro thelessparticipate tirelylosingouton the the occasion-though undersuchcondition ."In all cases. Some. Amateur oerformanceof Western Art.say.e.and are soughtafteras the valuedtype of "experience"(Regelski1992)at the basisof "good time" through music.for example. haveattachedto the notionof "amateur.Others.helpguide andthus and evaluatelearning.Professionalmusiciansin the ciatewith "good"musicand "good"music-makWesternArt-musictraditionsare trainedto attend i n g . However. church. as mentionedearlier.what"goodmu to the variesaccording valuesare or can be at to ot interestin addition invoked.The differenttraditionswithinthe jazz idiom)and is "goods" served by amateur performanceare not to be confusedor comparedwith another clearly differentin importantways from those praxis.intonation.praxial"goods"aretangible.e. served by professionalperformancefor concert audiences.Thusin musicof the WesternA m us to hearmicrotonal Si turesas out-of-tune. lf I gettogeth catche singmadrigals.non-critical) individuals.time). Musicalpracticesof variouskindsmake a varietyof uniquecontributions to this mixture. particumusic-making(Csikszentmihali otherlike-minded larlyin'concert'or'consort'with (i... Such "goods"are readilyapparentto any and all who havepartaken of the "rightresults"in schools.Wherethe "good"in questionis personal participationin the "flow" experienceof 1990)).set asidetime for the expresspurposeof making meter(i.g o i n a ence-and all the more so with the adventof ra.such as learningto playan i n s t r u m e nat n d p e r f o r m i n gi n g r o u p s .are nurturedand ity and intersubjectivity developed.etc. And "good" Musiikkikasvatus Vsk.. each musicalpraxis. jazz is thus unique(indeed.the music is recognizedas music----as music"is..

u n d e r p a r t i c u l a cr i r c u m s t a n c e s . just as clearly.what"goodmusic"is.ence with the performancemediumor literature dictablynegativeeffect for most people when it c e r t a i n l yc a n . For example. most mightbecomemore or less inviting.the easeand securityof the performeachpraxisvary greatlyaccordingto its particu. traditionalJapaneseor Africansong.Clearlyit wouldbe amusinglyineptto heara Westernopera singerattempta performanceof.there." such that activityat all.shiftof intentionality and As meaningfulpastimes.m e a n i n g .the eventsin "refinements" Certain suchas mightbe "good"at questionoffer compellingattractionsthat those a concertof such music. volving solelyEurocentric tonalmusichas a pre.. lf I get togetherwith friendsregularlyto huge"crowds"and audiencesattendingconcerts singmadrigals. ence fact. our primeprocess-values in comparisonto the Froma praxialperspective. fortunatefirstexperiencesthat fruitfullymodelthe musical"goods"availablethrough lf I am unableto sing today.concerts or sporting thusa shiftof musicalagencyand action)in fact eventsofferfar morethan is valuedby those havsignals or producesa changeof praxisand thus ing personalskill and experiencein the praxis.First-handexperituresas out-of-tune.guedthat priorperformance usto hearmicrotonal experienceor train"ear training"in. fundity"of either kind of event---andothers that Weresomeoneto insiston "rehearsing" for those couldbe mentioned-requiresno specialtechniprocess-values musical alone.and where 'interpretive'and calvalue. thelessparticipatethroughlisteningwithoutentirelylosingout on the intendedbenefitsof the O n t h e p r o b l e m a t i cs i d e .it. a n i n s i d e r ' s occasion-thoughthe praxis is clearlydifferent technicalexoeriencecan sometimesbe a hinundersuch conditions.Similarly.haveneverparticipated in the praxis socialactionof amateurmusicaloerformance.the lisperformers (Pratt1992).voted to listening.however. say.the musicalpraxis cal insightsor cultivationbeyonda informalfaandits availablemeaningswouldchange.its particularway of judgingwhat is of musi. r No r 1996 .composerswhen full attention(intention)is defore.In this positionof audi.a spectatorit is necessaryto haveparticipatedin estmoreor lessirrespective of other"goods. Eachpraxisalso otheruniqueaspectsare thus noted. teningpraxiscan be'informed'inspecialwaysby the technicaldimensionsof the oerformanceIt is important to stressthatnotonlydoes for example.ance-and by revisitingfamiliar literatureand larwayof actualizing