Cyber 1AC

Solvency .

.Plan Plan: The United States federal government should declare cyber-war on the People’s Republic of China.

Improved cyber defences would require hackers to use more sophisticated skills and make China's economic espionage more costly and difficult to conduct. including Australia.(Fergus Hanson is the author of Internet Wars: the struggle for power in the 21st century. China’s hacking attacks are more than just a nuisance. The first unclassified Australian Cyber Security Centre threat report released in July described the threat as "undeniable. Britain's then minister of state for the armed forces. attacked Iran's nuclear facilities and in response Iran attacked Saudi Aramco. Perhaps most troubling. As the report noted. The attacks from China might be frequent." The problem goes beyond silence in the face of constant attack and there are three key areas where leadership is needed. In times of actual war. For example. But a bilateral deal with President Barack Obama to stop stealing US everyone else was excluded . given many vulnerable targets could cause mass civilian casualties. the Computer Emergency Response Team "responded to 11. Nick Harvey. it's not even clear the US will be able to keep China to its word. critical infrastructure and government". http://www. They don't like it. unrelenting and continues to grow". In the big picture though it is just the latest in a long string of attacks. It's part of a much bigger problem. often huge in scale and cost. They’re hacking our interwebs and/or meteorologists. In however.Solvency China says yes to the Aff – in fact. critical infrastructure is also frequently targeted." While the Chinese cyber attack on the Bureau of . such as economic sanctions or diplomatic protests. countries have to agree which types of cyber attacks are tolerable. Most mature economies regard this as completely unacceptable. but the response is a dog's breakfast. this was very likely an underestimate as it relies on self-reporting and many companies would be unaware they have been attacked owing to poor cyber defences. "has created a permissive environment. Fergus Hanson 15 . including insight into Australia's defence operations. Chinese hackers often use less sophisticated cyber tools to access targets. "The muted response by most victims to cyber attacks. While the exact motivation for the attack on the Bureau of Meteorology is unclear. countries like Australia need to encourage companies and government departments to harden their infrastructure. they probably already did a long time ago. But now that more than 100 countries have military and intelligence cyber warfare units." the US Director of National Intelligence told Congress Other areas are greyer.smh. it is generally accepted they will use cyber capabilities to spy on each other. Finally.. The US has had some of its most expensive and critical weapons systems compromised. 12-7-2015. First. like the New York Times for exposing corruption among its leadership. Sydney Morning Herald.073 cyber security incidents affecting Australian businesses. To this end the US. and likely Israel as well. there would be a range of strategic objectives that it could serve. As the US Director of National Intelligence observed: " China is an advanced cyber actor. it is also unclear what applications of cyber weapons are acceptable – this is particularly critical even argued these were "quite a civilised option". Without the pressure a joint approach would bring. like-minded states need to act together. Second. Chinese President Xi Jinping agreed intellectual property.html) //Snowball Bureau of Meteorology The Chinese cyber attack on the last week might have been big. 153 of which involved systems of national interest. but there is also a begrudging acceptance that states will do their best to steal military technology if they can get away with it. Conducting cyber attacks during peacetime has become a way of retaliating outside traditional frameworks. It found that in 2014. under the threat of US sanctions. it's a recipe for chaos to allow states everywhere to attack at will whenever they are mildly bent out of shape. The theft of its intellectual property led then-director of the NSA General Keith Alexander to call it "the greatest transfer of wealth in history" and China regularly attacks US companies it disagrees with. China (and others) conducts economic cyber espionage on an industrial scale to support state-backed companies. but it is in no way exceptional.

Oct. Global leaders. The gaps in the State Department security systems alone take up almost half my workforce. networks popping up every day.” said security minister Liu Xiang. we simply don’t have the manpower to effectively exploit every single loophole in their security protocols. The Onion.S. They literally can’t even right now. China Unable To Recruit Hackers Fast Enough To Keep Up With Vulnerabilities In U. let alone hire and train enough hackers to attack each one. 26 2015.S. http://www. “We can’t keep track of all of the glaring deficiencies in their firewall protections. Security //Snowball BEIJING—Despite devoting countless resources toward rectifying the issue. The Onion 15 . there is a more important bigger picture. need to engage on these issues and work towards agreed norms of behaviour. “With new weaknesses in government officials announced Monday that U. Chinese the country has struggled to recruit hackers fast enough to keep pace with vulnerabilities in U. .Meteorology was expensive and unfriendly.(a professional news source.S. who confirmed that the thousands of Chinese computer experts employed to expose flaws in American data systems are just no match for the United States’ increasingly ineffective digital safeguards. security systems. they’re failing to address them at a rate that shows no sign of slowing down anytime soon.” At press time.theonion. And now. Liu confirmed that an inadequate labor pool had forced China to outsource some of its hacker work to Russia. acting in partnership.

