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30 Days To a More Powerful Vocabulary
(In collaboration with Wilfred

How To Read



and Faster

Word Power Made Easy
Rapid Vocabulary Builder

How To

Get More Out of Your Reading

20 Days To Better Spelling
Better English


Third Edition
Completely Revised

Thomas Y. Crowell Company

New York



1958, 1951, 1944 by

Third Printing,



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this book may be reproduced in
any form, except by a reviewer, without the permission of the publisher.




and Debbie .TO Mary. Margie.


intensive and exciting learning. the training offered in these pages can produce remarkable results not because this book pretends in any way to be remarkable. and immediate. review vii . It is a manual designed for the person who wishes to become a and much more efficient reader than he is today and who is willing to spend time and creative effort toward attaining his goal. practical application. PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION How to Read Better and Faster is a step-by-step. ever read at the high level of skill and speed that their innate faster — capacities make easily attainable. hammer and hammer at the Because this is tious. It is possible because few people. day-by-day train- ing manual in the techniques of rapid and skillful reading. With sound training it really is possible to increase your general reading rate by 25 to 100 per cent and simultaneously sharpen your comprehension. it is planned for anyone who has a good capacity for learning and can work enthusiastically on an immensely rewarding project.Prefaces are often cavalierly ignored. For such a person. a training manual. it will pound and pound and pound at the important principles. it will be calculatedly repetisame way that any good classroom or clinic teacher is repetitious like such a teacher. in the — significant points. it should be read before you turn to Chapter 1. Since this one contains important information on a time schedule for your training. a process that actually works. a process that unfailingly shows remarkable results in a comparatively short period of time. but because sound training in the techniques of efficient reading is a remarkable and dynamic process. without some degree of training or self -training. it is intended for careful study. As such. offer specimen after specimen for study.

especially when you feel fresh. I have divided the twelve chapters of the book into thirty sessions. result in the best learning. This is a reasonable and realistic program that will not unduly interfere with your other activities or with your professional. too. An ideal and most effective schedule.e. it will be about three to four months before you turn the last page. and one that I hope you will find it possible to follow. five days a week. each of which will require anywhere from 45-60 minutes of study and practice. one session each day. is a good schedule and one that will produce excellent results. How much time? You can. or can make. if you find it possible to work on your training only two or three days a week. until it is certain that you have overi. you will finish your training in about a month and a half. to your work. Such learning requires time as well as calculated frequency of repetition. By staying with your training for as much as two hours at a time. of course. almost automatically. and that the important thing is to decide on a reasonable and convenient schedule and then to follow that schedule methodically. until it is assured that your learning has been driven deep into the lower levels of consciousness and has caused an actual and measurable change in your patterns of thinking and response. it will call for practice and more practice and still more practice. you can complete the course in well under a month. Operating under such a schedule. glance at the table of conlearned. or almost every day. is to devote about an hour every day. read through the information in this book in a few evenings but to get the maximum degree of training. How you space this learning will depend on your personal circumstances. frequent sessions. In any event. or you may feel so stimulated at the indicated end of a session that you will want to go right on with the next session. that short. before you turn to chapter 1. and on the amount of free time you have.and review and re-review. or leisure-time reading. required. have learned so completely that the correct reactions come reflexively. if you cover five sessions of material a week. — viii . Perhaps you will prefer to cover more ground each time. even religiously. On the other hand.. bear in mind that your total training should take no more than four months. Now. you should plan to cover the material in a number of successive periods of spaced learning. This. during your typical week.

vastly improved time. and a considerable amount of comprehension training. comprehension exercises. of a book 175. originally published in 1944. summaries. for the second and which has sold over first two editions has of course been retained. however. all aimed at assuring learning experience. I believe. This third edition represents a thorough revision. practice devices. on retention and recall. The general approach of the over the previous editions.000 copies. on perception training. Note the emphasis on comprehension. you of a successful and productive devised for effecting a permanent increase and speed of your reading performance. Glance. as has everything else that has proved valuable. As a result. too. Norman Lewis . and a great deal of new material has been added. and on vocabulary study. for what this an idea of the type of instructional materials with which you will be working for the next few weeks or months. Some material. at the tables of reading selectents in order to get a feeling for training will be.what the broad outlines of your book has to offer you in the way of improved reading habits. flip through the pages and notice the abundance of drills. And. skill. finally. on efficient techniques. all in the efficiency. the present work is. has been eliminated. including fresh techniques and teaching devices. and tions in order to get reviews.


in which you learn of A 28 51 in Fixations 56 Note on Fixation Time 58 Training in Digit Perception 60 xi .CONTENTS Preface vii Chapter How 1 (Session 1. in to Read Faster Than You Now Do 1 which you discover that you are capable of now do) reading 20 to 50 per cent faster than you Can Do What Training What Training Has How Fast Done You 2 for Others 5 Do You Now Read? Proof That You Can Read How 7 Faster 12 Comprehension Six Rules for Faster Chapter 2 for to Read for 19 Main Ideas (Session 2. in which you learn how to 23 apply aggressive techniques that speed up comprehension) How Efficient Is Your Reading? Main Ideas and Subordinate A 24 Details Test of Your Retention and Recall Chapter 3 How to Train —and in what you see Reading less how to interpret 50 more time) as a Visual Process An Experiment 48 Your Perception (Sessions 3-4.

in bad habits which you learn how to give up three that interfere with comprehension speed) Inner Speech 80 Lip Movements and Vocalization 86 Regressions 89 Perception Training II 92 Chapter 5 How to Get the Gist Quickly 98 which you practice rapid grasp of main improve your perception. Chapter 4 and Regressions 79 (Sessions 5-6. in which Reading Vocabulary you test your present vocabuadd ten to twenty-five new words to your vocabulary by spending a half hour to an hour with a good dictionary. in ideas. learn how to Xll 132 . Lip Movements. and are challenged to read two complete novels within the next week) lary. Vocalization.One Key to 65 Rapid Reading 68 Macular and Peripheral Image Word Training in Faster 71 Perception Training in Phrase Perception 73 Inner Speech. continue to The Details Will Take Care of Themselves 98 Getting the Author's Point 102 Perception Training III 111 Continued Practice on Short Selections 116 A A Challenge to Your Reading Habits 121 Second Test of Your Retention and Recall 123 Perception Training IV Chapter 6 How 125 to Build a Better (Sessions 11-13. and learn how to read a complete novel in a single evening) ( Sessions 7-10.

and why to use the technique. in which you become more adept 167 at recognizing an authors pattern of thinking. and are challenged to read a complete issue of your favorite magazine in a single evening) Reasons for Skimming Principles of Practice in When to 250 Skimming 254 Skimming 258 Skim Perception Training 271 VIH 272 xiii . when. in 250 which you get intensive instruction in skimming.How Good Is Your Reading A Starter Set of Words Vocabulary Study 133 136 142 I Perception Training How Vocabulary? V 150 to Build Your Vocabulary While Reading (Vocabulary 155 Study II) A Second Challenge How Chapter 7 to Your Reading Habits 163 Read with Aggressive Comprehension to (Sessions 14-19. and learn a new technique for increasing the usability of your periph- eral vision) Responding Meaning to Total 168 Perception Training VI 195 Vocabulary Study 205 How to III X-Ray Material 208 Perception Training VII 227 Vocabulary Study IV 240 An 242 Analysis of Your Accomplishments How Chapter 8 ( to Skim Sessions 20-22. continue your practice in speeding up your comprehension. learning how.

" You are offered a list of challenging magacritical zines.Vocabulary Study A V 281 Third Challenge to Your Reading Habits Chapter 9 282 284 Practice in Driving for the Gist (Sessions 23-24. in which you learn to read a selection tell what it says) through quickly and then Concentrate on the Gist! 285 Perception Training IX 302 Vocabulary Study VI 308 How to Chapter 10 Comprehension ( Sessions 25-26. novels. in Whip Through Material with Good 310 which you use a third round of timed your habits of aggressive and selections to strengthen rapid comprehension) Breaking Through the Speed Barrier 311 A 339 Fourth Challenge to Your Reading Habits X 341 Vocabulary Study VII 345 Perception Training Chapter 11 How to (Sessions 27-29. and books of nonfiction to guide your future reading) The Importance What to of Skepticism 348 Read Recommended 352 Nonfiction 354 Recommended Novels Make 359 a Long-Range Reading Program xiv 361 . in Read With a Questioning Mind which is 347 discussed the importance of reading and of traveling widely among books in order to form "a background for opinion and a touchstone for judgment.

in which you tackle three long and difficult draw up a chart of your total progress. "Cures" for the 17. to Learn Better. York It's the Obscurity.Perception Training XI 363 Vocabulary Study VIII 370 Comprehension Final Training in Rapid Chapter 12 373 (Session 30. by Benjamin Fine 191 Norman Cousins 210 12. by Donald A. Stern 10. 8 Donald Adams 16 Destroy the Earth?. D. by 6.n. by Eda xv S. 8. by Waldemar Kaempffert 30 by (II). 16. 34 the editors of Consumers' Re- the Length. by 13. Laird Don't Get Married?. Diet and Die. Bangling the Language. by William 15. Give Young Doctors a Break. Professors Learn to Read. It Ain't New 170 Child Again. Dutton by Albert Q. how learn even though you've to continue your training finished this book) Final Practice Tests in Faster Reading Last Words—A 374 396 Plan for the Future Table of Timed Selections Donald Adams 1. Green Light Means Danger. and selections. 42 McConihe 177 Easy It What 11. by Bertha Padouk Me A by Esther J. The I if I. Common S. Can 4. by Virginia Hurray 182 187 and Schooling. by 18. Maisel Cold. Jus* for Tonight" by Milton R. 7. M. Speaking of Books 3. Take H-Bomb the J. Stutterer Writes to a J. by the editors of the News 214 14. by Irving S. "Make 9. by Harold J.Q. Speaking of Books (I). by Carlton Fredericks 19. Is Traffic-Court Justice Blind?. LeShan 334 . Coexisting with Teen-Agers. Ratcliff 217 220 313 321 326 J. Atom Bombs and X-Rays. Johnny. by 2. Shaw 38 search Bulletin A Rejected Child. Former Teacher. A 5. Diehl.

16. excerpt from an address by Katherine V. by 5.d. Bishop 299 and Self-Confidence. Self-Respect 14. by Mandel Sherman 118 9. Fried Foods. Speech Patterns. Thought and Language. an excerpt from Publishers Weekly 230 The Improvement 232 of Eye Movements. by Fred 11.d. by Bjorn Karlsen 291 17. Cyril O. Excerpt from Clinical Studies in Reading. Quiz Kid. 19. Jobe by Frank Lay cock 119 120 12. by Karl Menninger. The Best Learning. Retaliation Reaction. by Edward Sapir 6. Improving Teacher Quality. 290 Van Dellen 297 Table of Rapid Perception Selections Life Insurance. m. Chinese. by Benjamin Fine 298 20. Excerpt from an 7. Your Diary. Schubert 10. Cutter. Watkins 199 200 Childs Vocabulary. Spencer 13. an advertisement Efficiency. m. New by Douglas Remsen. Beware the Psychos. Japanese. Lightning and Safety. Why Do 379 Accidents Happen?. Lengthening Longevity. by the editors of Consumer Re- 384 ports Table of Rapid Comprehension Exercises Owning 1. and Polynesian. Excerpt from Against Himself. 117 8. from The 15. by Theodore R. Houle 109 110 by Delwyn G. Porter 107 2. Excerpt from Clinical Studies in Reading. Stocks. 375 by Jesse Zunser 21. Excerpt from an article by Peter L. FitzGibbon 295 18. 120 287 York Times 289 by James Sonnett Greene.d. by the editors of Your Life 4. m.d. That!. by William C. by Ruth Strang xvi . 104 by Sylvia F. Excerpt from Reader's Digest 118 article Man S. by Irving 3. m.You Can't Say 20. A by the Travelers Insurance Co. by Fred Dickenson 22. Excerpt from an article 108 116 W. by Anna Perrott Rose 202 To Be Frank. by Frank Kingdon 203 Edgar Rice Burroughs. by Paul F.

Nolan xvii 258 261 266 . How How by Sylvia F. Excerpt from Emotional Difficulties in Reading. by Harriet Van Home 369 Table of Selections for Skimming 1. E. 2. by Gregory Zilboorg. 238 274 by Bruno Furst Excerpt from an interview with Tennessee Williams. to Make by T. Medicine. by Don Ross 276 Excerpt from The Origins of "Peter Pan." by Arthur E. by Bennett Cerf a Quiz Clansman?. by Joseph T. m. by Murray Robinson Interval in Learning. Traxler 344 Conrad Seegers 365 Excerpt from Teaching Every Child to Read. by Bruno Furst 306 Excerpt from Mind. "Benefits" for Big Boys. by J. Hester 367 Excerpt from an address on Critical Reading.On What? You The 236 a Magazine Cover. Porter to Concentrate Better. by Lester R. by Kathleen B. and Man." by Marietta Karpe 277 Excerpt from Improving Rate of Comprehension. 342 Excerpt from Remedial Reading at the College and Adult Levels. Wheeler 279 The Best Time for Learning.000 Quiz.d. and Viola D. 3. by Beulah Kanter Ephron 368 $64. Buswell 343 Excerpt from "Measurement and Improvement in Reading. T. by G. Cochran a Million.


but because youre an inefficient reader. and as actively as your potential ability 3. most important of all. In this chapter you will learn: • What a short period of intensive training in efficient reading techniques can do for your speed and comprehension. 1 . You read slowly. At this very moment. much more slowly than you are actually capable of reading. Your lack of speed still assuming that you are the average untrained reader results chiefly from three factors: 1. on this very page. unaggressive techniques of comprehension that interfere with total concentration and stand in the way of your responding to a page of print as rapidly and makes possible. there is one central fact you must face at the outset And that is you read altogether too slowly.— CHAPTER 1 HOW TO READ FASTER THAN YOU NOW DO Preview If you are the average untrained reader. poor techniques of perception that cause an unnecessary time-lag between the act of seeing and the mental interpretation of what you see. not because youre a poor reader. in short. you are reading more slowly than you should read more slowly than you need to read for good comprehension and. bad habits that you have built up through years of the wrong — — — — kind of practice. 2.

you could boost your general reading rate by at least 20 per cent. straight to the main ideas and important points If you could accomplish all this after only a few months of stimulating practice Would Or look it be worth trying? it this way: at 2 .— • —— How — — similar training in adult and college reading clinics has increased the speed of thousands of students. • What your present reading rate is on material of average difficulty. at it this way: within a short period of time. important rules for making your potential potential rate apply six and habituaL rate comfortable Chapter 1 will demonstrate that you are capable of reading 20 to 50 per cent faster than you now do. very likely by up to 50 or 00 per cent If. you could eventually almost double your permanent speed If you could learn to strip a page down to its essentials without wasted time or effort If you could build up efficient habits of knifing cleanly and quickly through the words and details of material. • What your • How to is on such material. • SESSION 1 WHAT TRAINING CAN DO FOR YOU Look If. with continued and earnest application.


You now

read, let us say for the sake of argument, ten books a

If you could finish twenty or more without spending one extra
minute on your reading
If, through more aggressive comprehension and greater perception skill, you could learn to cover an average-length book in an
evening or two of solid concentration
If, through the same means, you could learn to whip through
your daily newspaper or favorite magazine in half the time you
now take without missing anything of importance
If you could develop the power of responding more actively to
everything you read
And if, as a result, you discovered such new or heightened
pleasures in the printed page that you found yourself turning more
and more frequently to reading as a rewarding leisure-time activ-


Would all that be worth a few months
Or take some other possibilities:

are a business executive,

of serious effort?

and scores of papers come



desk each day: reports, trade journals, minutes of meetings, clippings pertinent to the affairs of your firm. Each must be read,
quickly but accurately; it is important, perhaps crucial, that you

through a page for a few seconds and pull out
You can't go slowly; in a busy
day there simply isn't time to examine every word, to ponder every
detail. You know that you must develop the ability to push through

be able

to glance

the essential points, the main ideas.

material at top speed.

Or you

are a lawyer, an accountant, a tax expert, an engineer, a
an editor, a proofreader. During your professional day
you must read slowly, carefully, word by word in some instances,
because every syllable, every punctuation mark, every subtle implication has to be studied and examined. And so you have built up
habits of careful, minutely analytical, snail-paced reading, with
infinite attention to minor details. The result? Your reading at the
office or plant is efficient enough
efficient for the type of reading
you are required to do professionally. But when you try to do
reading of another sort, light, general reading purely for enjoyment and relaxation, you find (naturally enough) that your office
habits have spread over into your personal life, and it takes you an

hour to cover a long magazine

month or more

to finish a

You note


creasing annoyance, for




with surprise, then with


you are getting



no reading done

working hours.
are a high school or college student, and in the time it
takes you to absorb a few pages in a textbook your classmates are
able to cover a whole chapter. Despite the hours of study you
devote to your subjects, you're falling behind. And you begin to
suspect the reason: your reading is too slow, too poky, too timeafter

Or you

consuming, too inefficient

Whether the circumstances

of your life

—because you are an
—require you to get

executive, a professional person, or a student

more reading done in less time
Or whether you have become aware that many of your friends or
associates read much faster than you do, and with equally good
or often better comprehension and retention
Or whether you have simply begun to feel an uneasy sense of
inadequacy in your day-to-day performance, and are disturbed by
a growing realization that you are reading less than you used to, or
less than you would like to, or less than you ought to
If you were convinced that a few months of systematic and intensive training could materially increase the efficiency and speed
of your reading, would you consider it time well spent?
You are now holding in your hands a book that aims to help you
achieve all the goals catalogued above a book that offers you the
step-by-step training and practice which can make you a far better, far more efficient, far more rapid reader than you are today.
But merely reading this book is not enough.
You must use it, you must work with it intensively, faithfully,


You must not slap one single page.
You must not let anything stop you from



methodically completing your job from beginning to end.
And most important, you must be willing to devote time and

If you go through this book conscientiously, you have weeks and
months of hard work ahead of you. Hard, but stimulating and encouraging from the start—for every small skill you master will



change in your reading performance. And when
the last session of your training you will find
you have
that you have learned to cruise through print at a rate of speed, and
with an effortless efficiency, that you might once have thought
effect a noticeable

hardly possible.

any reason for feeling confident that efficiency,
be increased in a comparatively short time?
Is there

There are many reasons




them are backed up by scienThat a person of normal intelread better and faster is not a theory; it is a

by laboratory

ligence can learn to





It is a fact which has been established in the reading clinics of
hundreds of colleges and adult education centers throughout the
country. Here are a few random but representative examples
At the University of Florida, as reported by John A. Broxson in
the Peabody Journal of Education, 175 adults took a three-month
reading course, meeting once a week for a four-hour session. The
group was composed of business men and women, teachers, lawyers, ministers, a newspaperman, housewives, clubwomen, and
two superintendents of schools. At the start of the course, 111
students were reading at the rate of 115 to 210 words per minute,
or no better than seventh-grade primary-school level. Twelve weeks
later almost all had shown spectacular improvement, 52 out of these
111 slowest readers sailing along at a rate of 295 to 325 words per
minute high school and college level. While only 20 per cent of
the 175 adults had been able to read at college speed before training, over 40 per cent could do so before the course was over.
Another example: Dr. Robert M. Bear, director of the reading

clinic at

Dartmouth College,


In the ten years that we have been helping Dartmouth students
improve their reading, I have seen few freshmen who read nearly as
rapidly and efficiently as they should
and could after a little training. Year after year, our reading classes start off at an average of
around 230 words per minute, and finish up a few weeks later at
around 500 words per minute.



and fourth example:



Purdue University, a

pilot train-

ing program was offered to 307 entering freshmen, and by the fifteenth week, as reported by Professors Russell Cosper and Barriss

Higher Education, members of this group
speed by 62 per cent. Another group of 282
general and reading abilities to those enrolled

Mills in the Journal of


increased their

freshmen, similar in
in training, but pursuing only the regular course of study,



same period. Professors Cosper and
Mills draw these very significant conclusions from a comparison
of training and nontraining:
gain of but 9 per cent over the

In general, results seemed to




ing directly on reading
rate at



that reading ability improves very

in the conventional course of study.
skill, it is

which a student can grasp the content

... By work-

possible to increase decidedly the
of the printed page.

Extension Center, Purdue offered a training course to

industrial executives

whose plants were located

in the area.


group, ranging in age from 31^11, increased in average speed from

245 to 470 words per minute a gain of over 90 per cent. A class of
older executives, in the 46-58 age group, started at 256 words per

minute and completed training with a speed of 414 words per
minute a gain of approximately 60 per cent. Age may play some
part in slowing down the rate of improvement after the middle years
are reached, but is apparently no bar to healthy gains
notice that
the adults well beyond their prime came within 2 per cent of the
achievement made by the Purdue freshmen.