musicalvalues-and.the originat. a shiftof attention(i.dranceof sorts.I mightbe more likelyto takenoteof certainaspectsof intonation andtone t h a t u s u a l l yg o u n o b s e r v e dw h i l e p e r f o r m i n g . in question. Forexample.despiteexamplesof "cross-over" volved-however informedfor good or ill by my musicians-forexampleWynton Marsalisand c u s t o m a r yp r a x i s . importantly. if I attenda concertof such literature. one doesnot requirean "insidinterestin additionto other "goods" involvedor er's" point of view to benefitfrom any particular invoked.and sportingeventsconsistmainlyof individuals ingintentionality of the praxisis focusedon the who.t a k e s o n c o m p l e t e l yn e w Andr6Previnin jazz and classicalconcert-mu.or at a highlevel. variesaccordingto the degreethat its musical valuesare or can be attendedto for their own However. catchesand glees. "training"necessaryfor one praxisoften sic---{he worksagainstcompetencywith the demandsof Againstthe contention an amateur. And.I can none.and it miliaritywith the natureof the activityand. h e m u s i c a lv a l u e i n In fact.vocaltechniqueis equallyvariableaccordingto therequirements of the can be a mixedblessing. And.While it may seem that some musics musicalpraxisany morethanto enjoya sportas involve valuesthan can be attendedto with inter.trainedmusicians 29 FJMEVol. the"beauty"and"pro"rightresults"of camaraderieenjoyedmusically. I participatemusicallyas a listenerwith an altogether d i f f e r e n ti n t e n t i o n a l i t yT. 'appreciating' comesto atonalor other new mu.make a positivecontribution when listeningis a 'modern' sicof and'avant-garde' composersand major"good"to be served.then. may well not be attendingfind to be worth theirtime and money. "thegoodness"expectedof "the music"changes This is evidentby consideringthe fact that the as well. Thus intonationtrainingin the periencein performance enhances"theaesthetic musicof the WesternArt-musiccanon inclines responsiveness" of listeningpraxisit can be armusicsof otherworld cul.e.

neverhavebeenandneverwill the musicalpraxisin questioeis just different! to the intenbe involvedin performance. willstrongly condition the suchvaluesshould cal)canandsometimes "rightresults" withoutperformance training for praxisof listening notdisplace theotherdesirable whichthe praxisexists. Stillotherfactors eratureperformedby a professional shouldno doubtserveas the that havelittledirectlyto do with musicalprocSuch"standards" guiding or theoreti"action (i. asterywhoarenottrainedin performing forthe perfections of professional process-values doubtless. directorsof schoolensembles zeal thisI am notunliketheothermonksin the monbyexcessive off"kidsto furtherparticipation theflute music-making. schools)and professional playingthe instrument or to Theformerwill anypastexperience musicalpractices.Many informed listening andrewarding peopleclearly listening skills cananddo develop experience despitea lackof performance ortrainingr{or extensiveperformance background simplycannotbe the only routeto practice. forsomen be possibleto attendto tl^ praxis of the originating quentlythe casethatatt "musical"manner(astra wishto put it) is notonly ticity(i. ablebecauseit makesavailable that are simplynot possiblethroughlistening. I wouldarg musicthatthesemodern valid. as a significant andworth mancognitive energy byv cial"in itspassing. r Nro r 1996 Insum.In all suchexamples. justastheperformers of conthetribaldrummers. clearlydifferent it in situ.I denythatsuchliste strictlyfor its ownsake.historical ideals) ideals" such ess-qualities performance.Thus.9.we do notknowhowto do." is nota"reprod .Or at least attithisis the casewhenan aesthetic-technical rather to allformsof music-making tudeis adopted the thana praxialattitude. resometimesmutuallyexclusive) quirements demanded of each.Thus--andthisis of key havingbeen involved.9. lts meaningfulness formecan losemanyof its "rightresults"if its praxisis con.. be accounted "turn the variousotherartsthat serveits "goods. Sadly.themusical appropriated" andthe in musicimpugned or eve case.Whyand howwe listen.a churchchoir.regulative as such(e. thedancpraxisareinseparable fromthesituatedness and of it).integrity)of the neutralize or evennega values i then. Someaspects