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Evidence cites: Isaac Mao.(Hilary Whiteman. Chinese venture capitalist and blogger who has been threatened by the regime for internet freedom violations Tech In Asia 12 ("What Would China Be Like If the Internet Wasn't Censored") Everyone I spoke with agreed that whatever other effects it might have on society. which shows the attraction and openness of China's Internet. Authorities also closed 16 websites and detained six people for allegedly spreading rumors of "military vehicles entering Beijing and something wrong going on in Beijing. "China's Censored Leap forward: The Communist Party's Battle with Internet Censorship in the Digital Age") Media and information controls have long been an essential dimension of the CCP’s authoritarian system." Hong said. 4-6-2012. strategic. the authorities responded with campaigns to intensify ideological controls. after intellectuals and members of civil society urged the CCP to adhere to China’s constitution and a rare strike by journalists at a major newspaper sparked broader calls to reduce censorship." On //Snowball "First of all. certain reports prove again that China is a victim of internet hacker attacks. Censorship is great Feeney 12 (Caitlain. Claremont McKenna.cnn. As Jeremy Goldkorn put it: An open Internet would place the government and companies under a great . since the change in leadership in November 2012. Cyberspace discussions on Bo's fate have since been censored. the dedication of top leaders to reasserting party dominance over an information landscape whose control was perceived to be slipping away has contributed to a more sophisticated. http://www.'" One user on the Weibo micro-blogging site posted in response: "Open? How dare you brainwash your people that?" The mass attack comes less than a week after the country suspended comments on China's most popular micro-blogging sites. The two-day suspension was necessary to "clean up rumors and other illegal information spread through microbloggings." according to state-run news service Xinhua. effective effort compared to the pre-existing apparatus. Cnn 12 . China's internet was rife with rumors last month of an alleged coup attempt after the shock dismissal Communist Party politburo member and Chongqing party chief Bo Xilai. Cnn. China admits sites hit in hacking attack. CMC Thesis. users enjoy total freedom online. searches for comments on hacking yielded re-posts of the MoFA statement: "we have an open. free cyberspace in China. and in many ways. These efforts and their impact contributed to China’s slight decline on Freedom House’s recently released Freedom of the Press 2014 index. the Chinese government manages the Internet according to law and regulations. Sina's Weibo and Tencent's QQ.¶ In particular. Thirdly.Internet Freedom If we cyber attack China it makes them get rid of Internet freedom Hilary Whiteman." a spokesperson for the State Internet Information Office told Xinhua.[1] Freedom kills the CCP . Nevertheless. CNN. and the apparatus for censoring and monitoring internet communications increased dramatically during the decade of the Hu Jintao-led Politburo Standing Committee. a free internet would force a greater degree of honesty and transparency from both the government and Chinese companies. "Secondly. China's Internet is open to all. China has gained 500 million netizens and 300 million bloggers in a very short period of time.