Professor Ernest



Kinne, to whose article in College English

indebted for the above




more slowly




conclude that the older adults responded somewhat

in gains in speed,



but had a slight advantage in compre-

the whole, the adults compare very favorably

with the average performance of the younger students, belying the
old saw about teaching an old dog new tricks.


a final example: at the Adult Reading Laboratory of the

New York, a group of fourteen students, at the
end of a twelve-week training period in faster reading, recorded
an average arithmetic gain in speed of 69.1 per cent. Notice some
of the radical improvements in rate in the chart below.
City College of












per Minute)


per Minute)














Reports from college and adult reading clinics underline two

The average person reads

unnecessarily slowly and


2. After a comparatively short period of intensive training, such
a reader can sharpen his comprehension skill, can increase his

over-all efficiency,

and can,

as a result,

add considerably

to his


Day by



we shall be on the
changes in your reading performance. Individually, these changes may be slight, but they will be perceptible;
they may be gradual, but they will be cumulative. And eventually
they will add up to broad and sweeping alterations in basic habits,
approach, and methods.
You will be in unending competition, as you move through your
work, not with others, but with yourself, with your previous self as
day, as your training progresses,

alert to detect the


what ways are you reading better today than you did
faster do you now cruise through print than
you did last week? With how much more skill and assurance do
you attack your twentieth reading selection than you did your first,
or fifth, or tenth, or fifteenth? How many more books did you read
this month than last?
In order to make these comparisons, we will keep continuous
statistics on the rate of your reading and the efficiency of your
a reader. In

How much


will set up, one after another, specific goals
and measure how successfully you have reached
them. And throughout, as you gradually perfect your technique,
increase your skill, and build up speed, you will set new personal
records of performance and then immediately attempt to beat




to reach,



Test of Your Present Reading Speed


your present performance so that
which to measure your improvement, a criterion by which to judge your progress.
In taking this test, function as you normally do, reading for the
kind of comprehension you are accustomed to, and in the same
manner in which you generally cover any material of similar type
avoid, as much as possible, any consciousness of a test situation.
Start your timing at the first black arrow; when you reach the
second arrow, note, in the appropriate blank, the exact number
of minutes and seconds you required to finish the selection. The
table for computing your present rate will be found on page 11,
first step,

we may



to test

establish a yardstick with

directly after the




Selection 1



Donald Adams

One of this department's readers has a theory about
Start timing-*

the appeal of mystery stories which




worthy of a

From The New York Times Book Review. Reprinted with permission



of the author.


thought. As






occurred to

over in




the fact that many,

that possi-


correspondent's suggestion




foot pole.





the reader





that, as


listing his

of us

raged and betrayed. But

wrought Eastern
which the dead man's
throat was cut from ear to ear, our
"whodunit" fan sighs happily and
of that curiously

knife with


wits against those of the author,





solely that of solving a jig-



few hours'

release from tomorrow's
problems? I'm not so sure that such


I feel sure,


there seems to






doubt that


which she

do play a part

stained category has been done in


not peculiar to the

mystery story


amply proved by



have been confined to my bed. Of
Sherlock Holmes in the days of his
prime I make an exception but
then, isn't there Sherlock Holmes,

That the appeal of these


qualified to offer

those infrequent periods


swelling the ranks of mystery story

some trepidawhys and

discussing the

myself as a tried and true fan;
most of my reading in that blood-

explanation. But



am by -no means

that her theory constitutes any-

thing like a

have been

wherefores of mystery fiction, because, although I have read a fair
amount of the best in the field, I

would not

and neither

of a just world

Personally, I feel

protestations are entirely correct.


the bedside light. Evil





has been smelled out, and the de-

appeal of the detective




with the strange scar on his temple

hear them loudly
insist that the sport of reading mysteries lies wholly in matching your




turns out to have been the wielder

hear a snort of impatience
from the inveterate addicts of the

that the



stance, to 'actual living beings.'


admirahe is led

mistakenly to suspect as the guilty

to believe ultimately happens,
although not in external circum-




person, our addict feels himself out-




sympathy or

tion for a character

in earliest childhood, as well as in


the author succeeds in en-

fess, if


the fairy tales most of us absorbed

termg of what



Well and good; the fact remains
any case-hardened devotee
of books beginning with the figure
slumped in a library chair will con-




the Elsie books.

on the side of the



Friends and Influence People," or

wicked are punished, the character

bound up

not most, of

an adventure story with a tenThey would rather, if
matters came to a show-down, be

might apply equally well to Westerns, to spy stories and to tales of
adventure in general. Her idea is
that the popularity of the mystery
story may in part be accounted for
by the simple fact that in such tales,


addicts will not touch a Western


.and after




rounds be such an adoring nit-wit?
Mr. Holmes, it seems to me, whose
affairs are not unadorned with personable young women, ordered
these matters better, and kept such
dear young creatures as he introduced from getting under the feet

other detectives;


Professor Moriarity, and after

other diabolic master-minds?


such an obvi-

ous impostor as myself put forth
one or two apologetic queries on

sacred ground?

wonder some-


times, for example,




of the Master.

But no more of these plaintive

from Scotland Yard, or the chief of
our homicide bureau at home, must
always be presented as having the
mental agility of my old friend Zip,
whose egg-shaped cranium used to




triumph of


correspondent would







and the punish-

of the wicked,

besides the

pleasure of exercising his wits and

bob above the crowd as it circulated below the platforms of the
freaks in the basement of Madison
Square Garden. Wouldn't it be pos-

forgetting his troubles, the mystery



held also by the strange

to forsake his ordinary pursuits

which violence in any
form has for the human race; the
particular appeal which the sadistic
and the horrible seem to have for
so many people in our time; and the
participation in events which lie
outside the ordinary round of living.

the butt of our derision and con-

each reader's case, the appeal of
«—End timing
the mystery story.






the brilliant

young attorney, or the debonair
young man about town, or the
eccentric young Egyptologist, who

always ready at the drop of a hat

confound those dumb professionals
with his cleverness, to be himself




of these


up, in


And must the young female who
always accompanies the amateur




his self-appointed


Test Your Comprehension

Which one of the following statements most accurately summarizes the main idea of the selection you have just finished?

Most mystery


The appeal

story readers

do not care

for adventure books.

of the mystery story lies in the chance

it gives a
reader to see wickedness punished; to exercise his wits in the solu-

tion of a puzzle; to participate vicariously in acts of violence;
to escape

from the

The popularity




patterns of his

of the mystery yarn



due primarily


gives the reader to solve a sort of jig-saw puzzle.





min.. 227 213 200 sec. 30 1 min..4. 3 min. 15 2 min. The up with wrongdoers and ad- in mystery stories. min. you will notice that it contains room for information on selections 1-6 only... 1 min. min.. 15 3 min. sec. min.Anmnr ' w. sec. min. Justice always catches venture 5. sec.. of the statement sec. 11 . min. 850 680 567 486 425 378 340 309 283 261 sec. 15 sec. when filled in... 2 min. wrestling with. 3 min. Key: The answer given in somewhat cryptic form so that you is making which best summarizes the main idea can be found by subtracting six from seven and adding one.. 30 sec. 45 sec 4 min. 45 3 min. 45 2 min. characters in mystery and detective stories run too much to a pattern.. TIME WORDS PER MTN. As you glance at page 392. 243- TIME 1 min. on the graph below the chart plot your first statistic by marking a heavy dot in the appropriate place on the line labeled Selection 1.. YOUR PRESE> rr bate or Record Your 189 179 170 162 155 148 142 45 sec TtF.p \*\ Statistics We now have a base figure by which to gauge your improvement you gradually build up your speed. 30 of words: 850) WORDS PER MTN. 30 45 sec. 15 sec. sec. The number Compute Your Rate (Approximate number 15 1 min.. will not inadvertently discover the correct response before your own choice. selection by selection and chapter by chapter... Record this figure on the chart on page 392. a variety of new and perhaps unfamiliar techniques. this first chart and graph will be a quick pictorial representation of your as progress during the preliminary period of training —a period in which you will be doing a good deal of new learning. min. sec.. and attempting to use. 30 2 min. 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 min. sec. making a start at breaking down comfortable.

in the neighborhood of 325-350 w. than average.) Your rate may be. bear in mind. if our theoretical reader is somewhat above average. even very much slower. probably college speed.m. your present rate is roughly whatever this test has indicated. merely indicate what a certain type of reader does. What will be far more interesting. as we go on. You read as you read good. (Both rates. Or it may is. this point you are probably curious as to rate measures up to the average. they are of no great moment. not by any means what he is capable of do- — ing. college level. or. is how much your rate increases over that of your initial performance for the extent of the increase will indicate how successfully you are capitalizing on your latent capacities. the typical student beginning his how your present The average untrained reader. invariably covers material pitched on the level of Mr. he would need anywhere from 3% to 4% minutes to read this selection with what he considers adequate comprehension.p. work at any of the adult or college reading clinics spread through the country. he would go considerably faster. — — PROOF THAT YOU CAN READ FASTER I have indicated that the average untrained person reads much more slowly than he Term at the is actually capable of reading. bad. of course. a good distance beyond college level. less efficient habits. On the other hand. somewhere between average and possibly be slower. if he has learned to perform at. I would demon- . Gtrate the truth of this statement to 12 my students.m. and of far greater significance.old.p. The comparisons that will interest us most. or indifferent. are those between your later and your earlier performances. Actually. or close to. between how you function at any given time and how you functioned days or weeks or months previously. while such comparisons are interesting. after term.. during the years that I supervised the courses Adult Reading Laboratory of City College. on the contrary. Adams' article at a rate of 200-250 w. more At and replacing them with new and much efficient ones. so that he would have finished in about 2% minutes.

Let me ask you to imagine yourself taking part in a typical first
meeting of one of these courses. So that you can get the full flavor
of what invariably occurred, I shall use the present tense in
explaining the procedure we followed and in describing the general
reactions of the students.




testing the class

on material of about the same
Donald Adams article on

length and level of difficulty as the

which you timed yourself in the previous section.
"Read this selection," I say, "exactly as you always read. Pretend
you are at home in your favorite easy chair. Just read."
And I time the performance with a stop watch, noting the
passage of every fifteen seconds on the blackboard.
The great bulk of the class reads at approximately 200-250 words
per minute the average speed of the untrained adult, but also
the normal reading rate of eighth-grade elementary school pupils.
This result may sound shocking, but the fact is that most adults

considerably cut





their reading

their reading of

leaving school, and for that reason



speed drops back from the high school and college level of
295-350 words per minute to elementary-school speed.
The rate of only a few students falls considerably above or
below the average. Three or four read at college level (325-350
w.p.m. ) or better; one or two, abnormally slow, bumble along at
125-175 words per minute, the same rate at which children of
ten or eleven go through the class readers of the fourth and fifth



These adults have come to my class because they are troubled
and unhappy about their reading. Slow reading, they realize, is
awkward, unsatisfying reading. They see their friends cover the
same ground in half the time and with more enjoyment and better
retention; and they hope that after a few months of training they

at least




a start at catching

up with these speedier

students have examined their




and are

properly chagrined to learn that they are reading no faster than

and upper grades of elementary school,
they invariably ask the obvious question: "Can we increase our
speed by the end of the course?"
children in the middle

"You can do better than that,"
speed tonight before you leave


answer. "You can increase your

this classroom."


then pass out to them a second selection of about the same
length and difficulty as the first one on which they have been

I say, "understand this about yourselves. The probability
very great that you are reading slowly partly because you have
developed lazy habits. You are unwilling to jog your minds. You



you can comfortably react to the message of print at a
a comparatively low speed, as you've discovered
tonight. You have got into the habit of sauntering leisurely along
a mental countryside when you should push along briskly and
with a purpose the purpose of finding the meat of an author's
ideas in the quickest possible time. You occasionally stop and
admire the intellectual scenery, you sometimes retrace your steps
to make sure you've seen everything instead of pushing ahead with
the exclusive desire of getting an over-all view. The result? You
find that

certain speed

read at elementary school speed.



going to


you prove

to yourselves that

you can do better



the signal





right into this


follow the main thread of the ideas, keep going at a consciously

Feel that you're going

fast pace.

that comprehension
of certain words,
right on pushing.



is lost.


but not so

You may miss

or of occasional sentences.





of course,

the full flavor or meaning




an experiment and see what happens.
to get the main thought of the selection


If you could watch
would see an actual physical change in

then give the signal and they start to read.

these people now, you

them. They are visibly alert they have mobilized themselves for
reading and it is apparent that they are now concentrating far
better than at their first attempt, when they were reading normally,



they are immersed

they are working at reading.

You can

see that

immersed in the material; there is an
air of concentration about them that was conspicuously absent a
few minutes before. As you will shortly discover for yourself when
you train to speed up your own reading, it is impossible not to
have sharper concentration when you consciously read for faster
understanding of main ideas, when you purposefully sweep through

material looking for the essential points of an author's thinking.


After the second test

say to you that






again gather

students are astonished,


find their





am making


an un-

results almost unbeliev-


Those students who read the


selection at 200-250


per minute get through the second piece in the neighborhood of
300 words per minute an immediate improvement of 20-50 per


The few

faster readers also

show marked improvement;

use the words of one of these students some years back,

"we had suddenly dropped our


readers discover that they are able,


it is



These 325-350- w. p.m.

they really


to attain

a rate of close to 450 w.p.m., a good, efficient, cruising speed.
the one or two very slow readers have also caught



—they have

stopped reading words and have begun to look for ideas, and the
change is clearly reflected in their increased rate.
My students are now convinced that they have the ability to
perform faster. All they need to do from that point on is practice
reading in such a way that the ability to perform becomes habitual
You, too, have the ability to read much faster if you fall (as you
probably do ) in the vast average group of 200-250- word-per-minute
readers or in the smaller,



group of 325-350-word-per-

minute readers.

The next few pages

will convince you.

Directly below you will find another article

a piece similar in

style, difficulty,

and length



Donald Adams,
one on which

to the

you have determined your present reading speed.
While the material will be similar, your attitude must be very
different as you read. Aim to understand the ideas more quickly
by mobilizing yourself for quick reading. Get the thoughts fast,
do not get bogged down in details; just follow the main thread. If

word eludes you, or a thought is somewhat fuzzy,
keep plowing right through nonetheless. Read under slight speed
pressure and with a purpose the purpose of getting the main
thought quickly. Get in, get the thought, and get out. Do not read
words; rather, absorb thoughts, ideas. Move along rapidly, but of
course do not lose comprehension, for your primary purpose in all
reading is understanding, not speed. But you will be attempting to
occasionally a


discover whether you cannot, eventually, be a


faster reader

than you are today. Again, time yourself in minutes and seconds.


Test of Your Potential Reading Speed

Read the following

selection through rapidly, aiming at a quick

understanding of the central theme.

Selection 2





Donald Adams


timing—> Much water has
gone under the bridge since sedate
listings were the norm of publishers'
advertising. We have to look sharp
these days to make sure whether
it is a brassiere or a book we are
being urged to buy. I, for one,
grow quite bewildered whenever I
turn an eye or is it an ear? to










to take her place as




open when


discover that this lady




"one of the
of fiction."

Such experiences have become



frequent as to be no longer novel,




about to look for the name of the

and I often wonder
whether I've wandered into the
wrong department. Here is a copyary

"What a woman!" and una half-page picture of an

equally bold-faced damsel,

the hucksters' crying of their


but the other day

made me


saw an ad which

realize that


are indeed

patent medicine,

on or over the threshold of momentous change. On the cover of
Publishers' Weekly was a picture of
a highly photogenic young woman,
and under it the words, "Her novel
is the book the entire trade has been
waiting for." Nothing strange or
new about that; her picture had ap-


peared there before when "Forever
Amber" was about to be published.




signals for

"Do you

morning almost


as tired as

the night before?

Do you


up in the
you were

often have

to drag yourself through your day's

work?" Just as my eye is prepared to find the name of a new
it falls somewhere
on the word "book," and I discover

that I

being invited to buy a

volume on how


to relax.

Or, finding myself confronted



a line of large and bold-faced type

was standing
head came when I turned

realization that I


the page.

From The New York Times Book Review. Reprinted with


permission of the author.

There, on the double-spread adMiss Kathleen Winsor's
new novel, the picture was repeated

over the country. It should bring
comfort and reassurance to those

and under it were
these significant words: "The recurrent theme of all our advertising
will be this striking new photograph of the author." It was that
word "theme" that shook me to my
gizzard. The recurrent theme of all
advertising would not be what Miss
Winsor's novel was about, or even
merely that this was the new work
by the author of "Forever Amber."
It would be simply the pleasing



sour-visaged and

in smaller size,


time, "But


to write."





protest from time to
can't teach


while the schools

go under, their


should be

the beauty parlors' gain.

There are, it seems to me, quite
unexplored avenues along which
this new development may take us.
If you insist on being logical about
the significance of this revolution in

book advertising, you must take
the position,


suppose, that the use

contours of Miss Winsor's physiog-

of the author's picture as a recur-



Surely the handwriting on the




The sober prophets

who have been
we were about to









of skinning this

particular cat? What's

wrong with

a publisher discovering an author

than those which

with a face that would stop a clock,
and using that as a recurrent

making the literary revolution to
end all literary revolutions. The
whole basis of literary appreciation

theme? After all, pretty faces are a
dime a dozen these days, and they
have been displayed to the point of
surfeit both on the screen and in
the ads. Why not strike a fresh and

for the reader, all the sage advice


Well, then,

for very dif-

they had offered. Here was in the

that has


more than one way


ary era were speaking more truly

than they

merely a means of
wayward reader and


causing him to read the accompa-

proclaiming that
enter a


halting the

been spoken or written


startling note?


these are being swept relentlessly

Rightly or wrongly, the craving

Henceforth the
bedeviled publisher need ask but
one question of the aspiring author:

is generally held to be
one of the touchstones for the understanding of American character.
I am willing to wager a complete
set of the Elsie Dinsmore books
against a single copy of "Star
Money" to prove that a face which
is the ultimate in ugliness, if used as
a recurrent theme, will halt more
readers in their tracks than will



well do you photograph?"

provided, of course, that there


for novelty

the discard.


question at


reason for asking the

This impending upheaval must
necessarily deal a deathblow to
the schools of creative writing

which have been springing up









hand, and that what

which our appetite


has become a


that suggestion




adopted or not,

us no

new day



will bring

«—End timing



should be apparent to the least con-

cerned reader that a

man knows.




Test Your Comprehension


Check the main idea:
An ugly face would



attention to an ad than a

beautiful one.

Book publishers are experimenting with new and startling developments in advertising and Mr. Adams isn't very enthusiastic
about them.
3. An author's picture is more important than the title of his or

her book.
4. If

an author does not photograph well, his or her book will

not be successful.

Key: Subtract four from

six to deteirnine



of the correct


Compute Your Rate
(Approximate number

2 min.
2 min., 30







min., 30 sec.

min., 30 sec.

W .P.M.
on the chart and graph on page 392.)
GAIN OVER SELECTION 1 (page 11): _

this statistic

You have probably proved
you can read faster— at
But, you may be thinking,




30 sec
min., 45 sec.

1 min.,

of words: 945)

to yourself, as a result of these tests,

20 to 50 per cent faster.
far from comfortable, and I was
not quite as sure of my comprehension as I usually am."
You're right, completely on both counts. An average, slow
reader cannot become a rapid, efficient reader overnight even





though a start in the right direction can be made within five minutes,
as you have already discovered for yourself. Your training and
practice, from this point on, will aim to make a much faster rate
just as comfortable as a slow rate, will aim to make your comprehension far more assured, far more efficient than it is today.




of the important goals of your training


to transform your

potential speed into a normal, comfortable, habitual speed.

To achieve this goal, you will, throughout this book, be constantly
and repeatedly asked, encouraged, urged, and expected to follow
you will be prodded, cajoled, and at times even shamed into
following these important rules for improving your reading:


Read more.
You will have


read much,

much more than you



in the

habit of reading. If you're a slow reader, you very likely do


more than go through the daily papers and a few fight magazines.
You read whenever you happen to have a few spare minutes, you
read merely to pass time. Or perhaps you hardly ever read at all

you absolutely have to.
on, you must make time

From now

for reading.


students al-

allocated, during their training, at least three evenings every

week, and at least two full, continuous hours during those evenings,
to the reading of books. Speed can be developed into a permanent
habit only


you do what naturally




readers have

always done, from childhood on: read a lot. That means at least
a full book every week; that means several evenings of concentrated
reading every week. Unless you develop the habit of reading for

two hours


at a stretch, several stretches every week, do
become an efficient or a rapid reader. (But as
reading becomes gradually more rewarding and more meaningful
and less like a chore, this requirement will turn out to be a lot
easier and considerably less taxing than it may sound to you at this
2. Learn to read for main ideas.


not expect ever to

Stop wasting time and effort on

push through

efficiently for



you read an


a quick recognition of the main idea


that the details support
writer's basic thinking



be more interested

in the

than in his minor points.

When you read a volume of nonfiction, be intent on getting the
theme, the broad ideas, the framework on which the author has
built his book. Don't let an occasionally perplexing paragraph,
page, or chapter slow you up. Keep speeding through. As the
complete picture




by rapid

over-all reading,

the few

puzzling details will either turn out to have been inconsequential
or will be cleared


you move along.


When you


read a short story or novel, follow the thread of the
consciously look for and find the "conflict," skim whenever


impelled to


word and sentence




poky fashion from word

to sentence.

Challenge your comprehension.