of musicalprocess-values musicalpraxisof a "schoolconcert"is notto be ("goods") or transferred to musicsthat in canbe generalized attendedto withthe sameintentions mindas wouldbe thecasehearing thatsamelit. whodespite operaaficionados havea wideandoftenverytechnical no training knowledge of a resultof this theirpraxisas performers training.e.It and its meaningsvaryaccording participation issoughtand gree of performance educationis alwaysdesir. Such1 tv Musicalproces in termsof theindividu meanings("rightresults Nonetheless.dience. acco seems likelythatmanywhoenjoythefruitsof training in miss.for example. Sometypeandde.cannotbe attributed music-making are monastery.even"suffer. ingcaninformlistening in a varietyof ways.whilelw anceresulting formthed ance and composition tl philoso of the aesthetic do thinkthatlistening car praxisin its ownright-lier. 'worldmusics'. to do or neverwillbe ableto do. This can be attributed in partto thediffering intentions of each and thusthe factthat eachis eng a g e di n a s o m e w h a dt i f f e r e n t praxis.for example.. Andwithvarious ersandonlookers arenotbetteror worseoffthan intentions thatbringit forth.But.."In forexample.tionsforwhichmusical certain"goods" practiced.But to holdthatperformance istheproper or best education for listening--or thatdeveloping suchselective attenpertionto process-qualities through formanceis thereforegood or necessaryforintelligent or rewarding listening---simply doesnotfollow. ltsgo meaningful waysthatma ing thoughthe activees below)by whichthe mu (inwardly formed)byeac for eachlistening.Given the increasingly wide diversityof musicsand the separate( groundin shaku-hachi music-making importance-amateur to for instance." uponhearingperformancesthat are less expertin musicalprocessvaluesthantraininghasaccustomed themto acceptas "good"-for example. Itis perfectly clearthataudiences are generally moreapproving thanexoertsandcritics.maywince. However. Awareness of thisor that"technical flaw"caninterferewiththe "good"of the musicfor an expert musicalinsiderjor example.themusical of anymusica (although. whe modefor thisor that"wo o r a t l e a s t c h a n g e dt praxis-{orexample whe arefeaturedas concert than as a socialoerfor tice. and whatwe listenfor as performers-whether amateursor artists--aredifferentthan as audiThereis no doubtthatperformencemembers.neverhavebeenable ensemble.e. theyhavesimplyheardmore Thus. MusiikkikasvanrsVsk.the manyother"goods"that are availableto listenerslackingsuchtraining. Such issuesa s t a k e i n a r g u m e n tcs whethermoderninstr electronicmediasome debaseor otherwise ml the integrityof "themus thentic"or "historicalp wouldhold.hearing for betterby my studyof Zen and fusedwiththe latter--asis oftenthe casewhen.My interestand backflutemusicof the Zen (e.. at a wedding----while a lesstechnically trainedlisteneris enthralled by the "rightness" of resultsfor the praxis. throughlistening can be approached ticipantsare not. areno betteror worseoffthantheauManyaspectsof a musicalpraxis. cert-music the experiencewherepar. listening is a praxisthatis distinctfrom performing as a or makepossible resoondto ever-renew "Music.

enbe obtained by antiquarian re-creations gaginginsuchpraxisasrecreationFJor instance..9. according to and for equally intentions.or when sic is playedin transcription intermsof theindividual-social-religious-cultural ("rightresults") intended bythepraxis.they w h e t h e rm o d e r n i n s t r u m e n t sa n d (e. concert resoond practice "Music. To be sure.Intheirnewconfiguration Such issuesare also at in theyareno longertheoldvalues. as statedearI denythatsuchlistening is everaesthetic is "productive" and practicesthat are conrootedin contemporary stantlyrenewed ashumanendsandneedsevolve. W h e t h e rt h i s modeforthis or that"worldmusic"amounts to an "influence" or a "boror at least changedto another praxisJor examplewhen madrigals rowing.for example.Theintegrity of musical to attendto thesevaluesirrespective loists(Vivace bepossible praxis." unique howseeksto recreate the fixedconditions and properties of pastpractices. neutralize On theotherhand.when aestheticclaimsare part-sometimea significant m u s i c a lo r a x i s .it is clearthatsome valuesin question canbe"misthen. is