resulting in territorial fragmentation. Keep the CCP in place – they hate democracy The Onion 14 . a growing population.” p. Sep 29 2014. and a free for all Internet may corrode that pillar even faster than the current managed one. Could that transparency (and that public ugliness) bring an end to the one-party rule of the CCP? Isaac Mao thinks so. Today the Chinese leadership faces a raft of internal problems. Here are some ways that China stifles its dissenters: Filtering out any Google search results that don’t link to photo of small child waving Chinese flag Citizens legally obligated to cover ears if they hear word “democracy” . a vegetable. they might be able to survive a free internet. http://www. too. but would also lead to political battles and competition between companies playing out in a nasty and vicious way online.] Ideological work is one of the key pillars for the Party going back to its founding..” he added. Sinocism founder Bill Bishop was not so sure.(The Onion. No Publication. 5] The fourth factor contributing to the perception of a China threat is the fear of political and economic collapse in the PRC. Naturally. and as long as they continue to deliver an increasing quality of life for Chinese of scrutiny which would lead to more openness and make corruption more difficult. [. Myths and Reality. civil war and waves of refugees pouring into neighbouring countries.” he //Snowball Recent clashes with pro-democracy protesters in Hong Kong have refocused international scrutiny on the Chinese government’s efforts to quell social unrest and silence demonstrators.. a disintegrating China would also pose a threat to its neighbours and the world. “They [the CCP] have survived plenty of challenges.theonion. but he said that “the CCP is the natural enemy of freedom” and that eventually only one of those two things can survive. A fragmented China could also result in another nightmare scenario – nuclear weapons falling into the hands of irresponsible local provincial leaders or warlords. ”if the transparency and accountability that an uncensored Internet provides are anathema to the Party then probably not.” Extinction Yee and Storey ‘02 [Professor of Politics and International Relations at Hong Kong Baptist University and Lecturer in Defence Studies at Deakin University.12 From this perspective. “The China Threat: Perceptions. Political disintegration or a Chinese civil war might result in millions of Chinese refugees seeking asylum in neighbouring countries. “But. including the increasing political demands of its citizens. a shortage of natural resources and a deterioration in the natural environment caused by rapid industrialization and pollution. Such an unprecedented exodus of refugees from a collapsed PRC would no doubt put a severe strain on the limited resources of China’s neighbours. These problems are putting a strain on the central government’s ability to govern effectively. any or all of these scenarios would have a profoundly negative impact on regional stability. He didn’t want to speculate on a specific timeline. How China Stifles Dissent.

fellow citizens from view behind constant opaque shroud of smog Bankrolling entire goddamn free world Wildly popular children’s show “The Adventures Of Shangwen: The Dragon Who Never Deviates From Proper Decorum” 3.html ] Nuclear. popular sovereignty and openness . December. 8/24/14. the global ecosystem. interwebs key to global interwebs – take back the interwebs McCoy 15 (Shawn. http://www. Democracies do not sponsor terrorism against one another. International Consequences Worry Observers of the Domestic Net Neutrality Debate. who organize to protest the destruction of their environments . p. detention centers. Most of these new and unconventional threats to security are associated with or aggravated by the weakness or absence of democracy . They are more environmentally responsible because they must answer to their own citizens. Hoover Institution. Publisher @ InsideSources and previous Communications Director on Romney political Campaign.5 million square miles of hard-to-find places Withholding wages of anyone who goes near public space Opening one new KFC location for every year citizens do not engage in any free speech whatsoever With the implicit approval of the international community Democracy causes extinction Diamond ’95 [Larry Diamond. Democratic governments do not ethnically "cleanse" their own populations . PROMOTING DEMOCRACY IN THE 1990S. The experience of this century offers important lessons. Stanford University. Inside Sources. accountability . Countries that govern themselves in a truly democratic fashion do not go to war with one another .S. In the long run they offer better and more stable climates for investment. appears increasingly endangered . chemical and biological weapons continue to proliferate. and enduring trading partnerships. http://www. They do not aggress against their neighbors to aggrandize themselves or glorify their leaders. U. open.carnegie. and they are much less likely to face ethnic insurgency. They do not build w eapons of m ass d estruction to use on or to threaten one another .Government reeducation cemeteries Obscuring government buildings. Democratic countries form more . The very source of life on Earth . Independently. with its provisions for legality.