Fast readers are good readers. They're fast because they have
learned to understand print quickly, and they understand quickly

because they give themselves constant practice in understanding.
To this end, they read challenging material; and you must do the
same. Does a novel sound deep; does a book of nonfiction seem

does an article in a magazine look as

more thinking than you



prepared to do? Then


will require

that's the


you the most valuable training. You
will never become a better reader by limiting yourself to easy
reading you cannot grow intellectually by pampering yourself.
Ask yourself: Do I know more about myself and the rest of the

of reading that will give

world, as a result of


reading, than

on a
more challenging type of reading than you've been accustomed
honest answer



did five years ago?


no, then you'd better get started, today,


Budget your time.
Say to yourself: I have this book and I want to finish it by
tomorrow night. And then get into it. If you know that you must
finish half the book tonight and the other half by tomorrow, you'll
speed up, because you'll have to. You'll develop tricks of getting
ahead, of skimming parts that are less essential, of looking for
main ideas, of reading at your top potential rate. The good reader
always has a feeling of going fast, but he's never uncomfortable,
for he has developed fast habits. Indeed, after a while, an adult



as the fifteen minutes. It is amazing what people can do if they really try. In this way you will mobilize yourself for reading as an intellectual pursuit. 6. and only in this way will you train yourself to understand at your highest — potential rate. complete. through laziness. — technique of sweeping through material purposefully looking for main ideas and broad concepts. in two hours. Every person of normal intelligence can concentrate when he but slow readers put themselves at a disadvantage. The brightest child in a class is not always the best reads. such is the adaptability of the human mind under pressure. By this means. And. what I want out of it. all the material will likely be on the same level. there is great temptation for your mind to wander. sharpen your comprehension skill. give yourself a time limit on whatever you read and live up to that time limit. Nothing makes concentration so easy. read for quick understanding for Count the number of pages you've finished in that time. the more time it will take to cover that page.) Keep to the rate you've set for yourself in pages per hour. If the work is too easy for him. though they deal with somewhat the same subject The more solidly packed the ideas are on a page. you will learn to devise personal tricks that will speed you up and that will. Or say to yourself: I am going to finish this magazine. at the same time. you read at a slower rate than the rate at which you are able to comprehend. If. student. some books are slower reading than others it takes more time to cover fifty pages in a Kinsey report than in Forever Amber. getting Why not put yourself to the test? While you are training with this book. you will finish it in two hours. and you have your potential speed for that book in pages per hour. When you start a new book.who trains himself to read rapidly will find his original slow pace uncomfortable. so immediate. 5. (Of course. But you must practice every day. if you wish to make high speed comfortable and automatic. multiply by four. or nearly every day. But throughout a given book. if you wish to become efficient in quicker understanding. he becomes bored and 21 . Develop habits of immediate concentration. Pace yourself.

from will make actual self- read faster than you generally show you how to capitalize habitual and comfortable the rapid rate. goes through a few pages. for every distracting thought is pushed out of your mind. The important thing testing. you soon find that the increased concentration you get from speedy reading sharpens your understanding and enjoyment. But reading about the principles of efficient and rapid reading not going to make you a faster or better reader. you much lower level than that keep your rate you are potentially . will ahead help you now know. you find yourself not only doing much more reading than ever before. This is not theory students in adult and college reading clinics prove it a fact term after term. Under prime conditions. over a period of time. inefficient centration. eliminate the faulty techniques that interfere with total con- up your comprehension. or almost daily. And. that characterize the efficient reader. but also getting much more out of your reading. on The is that you you have the ability to training that lies this ability. can do that for you. that do. Only putting those principles into practice.stops paying attention. puts it down and turns to something else. to a capable of achieving. By reading always at your top comprehension speed. you will agree that it was time and is — effort well spent. you stimulate your mind. and. Exercise selection habits after and selection. How long will it take? That depends on what sort of person you are and how assiduously you apply yourself. that slow of reading down will by exercise. habits of speed and aggressive comprehension can become automatic after a few months of daily. And when. you get involved in the author's thoughts without half trying. finding his attention wandering. you constantly challenge your understanding. This is a perfect analogy to explain why a slow reader picks up a book or magazine. as an added dividend. drill learn to by drill. practice. and the quick and self-assured grasp of main ideas. as a result of your training.

23 . the terms main idea. inefficient reader. • How to push through a selection briskly. . • • • How How How to distinguish subordinate details from main ideas. central theme. and in this chapter you will learn: • The conspicuous differences between the performance of the rapid. central thought. efficient reader and that of the slow. etc. In Chapter 2 you practice intensively on four selections. well you remember what you read.CHAPTER 2 HOW TO READ FOR MAIN IDEAS * Preview You have discovered that you are capable of reading faster if you make a real effort and if you concentrate on looking for main ideas. pursuing the gist of an author's communication. * Throughout the book. trying to apply aggressive techniques that will speed up your comprehension. Now your training moves into high gear. will be used interchangeably and with identical meaning. to sense the structure of a piece of writing. main point.

of material —goes faster on easier material. In which column do you most frequently see yourself mirrored? Take a pencil and check off your characteristics as you meet them. rereads syllables. Suits his speed to what he etc. on paragraphs of supporting details. syllable by syllable. if is any. perception he has seen correctly. Q scious that words. distinction definite THE EFFICIENT READER THE INEFFICIENT READER Has a cruising rate of at least 400 500 words a minute. at an unvarying rate. is rarely conscious Skims or skips unimportant words. Q wants to get out of material. of plies to you. regressions accurate. Reads all material. words. Think of your own reading habits and techniques as you examine the following chart. — fast. whatever type Varies his rate according to the type or difficulty. in extreme cases. 24 . or phrases to assure himself that for ideas. is. on narrative stretches. of individual words. Check here if you think this ap- Reads slowly. or even whole chapters. sections.• SESSION HOW The EFFICIENT IS 2 YOUR READING? between an efficient and an inefficient reader is so and clear-cut that we can graphically chart the differences in two contrasting columns. Reads word by word or. Check here if you think this ap- to plies to you. his de- and so nearly unconhe can concentrate on meaning rather than on separate pendable. generally 250 words a minute or less. paragraphs. Q Makes many "regressions" — that Reads and understood them Has few.

May "vocalize. Is more inter- sacrifice of a clear ested lient awareness of saconcepts and important over- shapes an author's writing than in at in the basic thinking that minor points or background all ideas. he is easily distracted by by fectly irrelevant rarily by the happenings around him. cal cords are motionless. tongue. because reading — for him —a slow. Because he is not deeply and actively involved in what he is reading. thus keeping his speed to his rate of oral reading the down and silently in the literal sense of word — and voand he is meaning than of his lips. —becomes so involved with the ideas on a page that he tempoloses contact with the out- side world. or cellent retention and recall. or vocal cords." out with his i. Spends only as much time with books as is absolutely necessary.. Concentrates immediately and per- Concentrates imperfectly. his retention and recall are thoughts. far seri- ously interfering with smooth com- more aware of sound.. function of the broad sections of tence. may be excesdependent on "inner speech. Fatigues easily. in consequence. — even a tedious. or he sively Often gets bogged down in and subordinate elements details Pushes briskly through details to the grasp main ideas. without along with the au- thor.e. Reads with aggressive comprehen- Reads passively." i. infor- mation. to cover the average line of print. on hearing the sounds of the words he is reading. the final purpose and and searching always for and total meaning of any piece of writing. As a result. sound words Reads tongue. prehension.e. Q poor. 25 — . interpreting the material. D is unrewarding. sentence after senany understanding of either the material as a whole or sion. thinking of the relationship of the parts. process. ex- external noises. lips. Has. Can and usually does complete an entire novel or magazine in a single sitting.THE EFFICIENT READER THE INEFFICIENT READER Moves dozen his eyes eight to a more times or Covers the average line of print in three to five eye movements. Reads for hours at a time without becoming tired.

He has simply never learned to develop the habit of moving along rapidly. He mosphere has never trained himself to plow straight ahead as fast as his understanding makes potentially possible. for swiftly to follow the basic concepts." The inefficient reader is often over conscientious. but his comhe gets so involved in details and relatively unimportant minor points that he often misses the main theme of the writing. every phrase. every detail. reader doesn't quite trust the adequacy of his He reads meticulously. bits of description whose only purpose is to lend at- — and the regressions cut his train of thought. But perception is. Having no confidence in his comprehension. keep in mind. and by continuous repetition has developed these habits to such a point that they act an impediment to smooth and rapid reading. 26 . Therefore. statistics. he goes back to check on figures. only part of the answer. he may struggle mightily to master every page. to use the term in a special sense.What has brought the inefficient reader to his sorry state? How account for the effortless skill of the efficient reader? Part ( but only part) of the answer to these questions can be given in the phrase "perception speed. not only such extreme care. In short. inefficient comprehension. instead of pushing through his speed suffers as a result of prehension also. and. giving equal weight and time to all words. of course. instead of using words as a as means The of grasping the author's ideas. every paragraph. there are certain other factors. In addition. and may nevertheless fail to understand the over-all ideas and implications of the chapter. ruin his concentration. wreck his speed. no matter how relatively unimportant. make him overconscious of words. he often regresses. digesting and redigesting every sentence. If he is reading a book. He is an excellent example of the man who can't see the forest because of the thickness of the trees. down to the last comma and semicolon. to every single word. the inefficient reader strives too hard to be perfect in his grasp of every word. Paradoxically enough." The inefficient reader has built up and thor- oughly refined a set of incorrect eye habits. An equally important part of the answer can be given in the phrase "intellectual habits. minor points. break the smoothness of his absorption of ideas. He methodically reads every word in a selection.

Professor of Education at Teachers College. on the other hand. The efficient reader has already read so much that he can constantly compare and contrast his present reading with his previous literary experiences. Columbia University. Lippincott Co.): 27 it in Streamline . and to avoid poky attention to minor details you can. he has a background on which to build.The efficient reader has so large a vocabulary that the words he meets are quick conveyors of thought. learn to plow ahead. B. all this What is if you actively will it instead of merely the difference between willing and wishing As Dr. explains Your Mind (J. You can train the speed and accuracy of your visual perception. and all the reading he does helps in some measure to satisfy that The inefficient reader's intellectual curiosity has gradually grown weaker because reading has never been a sufficiently com- curiosity. The good habits needed for fast and this skillful reading can be developed in a comparatively short time. James L. is so limited that many of the words he encounters represent a mystery to be puzzled out before ideas can be fully grasped and appreciated. The vocabulary of the inefficient reader. habitual gain that will come from radically improved habits and — — techniques of reading. as rapid. The efficient reader has developed a strong intellectual curiosity. Mursell. And as a result. or as responsive a reader as you would like to be. You can do wishing for in learning? it. with the proper practice and guidance. you will. speedily absorbing the main ideas. to decrease your dependency on inner speech. fortable or rapid process to make the satisfaction of his curiosity worth the effort. in all likelihood. you can learn to attack material with the kind of aggressiveness that will sharpen your concentration and increase your rate of comprehension. comfortable. you can learn to eliminate regressions. If you suspect that you are not normally as efficient. Not the kind of forced gain you discovered from your work in the previous chapter. You can start building your vocabulary and stimulating your intellectual curiosity. let me tell you without qualification. The inefficient reader too often has to approach every little bit of reading as a new and unrelated experience. but a permanent. to by-pass your vocal apparatus. make tremendous gains in speed. getting the over-all picture.

Mursell speaks. strength. and important words words that should your entire attitude toward increasing your reading And every page in this book aims to help you "dig down Canny words. and analyze". Push through briskly in a single-minded pursuit of the gist of the author's communication do not waste time on individual words. 28 if . So the will to learn means an intelligent and persistent search for the conditions of improvement and an intelligent and persistent concentration upon them. I suggest the following procedure as a means of insuring accuracy: ( 1. or on other subordinate elements. on details. I offer you now four practice selections. Read with one dominating purpose to find the main idea and to find it quickly. "find out exactly aims to show you what is how you wrong and can succeed and persistent search for the conditions of improvement" of which Dr. but a conscious and sincere attempt to move along at a rapid clip. author. keep a strict time check on your performance. that we try to find out is wrong and exactly how to put it right.The wish to learn is diffuse centrated and specific. aims exactly how to put to help it you right". finds out — those. and source note of each selection these are not included in the word-count ) 2. concentrating on main ideas. that we dig what he must do to become more healthy. means exactly what learn analogy. and then does it. in your "intelligent MAIN IDEAS AND SUBORDINATE DETAILS — But enough of theory let's get down to work. Then note the time in writing (in the margin of the page. condition efficiency. This is a big order. As in the two selections of chapter 1. and I ask you to read each one a little faster than is completely comfortable. and you may or may not be immediately successful. Let us take an A man may have a wish for tetter physical health and His wish for health becomes a will to health only when he thing again and again hoping for something to happen. First read the title. The will to learn is conto learn means that we repeat a The wish The will to down and analyze. is more important at this point — — than success or failure. and general.

concentrating only on the reading and on a speedy grasp of 6. Lose all consciousness of your watch. You will thus discover where your technique was good and where it was faulty. When the second hand shows that it is five seconds short of 3. When you come to main ideas. in the blank provided for that purpose. Ready for your first try? Remember the instructions: read at a consciously accelerated rate.) 7. 5. (The five seconds are allowed for transfer from watch to page and back again. Next study carefully the discussion of each selection. Take the comprehension test 8." In this way you will effect gradual changes in your comprehension patterns.) you like) to the next minute coming. (You may have 8:43. and accurate reading comfortable and assured. 4. you will "find out exactly what is wrong and exactly how to put it right. almost 8:43. If it is. selection by selection. subtract. time. intent on extracting the essence of the piece quickly and with no lost motion. start reading at the first arrow. why you make them. Wait until the before 8:43. efficient. note the new and record. but not quite. and in your method of attack on reading material. and record this statistic on the chart and graph on page 392. second-hand of your watch shows five seconds to adjust the hands so that the second hand reaches zero at approximately the same moment that the minute hand reaches a full number. and compare your reactions and comprehension with those that a trained and skillful reader would have. the terminating arrow. write 8:43 in the margin. for example. 29 . the number of minutes and seconds that your reading required. you will learn what errors you make. Then determine your rate from the table that follows the test. and how to avoid making them in the future. and you will pave the way for the acquisition of habits that make fast.

Mr. Kaempffert. L. carries with rity amount from talking openly about the possibility of blowing up the earth. the air. may be forbid crecy has nothing to do with the it belongs.Selection 3 CAN THE H-BOMB DESTROY THE EARTH? by Waldemar Kaempffert The Atomic Energy Start tim'nj-* Commission has Soviet scientists bomb hydrogen 3. visible as the mushroom-shaped it an enormous dust which is radioactive. why should not the same transmutation on earth cause similar results? The answer is that it takes millions of years to fuse hydrogen into helium in the sun by a roundabout process. familiar cloud. A. Science. But what hydrogen bombs may The argument think as Sir Robert does transmutation that geneticists fear will be reduced off se- is we sions of physicists Pryce retorts that case presented. president of the British as results The most attention of announced that have detonated a type explodes. earth. M. Now comes Prof. 5. bomb and the design of the bears no resemblance to that magazine Discovery in which he explains why the earth is quite tritium occurs only in traces on the safe. It regulations second. of By exploding their H bomb the air the Russians left high in most of the dust on the ground where 4. If so. tific Reprinted by permission from The early in 1957. When an atomic A type or the cently H upward rush now of Robert Advancement of At the meeting held re- by the association at Bristol. 30 As Of the for materials selected deuterium there are Times. some of the danger from fall-out of the possibility that bigger exploset a thermonuclear reaction on land or in the ocean earth? The poohed the and so destroy the physicists have poohtime and possibility time again but without giving reasons. he asked: "Do we really know enough about nuclear explosions to be sure that there is no loophole?" He suggested that secu- of either the old most recent has received late is Sir Association for the frightening as those of last year's test at who alarmist Robertson. of a star. with bomb Eniwetok. of based on the fact that it is the of hydrogen into helium that makes the sun and the stars shine. Pryce of the University of Bristol with an article in the British scien- The explosive materials are care- fully selected. Professor many who that the Soviet pro- cedure will be adopted when next touch off an atomic bomb. H. whereas fusion in a hydrogen bomb occurs in a minute fraction of a but not entirely removed. England. until his death . was New York science editor of the Times. 2. This being so.

sec.W. 15 sec. sec. Compute Your Rate (Approximate number TIME 50 1 min. 1 min. of words: 485) sec. The H-bomb cannot destroy the earth because all its effects are eventually neutralized.. than have scientists in There 2. 1 min.M. 5. 1 min. on the chart and graph on page 392. 4. 1 min.P. 10 sec. sec.P.) GAIN OVER SELECTION 1 (page 11): . but not completely eliminated. min. sec. 1 min. 2 min.. sustaining thermonuclear reaction possible make a self- —hence the earth cannot be destroyed by the hydrogen bomb. Both tritium and deuterium must be made at great ex- pense in enormous plants..P.M. 243 222 216 194 176 161 148 138 YOUR RATE ON SELECTION 3: _W.only a few spoonfuls in a small lake or pond.. ON THIS SELECTION: peratures of millions of degrees and SEC..P. 1 min. There is plenty of hydrogen in the ocean but the conditions are not right for the maintenance of tem- the square inch. 15 sec. is or not the this country or in England.. 45 sec. RECORD HERE THE TIME REQUIRED MIN.M. min. quite a controversy going on in the press as to whether hydrogen bomb can destroy the earth. (Record 579 485 414 363 322 291 276 264 W. min. 2 min. By exploding the H-bomb high in the air. Conditions do not exist on land or in water to 3. 20 30 40 45 50 TIME W. 2 min. some of the danger from fall-out will be reduced. 2 2 3 3 3 min..... sec. Without the temperatures and the pressures no self- thermonuclear reaction <—End timing possible. 10 sec. sustaining is 6. 30 sec. 31 this statistic . pressures of millions of pounds to Test Your Comprehension Which one of the following statements most accurately sum- marizes the main idea of the selection you have just finished? Check your choice without referring to the text Russian scientists have learned more about hydrogen bombs 1. min.. 30 sec.M..

The first paragraph is clearly introductory. — of hydrogen bombs and atom bombs. which he now presents as a question in these words from the second paragraph: "But what of the possibility that bigger explosions of hydrogen bombs may set off a thermonuclear reaction on land or in the ocean and so destroy the earth?" To the efficient reader. fallout danger. explains. and thermonuclear reactions. many or supports that theme. But what are the key words. or over a his total material. illustrates. especially. this sentence stands out from the bed of 32 . how do article is built. and more. a central theme? How does he organize it to drive this — classical "of — home — a final point? Let's look at the piece together. — develops. Mr. between the central theme of a selection and the material that introduces. but what is he really saying? How does he combine and sort out and present this apparent jumble so that it has a single meaning. exercise things in his piece (Indeed. if material is if a reader hasn't learned to in his assimilation of ideas to be —and every him—then at all intelligible to jumble of subjects almost reminds one of Lewis Carroll's cabbages and kings / And why the sea is boiling hot / And whether pigs have wings") These. The selection of them. leading into paragraph 2. clarifies. full of thoughts and ideas. what is the central theme around which the and. of tritium and deuterium and the temperatures and Kaempffert speaks of pressures of the ocean.Discussion of the Selection — words almost 500 and paragraphs. are the things Mr. It is you have full of just read is full of phrases. He has used about 100 words. radioactivity. in which he first touches on the genetic danger that fall-out presents. quickly and successfully. what are the important paragraphs. Kaempffert is speaking of. and how do you find it you recognize it when you do find it? One of the basic techniques that your training will aim to develop in you is that of distinguishing. an over-all effect. of science professors and their disputes. some discrimination person has to. sentences. The author starts with a recent and newsworthy announcement about the Russians and develops that for some dozen or more lines. to catch the reader's attention and lead fifth of into his main idea. of mushroom-shaped clouds.

when it's just as easy to run. Get into the next selection. and (2) it starts off with "But what of the possibility " often a comprehension clue that a main point is on that . "boldface") — . both your over-all understanding and your increase in rate will surprise you. If you have any success in putting these instructions into practice. All the words. to give up.were printed in black type (or. the gist of what the author is saying. and get out. . that you have become too fond of. Perhaps you have got into the habit of sauntering leisurely. to developing — want even at the risk of being tediously repetiyour dominating aim in reading these selections is to cut rapidly through the words. Correct choice on the comprehension test is statement 3. right and explaining his answer. I to state again. tious. more elaborately. This is not as hard as it may at first sound it is not a bit hard if you will make an honest attempt to alter some of the comfortable and probably inefficient reading patterns you have grown too used to. Perhaps you think that every word has to be chewed and digested before you can go on to the next one. this is not so. An author usually raises a question as a springboard toward an answer —and Mr. a final effect. too leisurely. down to the end. get that central idea. to use he immediately recognizes its importance because (1) it repeats. that every thought has to be studied before you can really understand it. and details to find and follow the authors main idea. that — 33 . Kaempffert devotes all the rest of his article. believe me. all the thoughts in any selection add up to a final point. even painful. Through the middle of paragraph 4 he fills in the background of the answer. a dominant and central idea. all the sentences. Perhaps you get bogged down in details instead of concentrating purposefully on finding and understanding the main idea. surrounding words as if it the printer's term. and from there through the last two paragraphs he explains that the earth will not be destroyed by the hydrogen bomb because conditions do not exist on land or in water to make a self-sustaining thermonuclear reaction possible this is the main idea of the whole selection. sentences. the way. the question in the title. that every sentence has to be mulled over. that it may be unpleasant.

that I didn't care to chat? How wrong you were! The teacher who accepts the stutterer and who understands his make-up. I more classroom my hesitance in Would my classmates ridi- react speech? Remember me? your S. Shaw has taught high school classes in Mayer. worst blockage I had ever ex- patient look on your face. 8. Yet even when you discovered I had a good voice. but by a personality impediment. My facial I I How craved for needed my self- stutter- like any other pupil. You did not understand my problem. I never stuttered — so singing gave year. At last you asked me a simple question. ing to me? I hoped you could help me. As the long days passed without cule my being called on. You did not know that my stutwas not caused by a physical tering when I sang. Do you remember how I blushed. how everybody in class tensified. The I was you made ing silence of the room. Had you taken a lighter attitude. How how expression! Except for turned to gaze? 4. Did you perhaps feel and the stares of my classmates brought on the. because I was constantly sittting on the edge of my chair. as the others did. encouraged me to speak. Nevada. 2. companionship. 3. perienced. me Reprinted by permission from the National Education Journal. social activities. I was never encouraged to enter 7. frequently I wanted to speak to you informally. my anxiety in- My back ached. can make it easier for him to develop a proper contortion brought an uproarious laugh from the class and a puzzled look to your face. My When would to recite? How first be would I Because of your attitude of takmy stuttering as a serious and troublesome problem. you would have helped instead of hurt me. Mr. and accepted me as one of the class. but me feel different. and your reaction only aggravated my condition. Shaw defect. I became more selfconscious. 34 . you did not choose me to sing a song in the class 10. and Owyhee. 6. Do you remember what you did then? You reprimanded the class attitude about his problem.Selection 4 A STUTTERER WRITES TO A FORMER TEACHER by Irving Start timing-> came into timid than the thoughts were: upon called you rest. Arizona. the im- 9. and moved me to a side seat to be forgotten for the rest of the an opportunity to feel on equal terms with others. 5.

too. I let the ball do all of the talking. 13. No longer did I realization that she under- stood gave I years? after class fact that she didn't turn and the into life championship block. what might had not en- 21. is Mrs. If only simple musical talent! one particu- The confidence given me by Mrs. Do you remember lar instance when I threw in a block. By not having to be the center of attraction. You looked away. After one or two trial efforts at that felt I my who was interested in me and helped me. 15. aim in guiding the personality development of the stutterer should be the same as the aim for any other child: to help him acquire a two successive important only you had sensed. easy. At last I had something other than myself to think about. Talking to Mrs. did. grew worse than ever. People gradually became my friends. I frequently answered with no regard to my impediment that teers. believing I would find pass? it easier to speak. I hesitate to think have happened if I countered some teachers who understood my problem and were able feeling of personal security so that alone iety lessened. Ray for joking about the defect couragement. I was accepted as one of the group. Ray still around? I wish she had been my things worse. "Slow. and I used to tell them that my speech impediment was because of tight shoes. If the city high school room. That teacher's kindly interest changed my life. She frequently asked for volun- and never cared if anyone answered without recognition. and in no time at all I was on the team* 18. He advised me to my you were not paying attention or that you couldn't "take" the speech block. 17. stuttering and I SEC. my speech difficulty worse than ever. and by not thinking of speech. made way was of asking questions usual that even I was able so un- to speak up. a spasm. anx- and slowly but surely better speech resulted. 35 . I he can face the to help me! <—End timing future with confidence. my RECORD HERE THE TIME REQUIRED ON THIS SELECTION: !NGN. and how it did roar! Did you read Her teacher throughout the years. won 19. as Mrs. This only 16. became more withdrawn. 12. Ray could not withstand the treatment I received from others who requested a had no understanding you had capitalized on play. and my speech was of little concern. prob- improve myself by seeking outlets through school activities." The Then another teacher came other things. By the way. When I got to high school. I took up handball. Ray When I me eat did have a away 20. that the the in school lunch- made it less My confidence increased. A few pointers from the coach. For days after this experience I was depressed. which bewildered you as usual. was easy. she just said. for of lem. I found that a great deal of en- 14.