nota"reproductive" thatsome. computersoftwareis usedto generatean elecmeanings sofor somemusicit maysometimes tronic"accomoaniments" that"follow" student Nonetheless.However." newsynthesis theresulting is to of musicalprocess-qualities arefeaturedas concert-musicrather someextenteithera newpraxisor it thanas a social performancepraco f f e r sn e w m u s i c apl o s s i b i l i t i e s tice. ormakepossible while music) musicbyelements ofAfrican to ever-renewed endsand conditions. Suchtimeis "goodtime.However.developments)." largelyunaffected. In suchsituations." or forthepraxisto be "goodmusic.. @).whileI wishto redress theimbalformthede-emphasis resulting of performance thatcharacterizes much anceandcomposition philosophy of musiceducation. praxis.. it is notinfre. As possibilities represent are appliedto a differentpraxis. integrity) oftheoriginating ticity or evennegateit.theformerpraxisremains FJMEVol.velopments theintegrity "third-stream" performance newpraxis(so-called movement altogether thentic" or "historical" in one music originating wouldhold.Thustheycan and do become part--ofanother case. becausethe originating conditions and process-values of any musical praxiswillchangeovertimewiththehumanconmaywellbe dition. it can tion. I wouldargueagainstthisviewof jazz). s t a k ei n a r g u m e n t s c o n c e r n i n g combination withothervalues.the musicalqualiainvolved variably withoutdestroying changed or renewed theintegrity IV ofthepraxis.lnsum.e. ("goods" for an existor meanings) ingpraxis. Ratherit is undertaken strictly expenditure of huandworthwhile asasignificant man cognitive energy bywhichtimeis"made speinitspassing. for guitar.the lattercan music thatthesemoderndevelopments practices theenrichment of European valid. or forits ownsake.considerable interest andvaluecan (i.ltsgoalthenisto passtimein cial" waysthatmanifest the listener's Bemeaningful ingthoughthe activeesthesicprocess(seeV by whichthe musicheardis "in-formed" below) (inwardly formed)byeachlistenerin uniqueways foreachlistening. theverymeaningof the praxisas "music" canbe tiedto such Musicalprocess-values as whenlutemuare only"good" changes(i. I oftheaesthetic musical thatlistening canbea satisfying dothink praxis in its ownright---although. pageantsand otherre-creations of pastevents andtimesareengaging for is entirelya differentmatterto arguethat re-creation is necessary suchantiquarian to "the music.e. (i.. r No r 1996 .e.the inoffernew"rightresults" e l e c t r o n im c e d i a s o m e h o wd e f i l e .Indeed.newmusical that change(forexample."as somein the "au.therr-itsvalueandvalidity as musicpersHan oftheoriginating quently are mistakin sucha strictly be lostwhenmusicalorocess-values thecasethatattending 'musical" to as thoughtheycanor oughtto manner(astraditional esthetesmight enlyattended independent ofthepraxis inquesto theauthen." Furthermore.havea meaning wishto putit) is notonlycontrary praxis. themusical can oftenbe separated and the integrityof the praxisas musicalprocess-values appropriated" musicimpugnedor evenabrogated--asis the froma praxis. debaseor otherwisemisreoresent corporationin jazz of harmonicde- pioneered or an by lmpressionism) of "themusic.

n linkedin and bYeachm ! Somethingrem ingwhetherthePraxial P in additionto the aesth . Thussocontext variability formeaning-making of humanintention.transcends ceived or retrievedbYthe view arguedhere.existing definedby or directed to music(i. Rather.definedby or relative governing humanaction.Music." meanthattheseso-called the "goods"for whichthat musicexistsor that It is notthatmusicis in anysensea secthesevaluesare "goodfor"othermusics.varietyof However.e.a musicalpraxis(orthepraxisof music. In otherwords. Additionalsoc interactiveand intersubje intentionswill alwaYsbe i and (b).in factthe majority on whetherone is committed depending w h e n a s a n d w i c ho r p i z z a t a s t e s great and wards off hunger or starvation.e.Rather.voking and are to) human processand productare inseparable ditioned by (i. it amountsto an more akin to the origi a i s t h e s i sb u t w h e r e m e structed by Perceptionr way film acceptsan ima camera. to re.e. catesthe kindsof musicalprocess-values volved. it is notsol or "is for. here.Music.t h e .in turn. of times. Furthermored or attentionto