First. give a U. Foreign Policy. Bollinger serves on the board of the Washington Post Company. as an opportunity for the US to lead by example.N.S. President Obama.about 70 percent of the world's population -. 89 countries voted to approve a treaty that could strengthen the power of governments to control online content and deter broadband deployment. suggested that he would support a move toward stronger regulation.foreignpolicy. Federal Communications Commission. The expansion of the open Internet must be allowed to continue: The mobile and social media revolutions are critical not only for democratic institutions' ability to solve the collective problems of a shrinking world. 5 billion people -. April 16. we see that the Arab Spring and similar events have awakened nondemocratic governments to the danger that the Internet poses to their regimes. The threats to the open Internet were on stark display at last December's World Conference on International Telecommunications in Dubai. Two years later. the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).As some call for government oversight of the Internet in the United States. more than 1 billion people worldwide have access to the Internet. In 2012. there are worries that implementing such regulation could undermine the US in pressing for more Internet freedom worldwide. and Saudi Arabia -. over the objection of the United States and many others. First Amendment scholar Lee C. As many ISPs are state-owned. the Heritage Foundation’s James Gattuso said he sees the greatest international danger in Title II coming as other countries also move to institute common carrier and “unintentionally suppress the Internet. organization. and threats are mounting to the global spread of an open and truly "worldwide" web. but also to a dynamic and innovative global economy that depends on financial transparency and the free flow of information. In an interview with InsideSources. But this growth trajectory is not inevitable. It is revolutionizing global access to information : Today. Experts on the issue of net neutrality believe there are potential consequences for other countries in both democratic and authoritarian parts of the world. they pushed for a treaty that would give the ITU's imprimatur to governments' blocking or favoring of online content under the guise of preventing spam and increasing . and the larger discussion of net neutrality. Leading up to the Global Internet Governance Forum in early September. speaking recently at a forum of African leaders. Freedom House expresses concerns that authoritarian governments could cite “fast lanes” as justification for censorship. In Dubai. other countries are watching the domestic debate in the US and looking for clues in Washington’s thinking. a watchdog organization supporting democratic rights.” Others view the debate over Title II.will be connected in five The Internet has created an extraordinary new democratic forum for people around the world to express their opinions. http://www. the domestic debate in the US is focused on “Title II” authority to regulate broadband as a public utility. Extinction Genachowski 13 Julius Genachowski is chairman of the U. Bollinger is president of Columbia University. "The Plot to Block Internet Freedom". which could allow Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to charge companies a higher price for their content to be delivered at a faster speed. where the United States fought attempts by a number of countries -including Russia. new regulatory authority over the Internet. China. 2013. two deeply worrisome trends came to a head. Freedom House. has argued against the current FCC proposal. In Dubai. Critics of Title II say that such a regulatory power grab in the US undermines the country’s international efforts to promote an open Internet. the US led an effort to derail a treaty at the World Conference of International Telecommunications that was seen as an effort by oppressive regimes to grab greater control of online content. and at current growth rates.

we were able to win the battle in Dubai over sender pays. Conversely. edit. or favor Internet traffic that travels over their security. but we have not yet won the war. Keeping the Internet open is perhaps the most important free speech issue of our time. I propose that there are six ways in which the net has vastly reduced the threat of societal well as its attendant benefits for democracy -. and free speech will return in upcoming international forums. empowering governments to require Internet content creators to pay a fee to connect with an end user in that country. civil society. content creators -.public or private -. the World Telecommunication/ICT Policy Forum. Extinction Eagleman 10 (David Eagleman is a neuroscientist at Baylor College of Medicine. including an important meeting in Geneva in May. disease." Since the beginning of the Internet. A sender-pays rule would change that. But the opposite is true: If a country imposed a payment Many great civilisations have fallen. Together. or adopt economic models similar to international sender pays.should be able to pick and choose the information web users can receive. a different way to divide the pie. where he directs the Laboratory for Perception and Action and the Initiative on Neuroscience and Law and author of Sum (Canongate).would slow dramatically. and others in opposing these changes. and 15 percent more than in Europe. while investment in the rest of the world has barely inched upward. 