1 min.M. 30 sec. 1 min. A stutterer needs and craves acceptance he gain the feeling of confidence and personal security that will help him improve his speech.P. sec. sec.W. the best cure for 4. teachers should treat victims of this affliction in an especially considerate manner.Test Your Comprehension Which one of the following statements most accurately sum- marizes the main idea of the selection you have just finished? Check your choice without referring to the text. s-tutterers. Singing 5. of which gradually builds up into a strong and inescapable central theme.. Since stuttering is caused by feelings of inadequacy and inferiority.P. The first bit of interpretation 36 occurs in the last sentence of . 2. 30 sec 5 min.P. as you no doubt realized while you were reading. is a piece in which a mass of details and narrative incidents is presented — in combination with interpretation course. min. 2 min. 3.. this statistic Discussion of the Selection Here.. 2 min. 6 min. not from a speech defect. sec. 30 45 sec.. 3 min.) GAIN OVER SELECTION 1 (page 11): W. — only from this will 1. 304 280 240 209 186 168 140 . 45 3 min. YOUR RATE ON SELECTION 4: on the chart and graph on page 392. (Record who is different.. 840 672 558 480 420 362 334 W. Children and teachers can be cruel to someone is Compute Your Rate (Approximate number TIME 1 1 min. 15 2 min.P. 15 sec.. sec.M.M. and it is the interpretation. Stuttering results from a personality impediment. 30 4 min. of words: 840) TIME W. 4 min. 2 min..M. constantly pointing out to them the areas in which they excel and the things they can do better than others..

and elaborate type as he reads. acceptance] as the aim for any . to develop your skill in differentiating subordinate elements from main ideas. in "a feeling of personal security. or illustrate is are used to introduce. . perhaps one. how he combines the parts to produce a total effect.e. you to go back over each selection as you sharpen your sense of the structure of material. in different words.") and the paragraph 7 ("Had you taken a lighter attitude . and the clearer will be your grasp of the final meaning of what an author nizing details clarify. — . Push through the details rapidly. . whether or not he verbalizes it. So let us continue this valuable practice on the next selection. bolster. . . that a stutterer craves and needs acceptance and then continues with an even larger block of material. " Paragraphs 15 through 17 add more details to support the theme. the idea of personal . .. The more practiced you become in recog- purpose in asking study the analysis how is to pound home. . But accurate comprehension of the final any piece of writing is based on a recognition." the class. . has always some feeling. . In paragraph 14. intent on extracting the essence of a page as quickly as possible. elaborating on and pounding home this same central point. important concepts are supported.. main ideas. of how the broad sections of material are related and of how the how he has knit together the various strands of his fabric. . by subordinate My clarified. of course. goes through this conscious of analysis meaning of largely subverbal. the writer restates the theme (" that the aim in guiding the personality development of the stutterer should be the same [i. and then. right through paragraph 13. explained. one "accepted me as key phrase in this sentence is of material to prepare cent of his per over 25 The author has used you for his main idea."). other child he broadens his theme to include the idea that acceptance results . keep on the alert for the main 37 . in another key sentence of the piece. And the efficient reader. of how the author has organized his material. security. and better with paragraph 20 ("My confidence increased speech resulted") restating. . or illustrated details. the saying to you. more rapidly and successfully will you be able to pull these ideas out of your reading. Correct choice on the comprehension test No is statement 1.

too carelessly. of shoes. and they are used troubles of the digestive tract.000 youngsters indicated that in other fields. particularly in children. scientist takes the position that the light the fact that certain peace- genetic hazards (the effect on fu- products of the current discussions. Studies radiologists' children suffered of more from heart. the words Selection 5 ATOM BOMBS AND Start timing-* Argument goes on find broken at much great length in scientific circles over atomic bomb on the present population and the effects of U. Re- printed with permission. will have an adverse effect on the reproductive organs. in often take X-ray negatives for locat- views publicly can usually make page one of the big pressed also addition. 2. ture bomb editorial of the actual probably not as great as the genetic dangers of incautiously administered X-rays. H-bomb which have brought posed time medical practices need to be looked at with a critical eye to determine whether medical X-rays are being applied too freely and. all and come out of your reading with an awareness of what add up to. X-rays are applied in vari- who like to air their general public bones. In S. Statistics work with on who radiologists radioactive substances more indicate that 8 to 10 times not greatly im- complain loudly that diagnosing medical treatments.idea. 38 . and eye defects to the average citizen are the by- to than those in the relatively unexOne outstanding group. Apparently the city by these warnings. It Chest X- tests are view that X-rays. Of much more practical concern 10. tests ous officials is Dentists There is a widely-used fluoroscope device that employs X-rays to determine the fit 3. newspapers or get their pictures in weekly news magazines by viewing with alarm the horrors that may be visited on civilians in superbomb warfare. Furthermore. ing cavities in teeth. Scientists X-RAYS radiologists die of leukemia (cancer for of the blood) civil- than do those who ian defense organizations have not work been able to secure support or muster any great following. future generations. in some cases. he points is a yearly his in the X-rays are used after accidents and injuries to An generations) from the September 1955 issue of Consumers' Research Bulletin. blood. rays are recommended on basis in many localities. particularly abdominal region.

in time of war. ulation in this tion 5. the much future offspring. plus an annual or semiannual dental X-ray. pensive. would seem much it more practical importance to the of the United States than the speculative viewings with alarm of the suppositional dangers would be incurred by the popand other countries the event of an A-bomb or H- that in bomb H-bombs effect of considerably and tedious research. who work with radioactive substances suffer from an abnormal incidence of leukemia. Perhaps we had better give some thought to the current. The use of X rays and other radioactive substances must be cut 5. a careful Just how Test Your Comprehension Which one of the following statements most accurately sum- marizes the main idea of the selection you have just finished? Check your choice without referring to the text 1. and continuing danger of the too free and careless use of medical X People rays. 2. but consider it to be of population Instead of forecasting what will be the probable requires intensive. 39 . and their children suffer from more bodily defects than do the children of the general population. The public is not sufficiently alarmed over the possible horrors they will suffer from atomic radiation or superbomb warfare. It is the view of one eminent scientist that genetic damage from medical uses of X-rays could be avoided if proper precautions were taken in their applica- far tion. the more risk there is of occurrence of mutations with adverse effect on health and vigor of 4. im- mediate. and perhaps other X-ray treatments more radiation a person is exposed to. and what is a safe tolerance in a given case? This quite time and the subject deserves greater atten- question from medical foundations that spend great sums every year to more discover the causes of various hu- many would man ailments. unspectacular. <—End timing recommendations RECORD HERE THE TIME REQUIRED MIN. The genetic dangers from X rays are greater than those from 3. atom-bomb tests. who customarily has an annual chest X-ray. 4. ON THIS SELECTION: in the public health field in the use SEC.out. Knowledge inadequate in this field at the present is of a cumulative dose does the person get during a year. ex- attack. more look of practical at to current ionizing take radiations.

W. Paragraph 2 starts with a comprehension clue —that practical concern" alerts the much more "of reader to look for a main idea. "determine . sec. 290 270 260 232 212 sec.P. GAIN OVER SELECTION 1 (page 11): this statistic Discussion of the Selection What.M.M. and almost 600 words. Compute Your Rate (Approximate number of words: 580) TIME 1 10 1 min. . sec.. sec. 2 min. with further explanation. 1 TIME W. . or even stopped entirely. And . 30 2 min." . 10 2 min. too care- lessly.. a means of catching the 1 is interest —the by starting with effects of atomic much a problem very bomb tests.. sec. sec.) W. if we are to preserve our health.down drastically. 194 3 min. central thought? Let us look back at the piece and in five paragraphs writer attempting to convey to the reader? his gist. sec.. 40 min. 1 min.... The in the trained reader quickly recognizes this as introductory material and moves through it at a rapid pace. Paragraph 4 first reiterates. (Record 2 min. which he discovers toward the end of the sentence whether medical X-rays are being applied too freely .P. 50 580 498 438 388 348 318 sec... YOUR RATE ON SELECTION 5: on the chart and graph on page 392.P. min. 20 30 min." The reader now expects supporting details for this statement. the last paragraph pounds the thought 40 home "requires in- .M. was the editorial What was his essence. 1 sec.P.M. Paragraph reader's day's news obviously introduction. 1 min. and these he finds in abundance in the rest of paragraph 2 and through- out paragraph 3. 15 2 min. the main idea presented in the second paragraph "the subject deserves greater attention. 45 W. his examine its structure.

has a broad structure of clearly here is is a slightly technical but extremely interesting with a well-defined main idea. but subordinate details nonetheless. the effects atom bomb tests. There is a wealth of details which might seduce an unsophisticated reader into a slow and careful reading quite unwarranted by the broad theme on which the author builds her piece. consciously searching out the central theme. symmetrical package. it contributes to. details. all intended to contribute to the persuasiveness of the central point. and that ties the piece up neatly into a nice. which is considerably longer than those on which you have heretofore practiced. all of them valuable. reader sees the statements. It article. prepares the way for. here. And finally we have a con- cluding sentence that returns to the thought of the introduction. . from the much larger background of narrative details. and effective. then? We have a springboard. that here. and realizes. and elaboramain idea stand out conspicuously. and repeated with and a wealth of specific details. this theme is supported. . Correct choice on the comprehension test The is statement 2. 41 . . If not. If you yourself followed some such pattern of reading in selection 5. all interesting. from which the author jumps into his central theme. There are still chapters and chapters of learning and practice ahead of you. He sweeps skillful tions of the rapidly through these details. but the central theme itself is what the efficient reader concentrates on. and where the author is stating or restating a main point everything else. as if in full relief. interesting. What do we have here.— tensive finally — — research" with still more details and ending with a restatement of the introduction. and your rate of reading probably reflected this efficiency. here. The next selection. explained. all through the piece. or supports the central theme. do not be discouraged. justification. though valuable. then you are beginning to apply efficient techniques. So push through rapidly looking for this theme do not waste time or effort over the somewhat technical discernible parts. that perhaps we had better give some practical thought to of the current and immediate and continuing danger of medical X rays radiation. restatements. is nevertheless detail and therefore subordinate.

of 116. the re- two reading tests (Project Oral Reading and Project Silent sults of visit the school guidance counselor inter- Reading) revealed: Johnny's Reading Age Reading Grade viewed Johnny's father.Selection 6 JOHNNY. and had a definite reading in the fifth grade. Two months later he became a member of the Reading Club (a remedial reading class was granted to the feels that his is never serious about anything. These were put into effect by his classroom teacher. smile." A barber chair served as the living room who furniture. 6. Only a slight improvement was noted by June 1952. is Johnny's father. On November 17. 3.6 3. In September of the same year Johnny was assigned to an Opporblock. Mrs. 42 New York. 7. He would conwet and soil his trousers. she discovered a "shack without a bathroom. is now who is is of Child the story of ten years of age and 5. In Sep- tember 1951 he was referred to the school nurse because of poor control. in 4.6 2. 2. The school psychologist gave Johnny a Stanford Binet L Test in October 1951. the nurse's 7. This revealed that the youngster had an I. Guidance or some other agency. is a strict disciplinarian. 1952. his father. who refused to get any help from any guidance source either the Bureau — Retardation Reprinted by permission from Understanding the Child. who Johnny is afraid of tunity Class (small register) with a boy most sympathetic teacher. In addition to Johnny. Both parents work. highly emotional. Padouk reading teacher in Public School 154. A REJECTED CHILD by Bertha Padouk Start timing—* This Johnny. He was shy and withdrawn.Q.4 is a remedial . Flushing. had a higher potential for learning than was indicated in his functioning. He was shunned by other children because of his bad odor. He was unresponsive in class and he would never bladder stantly disability When the school nurse visited Johnny's house. there are — two other children an older son in the service and a daughter now school at this time). the first Shortly after because of an emotional Use of primer materials in reading on a remedial instructional basis was recommended. term of high school.

his status the other children in the group." that?" fish. They are a chart. Comprehension When he was asked what he had read. Statements made by the children were written on experiential charts with the name of the Confusions and Substitutions they brought — their brother for " wild - bed wide band fry " fire ounce Rover " inch " river Phonetic Attack on who child individual At contributed Johnny began to show a marked interest. Johnny. all did not notice them." Teacher "With whom did you to the story. would rhyme funny words. At the beginning of each lesson in the Reading Club ten minutes were given to oral language. "I don't know. by direct questioning. had to be rein- enjoy this wonderful story of yours." troduced to reading in a relaxed atmosphere that would promote 10. Johnny became interested in expressing himself and in reading his interest. 43 One of the is activities finger in the painting. Thus. etc. can print on The Reading Habits I He pointed during oral reading other children will then be able to and vocalized during silent reading. consisting of six children. A feeling of self-respect and achievement gradually became his. it — this Johnny "I went father on Sunday." to — eat?" not stop at a period. It was necessary to ask Johnny several questions before one sentence could be formed: Teacher "What did you do on Sunday?" Johnny "I went fishing. the answer was. ing. sound out or figure out by phonetic or this point Picture Clues — — — go?" — Johnny "With my Teacher—"What did you catch?" — Johnny "Carp. please put He this information in a story so that contextual clues. fishing with We caught brown fish my six and are good to eat. and engage in oral picture reading." out several words at a I know. 9. like These omissions happened as "it began.about experiences over the weekend." — Teacher "What's — Johnny "A brown — Teacher "Are they good — Johnny "Yes." — Teacher "Johnny. among Furthermore. who was afraid to express himself. The answers. Omissions He left — time ours. and who handled his conflicts by withdrawal and depressive reactions. carp. 8. tell Reading Club 11. Reading Club improved considerably. . New Words Johnny could not blend. self-respect. discuss ways of helping other children. most frequently at the beginning and in the middle of a sentence." Voice vocalized did Monotonous — father." understand- and achievement.

It interest Johnny had found some activity in common "My with other boys. a clarinet solo to celebrate the begin- event. started to talk to the boy next to him: Johnny "I have never 19. Within period of seven a months Johnny. This was the beginning of his becoming friendly 13. Then he asked his son to play with others. ment is On 17. lectual development. This proved to be a turning ning to enjoy reading and related point in Johnny's social and intel- for Johnny." last — D do even better finger At these finger- I.time which is correlated with poetry. made a year and a progress half score of 4. finger —some 4. finally rigid plea the guidance coun- and the classroom teacher.)." — think painting Matty must be messy. He began to notice the changes in his son. and expressional and creative writing. A his boy's progress very strong made that the home should be relaxed. from a reading grade of 2." 12. Johnny's the boy. the remedial reading teacher was able to add her services to stem a in severe case of enuresis (a manifes- was tation of Johnny's anxiety over his discipline at The good advantage selor. group discussion.9 Stanford Achievement Test — painted." — Paul "I 1953— scores. working psychologist." — Richard "Neither have — painting you do Paul "In not use a brush. (finger painting. 44 . etc. selor constantly kept the father in- formed to the services of the school nurse. Utilizing of indi- vidual and group dictation to the teacher. the guidance counof school. music enjoyment.1 in On reading with in May Johnny was given a He oral reading test. During period of adjust- this who was expected that Johnny will in the near future. finger painting was Johnny had never finger-painted discussion in a 1953. 16. Johnny contributed emanating odor the 14. The reading father club room established an atmos- decided to cooperate with phere of learning conducive to academic achievement and social the request." 18. I am very proud of you. with Dixie mesh. Within a short recognition. The children were encouraged to express their reactions to these poems.5. and an He made Gray Oral—5." After a stimulating before. from Johnny's clothing ceased. expres- activities sional writing in the form 19. clay work. silent November 15. picture reading. She told the father what fine progress the boy was making in reading and that Johnny was a bright boy. On one occasion rain poems were read to the group. introduced.3 Remedial Reading Teacher phoned Johnny's father. the paternal relationship). birthday. Over the phone she heard the father say to his son: "Let's find out. which each member of the Reading Club participated. to "rain sounds. that's wonderful.

When parents make mistakes. 45 W. min. disturbed. 30 sec. THIS SELECTION: SEC. home From is being rejection currently to and classmates epitomized <—End timing father the story of Johnny.M. min.P. Referring to the numbered paragraphs in Mrs. Johnny's difficulties — 4. answer the following questions: 45 . ON acceptance by MIN. 2.) GAIN OVER SELECTION 1 (page 11): W. this statistic Discussion of the Selection I am now going to ask you to take a more active part in analyzing the structure of material. min.. 45 sec..M.M. 30 sec. Test Your Comprehension Which one of the following statements most accurately sum- marizes the main idea of the selection you have just finished? Check your choice without referring to the 1. (Record W.Thanks to coordinated efforts on the part of the school personnel. Johnny had better tha» average intelligence culties and reading disabilities resulted from an emotional block.P. 342 320 300 282 266 240 YOUR RATE ON SELECTION 6: ..P. both Compute Your Rate (Approximate number home of words: 1200) TIME 2 2 2 2 3 3 at in school. stemmed from a poor home environment and an over-disciplinary and unco-operative father. Johnny's reading and other problems were solved because active steps and were taken to change rejection to acceptance.. Padouk's article. min. 30 sec.W. min.M.. it is necessary for the school to interfere. 5. min. Ten-year-old Johnny was a rejected. RECORD HERE THE TIME REQUIRED solved. TIME 600 532 480 436 400 368 3 min. 15 sec.. min.. unhappy child who needed psychiatric help. min. min. min.. 3 4 4 4 5 min. 15 sec. on the chart and graph on page 392. sec.P. a problem which originated in the 20. his learning diffi3. text. 15 sec.

The skillful reader. 19 and 20.1. in the last two paragraphs. What 1 is Paragraphs through 4 constitute the first major part of this the purpose. very briefly. would recognize almost from the first few sentences that he is dealing with a problemsolution piece and he would be interested at once in discovering quickly what the problem is and how it was solved. Paragraphs 8 through 13 form the thud section —what is this about? 4. What is the author presenting in the next section. paragraphs 14 through 18? 5. on the other hand. (Skilled reading always involves suiting your pace to the type of material and to what you are trying to get out of it. he would avoid getting enmeshed in statistics. he would skim through the untrained reader — the conversation and narrative details. of this section? 5. by an attempt to wrestle with the technical terminology often found in this type of writing. This article has a simple.) start tion to Johnny's difficulties). 6. and 7 make up a second section —what is the author doing here? 3. Finally. 2. Paragraphs piece. the problem is described and the background 46 filled in ( answer to ques- . and concentration interfered with. extracting only the flavor. To this end. what is the author doing? The article we are working on is full of the kind of statistics and specialized explanations that might well slow down the rate of —minutes can be wasted. In paragraphs 1 through 4. and since he knows from the what he is looking for (the soluhe would whiz through the piece at high speed. clear-cut structure that contributes strongly to rapid comprehension.

the author is tabulating the on Johnny's reading performance and elaborating on his reading disabilities she is still discussing the problem (answer to question 2).. and 6. not just take in words. And so we are ready. to sense the broad structure of an author's thinking in short. on Suppose you copy down. '/. your rates selections 1.M.tion 1). this your speed to the _W. : W. on what this type of training aims to help statistics — . by actual practice.W. W. may show is great variation from a good sign —you are suiting changes in complexity and style of the material.P. You are learning. In paragraphs 14 through 18. 3.M. to look at material not as a conglomeration of words or phrases or sentences. in paragraphs 5 through 7. the results of the therapy are presented (answer to question 4).P.P. And then. and with the next chapter a new phase statistics will begin. in paragraphs 8 through 13 she describes the therapy used with Johnny (answer to question 3). the author sums up what has been accomplished with Johnny.P. from the chart on page 392.M. to examine the you have been keeping and to see whether we can spot a trend. If so. SELECTION SELECTION SELECTION SELECTION SELECTION Examine 1 (MYSTERY STORIES ) 3 (H-BOMB): 4 (STUTTERER): 5 (X RAYS): 6 (JOHNNY): this chart. Your rates selection to selection. and if you were at all alert to structure as you read you realized that at this point the central theme of the article was beginning. you accomplish. and by what means ( answer to question 5 ) In the very final paragraph the total meaning of all die facts and details of the piece is explicitly stated. to push through the details and extract a final meaning. ''. and the important point you should have come away with is that these results were good. 19 and 20. 5.P. Reflect. not as a parade of unrelated facts or details or ideas — but rather an integrated whole with a dominant and over-all meaning. in the last two paragraphs. therefore. 47 . you are learning to read aggressively.M.M. 4. Correct choice on the comprehension test. is statement 5. as — This ends one phase of your training. You are learning to move along more rapidly. for a moment. now.

and divide by 4 to find — A TEST OF YOUR RETENTION AND RECALL And now let us try an interesting experiment. little arithmetic. How much higher is it than your rate on selection 1? And what is the percentage of increase? To find this last figure. there is cause for rejoicing.. very 1. Record these statistics below and also in the appropriate spaces on page 392. your rates on the your initial rate? This last is — Add up your statistics on selections an average rate during the first phase of your training.38.Do four sections show a definite gain over an even better sign. by 213. and your average rate on selections 3 through 6 was 295 w. if your starting rate was 213 w. cant dividends that training promises One of the signifi- an increase in retention and recall and learning to seek out main ideas is one of the chief means of earning such a dividend.m. . You have demonstrated your capacity for accelerating your normal and habitual speed of comprehension you have climbed to a higher plateau where you may remain for a while as you integrate the new techniques you are learning. and then divide this answer.p. Percentage Gain in Rate: Let us do a 3 through 6.p.p. or 38 per cent.. briefly. 82. you subtract 213 from 295. and carry the answer to two decimal places. after a significant jump over your performance on the first selection.m. For example. the gist of each of the following "Can the H-Romb Destroy the Earth?" 48 articles. how successfully can you recall the gist of each one? is — Retention Test Write out. Without further reference to the selections you read earlier. giving you approximately . Average Gain in Rate: w. Your rates may possibly be fairly constant. divide the average gain by your initial rate.m. If this is so.