the PuritYc ues for their own sake.Separating themas the V ideology musicfromlife aesthetic doesisolates I cannotengagehereinthedebateabout and rendersit inertfor mostpeople. witha specificviewto nuaffirmor "makespecial"certainhumanends Foodmaybe prepared but its privalues.notdirectly invalues.appropriate) arenotasgood."lts"good. to a greater (a)detent(depending onthepraxisin question) WesternArt-musicis not differentas a finesa praxisas music.these rationis always"good.the intentionservesas the criterionfor judgingboth (a) the "goodness"of the praxisas music.i n .e.typein thisregard.culturaland intellectual tions this view.anceof tasteandvisualappearance themedium of musical through There nition." notmeanthattheyshouldbe or thatsuchsepa. In otherwords.thedebate thatis neverstrictlymusical..the intention to createor attentionit claimsto attractto its ownpresence.notgoodat allor canoncan be separated human"goods" ues of the Eurocentric praxis doesnot notthegoodwe expectof a praxisthat"is"propfromtheoriginating social-musical "intrinsic" valuesare erly" foundin itsappropriateness music.musicalvalues--jnthe praxial or thatareexternal qualiaofsound). (e oart of the total humanva an event. such solitaryattentionto musical-process-as-ais rare--perhapsevennonvalue-in-its-own-right )2 existent.inwithoneor morehufallacy" composers stead."Thatsomemusical val. can be separatedfrom a particularpraxisdoes socialandotherhuman forthese"goods. the intentionin questionalso determinesthe part i c u l a r a c t u a l i z a t i o nt a k e n b y t h e musicalvalues. this least ondary"servant" musical view. social.' doubtthat somePeople(m regardmusicalvaluesas P taken for theirown sake(vi of music for its own sake) incrediblyraretYPeof mus of musics. althoughI can onlY1 tention alwaysconjoined as it concerns the"intentional (i. bytheintentionality andthusto the jointlyconditioned neversimplya meansthatserves for somepeople. And. T h e B e i n g .in thisPra down to earth in its centr oraxisand thus it is notis absoluteformalor expres as I such humanPractices too are realizedonlY"inac And. the primary"good" of music--its value as a product of humanactionfor "makingspecial"is nota simolematterof the attention it can attractto itself (to its so-called "intrinsic" process-qualities as though fortheirownsake). values Ratherit servesa wonderfully complex because somemusical "goods.I do notdenythatsomemusic(like some food) is capableof elicitingour attention just that mainlyat the levelof process-qualities.the situated and"extrinsic" musical valuesare called"intrinsic" ality.r Nror 1996 Musiikkikasvatus Again..determine But I do process-qualities relevant to the musicas experienced). or lesserex. a matterof aesthe subsequentaestheticth Rather. meansandends. is.The praxismayservethese"goods'-at in the process. Similarly.Thus. Vsk.and (b)definesor indiit is justrarein thedegreeof in. howevervaluabl focus may be.Without"good"(i.Rather." then.the"good" is a "goodfor"so manyhumanneeds wed to music that are so inextricably part)of thatit is part (buta significant t h e i rh u m a nm e a n i n g .e.for (a)..someof the time--butis not praxial (or non-musical) for)such otherendsthatare non-music to (i. least---€re viewintroduced alwayscon. for (b).is rarelyif ever to be aboutor for itself.areplentyof times. music as thoughfor its o argue.anYcc of I the primarYintention matter of esthesic"injor thetic recePtion. (194 PaulValerY "esthesic"to avoidconfu thetic"meaningis supp tir the music.mary"good"is to sustainus nutritionally. it is not strictlyaboutor for attendingto musicalvaluesthroughlisteningor in performanceand not for "receiving"aesthetic responsesof a formal or expressionistnature.manpurpose intheWestern traditions musical of musicalpraxisdetermine intentions arein anyway intentions ingwhether composer's and these.The concern..w o rol df musicis praxialin termsof the many and varied intenexistential." Music.Thust and"e between"intrinsic" s i c i s m o r e P r o P e r laY p r a x i a ld i m e n s i o n sa.musicalproduct-qualities. gardingmusicas a"thing"or a"process"). two sidesof the samecoin: youcan't"spend" one withoutthe other. to situated of music-making.bydefi.and (b) the "goodness"of the musicin termsof the "rightresults"intended.