2010. The loss of content would make the Internet less attractive and would lessen demand for the deployment of Internet infrastructure in that country. would change the ground rules for payments for transferring Internet content. the basic commercial model underlying the open Internet is also under threat. technology industry. That is a principle the United States adopted in the Federal Communications Commission's 2010 Open Internet Order. In particular.have been able to make their content available to Internet users without paying a fee to Internet service providers. such as political speech.individuals. content creators would be less likely to serve that country. opening the door for governments to block any content they do not like. Nov. more fiber-optic cable was laid in the United States in 2011 and 2012 than in any year since 2000. American Internet service providers have joined with the broader U. Second. leaving nothing but cracked ruins and scattered genetics. To their credit. resource depletion. some proposals. That's why we believe that the Internet should remain free of gatekeepers and that no entity -. But we’re luckier than our predecessors because we command a technology that no one else possessed: a rapid communication network that finds its highest expression in the interne t. We must preserve the Internet as the most open and robust platform for the free exchange of information ever devised. social media sites -. Without continuing improvements in transparency and information sharing. and the growth of global connectivity -. Authoritarian countries' real goal is to legitimize content regulation. And according to the Information Technology and Innovation Foundation. The massive investment in wired and wireless broadband infrastructure in the United States demonstrates that preserving an open Internet is completely compatible with broadband and those societies nurturing nascent democracy movements become more familiar with America's traditions of free speech and pluralism. All Internet users lose something when some countries are cut off from the World Wide Web. “ Six ways the internet will save civilization. So too would the benefits accruing to the global economy. According to a recent UBS report.S.” http://www. Sender pays may look merely like a commercial issue. . Each person who is unable to connect to the Internet diminishes our own access to information. Repeat the process in a few more countries. We become less able to understand the world and formulate policies to respond to our shrinking planet. economic meltdown. news outlets. And it's why we are deeply concerned about arguments by some in the United States that broadband providers should be able to block. Usually this results from: natural disasters. Issues affecting global Internet openness. like the one made last year by major European network operators. the innovation that springs from new commercial ideas and creative breakthroughs is sure to be severely inhibited. annual wireless capital investment in the United States increased 40 percent from 2009 to 2012. search engines. One species of these proposals is called "sender pays" or "sending party pays. broadband deployment. And proponents of sender pays and similar changes claim they would benefit Internet deployment and Internet users. 9. we gain a richer understanding of global events as more people connect around the world. poor information flow and corruption.

Delivery trucks are more eco-friendly than individuals driving around. Of course. the Roman Empire and most of the empires of the Native Americans. collapse ensues. so Californians changed their tack: they uploaded geotagged mobile-phone pictures. Collections of learning -. using the latest bricks of knowledge in their fortification against risk. airwaves and copying machines in the USSR. Energy expenditure is reduced Societal collapse can often be understood in terms of an energy budget: when energy spend outweighs energy return. The balance tipped: the internet carried news about the fire more quickly and accurately than any news station could. Human capital is vastly increased Crowdsourcing brings people together to solve problems.from the webs of Wikipedia to the curriculum of MIT’s OpenCourseWare. The internet addresses the energy problem with a natural ease. there are energy costs to the banks of computers that underpin the internet -. Given the attempts by some governments to build firewalls. New discoveries catch on immediately.Epidemics can be deflected by telepresence One of our more dire prospects for collapse is an infectious-disease epidemic. The net opens the gates education to anyone with a computer. we can fluidly shift into a self-quarantined society in which microbes fail due to host scarcity. But the news stations appeared most concerned with the fate of celebrity mansions. This has taken the form of deforestation or soil erosion. China. currently. coal and oil that would be expended for the same . the photographers of every nation. Tyranny is mitigated Censorship of ideas was a familiar spectre in the last century. This squandering of talent translates into reduced economic output and a smaller pool of problem solvers. In many cases. Consider smallpox inoculation: this was under way in India. it directly contributed to the collapse of the nation. with stateapproved news outlets ruling the press. A motivated teen anywhere on the planet can walk through the world’s knowledge -. China and Africa centuries before it made its way to Europe. If the Pompeiians had If the Indian Ocean had the Pacific’s networked tsunami-warning system. uncountable others do not. and the news shockwave kept ahead of the fire. Viral and bacterial epidemics precipitated the fall of the Golden Age of Athens. In this grass-roots. they could have easily marched 10km to safety.and the internet allows this in a natural way. This can reduce host density below the tipping point required for an epidemic. Most of the world not have access to the education afforded a small minority. South-East Asia would look quite different today. For every Albert Einstein. The internet will predict natural disasters We are witnessing the downfall of slow central control in the media: news stories are increasingly becoming user-generated nets of up-to-the-minute information. the bloggers of every political stripe.but all are available to us to sift through. critical information has required constant rediscovery.but these costs are less than the wood. there were embedded reporters on every block. Romania. locals went to the TV stations to learn whether their neighbourhoods were in danger. native civilisations who needed it had already collapsed. Historically. have fallen to the bonfires of invaders or the wrecking ball of natural disaster. Cuba. By the time the idea reached North America. It democratises the flow of information by offering access to the newspapers of the world. And information that survives often