"Atom Bombs and X-Rays' 4. 2. a Rejected Child' Stutterer Writes to a Key: 1.Former Teacher' 2. — — ideas?) ' / . 4.w 49 . that increase his security stutterer needs acceptance if he is to speak better. Conditions do not exist for a sustained thermonuclear reaction —the A and attitudes Medical use of X rays may be dangerous the question should be investigated further. "Johnny. 3. (Your own language is of course different from that suggested above but does it boil down to pretty much the same general earth is safe. "A 3. Johnny's reading and personality problems were solved by changing rejection to acceptance.

the gist of each selection. to increase your "span of recognition.CHAPTER 3 HOW TO TRAIN YOUR PERCEPTION Preview In the first two sessions of your training you made an attempt. over-all. • • • • How How How How to make greater use of your "peripheral" vision. Now we concentrate for a period on a different area of training." perception training can markedly accelerate your gen- eral reading rate. sensing the broad structure of the auand getting an accurate. — main ideas. during your reading. understanding of speedily following thor's thinking. words." to reduce your "fixation-time. and phrases. to avoid poky and time-consuming attention to minor details you tried to sweep briskly through material. of — 50 . In this chapter you will learn: • How to do productive exercises in the rapid and accurate perception of numbers. Chapter 3 shows you how to interpret more what you see and in less time.

accurate or erroneous. or maybe only a portion of a word. snap a sec- ond photograph. and jerk again to the right. they do no more than snap the photograph. depending not on the sharpness of a reader's vision but on the clearness and richness of his understanding. generally a fraction of a second. a reader and peer up into his eyes as they move page of print. It is during his skill.• SESSION 3 READING AS A VISUAL PROCESS may know. The eyes are the camera of the mind. and stores away the result Like a camera. in order to continue feeding successive images to the brain for interpretation. the eyes must focus on the subject before a photograph can be taken. From that point on. a single word. we do not read with our eyes at but with our minds. Like a camera. Then his eyes jerk sharply to the right. The eyes are only a vehicle of transmission they flash the visual impulses that the brain interprets and the In one sense. especially if you have never observed it before. It is a fascinating process to watch. as you all. up to a hundred times or more — on an average page. — mind reacts to. These alternating jerks and pauses go on until the end of the line is reached. focus for a second time. a couple of that he is reading words. Such interpretation and reaction may be instan- taneous or halting. —depending on this momentary pause his eyes are photographing a phrase unit. and on the reflexive per- ception habits under which he operates. prints the picture. You will see his eyes focus at a point somewhere near the beginning of a line and remain there Sit in front of across a for a very brief period of time. easy or full of effort. the brain does all the work it develops the negative. They may focus and refocus three to a dozen times on a single line of print. at which point 51 .

then. So also in reading the mind dictates the portion of print it wishes to interpret at one time. you may see his eyes suddenly reverse and jerk to the left. an image is transmitted to the brain. these constantly alternating movements and pauses are completely reflexive and pretty nearly unconscious. controlled automatically by die ability and speed of the mind in absorbing and integrating what the eyes see. paragraph by paragraph. In a sense. such motions are directed and controlled by the stomach. the eyes must move. is ocular pauses and "interfixation accomplished by a continuous alternation of movements . an activity in which. Nevertheless. and words are read. grinding the teeth. which dictates the amount of food it wishes to receive and the rate at which it can comfortably receive it. Reading. particularly when one is hungry. Then the eyes move slightly to the right. there is ordinarily little or no conscious control over. Go on watching for a while. or in some way his comprehension momentarily broke down. or swallowing. and another image is flashed to the brain. a new point of fixation is made. and the rate at which the eyes should continue his eyes sweep back the the left. if not on practically every line. Does all this seem vastly complicated? It is. continuing line by line. In order to keep reading. the separate motions of opening and closing the mouth. and movement-pause process starts all over again. focus on the following line. and on many lines. raising and dropping the lower jaw. During the movement between 52 . of course." movements —or what we call "fixations" and "Fixation" is the technical term for the fractional second in which the eyes focus on a portion of a line of print. or even awareness of. page by page. He is making regressions he is going back to check on the camera. — — feeding it these portions. They are as reflexive and automatic as the movements in eating. If he is awkward and inexperienced you may be able to count ten to a dozen or more. the picture that his mind developed failed to make sense. but while reading. the eyes are externally motionless. During a fixation the external movement of the eyes stops. If the reader you are observing is fairly skillful you may see only three to five pauses. Soon you will be able to count the number of pauses made on each line.

as the eyes focus and refocus. stationary. owing to the persistence of an "afterimage" in the brain. it is not the vision. It is this afterimage during the interfixations that produces an illusion of smooth and continuous vision as you read. about one fourth to one half a second. there is no sensation of loss of sight. if he is the average reader. A reader is confronted with a page of print. The eye To begin reading. then a third. no sensation even of a blur.two fixations ( "interfixation tion in visual sharpness movements" ) there . it would look something like for we attempted to this: The eye POINT OF FIXATION RECOGNITION SPAN Having photographed the first two words ("the eye") by fixating between them. In truth. He starts to read the first line: for just the briefest fraction of a — The eye moves across a printed line and you read. If diagram the action. Then they make a return sweep to the following line and start fixating all over again. second? Or stare at this object again. but rather the flow of visual impulses to the brain. You can still see the object. is fusing the impulses it receives into a steady stream of meaning. or "fixated. for the mind. even though there are alternating periods of sight and partial blindness. can't you. his eyes fixate at a point somewhere at the beginning of the line and remain there. —vision is clear only is a marked reduc- when the eyes are However." then quickly close your eyes. Doesn't it seem as if your sight is continuous? It isn't. and so on until the end of the line is reached. Let us examine the process more closely. very rapidly shutting and opening your eyes a half dozen times. his eyes then travel to the right and make a second point of fixation. under conditions of normal comprehension. that is smooth and continuous. a fourth. moving from one fixation point to the next What is "afterimage"? Try staring at an object for thirty seconds. of course the optical illusion results from the slight persistence of the afterimage. For example: 53 .

The 54 ._/ . Consequently reading N it — and you read. Your are not supposed to feel your eyes fixating and moving.— f\ • JL-M — • The is / \ • I a direct extension of f\ • 9 a direct mental process. The eye across a printed line • \ the brain._/U_. or even more. \ f almost a direct mental process. is 1 \ is f\ • • ._/L. J\ it is direct extension of l\ tl.J ._/L-. . mental almost a . And this is exactly as it should be. — \-. on the other hand. or reflexive. Now. he also works less hard and has fewer periods of nonreading. would require nine to twelve fixations. the less skillfully you are reading. -Z-J \ . UJL_. the movements go on for without them. This pattern shows the unconscious eye movements of a reader of average efficiency: a type line about four inches long (the size used in this book) is read in six or seven fixations.JU . no reading could be dona Let us now contrast the reading patterns of the efficient and the — — inefficient reader.J the brain. The more aware you are of these movements.-f and you read. The efficient reader: The eye moves • I is N / across a printed line • \ a very special sense organ because . Nevertheless. . the brain. Consequently reading is • > it / is __v — * • _v • \ —l a direct extension of V_.JUL. so unconscious that you might read eight hours a day and never realize what your eyes are doing._/ a very special sense organ because \ /\ . the process of making fixations and of moving the eyes is so rapid. with three to four medium-sized words to each eye span.. A skilled reader might cover such a line in three or four fixations an extremely inefficient reader.The eye moves *— —I • is i • * I v_.— is direct process. the efficient reader not only saves time.-Jtl. oddly enough._-M . /\ —almost _ —J • • inefficient reader: a very special sense organ because \__. Consequently J reading UJ1— -M By being . I able to cover a book-length line of type at an average of three to four fixations to a line. The eye f \ JUUIa JlL.

well Air Force Base. Many poor readers have such short eye spans that they cannot even take in a whole word at one fixation. is directly related to reading ability. consists of a series of fixations which the eye makes while viewing a printed line. 55 . the poor reader eight to twelve or more. Decades ago physiologists learned that the eye sees only when it stops. for normal thought does not occur by words. What has all this to do with your own training to speed up comprehension? The answer will be found in the following excerpt from The Air University Reading Improvement Program: process. or even letter by letter. The eye. A good reader will make three to four fixations for an ordinary line of print. however. Such undisciplined readers may even go so far as to attack a line of type syllable by syllable. Reading. and thinking is made difficult. During these fixation pauses. Consequently reading is almost a direct mental process. As a result. A picture is much more quickly drawn in the mind by several combined words than by individual ones. inefficient reader whose patterns are illustrated above is the word-by-word reader. (The pattern we have just been studying does not by any means represent the worst possible reader. Reprinted with permission. The You now understand the broad outlines of reading as a visual you now have an idea of how the eyes function in feeding images to the brain for translation into meaning. therefore. the material viewed is translated into meanings by the brain. Ability to cover a wider span. June 1948. The reason his eye spans take in only a single word at a time is no fault of his vision: word-by-word reading is simply a habit he has perfected through constant practice. MaxMontgomery. NATURE OF READING The eye moves across a printed line very special sense organ because it is * and you read. does not read while it moves. The eye is a a direct extension of the brain. the meaning of the page comes to him choppily. since the eye travels about From The Air University Reading Improvement Program. The Air University. The sicillful words than the former's fixations are certainly no longer in duration than the lat- and generally are much shorter. Alabama. ter's. to view a large field. The span is also related to speed of reading.) reader does not take any longer to absorb three or four inefficient reader needs for a single word. but by phrases and pictures.

in other words. AN EXPERIMENT IN FIXATIONS Now. instantaneous picdid you see? Perhaps two words initial fixation ture of the entire space. First. He will stop only about a fifth of a second on each fixation. Finally. before. you realize. the poor reader will take twice as long. across the page in jerks and pauses as we read. then What move your Make your initial fixation make a second fixation. The good reader is also able to spend a shorter time on each fixation. but by taking a single. I ask you to experiment personally with a single line of print in order to realize what is actually happening as you read. not by sweeping from the O in Our through to the s in eyes.6 per cent of the time between fixations and spends about 94 per cent of the time on the fixation pauses. You made your by focusing your eyes at a point approximately in the middle of the space occupied by the two words. This is the line of print on which you will work: Our eyes move 1. What our eyes. 2. and (4) few re- velop these characteristics: (1) gressions. for just a few minutes. his eye travels back over material less frequently. (2) few (3) short fixation pauses. After interpreting the first 56 move photograph snapped by your . so that you will thoroughly understand the basis and the reason for the training that will be offered to you in later sections of this chapter. and in a fraction of a second you read the print on both sides of that point This was accomplished. let us attempt to make the interdependence and interaction of your own eyes and mind a bit more conscious. as you did eyes to did you see this time? Perhaps two more words across. fixation pauses per line. Now start the line again. it is necessary to have training to de- a wide recognition span. the good reader makes fewer regressions per line or. To improve reading ability. As a result. the rapid reader is able to read continuously and thus follow the meaning of the writer more easily. focus at the beginning of the line as you normally would in starting to read.

your mind more material. 4. or tion of our experiment by taking step 4 The line has been broken up below into longer portions. across/the page/in jerks/and pauses/as we/read. • What did you discover? By consciously fixating at the black dot. Or were the outer edges of each phrase less clear than the center word or words? Or was it perhaps impossible to see anything but a few letters to the left and right of the fixation point? (Your answer will depend not on the efficiency of your eyes but on the mental habits you have built up through years of reading. after perception training. you made seven fixations to the line —or perhaps you did perhaps not as well. So let us approach the culminabetter. were you able to read the entire phrase without moving your eyes? Probably so. line as Did pencil. Mark off each of your recognition spans with a slanting 3. than in what you have done at this point. Take your pen or print. We are more interested in what you eventually can do.) eyes. and your eyes autoby feeding a second image to your brain. No matter how successful or unsuccessful you may have been in interpreting the complete phrases above in single fixations. Our eyes across the in jerks as move page and pauses we read. called for matically responded and go back once again to the line of through completely by making conscious and deliberate fixation after fixation until you have finished the last word. This time read it you move from the beginning to the end work out somewhat as follows? of the line. Attempt to read each portion in one fixation by consciously focusing your eyes above the black dot in the center of the phrase. No matter. you can 57 . it Our eyes/move If so.

ou —uormpuj} -B a[9J9ui si si srtp Supuud . Reaii — speedily to this material as it is fed in. which. And each of his fixations may take twice as long as a skilled reader requires for interpreting a complete phrase.q§u ' 58 moii .or two-word units. and the only kind of training that will work is the steady practice of habits that will condition your mind ( 1 ) to accept more material from your eyes at each fixation and (2) to react more 5. the almost agonizing. I want to give you an opportunity to identify momentarily with an extremely poor reader I want you to experience personally a small degree of the laborious. It is perfectly possible to read with such self-directed fixations but at the end of half a page fatigue will set in. it rapidly and without any thought or awareness of fixations or movements. as you will notice. read the next two paragraphs. }pq) -9}tu a\ojs pus k\\nz> . Your fixations are automatically controlled by your understand the final goal of your perception training: the building up of such strong and deep-seated habits that you will automatically and reflexively read with wide recognition spans. eye of I have asked you to take this last step in order to close the experiment by disabusing you of the notion that you can learn to read more rapidly by consciously controlling your fixations. extremely poor reader — for as long as a full — -oojip oip ur uBtp i9irrei '}pj 0} }i{§u -grip moX joj uosb9j 9ip .nq 'o} 0} §uiu3xu. without conscious control on your part. rather than in one. A NOTE ON FIXATION TIME An may linger on an individual word second he may fixate on the longer words syllable by syllable before he is able to interpret the total picture. Without reversing the book. Noio read the entire bold-face line on page 56 one final time. comprehension will suffer drastically. effort involved when you have to extract meaning through exceedingly slow and awkward fixations and narrow recognition spans. are printed upside down. and reading will degenerate into a mechanical chore. in phrase units. a\ou axe no^ paiuo}snDOB oie noX uop. and your fixations will be made.£ij uiojj Xjiuoiaduioo sb isnf pBOJ ubo ouo JT oououodxo opiq b tpiM 'UOAO JO '9S9UI113 UI SB <UA\Op iq§IBJ}S JO 'A\9jqOJ-J UT SB '}pj 01 jo 9§Bd b jo uioiioq oqi uiojj c dn iq§iBi}S 'p9iuud os 9J9A\ jbuoibuj puB iqgij-oi-ijoj ppo 9S9qi JO 9UIOS 'p99pill -S9UT{ §U11BUI91TB UO lJ9J-01-}q§IJ uaqi -9UIT1 SB ui9q.. he must move his tongue or lips or vocal cords.p. or even whisper audibly. pu9iuuioo9J oi qonui 9ABq sui9}sXs ( 9inos §UT0U9iJ9dx9 osjb XjqBqojd ptIB f -SJ9ABS 9TCmOJ} SlITABq 9JB noi^ SqdBJ§BJBd 9S9qi UIOJJ §UTUB9UI §U119BJ}X9 UT 'iJOJUIOOSip JBqnood os 9JB spjoA\ 9qi jo suoiiBingijuoo puB sgdBqs 9qi osnBOoq -ui09 UBds uopmgoooj ijoqs Xj9a b Xjuo }Bqi noX 01 jbtrlubjuh puB qijA\ }9jdj9iui 01 pmui jnoX s}iuiJ9d ouip uoiibxu guoj b qijAY p9uiq •§uiqdBJ§oioqd 9JB soXo jnoX iBqA\ Xobjtioob Xu« Xl9J0S The poor reader's fixation times may be comparatively long for another reason. You doubtless never whisper or move your lips or tongue when You are reader. but with less and less consciousness of the individual words or phrases as speed increases and concentration deepens. and your recognition span covers generally at least two words. 59 . sometimes more. if your rate is now over 250 w. there are some slight vestiges of vocalization still accompanying your reading performance so slight that you are rarely if ever aware of them. is limited to not much more than the rate at which he can read aloud. and. you do not rely on your vocal cords to assist you in interpreting meaning. a pathologically slow and awkward You do not have to puzzle out most words. you read. your fixations probably last no more than two fifths of a second. as a result. far less to understand — efficient. His speed. of course. for he has learned meaning only by recognizing the shape or feel or sound of words. than the rate at which he could interpret meaning by completely by-passing the vocal apparatus far slower and far. and your recog- — nition spans significantly narrower. In order to comprehend. not. ) Possibly. a little too conscious of hearing them in your mind's ear.m. than necessary. (Such "inner hearing" or "inner speech" goes on to a certain extent in all readers. of course. but nevertheless serving to keep your fixations significantly longer. And this is far slower. But possibly you are a little overdependent on thinking the words as you read them.

if not completely. consists of a lantern and a Flashmeter. to the first ing for an increase in accuracy with numbers. William B. varying from one full second An improved form of Keystone View Co. manufactured by the flashes digits. to provide the kind of training in quick perception that is so valuable in increasing supplement to the Keystone Tachistoscope Manual. Pennsylvania. rather than some or most. meaningless you will be learning. during this practice. now. unlike words and in digit combinations phrases. quick fixations. a spring principle. of what you see. and phrases on a screen at exposures down to as low as y100 of a second. and then word drills. We proceed. In a * This is the registered trade name of the 60 Keystone View Co. working on project the material on the screen. The type of exercises on which you will shortly start working numbers and instantaneously the Practicing on the rapid perception of to interpret accurately trains total — — is usually called after the device which "tachistoscopic known ( ta-kiss-ta-SKOP-ik ) as a "tachistoscope" training.If these possibilities exist. are practically. you for phrase less step in perception training —and for this purpose. of Meadville. The Keystone tachistoscope is used throughout the country in elementary and high schools." (ta-KISS-ta-skope). limits the exposure to the fraction of a second determined by the operator. the tachistoscope. we rapidly by aim- shall start (Number drills.* The lantern provides enough light to and the Flashmeter. The final goal of perception training is re- flexive and instantaneous interpretation of complete phrases single. Eargle of the Keystone rate of reading. will prepare drills. . to interpret all.. as they do in most untrained readers. words.) in TRAINING IN DIGIT PERCEPTION your mind photograph snapped by your eyes. and in the reading clinics of colleges and universities. thou the perception exercises that follow in the next sections will help you break a pattern of interpreting visual impulses and less efficiently than you are capable of doing. Greet and John H. Since the element of familiarity on which you naturally rely in the rapid reading of words is essentially lacking rows of random numbers.

Samuel Renshaw at The Ohio State University. . . and self. Renshaw is one of our most prominent leaders in experimentation with visual problems and has tested the tachistoscope widely for reading benefits. since the shortest recorded fixation during reading is several times as long as 00 second. For purposes of training in the Reading Laboratory %oo second gives enough speed to provide practice in quickening the eye fixation. explain the principle behind such training as follows: Since we use but a fraction of our capacities. according to research psychologists. A similar explanation is offered by The Air University Reading Improvement Program. . amount of movements are eliminated increasing the speed of the flash and the By gradually material to be perceived. span. accuracy. When the armed services realized the need for speed-up training in aircraft recognition. The tachistoscope has other values. seen as a whole. as learning proceeds. Army and Navy pilots used the tachistoscope with outstandingly successful results. and since approximately 80 per cent of our knowledge comes to us through our eyes. . This tech- nique drives vision impulses to lower reflex levels. . the interval necessary between reception and interpretation is reduced. visual processes simultaneously. it It provides training in several Not only does also decreases the length of eye fixation. With such a quick flash he cannot vocalize or get side-tracked on elements of the visual pattern. unnecessary eye and the spans . from which the following excerpts are quoted with permission: The use of the tachistoscope in rapid recognition was developed by Dr. of perception and recognition broadened. Texas. it increase the eye The shutter of the Flashmeter can be controlled so that an interval as short as %oo °^ a second can be obtained. comprehension. he must take it in at once or it is gone as soon as the after- % image fades. The untrained eye has a limited field on quick recognition this field of functional of vision but with training recognition expands. The . 61 . where. . San Antonio. confidence in reading. Dr. increasing usable vision [has as and broadening spans of perception and recognition its purpose to] increase speed. .School and Guidance Center. . tachistoscope helps the reader approach his limit of precision of vision and peripheral span. . Another value of the tachistoscope is that it forces the reader to grasp material as a form-field.