whetherempirimatter of esthesic"in{ormation" 1984. However.port criterion"of meaningfulness Inthepraxial WilliamJamesand applied. thepraxial Suchmeaninaddition ideology to the aesthetic or altogether ingsare"real"forbelievers eventhoughtheirbeFJMEVol.34). music to denythe very asthoughfor its ownsakeis not. it amountsto an interestin qualiathatis tionor myth.relativism whichclearly findsmeaning in religious Something philosophy ingwhether isa newchoice beliefcannoteasilybe muchmore Elliott.I would Thispositionseemsconcerned as Baumgarten and existence of the aesthetic response. additionally. r No r 1996 ..andis re. nificance or"isfor.anyin. regard musical valuesasprocess-qualities under.theaesthetic claims ismconcerned foritsownsake). sitionor beliefis seenin the actualresultsthat (1945)coinedtheneologism obtainfromits use.While havebeenrepeatedly mounted arguments against pracVI theexistence of Godandthecorresponding religions.aestheticform.Bythis of Religious Experience viewarguedhere. concerning the wayfilmacceptsan imagethoughthe lensof a efficacy of aesthetic intentionality.whiletherecan be no supplants it. 234).it is notsolelywhatsuchmusic"is" willingto concedethe existence andculturalsig(1991. it-in my words. relation to thosequalities of musicianship only"inaction"assituated approtooarerealized And."the praxial pointof view meanings froma philosophical interactive andintersubjective andother viewconsiders intentions willalwaysbe at mightsumthisup as "believing is seeing" between and"extrinsic" oualities sicis moreproperlya matterof esthesicand wherebeliefcanseemto actuallyproduceanticipraxial dimensions.although I canonlygivea hinthere.anycontemplation of musicas Varieties praxiswillbe a criterion intention of listening meaning canbe tiedto themereanticitheprimary ratherthanaes. for example.on the otherhand." of aesthetic experience Music.not his--to be a socialfabricaRather. In tracingthe institutionalization of ideafirstas a paradigm moreakinto the originalGreekmeaningof theaesthetic thenas an I haveexpressed but wheremeaningis activelycon. Tooversimplify. for expressive cognitivism ofmusics.Thusit is thatmanypeoplefind linked in andby eachmusicalpraxis. argue.however focus maybe.pationof certainconsequences.However. a matterof aesthetics considering subsequent aesthetictheorizingwouldhaveit. and both are inextricably patedresults. and(b). considerable support aisthesis structed by perceptionnot merelyreceivedthe for this view(1994).and the praxialview that takes orattention uesfortheirown sake.These Csikszentmihali's suchhuman as language praxis. Ratherthanseeka universal or anevent.233-34). I followthepragmaticcriterion thattheworthor valueof a propocamera. purityanymorethan o f a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e i n f a v o r o f formalorexpressive absolute practices ideaof "flow"arisingstrictlyin or love. in his ceived or retrieved bytheperceiver. ofmusic an "enhanced aesincredibly raretypeof musicalpraxisin theworld theticformalism" concerned.(a) suchvaluingis only musicalmeaningbroadlyintoaccountin termsof partofthetotalhumanvalueavailable fromsuch its humanuse. "justwhatmusichasmeantto people"(Alperson in this. seems doubt thatsomepeople(mainly trainedmusicians) to regardthe praxial"strategy" as one of three.transcends timeandplace. (1958). Furthermore.ideology.Thusthe traditional "intrinsic" formu.suchan intention is an or representational meaning. PaulValery "esthesic" withclaimsthat"aesto avoidconfusion "in"or "given"by My argumentfollowsthe "predictive imthetic" meaningis supposedly formulatedby themusic. meaning in religious beliefandpractice. despitethe intention bywhichfeelings aregiven to the purityof musicalprocess-val. existent. Alperson forexample.eachwithits ownfocus:a strictaesthetic formalwithform.Alpersonseems valuablesucha single-minded 1991. with Furthermore.(1991) In otherwords. ticesof particular thekindof perceptual remains to be his recent personalconverdownto earthin its centralfunctionas a human writing(1994)and in extensive praxis seemscommitted to abandoning theidea andthusit is notisolatedin somerealmof sation. distinction calornot(seeSuckiel theticreception.priateto a practice-gualities I havereferredto guidingmusicalpraxisin contemplating hereinas musicalprocess-qualities tention and values.Additional socialor otherwisehuman absoluteessenceof whatmusic"is.butnotwithexpressive taken fortheirownsake(viz.