does not spread. The net solved the problem. Yo-Yo Ma or Barack Obama who has educational seen in the transition from the post to email. This head start could provide the extra hours that save us. well ahead of the pyroclastic flow from Mount Vesuvius. The internet can be our key to survival because the ability to work telepresently can inhibit microbial transmission by reducing human-tohuman contact. a more successful strategy has been to confront free speech with free speech -. We need expand human capital. they are worse for the microbes than for us. Yet far fewer than one per cent of the world’s population is involved. such as Lysenko’s agricultural despotism in the USSR.from the library at Alexandria to the entire Minoan civilisation -had the internet in 79AD. In the face of an otherwise devastating epidemic. societies can optimally ratchet up. businesses can keep supply chains running with the maximum number of employees working from home. Ecommerce reduces the need to drive long distances to purchase products. the worry involves fossil-fuel depletion. Discoveries are retained and shared Historically. Whatever the social ills of isolation. During the recent California wildfires. it’s clear that this benefit of the net requires constant vigilance. If we are well prepared when an epidemic arrives. updated Facebook statuses and tweeted. Some posts are full of doctoring and dishonesty whereas others strive for independence and impartiality -. Knowledge is hard won but easily lost. decentralised scheme. In this way. Iraq and elsewhere. not least because of tight packaging and optimisation algorithms for driving routes. The new human capital will serve us well when we confront existential threats we’ve never imagined before. information spreads widely. Consider the massive energy savings inherent in the shift from paper to electrons -.

. the banality of tweeting or the decline of face-to-face conversation.quantity of information flow. and there are several threats the net does not address. But vast. you may want to suggest that the net may just be the technology that saves us. networked communication can be an antidote to several of the most deadly diseases threatening civilisation. The tangle of events that triggers societal collapse can be complex. The next time your coworker laments internet addiction.

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Chinese hackers revealed today that they were dropping the United States government from their official list of highvalue targets. the electrical grid goes down in the eastern United States. financial data are scrambled. orbiting satellites spin out of control. warfare had entered the fifth domain: cyberspace. And although police are constrained by national borders.” 11-25.” We won’t potentially creating new havens for cyber-criminals and the spread of mobile internet will bring new means of attack.” he After land. https://blogs. Satire: "Chinese Hackers Drop US Government From List of High-Value Targets".” But according to the hackers’ spokesman. “We demand that the Chinese resume hacking us at once. 7-18-2016.” the spokesman said. it has merged the garden and the wilderness. Before It's News 16 . any chance that they might put the U. “Basically all we found were restaurant reservations and porn. The ill-intentioned can mask their identity and location. a former White House staffer in charge of counter-terrorism and cyber-security.(Before It's News | Alternative News | UFO | Beyond Science | True News| Prophecy News | People Powered News. the hackers had obtained little of value. which was widely denounced by American politicians as a hostile act designed to cripple the economy. say. whilst remaining completely immobile and anonymous. Cyberspace is arguably the most dangerous of all warfares because of the amount of damage that can be done. personal data and intellectual property.S. Deterrence in cyber-warfare is more uncertain than. the dividing line between criminality and war is blurred and identifying .S. not security.html) //Snowball SHANGHAI (The Borowitz Report)— “In a rare announcement from a notoriously publicity-shy group.S. air and space. but neither will China. in nuclear strategy: there is no mutually assured destruction. Visha Thamboo. but just behind the firewall. In a new book Richard Clarke. government computers. sea.” said House Majority Leader Eric Cantor (R-Virginia). envisages a catastrophic breakdown within 15 minutes. http://beforeitsnews. air-traffic-control systems collapse.” The spokesman acknowledged that despite years of compromising U. Society soon breaks down as food becomes scarce and money runs out. “Cyber Security: The world’s greatest threat.” U. “We have to allocate our time and energy to hacking powerful organizations. “This is an insult to the American people. stock markets plummeted on the news of the hackers’ downgrade. “We need to focus on higher-functioning governments. a former White House staffer in charge of counter-terrorism and cyber-security.Cyber They don’t even think we’re a threat – we’ll show them. Yet in wiring together the globe. The internet was designed for convenience and reliability. Enemy states are no longer on the other side of the ocean. No passport is required in cyberspace.” a spokesman for the hackers said. especially on the hard drives of congressional offices. citing Richard Clarke. Computer bugs bring down military e-mail systems. Other dangers are coming: weakly governed swathes of Africa are being connected up to fibre-optic cables. oil refineries and pipelines explode. calling the United States government an ‘organization’ would be a reach. impersonate others and con their way into the buildings that hold the digitised wealth of the electronic age: money. the identity of the attacker may remain a mystery. criminals roam freely. government into a state of abject paralysis. “We’re taking a close look at Venezuela. “Those computers did not appear to be used for anything work-related. Worst of all. “and they seem to have already taken care of that on their own.ubc. government back on their list of targets was remote at best. freight and metro trains derail. “Right now.” He added that the hackers’ ultimate goal had been to hurl the U. 2014—.