There is a broad black arrow pointing to the center of the digit window. Fixate at that point. and (3) ability to see the content of the part. middle and right-hand columns.Progress on the tachistoscopic training occurs in three stages: (1) ability to see part of the digit sequence. and you will in the 7. always considerably under a second. Do 4. in the blank to 5. Place the Flashmeter card (which you will find between the pages of the book) in such a way above the first number and the arrow on the page. Be careful to observe the following instructions carefully whenever you work with these exercises. As you become skillful. getting The all digits digit exercises that and getting them in the right order. To do exposing the number for a fraction of a second. Expose the numbers in the left-hand column before doing those 6. Allow only enough time to make one fixation at each exposure. and this point will be approximately in the middle of the space occupied by the digits. 8. During the time the number is exposed. right. 13856 that the digit digit window is just arrow squarely meets the <- 2. getting all digits but with reversals in order. which I have made for self -training. Pull down the card just far enough to expose the number. appear below and at numerous points throughout the remaining chapters of the book are an adaptation of the Keystone slides. glance at it quickly. and quickly cover it with an upward movement. and immediately push the card back so that the number is again hidden. repeat the process this pull the card down one line. usually the first (2) ability to see the form of the sequence. but you must expose and conceal quickly enough to permit only one fixation. not say the As soon number to yourself. There is no need to rush the movement of the card. attempt as the in writing. Then pull the card its to reproduce it. Instructions for Training in Digit Perception 1. you will expose for less and less time. down a second time and check your answer. sequence. 3. 62 . number is concealed. Now by exposing the next number.

say the numbers you see and. do not even think them. Bear in mind that you are training to respond instantaneously do not. you will at first be able to reproduce only a certain portion of the digits. accept it as a challenge and expect evenwith further practice. plus the afterimage. for is — a natural step in progress. This. until you will see the complete number in one fixation. with more perhaps the first practice. to a visual stimulus. Rely. and in learning to absorb ideas at a rapid rate.) 9. With fur- ther practice. or the last three digits. you'll perceive four. to perceive a greater and greater proportion. It is this afterimage that will help you to reproduce the number in writing. reversals will gradually be eliminated. (The eye transmits the image to the brain. flash. will be of incalculable benefit in eliminating vocalization and lip movements. Don't let this disturb you. 63 ." example. if possible. as much as you can. once made habitual. Therefore — Such are the eleven steps to follow in every digit exercise. on the visual image you get. too. (This is called peripheral vision. 63218. As you get into the longer numbers. Rethat you expose the number for only a fraction of a second. That is the pattern of progress. so that you are sure your tech- member nique is 645 <- 187 «- 732 <e- 321 <- 060 <- 299 <- correct. 11. and for the merest fraction of a second that image will continue after the number has been hidden. you may see all five digits but reproduce them as 62381 reversing the order of some of them. Starting on five-digit numbers.) Predominantly visual response. but have not yet able to see a certain distance on each side. you phenomenon tually. or and finally all five digits. and that you check your response after each exposure. that you do not attempt to vocalize what you have seen. may at first see only the three central digits. instantaneously. perfect accuracy. under any circumstances. 10. that you reproduce it as accurately as you are able. You may When you also note the phenomenon known as "reversal. Practice on the following six numbers before you start exercise 1. an indication that you're ap- proaching.

Do not say the digits to yourself. 985 *- 502 *- 477 *- 889 <— 808 «— 58fi <r- 041 <r- 840 <r- 392 *— 982 <— 1Q9 <r- 864 *— 041 *- 845 <— 211 <— 092 <— 902 <r- 189 <— 804 «- ion <-. 092 851 <r- 982 <r- 989 _ .._ 988 <— 602 <— <— 789 <— 784 288 *- 398 _ 502 <r- 593 <— 914 «— 511 <r- 802 «— 151 <— . score at the end Mark each error so that you can tally of the exercise.. expose each number for a fraction of a second.. 948 802 «- 847 «-. getting a visual impression. Reproduce the number in the blank to the right and then check your result. 029 802 <r- 948 <r- 872 951 190 <r- 902 <— «— ._ 468 <— 827 <- 010 NUMBER CORRECT OUT OF 64 50: your .Perception Exercise 1 Using the Flashmeter card.. 625 <— .

on the other hand. his eyes need move only twice or three times more before he is ready to make a return sweep to the skilled reader beginning of the next line. both nailed to the top of a table. individual syllables. Or you could pick up the marbles two at a time. The efficient reader reacts to a number of words at a single fixation: his unit of comprehension is a com- Actual reading. may have to move his eyes eight or nine or more times before he has read the whole line: there is a correspondingly greater number of moments of nonreading. It is your job to transfer the marbles from one box to the other. How would you do it? You could. one The reader responds inefficient at a time. This extra time allotted by the poor reader to nonreading accounts in part for his slowness. Box A contains a thousand marbles.• SESSION 4 ONE KEY TO RAPID READING recall. then. is done during the fractional seconds which the eyes fixate. That would 65 . to cover a line of print such as is used in this book. But only in part. if his reading is very poor. Box B is empty. Suppose there are two boxes in front of you. pick up the marbles one by one. only two or three fractional seconds in which his eyes are not reading. After coming to rest at the first point on a new line. to single words. if you liked. dropping each into the second box before you picked up another from the first one. parts of words. You would be doing your task in as inefficient a way as possible. or. there are at most two or three moments of nonfocusing. After that first fixation. The muscles in your arm and hand would become tired long before you finished. The unskilled reader. a thought sequence. a highly might make three or four fixations. you in plete phrase. That would take a long time. Thus.

— inite to work — — on. factor. not in single words. No dead spots. contains a good deal less meaning than the complete phrase. and the less you would be likely to tire. you can read like the wind. If your eyes photograph only one or two words at a time. the process must perforce be a slow and painful one. one bright morning. He can train his fingers to substitute for eyes. But to do the job as quickly and as efficiently as possible. The more words you absorb in a single fixation. time interruption to the process of drinking. can read. and very significant. his fingers can become the sensory extensions of his brain. —for And no waste the idea. The word morning. a complete thought. The eyes of the efficient reader feed his mind. There is very little thought in the single word bright. the sooner you'd be through. or has never had. This analogy is admirably applicable to reading. No wait- No ing. of meaning. in a single impulse. That is the second part of the reason that increased efficiency in perception can so radically speed up your reading. one bright morning. The more you grabbed each time. The word-by-word reader forces his mind to slow up because his eyes are continually feeding it words that are devoid. as a transmitting belt (A blind person. bright and must wait still again for the third impulse. you would grab up handful after handful. morning before it has something defcarrying images of words to the brain. Reading is not actually done with the eyes. However. There is practically no meaning at all in the single word one. one bright morning. the faster you read.double your speed. disconnectedly. can be photographed the eyes and registered in the of by mind more quickly as a single unit than can the three separate words. as you know. reading is a mental activity. if your eyes grab up "handfuls" of words. that make up that thought . or nearly devoid. the use of his eyes. one after the other. even though he has lost. If your eyes feed your mind one word at a time. you grasp the thought of a printed page choppily. for thought normally comes in phrases. as I have pointed the eyes out. although it has a fuller significance by itself than either one or bright. There is a third. It is done with the mind — acting as sensory extensions of the brain. His mind receives the impulse one and must wait patiently for the second impulse.

to apply these principles as a matter of automatic habit. the ously the thought of a printed line is more nearly instantaneand the more the more rapid and effigrasped. cient the entire process becomes. by practice." but you will have as little success as the person who has memorized the principles of swimming and then jumps into the water for a half-mile he has never been in the water before. I am am You can say to yourself.In reading. If itself. since the final third factor. Merely knowing this fact is not enough. intelsame single-minded diligence that are essential any high-order skill. you cannot become a fast reader until you are able. then. by constantly and patiently refining his good habits and by ruthlessly weeding out his bad ones. The is that the reader who takes in more words understands more quickly. by themselves. are often useless for comprehension. Expert as you may become at understanding the principles of rapid. he trains his body to function by expert race. and thus I fixations. he will likely thrash around awkwardly and perhaps eventually drown. and. the parts are individual words which. one by one. he must build up such an excellent set of co-ordinating reflexive habits that his body does the proper things without any conscious direction from his mind. a thought. in a single fixation purpose of reading is to understand. by more and more and more practice. efficient reading. In first learning how to swim. The person who intends to become an expert swimmer must practice one skill after another until the correct bodily movements become habitual and automatic. make his body respond physically. as a result of constant. by itself. One key to rapid reading is the perception and interpretation of large numbers of words at each fixation. smoothly the eyes and mind co-operate. the whole The "whole" is is more significant than the sum of its parts. Becoming a fast ligent practice. hard practice. now going to use wide accurately. it requires the building good habits to the point where instantaneous 67 of . he must go through each part of the act consciously. Then. a phrase. "I am going to perceive quickly and going to read faster. for his knowledge of the rules intellectually would not. the to the conquest of up and refinement reader requires the same continuous.

But do you see only your finger? Look again. regressions. left entirely MACULAR AND PERIPHERAL IMAGE In adult reading courses. in this instance. — Perception training is purely psychological it has no effect whatever on the organic structure or on the efficiency of your eyes. Perception training. many things on all sides of your finger. though not so clearly. to perceive reading. through tachistoscopic and interpret more words in a single fixation and to reduce to a minimum the time spent on making that fixation. Don't shift your gaze. lack of vocalization. though perhaps vaguely. Everything you see in addition to your finger is being photographed by your peripheral vision. keep focused directly on your finger. When you do that. You can find out quickly what peripheral vision is by holding your forefinger up in front of your eyes at a comfortable distance say ten to twelve inches. and rapid mental reaction to the ideas on the printed page become so nearly automatic that the mind can be free to concentrate on what an author is saying. This image comes to you through the macula of the retina of your eyes. students are taught. many objects above and below the macular image and to the right or left of it. or we may say that the less distinct images you receive on all sides of your finger are the peripheral images. and lip movements. of course. and you will notice. possibly for quite a distance in all directions. what do you see? Your finger. both on digits and on words or phrases. and thereby to increase the width of their interpretable eye spans while training. They are trained to make greater use of their peripheral vision. that portion of the optical equipment which sees objects in the direct line of vision. and stare at your finger. You see your finger clearly and sharply because your eyes are focusing on it. your macular image.perception and wide fixations. and in the reading clinics of American colleges and universities. is intended to help you react more accurately to the peripheral images you receive while reading. and yet you can see. We might call your finger. but .

follows: MACULAR in the reading clinics I I PERIPHERAL It thus stands to reason that the sharper and more efficient your interpretation of peripheral vision becomes. exposes a word * Needless to say. you learn to react mentally to more and more of the peripheral image. as you know. Before training. but actually there are two kinds of image.* Take. The Flashmeter (or tachistoscope). — — image. until finally you can interpret accurately all seven digits in a single quick fixation: three of them (2. as similar in phrases. is the result of poor development of mental images and not necessarily a sign of poor vision. and the more material you will be able to interpret at each fixation. and phrases you are attempting to teach your mind to interpret as quickly and completely as possible the image transmitted to it by an ocular fixation. A phenomenon occurs Macular vision transand peripheral vision transmits those parts which are to the left and right of the center. macular and peripheral. mits the center of the phrase as a stimulus to the brain. you fixate on this number and interpret only the the interpretation of the peripheral image macular image of 216 is lost. If that your vision is faulty. or awkward seeing. By means of perception exercises on digits. As your training begins to produce results. for example. . slow. A phrase such as in the reading clinics can be grasped as an entity if the reader has trained his peripheral vision. 1. oculist or optometrist before I strongly you proceed with your training. the other four two on each side of the central digits as a peripheral — — . words. Sloppy. a number of seven digits: 8321689.rather sharpens and accelerates your mental interpretations of the ocular images that are sent to your brain during each fixation. I am taking for granted that your eyes are capable of good vision you feel recommend a thorough checkup by a competent at reading distance or have been corrected through glasses or other means. 6) perhaps as a macular image. the wider your usable eye spans will be. in reading as in anything else.

for these students through practice have learned the art of instantaneous recognition. will now be projected on the screen. Without exception they have devoted numerous practice periods at home to working on mimeographed sheets of —sheets containing the same material you will find in the succeeding pages of this book. The operator touches the Flashmeter control. even if he is tempted to do so. words. digits. no comprehension will result. Unless the phrase is absorbed in one quick glance. instead of an individual word.or phrase for an amazingly minute space of time. The in front of a large white motion picture screen. and then the operator adjusts the Flashmeter so that an entire phrase. Since no increase of exposure time is made. on a particular point on the screen. The word has been exposed for the students sit their eyes focused merest fraction of a second. Let me describe the use of the Flashmeter with a typical class during the years I supervised the Adult Reading Laboratory at City as College. Yet it is time enough. It is true that these students have worked methodically throughout these weeks. and phrases — 70 . In that merest fraction of a moment the student must perceive and interpret as many words as the merciless operator of the machine wishes to present to him. And since the machine is adjustable both as to the number of words to be exposed and the length of time of their exposure. and a word flashes on the screen flashes on and then flashes off again so quickly that you can scarcely believe it has been there at all. down to as little one one-hundredth of a second. Their excellence is produced not by the magic of the machine but by the constant practice they have engaged in both at home and in class practice you will have to engage in also if you wish to achieve similar results. process is The repeated several times. And the effect? Most of the class within a few weeks has become adept at reading complete phrases in single instantaneous fixations. Each student writes the word on a sheet of paper in front of him. the student is unable to use more than a single fixation. and then looks back at the screen for the next word. the reader can slowly and methodically be trained to increase the length of his recognition span while he decreases the time of his fixation.

but. for each word will be somerately what similar. I how have already described The methods here are essentially the I wish to repeat them. but to — Perception Exercise 2 Use the Flashmeter card according to previous directions. This is how to use it: Place the card over the first word in exercise 2 so that the arrow of the "word window" aligns with the arrow on the page. The Flashmeter card. 71 tally . do not slacken your speed of exposure and concealment. Now. to accelerate your speed of perception so that it will equal the swiftness of your arm. with window" at the top. briefly. Mark each error so that you can your score at the end of the exercise. in other words. Then pull the card down again and check on your accuracy. When you are ready to start your practicing. same. attempt to reproduce it. but not exactly identical. As fast as you can move your muscles. in that slight fraction of a second in which the word is exposed. As soon as a word has been exposed and immediately concealed. pull the card down just enough to expose the first word in the window. so that you will be sure do the right thing. Thus you will be acting as a human Flashmeter. If you have a little trouble at first. Your job. in the "word writing. with the page of the book taking the part of the motion picture screen.TRAINING IN FASTER WORD PERCEPTION In the section on digit perception to practice for best results. push the card up again so that the word is once more concealed. which you have been using for training in digit perception. to one or more words that precede and/or follow it. aligning the arrow at the right edge of the card with the arrow on the page. contains wider windows for word and phrase perception. the idea is not to decrease the speed of your arm movement until it coincides with the speed of your perception. on the contrary. it is up to you to interpret it accuand this will be no mean task. is to prove the falsity of the old adage that the hand is quicker than the eye. and will simulate for you all the conditions of reading with an actual Flashmeter. in the blank to its right.

fits slough fists slit fights slink flights slosh flits sash slats slips slash slaps slams slakes slants bright slow bricks first breaks frost brink front pam flint pane fought pram flirt prom frets prime fasts prong fluster plant flutter plank flitter brittle fritter bottle 72 .

attempt to see the entire phrase. will Remember to keep the time to make only one fixation be able on each phrase. from repeating the phrase in your mind after you have seen it. This arrow indicates the approximate center of each phrase. and through a combination of macular and peripheral images you will eventually. refrain. after some periods of training. not your speech. if possible. if If necessary. . in doing this exercise. Rely on your vision. not just that portion you may have missed in the first of exposure so small that you exposure. the first allow yourself two or more exposures on a phrase exposure is not successful. at each successive exposure. However. be able to interpret the entire phrase.battle blocks bitter blinks black bleats NUMBER CORRECT OUT OF 50: TRAINING IN PHRASE PERCEPTION Perception Exercise 3 Focus your eyes above the broad arrow pointing to the just "phrase window" on the Flashmeter card. a basic need -» a basic idea -» a third meaning -> a fourth -» meaning -» type of learning a single woman a single cup a lonely woman a lonely man an only son warming -» gave her my real purpose -> took his wife -* with a knife need of his first purpose life 73 .

two good ideas -» find the -» some strange ideas -> book the band -» no good idea -» beat the band ~» no possible idea -> boot the cook -» a cute idea -» bake the cake -> take the cake -> took the cake -> hold a wake -» a cure for all -> a city of stone -» a cure-all 74 the cook book .-> unnecessary strife -» a sure cure -» not too unusual -> a strange cure -> hardly unusual — telephone connection -» most unusual -» hold the line me -> hold me -> hold them -> -» they -> he -^ I tell tell tells come -» came may never -» do don't -> I tell it to me -^ tight it taut naught at night it right way -> I rarely do -» -» I surely do -» can you wait -» read the book -» I certainly don't right this -> a great idea -> fire -> a foolish idea -> cook for two -».

successful only if he won't marry -> one cup only we won't tarry -> one enchanted evening can you carry -* one strange evening you can carry -» this rare evening whom I share -> a spare evening get along -» spare an evening know -> spare a day -» spare some time food for thought -» take some time he had thought -» an inconvenient time because of him -» with he'll good to good to see with all with many -> the contacts -* contacts too much time full of lime the salty brine with few contacts -» try to relax -> sparkling wine -> very strong wine much more much less lonely — lonely 75 rare old wine this strong wine .» Perception Exercise 4 Now that you have warmed up with the phrases in exercise 3. go directly to the next phrase and continue working. You allowed yourself to make more than one exposure. phrase by phrase. exercise by exercise. if you do not. consider your training you see the complete phrase the first time. until success is achieved. if you found such multiple exposure necessary. From now on. you are ready to be a little more demanding of your powers.

a time of stress Ford has everything a time to play a fine car the time to go a complete lemon continue the work broken-down hack money hard work to do can't buy well-paid work love and kisses old work-horse down the street and dandy kind of work fine rare old jerk not a treatment good old not a reaction jerk a bad cold jerked his finger made good as gold a ringer gold and silver took the ring joined the old army copper and bronze army game wire and spit an exciting game big a game hunter new ingredient smoother performance hunted big game it really is smelled a rat like a bank on a bat like a baby weird old house like a baby's two-story house like a 76 bank piggy bank .

for such interpretation. This is. feed your mind a wider portion of learning to interpret quickly and accurately and your eyes to during each fixation. of a stuffed owl thin as a snug as a bug like a stuffed pig like a stuffy like a bug thin as a rail pig wise owl built like a house a wise old owl gone and forgotten a prize owl permanently ruined air completely bereft conditioning Elgin watch no single stone had the night watch the a new watch actually seen blinked his eyes few watches you rich folks we poor people truly yours we the yours truly people a crowded car in order to get the back seat twice a week the window filled on seat seeing without real fun with love What's wrong? fat as a rail You have made a first start. only the beginning of such learning and training to develop any degree of skill and accuracy in rapid percepat permitting print. now. at training your perception — at what your eyes see. — 77 .

perhaps almost to the vanishing point. as you gradually build your skill you yourself will realize from personal experience how effectively instantaneous responses. whenever you come upon them. I cannot overrate their value in your total training program. indeed as nearly instantaneous. Certain factors in the reading process may. ception — possible. any time lag between your reception of. How these factors operate to retard interpretation and thus slow up the rate of comprehension will be the subject of the next chapter. at —may act as of the electrical impulses that the The most serious of such factors are ( 1 ) lip movements. so to speak. Intensive and continuous practice on these drills will reduce. and wider recognition spans can increase your reading speed. the visual images offered by a line of print will make your interpretation of the meaning of such images as immediate. drastically interfere with the nearly instantaneous reaction to meaning that perception training aims circuit breakers. (3) excessive reliance on inner speech. So do all perception exercises religiously. I cannot overemphasize their importance. and your mental response to. unfailingly. and (4) addiction to unnecessary must devote a great deal of practice to the scores of perdrills that you will find spread throughout the book. singly or in various combinations. as tion. (2) vocalization. fewer fixations. 78 . eyes flash to the brain.

And so. 79 how to give regressions. • How to stop making frequent and unnecessary Chapter 4 explains in detail three bad habits that speed of comprehension. but also the ruthless elimination of hold your comprehension down to a rate you are actually capable of. LIP MOVE MENTS. • How to read without lip movements or other forms of vo- any inefficient habits that far lower than calization. VOCALIZATION. up drastically reduce .CHAPTER 4 INNER SPEECH. AND REGRESSIONS Preview Training to become a rapid reader involves not only the constant practice of efficient techniques. you will learn: • How to reduce your dependency on inner speech. in this chapter.

of the tongue. largely unaware of the individual words that combine to make up such meaning. larynx. for the most part. "In other words. for he is artificially keeping his speed down to the rate at which he can pronounce words and this is about one fourth as fast as he could read them silently. in short. vocal cords. understand words and phrases without first stopping either to say them or to listen to their sound. Silent Reading. auditory. Reprinted with . throat. The reader goes through the form of saying the words to himself. He can. not only completely by-passes the vocal apparatus in his response to meaning he is also.• SESSION 5 INNER SPEECH According to J. O'Brien. O'Brien. The motor reader his reading more or less incipient in character. listed in ascending order of skill. inner palate. "reading is not confined to the visualization of the printed symbols. in contrast. the vocalizer. as you can guess. there are essentially three kinds of readers: readers. an expert in the field of improved reading habits. permission. lips. A. and the general physiological mechanism that functions in oral speech. he reads with his eyes and mind. although his speech organs are completely at rest. and visual are. motor and visual readers. The lip mover or vocalizer is an extremely slow reader. The visual reader." * The auditory reader relies on hearing a page of print he is aware of pronouncing words in his mind. auditory readers. not with his mouth or ears. These three types of readers motor. A. 80 — New York." as O'Brien explains it. The Macmillan Company. is the lip mover. He accompanies with various (and quite unnecessary) movements of the muscles of articulation. — — — * J. Concomitant with this visualization there occur movements.