to indivi (1 beddedin an institution entrustedwith its legiti favoredparadigmis so c nial is seenas "devianc thus labeledit is thenig continueson its way una gument that acceptanc or thetic responsiveness mistakenand the count sical praxisis a mattero of musicalprocess-qu engagethe optimalexP of a bel institutionalizing tability and "goodness"r a Pra nessis undeniablY music lovers(eventhou such effectfor mostmus and the oppositeetfect lescents). starting consideration Theaesthetic we undergo contested. Notwithstanding denialsof the metaphysical claimsfor religion. assertions of theaesthetic any purportedaestheticmeanings experienced as a resultof the predictive importcriterion concerns claimsinvolving aesthetic experienceand responding.on one hand." I holdwithElliottthatsuchexperience is from the predictiveimportcriterioncan be seen notaesthetic. and wi .The intentionality of such aestheticrespondingis. of the "musicworld" musicworldof the Euroc ated with aestheticresP ples of this leastfor those whose beliefoccasionsits reality.theconsequences of if the beliefcouldbe shown sucha belief---even to befalse---can be pragmatically beneficial. Ev aestheticparadigmhasal Thus the minoritywho ac aestheticrealmclaimor a the "goods" reportedin theirownterms.produce somethingat leastlikethe experiencepredicted.I seeit is a "good"thathasas itsfunctional els of "reality". Socialinsticanobviously be pragmaticallytutions---such suchexperience as thoseAlperson(1991. Similarly.despiteconvincing philosophical.Withthe historicityby which resultthecontinued in musical Musiikkikasvatus Vsk.a typeof musicalpraxis that has value.if onlyfor the pragmaticreasonthat the privateness and intangibility claimedfor aestheticresponding makesit impossibleto evaluateeitherteaching or learning. then. Similarly. I do not wish to peopleoverhistorywho denythatallthecountless participatedin musicalpraxisin beliefof aesthetic respondinghavewastedtheirtime.see Ford 1975)they take to be participation praxis.therefore.the "good to experience---are all other musics. As an educator.But just as the beliefin the efficacy of pill can createa placeboeffectthat "cures"the patienteventhoughit is not "real"medicine. However. results" theycontinue the"right of time. I hold." DesPitethe f jectiveor empiricalbasis ance of these "realities taken for grantedovertim as unavoidable. to seekfromsuchexoenditures This. real.for reasonsexplainedearliel I acceptas relevantthe intentionality of listenersor performerswho believe they receivesomekindof transcendent aestheticresponsefrom musical qualia. sociological and psychological evidenceand argumentsagainstthe existence of aestheticmeaningas such.goodor beautiful.wherepraxistakento be any pragmaticpurpose. is mistakable.Thusif suchbeliefhasa the belief in the "aesthetics"of respondingcan Asonerecentcommentator writes:"That seem to lead to certain beneficialresults-that whichis in somewaythe nonetheless I denyare"really"aestheticin any of thereis an experience pointforaesthetic is hardly the typicalviews.the purported aestheticdimension(and. experience (diCarlo1996. Whilearguments can be mounted thatdenythe exlstence of aesthetic responding and the corresponding ideology.Therefore. r Nro r 1996 t4 such paradigmsare Pas generationssuch realiti and take on a facticitYtht its "reality.andthat servedisinterested Dlation.Thusdespite who think they are hav arenot(a mostcertainlY claimto conversewithGr thatu and the contention thetic responsedelude away from the "real"valt escaoableto concludet ity has been."Thus my praxial viewof musicdenies. the "musicworld'-lropagate. Therefore.and eventuallylegitimatecertainparadigms(modence. the beliefin the realityof reality(Bergerand Luckman1967).any more than argumentsagainstthe existenceof God can ever demonstratethat religiouspracticeis necessarily a waste of time. I acceptthat people who attendconcertsof musicin searchof aesexperience theticresponses undeniably someperceived isthe thingr--some effector result--that pragmatic reason. On the otherhand. need or use that is servedin termsof "rightresults.Thus it simplycan'tbe doubtedthatsuchpeopleexperience somesenseof meaningin connectionwiththe music--desoite the arg u m e n tt h a t a n y s u c h m e a n i n g in anvcause shouldnotbeattributed qualities andeffectwayto formalor expressive or "in"theartworkthatareabsoproperties musical lutelytrue.italics isunmistakable inorigiPart of the reasonfor this kind of effect nal).). historical. thattranscend time contemand place.TheYbe questioned"facts"of life.goodor valuable. andin factneedsto in consideringthe natureof sociallyconstructed be contested.liefs can no more be definitelyprovedthan disproveo. beliefin andanticipation of aesthetic experiencecan.Thiside prevailin musiceducat detrimentof mostothern Argumentsthal respondingis "unreal"-jectiveor empiricalsens thereforeinconsequenti To the contrary. on this criterion.I certainlywant to discouragethe aestheticmotivefor musicpraxis. I would argue--{ut I think Elliott mightresistor wish to highlyqualify--isa bona fide musicalpraxis.even t h o u g h I b e l i e v et h e m t o b e m i s guided.thereareways in whichsuch beliefcan producepragmatic "good"----at leastfor somepeople. the purportsof aestheticeducation) and insteadfocuseson the pragmatics of various kinds of musical"doings"and "dromena"(Dissanayake 1992.69f. 218)calls relevant---at leastto thoseholdingit.then perpetuate to thedegreeit makesa positivepragmatic differ.