Open source knowledge is scarce as to whether Russia continues to operate such a system. www. bombers and. in order to execute a nuclear launch. If nearby ground-level sensors detected a nuclear attack on Moscow. mistaken by Russian early warning systems as a nuclear missile launched from a US submarine. However evidence suggests that they have in the past. Once a command centre has confirmed the EAM. both the commanding officer and executive officer must agree that the order to launch is valid. The Royal Navy announced in 2008 that it would be installing a Microsoft Windows operating system on its nuclear submarines (Page 2008). cyber warfare has not spiralled out of control. Kavkaz was implemented. or shut down these centres’ computer networks completely. Cyber reconnaissance could help locate the machine and learn its inner workings. which showed a potential “ electronic back door into the US Navy’s system for broadcasting nuclear launch orders to Trident submarines” (Peterson 2004). which could be used to gain accelerating privileges. Under this rule two authorized personnel must be present and in agreement during critical stages of nuclear command and control. Regular monitoring by shortwave listeners and videos posted to YouTube provide insight into how these work. However. The real difficulty would be gaining access to these systems as they are most likely on a closed network. many of Russia's nuclear-armed missiles in underground silos and on cyber terrorists would need to create a crisis situation in order to activate Perimetr.¶ In a crisis. and deception that could subsequently be used to initiate a launch . Blair 2008) ¶ Indirect Control of Launch¶ Cyber terrorists could cause incorrect information to be transmitted. these rockets in turn would broadcast attack orders to missiles. A radar operator used Krokus to notify a general on duty who decided to alert the highest levels. using the two-man rule. The investigation led to “elaborate new instructions for validating launch orders” (Blair 2003). Some reports have noted a Pentagon review. switching on the dead hand. the system would send low-frequency signals over underground antennas to special rockets.attacking computers. from the designated hierarchy of command and control centres. These are issued from the NMCC. and on a submarine. and. was an automated system set to launch a mass scale nuclear attack in the event of a decapitation strike against Soviet leadership and military. This is a preformatted message that directs nuclear forces to execute a specific attack. the information age makes it easier. July. all three chegets activated. These messages are sent in digital format via the secure Automatic Digital Network and then relayed to aircraft via single-sideband radio transmitters of the High Frequency Global Communications System. is difficult. The choice of operating system.S. or displayed at nuclear command and control centres. Former Captain of the U. Hardisty 1985). Flying high over missile fields and other military sites. submarines at sea. Jason Fritz 2009. such as those reported to be located at Yamantau and Kosvinksy mountains in the central southern Urals (Rosenbaum 2007. and the most deadly because of its scope and anonymity.¶ . and then fool it into believing a decapitating strike had taken place. valuable information. Everyone dies. Hacking Nuclear Command and Control. is not as alarming as the advertising of such a system is. or individuals involved in military operations at underground facilities. It is unlikely that the operating system would play a direct role in the signal to launch. Contrary to some Western beliefs. Jason. was detected in communications links with top military commanders. Although for now. Remember from Chapter 2 that the UK’s nuclear submarines have the authority to launch if they believe the central command has been destroyed. sent to nuclear capable submarines via Very Low Frequency (Greenemeier 2008. military officials would send a coded message to the bunkers. although this is far from certain. This could be done by targeting the computers high of level official’s—anyone who has reportedly worked on such a project. or in the event of destruction. (Broad 1993)¶ Assuming such a system is still active. let alone the fingers on the keyboards. at least in the past. Knowledge of the operating system may lead to the insertion of malicious code. apparently This may attract hackers and narrow the necessary reconnaissance to learning its details and potential exploits. Dr. tracking. and the countdown for a nuclear decision began. and if a break based on Windows XP. an