But one thing you do not do is consciously repeat the speakers words in your mind before you understand what they mean. you are. so that he can keep his eyes back where his voice is. although the unit of meaning is usually a phrase and sometimes a whole sentence. however. even the fastest and most skillful but the visual reader does not have to lean on it before he can respond to meaning. Strong dependence on inner speech is not necessary for understanding. you react intellectually and emotionally to the thoughts he expresses.He tires quickly because there is so much muscular activity. for his mind is as much involved with the mechanics of reading as it is with the ideas if not more so. If his awareness of. conscious mental repetition of the words on a page is equally unnecessary." but only imagining their pronunciation. his comprehension is poor. He ahead and the voice stays behind. He makes numerous fixations on a line. you may even interrupt at times to express the thoughts and reactions that he stimulates in you. the whole reading process is a chore. and the less he reads the happier he is. for the eyes tend to rush — The auditory reader is much more skillful. And. You respond to his words not as words. The auditory reader does that is the significant difference between them. the sounds of words is not very great. In fine. makes frequent regressions. you agree or disagree. You don't do this because you obviously don't have to in reading. if he cannot easily increase his speed to over 400 words per minute he is undoubtedly much more dependent on inner speech than he should be. almost totally unaware of the individual words he is using for you are concentrating on the ideas that his words add up to. or even a syllable. when you become really involved in what he is saying. You think along with him. much more His speed need not be unduly hampered. and reliance on. He tends to be a word-byword reader. since his eyes must focus on every syllable or word which his lips pronounce. but as conveyors of meaning. for the unit of pronunciation is a word. finally. as you know. Inner speech probably occurs to some extent in all readers. Often he uses his finger to point. When you listen with keen interest to someone who is talking. Have you ever watched an expert stenographer taking rapid — — — — 81 . his rate of comprehension does not suffer to any alarming extent. for he is rapid. not actually pronouncing the words he "hears.

color-blind. The (If What do you do? you interpret the color. however. First. Imagine yourself sitting at a table with your right hand on the lever resting for red. is or is it green? not for you.) Having you next recall which hand is for which color. (I have tried this experiment over and over with my students. and that's the longest it ever Then. a different lever when a green light flashes. How long a time interval elapses between the flashing of the light and your manual response? I think you know the answer. remembers that red 82 is — .dictation? Her pencil whizzes across her shorthand notebook at a any possibility that she is repeating what it down. that you were in the habit of consciously verbalizing all your bodily responses to visual stimuli. your left hand on the one for green. You do not consciously verbalize again you your brain interprets right. and transmits a pressure impulse to the proper hand all this wordlessly and in one tenth of a second or less! Suppose. how can you react so quickly if you first have these conscious and verbalized decisions? (Just saying it red or green? takes almost a second. Now we may to make all to yourself Is And ask. The interested listener and the expert stenographer respond to the meaning of auditory stimuli without conscious reliance on inner speech is it possible to react similarly to the meaning of purely rate that clearly rules out she hears before writing — visual stimuli? Let us consider this question at some length. Instantaneously after the flash. this experiment you are made your Is it red. finally. you press the correct lever. you respond almost instantaneously you are able to press the proper lever each time in no more than one tenth of a second.) know the answer. light flashes. of course. the color of the light. something clearly improbable and abnormal. Suppose that an experiment is set up in which you are asked to press one lever when a red light flashes. green is left. The dictator's words stimulate impulses in the stenographer's brain that are immediately transmitted to her flying fingers there is no time for conscious repetition. After a few warm-up tries (and the requirements of the experiment are so simple that these may not be necessary). decision. When the light flashed you might your decisions. — takes.

conscious. namely. eleven and three are fourteen. eleven. twenty-two and four are twentysix. there is an even more rapid and more efficient way to add these six numbers. you have never learned the quick and efficient way to do your sums.—right" or "green — say to yourself. ing: eleven. but for reason you are frozen into petrified immobility. or you do. "red you left. Let us get away. reacting to the visual danger signals. work out. and 2 without once verbalizing what you saw. twenty-two. 4. You moment. twenty-six and two are twenty-eight? If you did. 3. Here. pay close attention to the amount of conscious inner speech you use. as an instance. images occur. five and six are eleven. 6. Or did you. fourteen and eight are twenty-two. perhaps. too. twenty-six. twenty-eight? If did (and anyone can work this way with 83 a little practice) . — may take the place of action." and then press. He's going to hit it! And some see the danger. twenty-two. fourteen. from physical responses and consider a form of thinking that more closely approximates the mental activity involved in silent reading. 5+6+3+8+4+2=? What did you say to yourself in order to get the correct answer? Did you say. during such an awful yourself. instantaneously shoots impulses through the proper nerve pathways and this. What have we done this time? To the sum of the first two numbers. As it happens. 8. be able to react as quickly? Obviously not still — Would you would take at least twice as long. as you know. is a simple example in addition for you to As you figure the sum. Indeed it is only if the perception of peril causes momentary muscular paralysis that inner speech Most bodily responses to visual out consciously verbalized recognition or direction. your brain. withWhen you raise your arm to ward off a blow. happens apparently wordlessly and in the merest fraction of a second. cut down your inner speech to the follow- you you were responding to the visual impulses set up by the numbers 5. or stamp on the brake or twist the steering wheel of an automobile to avoid a sudden obstacle. in actual words. and yet you may be of thinking wildly to me! or I'm going to hit sure enough he does. twenty-eight. jump out of the path of an oncoming car. now.

namely: (1) reading. if he matures into an efficient and rapid reader. all we of inner speech. as I silent reading. 2+9+1+7+3+6=? 5+5+3+7+2+8=? 9 + l + 4 + 6+7+3=? 4+5+1+8+9+9=? 5+3+2+6+1+7=? Reading a page of print is. he gradually loses a good deal of his awareness even of inner speech. This have may be said. and (2) the less inner speech or conscious verbalizapressing a lever tion. he gives up his dependence on die vocal mechanism and relies solely on inner speech. admittedly. too. When a child becomes more experienced with words as visual symbols. moving your body to ward off perceived danger. or computing sums in arithmetic. using either of the two efficient methods described above. Try a few addition problems on your own now. on sounds and on oral activity. amount certain companies children. 84 will either (And this is . he finds that he can gain meaning without making any very audible we were able to read learns to read — sounds. A the quicker the response.added the sum eleven. like these other activities. to get twenty-eight —even conscious inner speech than before. so that you will clearly understand how reduced reliance on inner speech and verbalization can speed up your responses to visual images. in the earliest stages of learning. he whisper faintly or move his tongue and lips silently. probably ac- so partly because. Eventually. we've then added the sum of the next of the last two two to get twenty-two. consists of responding to the meaning of visual images. although for a short time. (This method. a stage that some poor readers never manage to progress beyond.) As his skill and experience increase. But there are two important areas of similarity. as a kind of transitional stage. A child by connecting the picture of a word with some sound that he is familiar with and all reading is dependent. can be habitual with a little less made practice. not exactly the same as when you see a light flash. as understood words as meaningful sounds long before them as written or printed symbols.

increasing the speed of your mental responses to visual images by means of perception exercises will be of tremendous benefit to He — — you. and by consciously attempting. However. comprehension will suffer and the comfort and enjoyment so vital to skillful reading will be lost. The occurrence of at least some degree of inner speech in all silent reading may be partly due. me warning at this point: the conimmensely valuable and profitable during perception practice. you cannot totally eradicate the auditory reactions that may attend your own reading. How can you do this? Largely by intensive and frequent practice on instantaneous perception. if you constantly read as fast as your comprehension permits. over into your general reading. If part of your mind is concerned with suppressing inner speech. is pointless and may even be dangerous when applied to actual reading. then. during your work on digit. For when you read for meaning your mind should be entirely occupied with the pursuit of ideas. As you increase your ability to grasp ideas quickly and to respond to them actively. to the fact that in most languages the written or printed symbols represent the actual spoken sounds of words hence it may be impossible for anyone to eliminate completely in his mind the connection between sound and meaning. word. The more involved you become in the ideas on a page. even to the slightest amount. you will gradually let issue a note of scious inhibition of auditory reactions. However.p.m. and phrase drills. Obviously. without conscious effort on your part.can now respond to the meaning of words without consciously depending on their remembered sound indeed. On the other hand. 85 . you can cut them down to a point where they no longer retard. the perception training you are getting will be transferred. your immediate response to meaning. the less will you be aware of the individual words in which these ideas are expressed. to verbalize less and less the visual image that you expose for a fraction of a second in the window of the Flashmeter card. would indicate that this may be so). If you are excessively dependent on inner speech as you read (and a rate of under 400 w. he is largely unaware of the presence of the individual words that make up the meaning of a page of print. also. as I have pointed out. you can considerably reduce your reliance on them.

however barely audible. bus. pressed. or of forming them with your lips and tongue.m. tack. however. you may rest assured that you have given up the childhood crutch of saying or whispering words. bass. even the least bit. tice but in in the vocal all makes two suggestions for teaching a child to read without vocalization. in her book Improvement of Reading. or detect even the hint of whispering? If the answer is yes to any of these questions.m. if your rate is 250 w. the rest of this section will be of only academic interest to you. even ever so slightly. on the consonants p. You must consciously inhibit every last vestige of different movement mechanism not only during perception pracyour reading. Louella Cole. base. drape. Did you feel any motion at all in the vocal mechanism? Did your tongue move. sat. in order to understand them. How can you tell whether a page of print elicits any degree of motor responses in you? To begin with.p.p. lamp. They are suggestions which are also adaptable to the adult Here they are.. Pay close attention to your lips and tongue as you read the following italicized words: Tick. must. fussed. New York. in her own words: * Rinehart & Company. you are a lip mover or a vocalizer or both. to sound out the consonants t and d? Did your lips move. pat. LIP If MOVEMENTS AND VOCALIZATION you are a motor reader. (And if this is so. and you will never be able to grasp the meaning of a page with even average speed until you completely eliminate every slight remnant and trace of vocal movement and sound from your silent reading. fist. fast. or better. pit. massed. limp. sit. post. b. drip. Inc. you have to attack your problem in a way. mussed. on material well within your comprehension. your rate is considerably below 250 w.decrease your dependence on "hearing" the words and sounds that make up ideas. 86 . set. drop. and f? Did you make any sounds. toe. past. m. This is not hard to do if you are willing to undergo a short period 9 of discomfort. If. Reprinted with permission. lump. pet. the chances are good that vocal movements of some sort are interfering with normal speed.

If the child. During the following six weeks John kept the piece of wood between his teeth whenever he was reading. No other treatment was used for this boy. A simple and effective means is to have the child put two fingers into mouth. it is at rest but because it is doing something else. Miss A. After him. gum if while he even is less elegant. he reported a great increase in the ease with which he read. Without waiting to make any analysis. Whatever else might be wrong with it was evident at once to the teacher of the remedial class that something must be done to stop the noise John made. using them to separate his upper and lower teeth and to hold down his tongue. His speech is to let the child mechanism is chew out of commission. — 87 .The simplest method is mechanism incapable to render the speech of pronouncing words. During the first week John had his doubts about the value of this method but agreed to give it a fair trial. if the other children were to get their work done. even partially. not because a pupil should not persist in these techniques until they habits. With the tongue and the jaws both out of commission. John seemed unable to recognize even the simplest words unless he could pronounce them. Naturally. through force of habit. all wrapped up in a clean handkerchief. procedure reading. however. Instead of being work. Before the end of the second week he had begun to feel that his reading was much less labored than ever before. the simple book he was using became play. there will be no pronunciation. Moreover. moves his jaws to articulate. it was necessary to use a second-grade book. Yet in two months' time he improved nearly three years in speed and over a year in comprehension. Cole cites this interesting case: John was a loud vocalizer. better than either is wood The fingers are or rubber. partly because the pupil unwilling to bite them and partly because he always has them with him! Another. In order to find something that John could read without vocalizing. Nobody can articulate words with his mouth hanging open. Instead of his fingers a of bringing about this result his child may may use his ruler or a large-sized eraser. They should be used only until the tendency to become pronounce words has been broken. No one can pronounce words and chew gum simultaneously. Dr. he bites his fingers. promptly recommended the finger-in-the-mouth technique. At about this time the boy appeared one morning with a neatly whittled and sandpapered piece of wood. There ensued a silence but almost no comprehension of the reading matter.

without even forming them silently with the lips and tongue. in difficult cases. and — 88 . not with any part of your mouth. that maintaining a rigidity in the vocal apparatus while reading will eliminate lip movements and vocalization within two weeks. John continued to carry the wood around with him. and so much easier. If you are a lip-mover or vocalizer. At first the student is comically uncomfortable. When it does. without whispering them. that. makes reading an awkward and unpleasant experience. the jaws must be clamped shut. At this point comprehension becomes so much more efficient. even if. the student must use the thumb and forefinger to hold his lips in a viselike grip.or eightyear-olds. so much faster. His whole being cries out to be allowed to relapse into the comfortable habit of accompanying his reading with muscular activity. indeed. he very shortly finds nonvocalized reading decreasing in discomfort. This is the one bad habit of reading that is the quickest to disappear when an inhibiting set of conditions is put into effect. maturely. — has unnecessarily persisted into adulthood. a pattern that compels an extremely slow rate of reading. practice on the simplest kind of material you can find even a child's second or third grade reader. but he used it less and less. and the lips maintained absolutely motionless. you too mus'f ^e prepared to undergo a short period of discomfort. But persevere. He has. Possibly. And eventually full comprehension will return. or juvenile books written for seven. and he then discovers what every good reader has long since learned and forgotten that words can be understood without sounding them out. the tongue held rigid against the roof of the mouth. from my own experience with adult students who were motor readers. that he is ready to relinquish permanently an infantile pattern thai. But read with your eyes only.leaving the class. Soon he needs to exert less force to keep his vocal apparatus still. he is the very picture of misery. During every bit of reading in this twoweek period. iv the beginning. been willing to suffer some pain in the expectation of future rewards and — he is not disappointed. If necessary. or picture books with only the most elementary kind of text. you will get little or no meaning from a page j£ you totally suppress your motor reactions. I have found. His eyes pop. At the end of the year he was reading without any artificial aid to keep him from vocalizing. But if his spirit is stronger than his flesh.

she would open it again. time and time again. did well in many aspects of training at the Adult Reading Laboratory. Further discussions with her turned up the fascinating fact that she was a habitual "regressor" (if we may extend the term to non- rectly the first time. she would often put a call through a second time to the same person to ask him if she had remembered to tell him so-and-so (of course. After she stepped out of her apartment. often breaking the trend of her comprehension in order to reassure herself that she had seen them cor- On any one line of print she would return few words before she reached the last one. but with Miss X they appeared to be an almost neurotic pattern. energy. In the normal person. and in a public would no sooner pass the threshold than she would have make sure that the door had. a spinster of thirty-eight.with it far greater speed and ease. but lost an immense amount of time. and efficiency by constantly checking up on herself. REGRESSIONS The habitually or compulsively regressive reader does not fully — comprehension perhaps he does not quite trust his ability any area in which he functions. and locked the door behind her. naturally. sure the lights were the radio shut the windows closed. into her reading. regressions are caused mainly by faulty comprehension or by an unfamiliarity with vocabulary. several times to the first reading acts) in everything she did. And this pattern carried over. but always her progress was impeded by a compulsive need trust his in to regress. If she went to the ladies' room off. her into her rooms to make last cigarette extinguished. and walk back turned out. she always had). If a selection contained figures or statistics. she would have an incomplete feeling unless she went back. she to rush out in a panic to 89 . methodical worker. Though her intelligence was considerably above average and her compre- place." After making a business phone call (she was the secretary to the vice-president of a small bank). been marked "Ladies" and not "Men. the rewards will more than compensate for the pain. Let us look at an extreme case: Miss X. She was a neat. and reread them. indeed.

and finally destroy the habit of letting the eyes — return to words or set up the conand opposing habit of constantly reading forward. like most other skills. You may be regressing because of habit and anxiety. is a whole complex of automatic habits. by unceasingly checking up on his understanding. Reading. makes him lose control over his plane and in many cases results in a fatal crack-up ) we must enable him to gain such complete mastery over the reverse habit that is. she never trusted either so she was a slow reader. for the severely regressive reader. — — place. pushing the stick forward and forcing the plane into a more rapid descent that his muscles will react instantaneously. when we wish to teach a child not to misspell a word. logical as it may seem. So with regressions. reading is slow. Thus. and the former habit will fade from his memory because a new habit is taking its effective ditions that will . reading backward To —that inhibit is. succeeds only in ruin- phrases previously read in a line of print trary — ing it 90 you must . when the habits are bad. When the habits are good. then take warning. (What is habit but reflexive and automatic memory of previous acts?) To teach an aviator not to pull back the stick and attempt to climb when he feels his plane going into a stall or a spin (for such an action. but by disrupting the smooth and continuous flow of meaning it also interferes with comprehension which is ironic. with poor concentration and four to six regressions on every line of print you yourself are conscious of making only occasional regrespay no further attention to this aspect of the reading act. the most effective method is to have him practice on the correct spelling until the incorrect one fades from his memory. reading is efficient and rapid. inadequate. The most means of breaking a habit is to set up conencourage the contrary and opposing habit. The habit of frequent and unnecessary regressions not only reduces the speed of reading (obviously). unsatisfying. But if you feel that usually you cannot understand a page of print to your full satisfaction without frequently going back to verify your first impressions. not because your comprehension was If sions. awkward.— hension good.

and he felt a certain pride that for [his son] Willard. meaning and in ideas than he is in individual words or phrases or details. then. that your understanding is better than you give it credit for and does not need frequent checking up on! lutely necessary. these massive and coagulated paragraphs were hammock reading. or are you merely indulging a had habit? Is it positively essential to check up on that word. have you really not understood what you have just read. or complicated or involved language. are by no means forbidden if they are abso- When you have an impulse to regress. and with no great loss? Try this a few times and you may be surprised to discover that regressions are seldom as vital as they may at first seem. otherwise he keeps pushing rapidly ahead.— The reader skillful may make occasional and voluntary regres- but solely out of actual and realistic need. not with the reader. meaning will be elusive. never from habit or compulsion or because he doesn't entirely trust his ability to comprehend. N. Because his fonnal education had been sketchy. Of ideas are expressed ambiguously or confusingly. touchingly describes the reaction of one of his char- acters to such elusive writing: Reflecting on these miseries. He cursed himself for being stupid. presumably. — 91 . Ask yourself. yet struggling also to keep his mind on the words he was reading. He goes back to reread a word or phrase only if he is certain that it is utterly useless to go on without doing so. if in extremely — Behrman. for he is far more interested in total sions. or detail you don't feel too sure of. or phrase. or that the relationship between writer and reader was a reciprocal one and the responsibility for understanding divided equally between them. or can you go on notwithstanding. Try building up the habit of constantly reading forward so long as comprehension is not totally impossible again you may be surprised to discover. New in a short story that appeared in a recent issue of the Yorker. he did not know that he had a right to demand clarity and simplicity from an author. Mr. if you have the courage to take the gamble. and rereading and still further rereading may be necessary but then the fault lies witii the writer. course. test your needs against reality. Weintraub took off his glasses and polished them again. Regressions. S.

capacity refers to what you can do eventually. especially in reading of your actual performance. I make a clear distinction between ability reflects the level ability and capacity. ) And so. (As you know. To solve such a problem. if reacting accurately to three-digit numbers in split-second fixations was easy for you. Perception Exercise 5 Use the Flashmeter card according to the instructions on page 62.) The problem ahead of you. before success is achieved. is probably just slightly beyond your present ability. on the other hand. then very little real learning occurred. he must draw on his innate capacities so that he can increase his present ability just a bit. as of this moment. to coin a phrase. are a horse. if you keep on trying. (With enough practice and with intelligent effort. and keep practicing.• SESSION PERCEPTION TRAINING 6 II In chapter 3 you began your perception training on numbers of had little difficulty making a high True learning. Four-digit numbers. however. (You were. Let us see how long it will take you to increase — that ability. if it involved no particular effort. (I suggest that 92 . and possibly you score. now. of an entirely different hue. being prepared for the more difficult digit drills that will occur in this and in later three digits. chapters. occurs only when a problem is just a little beyond a student's ability. quick fixations he has to draw on his capacity. however. the recognition span can easily be pushed as high as six to nine digits. you reread these instructions before you start to work so that you will be sure to practice correctly. has to mature a little The average untrained reader in his perception-interpretation abilities before he can invariably react accurately to four-digit combinations in single.

9081 4560 <r- 6728 4—_ 0982 4— ..Keep a record of your errors in order to score at the end of the exercise. aligning the arrow at the right edge of the card with the arrow on 93 . to try to be able And remember to tally your in this.. other perception visual as 6234 drills. t . NUMBER CORRECT OUT of 50 .. as in all keep your reactions as exclusively you possibly can. 4— 1876 1930 «_ 9411 4— 9872 4— 9432 4— 9845 4— 9031 4- 9440 <- 3472 4— 9032 4— 9288 4— 7850 4— 0921 4— 3820 4— 9075 4— 9832 4— 6782 4— 9032 4— 9280 4— 8793 8675 <— 8940 4— 9380 4— 6432 <— 7802 4— 7277 4— 0946 4r- 3012 *~ Q9. • Perception Exercise 6 Hold the Flashmeter card with the "word window" at the top. 8492 4— 0293 4— . .RR 6472 *— 9402 4— 0311 4— 5321 *- 5793 4— 9320 4— 1560 «- 8502 4r- 9387 4— 1592 7356 4— 0499 9278 *— 0596 <— .

Allow yourself only one split-second exposure of each line. As soon as a word has been exposed and immediately concealed. your score at the end of the exercise. in the blank to its tally Then pull Mark each error right. in writing. again and check on your accuracy.the page. strongly relying on your visual impression. attempt to reproduce it. ankle archness uncle black ankles block anger blackhead answer blockhead answered blackguard ants blackguardly antrum blackhearted arty blackish artist blackly architect blackness archer blocker archaic bladder architecture bleeder arches bleeding arching blink architectural blank archives blasted 94 the card so that down you can .

what's so new -» my wife and child that's too good -> my child and wife can also provide -» my new husband beyond the walls -» beyond the horizon -» the French have -» the British have -» her her new husband his to new couch new mate produce rice know -» the Germans say -» known for value the French believe -» tears -» lost the English we are we sure -> aren't sure we weren't sure -» 95 to produce results and sweat and found pulled his leg caught his man .bleaker bland bleacher blond bleeder blonde bloody blindness blooded blindly blend blob blender bloodily NUMBER CORRECT OUT OF 50: Perception Exercise 7 Proceed according to instructions on page 75.

loved not wisely dug the lost his will lose his cash the grave man the a gallant gesture cried dog little dog Sinclair Lewis an awful dope new Chevrolet no sooner than old Buick much less pain beautiful blonde much less gain glamorous blonde skinny blonde far less strain no dirty brunette less rain clean and neat famous neat and clean words in radio of love and trouble far and wide toil far and near taken for a ride near and far opened rich or poor found the answer poor and rich loved not well man or girl or girls fought the war boy boy the man laughed the big ape and boys Sam and Tom lost his his purse a big dose in the nerve 96 dark .