to the degreethis intention responding is "unreal'--isnot factualin any ob. more claimto conversewith God mostcertainlyare not) vitalthanthe claimsmadefor aesthetictranscendandthe contention thatuncritical beliefin the aes.I do not subscribeat all to the aesthetic ideologyof musicor for musiceducation.seemsto achieve"rightresults"forthosewho are jectiveor empiricalsense-does not mean it is under its sway. and sincerelyhope and will do what I can to see it replaced.predictablyresistthe praxialview in favor of the tabilityand "goodness"of aestheticresponsive.Nonetheless it is clearthatthereis some predictivemeaningto be acknowledged for what s o m e p e o p l e .m o s t o f t h e m h i g h l yi n t e l l i g e n t people--lcelieveto be the existenceof disinterestedcontemplation forthe purposesof aesthetic responding. Thus despitethe argumentthat those actiorr-wheremusiccomesto life.or as the philosophyof music nialis seenas "deviance" or even"heresy.has fallenintothe aestheticideologyin attemptsicalpraxisis a matterof cognitivein{ormations ing to providea high-sounding rationaleand phi(i. aesthetic Thusthe minoritywho acceptthe facticityof the aesthetic realmclaimor assertthat theirrealitythe"goods" theyseek."they are increasingly takenfor grantedovertime and go unquestioned as unavoidable. Musiceducatiorr mistaken and the counter-argument thatany mu. and the oppositeeffect for others." praxia In the'generous' view I espousein the case of disinterested aesArgumentsthat the facticityof aesthetic teachmusicpropescapable to concludethat aestheticintentional. and alas. r No r 1996 ."goods'-of any presentpraxialaccountof music bedded in an institution (particularly the "experts" and musicalvalue.Thus. and will continueto exertsome through action and practicum----what in a// the lfME Vol.socialinstitutionsseek above theticresponsiveness on the part of esthetesis all to preservethe statusquo. theticresponsedeludes and misleadspeople awayfrom the "real"valuesat to speak.continuation of the familiarsoundingplatitudesof nessis undeniably a pragmaticinfluence for some aestheticeducation. I reluctantly acceptthe intentionally for such"rightresults"as being an acceptedmusicalpraxis---€tleast until the paradigmcan be andthroughwho think they are havingaestheticresponses out life for students in ways that serve "goods" mostcertainlyare not (anymorethanpeoplewho that are more must be a part---albeita very thereforeinconsequentiaifor devoteesin its grasp.the"rightresults"theyclaim toexperience--are"good fof'all otherpeopleand allothermusics." influenceon certainoractitioners."Despitethe fact that there is no objectiveor empiricalbasisfor beliefin or acceptanceof these "realities.then.more down-toearth. of musicalprocess-qualities engagethe optimalexperiencecalled"flow.such as ado.e n c e .any aestheticintentionfor musicalpraxiscan be bona fide if the anticipation-thepredictiveimport---ofsuch "rightresults"is pragmaticin individuals who are highlyem. They become.p a r t i c u l a r l yt h e A r t musicworld of the Eurocentricparadigmassociatedwith aestheticresponding-are key examplesof this process.erly is to teach.For this model and demonstrate ity has been..suchparadigmsare passed on to succeeding generations such realitiesbecome objectivated andtakeon a facticitythat seemsundeniablein its"reality. s m a l l p a r t i n c o m p a r i s o nt o t h e m a n y o t h e r Tothecontrary. However. However. Even more."Once and musicalvaluethatdeterminecurriculumand thuslabeledit is then ignoredand the institution pedagogy.orient music educationto the ends of music in lescents).it seems inIn this praxialview.This ideologyhas thus cometo prevailin musiceducatlonto the disregardand detriment of mostothermusical"goods. In the praxialviewofferedhere.musiceducation. the realityof a that it shouldno longerserveas the rationalefor favoredparadigmis so consequentialthat its de. is. The variousparadigms o f t h e " m u s i c w o r l d " .esthesics)that losophyfor musicin schooling.increasedattenmusiclovers(eventhough it seems to have no tionto a pragmatic(Regelski1981)and a critical sucheffectfor most musicparticipantsworldwide view of education(Carr and Kemmis1986)wil. continueson its way unaffected.Despitethe argumentthat acceptanceof the facticityof aesTo be sure. A praxialphilosophymustaccountfor al formsof musical"doings."the musiceducatorsin schoolsand universities will institutionalizing of a beliefthat predictsthe inevi.unquestioned "facts"of life.I agreewith Elliott entrustedwith its legitimation).the paradigmhasalsobecomean ideology.e. however.

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