Emergency Action Message (EAM) is needed. It took eight minutes before the missile was properly identified—a considerable amount of time considering the speed with which a nuclear response Creating a false signal in these early warning systems would be relatively easy using computer network operations. The technical details of VLF submarine communication methods can be found online.icnnd. if they are transmitting wirelessly. via radio relays. The investigation showed that cyber terrorists could potentially infiltrate this network and insert false orders for launch. received. While this is not an easy task. that may provide an entry point.doc The US uses the two-man rule to achieve a higher level of security in nuclear affairs. The contents of an EAM change daily and consist of a complex code read by a human voice. In the US. also known as Dead Hand . Adding further to the concern of cyber terrorists seizing control over submarine launched nuclear missiles. and information gained through the internet may reveal the details. Army. Blair says. Retaliation need not be confined to cyberspace. such as passwords and must be decided upon (Aftergood 2000). the Permissive Action Link (PAL) codes are entered to arm the weapons and the message is sent out. In the one system that is certainly not linked to the public internet is America’s nuclear firing chain. Minuteman missile operators must agree that the launch order is valid. it is only a matter of time. a Norwegian scientific sounding rocket was mobile launchers can be fired automatically. Perimetr. The President must jointly issue a launch order with the Secretary of Defense. ¶ Attempts by cyber terrorists to create the illusion of a decapitating strike could also be used to engage fail-deadly systems. before cyber warfare becomes the most prominent type of attack. including PC-based VLF reception.

If access was obtained. Chapter 16). especially when enhancing operations through computer network operations. radar stations might be more vulnerable to a computer attack. a group of international hackers calling themselves Milw0rm hacked the web site of India’s Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC) and put up a spoofed web page showing a mushroom cloud and the text “If a nuclear war does start. such as the one used by Norway. so the operators believe an attack may be imminent. there are recurring gaffes. During the 2007 cyber attacks against Estonia. This could add pressure to the decision making process. and accusations between governments. real world protests. These systems are designed to protect against the world’s most powerful and well funded militaries. commercially available software for voice-morphing could be used to capture voice commands within the command and control structure. For example. cut these sound bytes into phonemes. and if coordinated precisely. and they point towards alarming possibilities in subversion. could appear as a first round EMP burst. Yet. you will be the first to scream” (Denning 1999). and automated scanning devices created by more experienced hackers can be readily found on the internet. The number of states who possess such technology is far greater than the number of states who possess nuclear weapons. Spoofing could also be used to escalate a volatile situation in the hopes of starting a nuclear war. for gaining entrance to the closed network. while satellites are more vulnerable to jamming from a laser beam. in an attempt to fool the system. web-page defacements are becoming more common. thus together they deny dual phenomenology. However. and splice it back together in order to issue false voice commands (Andersen Mapping communications networks through cyber reconnaissance may expose weaknesses. Combining traditional terrorist methods with cyber techniques opens opportunities neither could accomplish on their own. Terrorist groups could also attempt to launch a non-nuclear missile. yet they can no longer verify it. Obtaining them would be considerably easier. . Hacker web-page defacements like these are often derided by critics of cyber terrorism as simply being a nuisance which causes no significant harm. “ [they cut off the paragraph] “In June 1998. a false alarm could be followed by something like a DDoS attack.¶ Intercepting or spoofing communications is a highly complex science. and the very nature of asymmetric warfare is to bypass complexities by finding simple loopholes. This took place amid the confusion of mass DDoS attacks. For example. a counterfeit letter of apology from Prime Minister Andrus Ansip was planted on his political party website (Grant 2007).