» > -» better and — faster you have claimed —» a better time -» no longer alive —> playing safe -» now dead —> —> when germs -> hit -» exciting story —» I -» was there quite during the winter during the summer during the fall - were you there? — -» natural result -» back at home —» important difference -» back in town -» the long cigarette -» lost for years -» when I finish -» then began —> -» smart window you can't miss -> what's —> key -» -» dressing to through the spring I new? -» then he started power -> then we began you ever stood -> the teacher said -> no greater if then she stopped sacrifice —> as you move -» happen -» how are you? -» can happen -» in this field -» -» he can figure ~> that violet —> richest of all -» that violin tone —> try to visualize -> 97 you to to you could happen to you that violent hue man .

minor details. reads at a speed much lower than his innate ability to understand should make possible.CHAPTER 5 HOW TO GET THE GIST QUICKLY Preview Now you resume your training in attacking material more agYour practice in this chapter will help you: gressively. • React quickly and accurately Chapter 5 to the gist of a piece of writing. The average untrained adult. now. we have decided. . you practice in responding main ideas of 12 short selec- offers rapidly to the tions. • SESSION 7 THE DETAILS WILL TAKE CARE OF THEMSELVES Let us pause. for a partial review. • Whip through • Eliminate from your reading habits any excessive regard for material looking for total meaning.

Or perhaps he does not read widely enough. 99 . in part. you will recall. Not only is his speed thus curtailed it obviously takes more time to read three or four words in separate fixations than to read them — all in one fixation for his attention and total —but is his comprehension is also likely to suffer. is highly flexible. Or he may dwell unnecessarily long on minor details. maintaining little. Or His speed certain other his lips. so that caused. Or the obstacles may be of a more subtle variety. only infrequently. — may — even drastically reduced by also be held back bad habits and inefficient techniques. (The rate of the trained reader. if any. by unnecessarily short recog- he habitually interprets print almost word by word rather than by phrases or by thought-units of several words. willing to accept and main ideas. and rapid comprehenhe rely excessively react as instantaneously as sion. aggressive. He may move tongue. or become so easily distracted by his external environment or his internal ruminations that he continues reading without absorbing meaning.) His slowness may be nition spans. Any one of these characteristics can serve as a massive obstacle to efficient. Or perhaps he lacks experience in differentiating between details and has never learned to push rapidly through the subsidiary embellishments and decorations of an author's writing and get down efficiently to the important points. contact with the type of magazine that stimulates thinking and jogs the intellect. and finally has to go back to pick up the thread that his mind in effect dropped paragraphs or pages back. or may on auditory responses. Perhaps he has simply become accustomed to reacting comfortably or lazily to the message of print at a uniformly slow and meandering rate a rate not only slower than he needs for excellent and accurate comprehension. focused on individual words instead of on ideas meaning. changing as the material changes. get lost in a patch of daydreaming stimulated by a chance idea that occurs in a paragraph. if at all. so that he does not he should to the visual images that his eyes flash to his brain. to read and reread and then re-reread words and phrases and lines before he is convinced that he has properly understood them. or vocal cords in order to react to meaning. Or he may have a psychological compulsion to study every word. but slower even than most types of — material demand.

how many hours would you say you devote on the average to leisure reading. The kind of training you are now receiving sets up such conditions for you. Mendelssohn. every week? ) When reading is so occasional. finally. How long does a professional typist remain skillful and speedy after she leaves her job to become a housewife or mother. (Stop and think for a moment how many complete books have you read in the last few months? And how many of these were general books. and demands that you make every effort to draw on your latent capacities and thus increase your actual sets operating The ability. and if I skip three days. shows you how to operate under them. — how skillfully will a pianist play who only down at the keyboard? (The following statement. Donald Adams selection in Chapter 1. of course. rather than novels? And if you add them up. or if he restricts himself to the simplest and least demanding type of work? Or. talents.the challenge of a good book of nonfiction or of a deep and thought- Or he may not read continuously enough. a high order of skill can never be developed. will set up con- under which you will be required to understand material at a rate substantially faster than you were accustomed to when you started this book substantially faster than the normal. occasionally sits variously attributed to Paderewski. or so restricted in scope. perhaps lazy rate at which you read the first J. belabor the matter. my teacher knows it. not to ful novel. and capacities. if I skip two days. often letting weeks or months slip by without doing anything more than superficially perusing the daily and Sunday papers. that will force him to make maximum use of his intelligence. The exercises you will shortly work on will continue to chip away at any tendency you may have to read more slowly than you are ditions — 100 . comfortable. very much to the point: "If one day's practice. is that the slow reader rarely up for himself those conditions that will require him to operate at the peak of his efficiency. only I know it. basic training in this chapter. other than newspapers. or even maintained. if for years her only contact with her machine is to tap out an occasional letter or shopping list? How skillful can a surgeon be if he does only an occasional operation. for example. everyone in the audience I skip knows it") What it all boils down to. is Hofmann. Josef and any number of other musicians.

Or you may be a perfectionist in your daily life. In work that requires gives infinite. now you will begin to remove certain psychological obstacles. estimates. reading of technical material briefs. In your professional capacity you may read with the proper slowand meticulousness that your job requires. a diversity of approaches to material.) to con- — supreme importance and you may be emotionopposed (whether consciously or unconsciously is of no importance) to reading for main ideas. medical or dental literature. and then get out without waste of time or effort. The purpose of these new exercises is to train you to get into a selection without delay. it may be a psychological wrench. and with full assurance that you understood exactly what the author was saying able to comprehend. because of previous habits of the type of such as contracts. because it runs so counter to your ingrained patterns and attitudes. I wish only to point out that you can't have your cake and eat sider all details of ally it too. close scrutiny. to adjust to reading rapidly.With the perception exercises on which you ( and which will occur profusely also in this and later chapters). that it. 101 is what he . In order to accomplish this. and be willing to develop a mind-set that concentrates on central themes. a stickler for details. your superfluous regard for minor points. If you wish to be a rapid. to cruising along at a good clip with speedy comprehension of the main ideas. edit- You may be reluctant to accept this principle. the as intellectually. But the efficient reader has a variety of speeds. emotionally as well you read for main ideas. to this principle: If details will take care of themselves. you must submit. or because professional reading you now do ( proofreading. etc. you must give up your excessive attention to details. specifications. You may be conand experience. a person who prefers to be slow but sure. efficient reader. you made a start at removing certain visual obstacles to quick comprehension. legal ing. practiced in previous chapters to you. ditioned. In short. ness depending on the purpose for which he reads and on the type of material he is reading. get the gist of it quickly and correctly.

relaxation. also (and this may at first sound paradoxical). when pact of every word. who relied on a surgical scalpel to do all the cutting of lumber which his job requires. Do not aim to go as fast as is humanly possible such an impatient rush to achieve in a few minutes a goal that normally requires many weeks or months will only cause fatigue and result in very great. he reads main swiftly for ideas. finicky reading may actually not result in as good comprehension as one would reader — logically suppose. I shall set down the rules clearly.In reading for information. As an efficient reader. maximum if if the practice in this chapter is to be of effectiveness. with the same careful attention to details. Make sure you understand them. and that you follow that technique exactly as directed. (Indeed. to accept the validity of the principle that you read for main ideas the details will take care of themselves. it would be a poor surgeon who used only one scalpel no matter what type of tissue he was cutting. Rule 1. But he can read like the wind the ideas of a selection. GETTING THE AUTHOR'S POINT You will exercises. It read slowly when the job requires of special importance or it. comprehension loss. So you must be willing. He can ing task. The good reader has a large supply of different tools and uses that one which will best do the job. that when he wants is. he chooses the tool best suited to the read- would be a poor carpenter. or even total. as in previous important that you thoroughly understand the tech- it is nique under which you are to operate. for example. or entertainment. Rule 2. — begin your practice very shortly but. ) And so it is a poor reader who reads everything the same way. knowing that the details will take care of themselves. and wants them the details are to savor the emotional im- when he wants quickly. Pay no attention to fixations or eye movements as you — 102 . Sometimes. and then make sure that you apply them when you start working. the who pays excessive attention to details loses a lot of the impact of the main theme of a piece so that slow.

quickly and without wasting time on details. the better the chances are tiiat inner speech will be reduced. do not regress word. but don't rush. 103 . look for do. Rule 5. you can "read" as quickly as you're able to 6. Feel that you are going a little faster than you usually follow the author's main idea and Jump (do not worry about the minor points). invest their surplus capital in stocks. no panicky rushing. and tension inhibits. and finish without wasting into a piece. no zooming through the selection will explain why. Specific rules applying directly to the material that will be presented will be offered Rapid Comprehension Exercise Let us start proper place. Get the thoughts quickly. Rule In a sense. with understanding. Rushing produces tension. ple and clear and the piece can be read rapidly main thought and do not get bogged down if The style you look is sim- for the in the various statistics that Miss Porter will offer. or lose all comprehension. what that reason is. as of 1949. Rule 4.—comprehension and concentration are interfered with read mind of your is if part concerned with what your eyes are doing. Rule 3. 7. the more inner speech you'll have. Porter. and the less you concentrate on minor points. quick comprehension. become confused. Aim only understanding the author's main idea in a satisfyingly rapid at manner. Think only of die main ideas the more involved you become in main ideas. or a minor point —keep reading for the main idea. at the 1 with a selection written back in 1949 by Sylvia F. Rule scious — These are the seven general principles for you to follow in your training. If you happen to lose a here or there. a phrase. The more people do not Read with a mind-set to discover. turn pages —but you're not really reading unless you follow. the gist of what an author enough is saying. but not so quickly that you feel panic. time. So read quickly to realize you're getting the author's thoughts rapidly. Do not worry about auditory responses. rather than aids. Remember. the more conyou are of inner speech. financial columnist on the New York Post.

that is. with no lost time or motion. This isn't I pontificating on your assets and attitudes. Porter more than $3. extra cash into stocks? I'll tell you two main reasons why: You don't know much about "Wall Street. On the other hand. Lasser. some in insurance and some in the bank.000 a year and you have some of your accumulated cash in Government savings bonds. why aren't you diversifying your assets a bit more and holding a few stocks too? I'll tell you again two main reasons why: You're convinced you could be successful in the stock market only if you had an intimate knowledge of financial problems or if you had friends among the financial experts. For how It makes me wince — From the New York Post. 104 How to is Live Within .000-and-up invest their extra cash and why. with a feeling of increased speed and good overall comprehension?) rate than in : OWNING STOCKS by Sylvia F. the disclosures and implications here. sary risks with these precious dollars of yours. Or you're old enough to recall the 1929 stock crash and to have developed a strong antagonism toward "Wall Street" which neither the stock brokers nor businessmen have tried or been able to overcome. and so you're not fiddling around. try to understand the point of the piece quickly." you may not even be quite sure what a stock is. of Your Income. If your income is more than $5. Miss Porter Financial Editor of the Post and the author. Or you think stocks aren't safe and you're against taking any unnecesIf left your income is over for savings.print at such a breakneck speed that the author is trying to communicate you won't understand what to you. the moment we we will dispense with time-charts —for are less interested in your actual word-per-minute two other factors ( 1 ) Can you read with the dominant aim of seeking the main thought? (2) Can you do this rapidly and efficiently. Reprinted with permission of the author. You have neither. What I have summarized here are the results of a survey just released by the Federal Reserve Board on how families with incomes of $3. K. (In this set of exercises. with J.000 a year and you have some money why aren't you putting part of this hard-earned.

000. half figure the value of their stocks at less than $1. Here are some by the University Only 4. its itself operations. Only 8 per cent gave any positive reason for stock ownership. let its representatives stop grumbling about taxes and rules and the like and get out and explain stocks to that 34 per cent who are "not familiar with" securities. How often have I heard supposedly informed industrialists condemn our tax laws or Government regulations as responsible for the fact they can't issue new stocks as easily as they once could and thus can't raise new money through the stock market? Poppycock. They're talking "safety. Only 2 per cent estimate their holding as worth more than $5.) There is money around.000 uncovered for the Reserve Board Michigan Survey Research Center: families 8 per cent of the total hold stocks of Ameri- of the startling facts of — — can corporations today. is still unpopu- has done a fan- and its purposes to that vast majority. For what these findings emphasize is that the ap- touching only a tiny fraction of our voting population. then. bank accounts. If Wall Street wants to bring us into the stock market. Stock own- ership as a percentage of our total population is now at the lowest level in over a quarter-century. cent market was "not safe" and another 34 per cent answered. (That 2 per cent. of course." among those who were already participating directly. plenty of it. real estate. overwhelming 92 per cent either were openly against or were indifferent. but it's going into other things savings bonds.000. The remaining." And how many times have I read speeches by leading businessmen and financiers appealing to stockholders to vote against Administration policies. businessmen. brokers denounce the policies of the Roosevelt and Truman Administrations as responsible for the relative unpopularity of Wall Street! Fiddlesticks. insurance. .— many times have I heard bankers. What this study reveals is that overwhelming numbers of Americans are simply afraid to put their savings in stocks.000. rise up against the welfare state philosophy? Futility as of peal is now. In the measured words of the Reserve: "Early in 1949 there was no lack of funds potentially available for ties either or among individuals consumer investment who owned no in corporate equi- corporate stock at that time . let its felt that this — 105 . If industry wants a revived market so it can sell more new issues. they were "not familiar with" this market. Of this 8 per cent. Why. was this money not going into stocks? Because 28 per . lar among tastically What this survey shows is that Wall Street the great majority because Wall Street bad job of explaining itself. is in the highest income bracket.

representatives give an acceptable answer to that 28 per cent who think stocks are "not safe. but then the training in preliminary training in Chapter 1. you went (I'll rely on your subjective saw the main point of Miss Porter's argument. now that you know the central thought. or 2 applies to your reading. you ought to buy some stocks. policies of e. as of now. I'll wager only a handful among businessmen and unless or this vital message to them — even bother about until they read this. both as to speed and compre- hension. b.000 a year. The ability to 106 do this is. In if all likelihood. c. If you make more than $3. and try to understand how 2. like the of the utmost importance to you. but missed the point. understanding the point Miss Porter was making. Wall Street is unpopular because of administration the Roosevelt and Truman administrations. that training of the sort offered in this chapter can produce good results for you. Less money is being invested in stocks than is available for such purposes because Wall Street has done a bad job of explaining its operations and purposes to the majority of Americans. If you read rapidly. most closely approximates the main idea of the selection? a. If as slowly as usual reactions at this point). as you know. then the conditions are excellent. then you will have to adjust more successfully to faster comprehension before this training can show results. /. reread the selection. The stock market is safer than it used to be. 'Note carefully these possibilities: 1. in your opinion. for you must learn to push aside the details and get to the meat of an author's ideas. We must do something about making stocks safer if we wish to attract the average person into the market. 3. but everything in the piece is still intended to get that thought across to you. d. Only 8 per cent of American families own stocks. and if you readily checked answer e in the choices above. Test Your Comprehension Which of the following statements. If you had a feeling that you were going along at a good clip. a . is this chapter. possibility 1 possibility 3 is true." But I'll make financiers will a bet.

once achieved. however. Such dishes stimulate rather than retard contractions of the gall bladder. and. is not the awful crime that it has been labeled. Now and then an expert will be bold enough admit that he uses them himself. aiming for an clear central theme. in the presence of shortening.D. Some years ago one of our most eminent physiologists investigated the digestibility of fried potatoes. surrounded through the next selection. accurate understanding of the author's final meaning. M. dissolved within the alimentary tract more readily than the boiled type. But thorough heating. A few will go so — far as to forbid cooking wholly.ability that Rapid Comprehension Exercise 2 A by explanatory details. We can of course sizzle perfectly good articles to death so that they will be leathery and tough. Furthermore. Eat notions become fixed. roasting. it is an . can have a radical effect on your speed. but other than that there seems to be no basis for the widely heralded prohibition against this method. that fat actually accelerated the rate of diges- Now all this is quite in contrast with "authority. The first condemnation probably arose because an "oracle" suffered from dyspepsia which he ascribed to some fried item this style of to From Your Life. Apparently the consumers are not beset with more signs of indigestion than afflict those who insist upon broiling. and French toast cooked in this way are served in millions of homes daily. runs Read the piece rapidly." Volumes have been no written on nutrition and everywhere the dictum has been accepted fried edibles of any sort for children. Fried foods have long been frowned upon. Nevertheless the skillet is about our handiest and most useful piece of kitchen equipment. 107 . FRIED FOODS by Irving S. eggs. He found that the pan variety was more easily broken down for assimilation than when deep fat was employed. Reprinted with permission. by watching the progress of the contents of the stomach by means tion. of the fluoroscope. Meats. Cutter.000 calories per day or more will take approximately one-third of their rations prepared in this fashion. Thus it is that bile mixes with the nutriment shortly after it leaves the stomach. he learned. The latter. Stalwart lumberjacks and others engaged in active labor requiring 4. the absence of discomfort being explained on the ground that he possesses a powerful gastric apparatus. or requisite for efficient reading. We don't need to allow our foodstuffs to become oil soaked.

Children should not eat fried foods. Others agreed with him and after a time became incorporated the doctrine in our textbooks. It should have been refuted long since as experience has demonstrated its falsity. Did you turn yellow after taking that worm medicine a few years ago? There may be a clue to liver injury there. More Americans b. not true that frying foods makes them indigestible. tradition rather than Test Your Comprehension Which of the following statements. He isn't lifesaver if you turn it what Jim interested in said under the moon. your doctor time when he treats you. most closely approximates the main idea of the selection? a. Robertson of the Mayo Foundation. People should keep diaries b. what kind of activities had you been engaging terious fever in previously? When was the last time you called a doctor and for what? This unromantic information can be very helpful indeed when you need — — a doctor's services.) Rapid Comprehension Exercise 3 YOUR DIARY Your diary. in your opinion. Your diary will save if they wish to stay healthy. eat fried foods than any other kinds. if so. 108 . (The key to this and following comprehension tests will be given you reach that point before checking after exercise 5. The belief is now proved fact. The theory spread. wait until your answers. This recommendation comes from Dr. most closely approximates the main idea of the selection? a. Reprinted with permission. How often have those troublesome stomachaches been occurring how many days between them? How many colds do you have a year? Were you bedridden for a day or so with a mysand. but he would like to know details of your past that can give him important information on your health history. in your opinion. From Your Life. if you keep the right kind. may be a over to your doctor when illness strikes.on the menu. H. E. Test Your Comprehension Which of the following statements. It is c.

maturity is not a bar but an incentive to the person who wishes to develop his own potentialities. h. The most famous teachers have always taught adults. Adults are better learners than children. for most people. the ability to learn is at its peak in the years from eighteen to forty-five. How are you doing? Do you begin to see how you can gain speed and assurance as you aim to find the gist of a selection with no loss of time. They can do little more. the gist. Test Your Comprehension Did you marizes the a. the total meaning. An account of previous illnesses and physical reactions will help the doctor to diagnose and treat your ailments more efficiently. with no dawdling or minute examination of details? Continue your practice now on the next short selection. c. Naturally. It is significant to recall.c. however. S. not children. Houle The best learning is that which occurs in adulthood. learning power remains high if it is exercised carefully and systematically. things. Our psychologists have demonstrated fairly conclusively that. even after forty-five. and looking for the main point. the elementary school and the high school should do something more than keep children warm and dry. than prepare their pupils for the real education which maturity will bring. 109 . get the point? gist of Check the statement which best sum- the paragraph: Adults cannot learn properly unless adequately prepared in child- hood. Reprinted with permission. University of Chicago Press. among other both religious and secular. From Classroom Techniques in Improving Reading. that virtually all the really great teachers. Chicago. Adults can learn better than children. There is evidence to show that. reading with a sense of deliberately going fast. Rapid Comprehension Exercise 4 THE BEST LEARNING by Cyril O. have taught adults. compiled and edited by William Gray.

110 . c. Re- Inc. or even reason.Rapid Comprehension Exercise 5 THOUGHT AND LANGUAGE by Edward Sapir Most people. 2-b. a form of language.. for one. copyright. ex. printed by permission of Harcourt. "Yes. 1949. 4-b. The correct answers to the comprehension tests on the last 4 exercises are as follows ex. The simplest of these is the failure to distinguish between imagery and thought. but speech would seem to be the only road From Language: An we know that leads to it. Most people imagine they can think without language. key: 3-c. is strongly of the opinion that the feeling entertained by so many that they is can think. cL There is a difference between imagery and thought. Thought may be a natural domain apart from the artificial one of speech. Brace and renewed. would probably not easy for me to do so. Introduction to the Study of Speech. Mathematics is dependent on symbolism. Company. by Jean V. Now check your work. but . It is not true that people can think without language. Sapir. no sooner do we try to put an image into conscious relation with another than we find ourselves slipping into a silent flow of words. Test Your Comprehension Did you get the point? Then decide which of the following statements most closely paraphrases the gist of the paragraph.. but possible to suppose that the human mind it is im- capable of arriving at or holding such a proposition without the symbolism. without language is an illusion. a. ex. No one tion is it is if they can think without speech.. The writer." believes that even the most difficult mathematical proposi- inherently dependent on an arbitrary set of symbols. 5-c. by 1921 by Harcourt. Brace and Company. b. As a matter of fact. asked answer. ex. Inc. Edward Sapir. Still I know it can be done. The illusion seems to be due to a number of factors.

words. So let's do battle again with four-digit combinations. if you are not. easy. true learning takes place only when the problem is just slightly beyond the ability of the student. • SESSION PERCEPTION TRAINING 8 III Perception Exercise 8 Rapid perception and interpretation of four-digit numbers is not. and phrases. By now you are probably quite familiar with the proper technique. <- 3175 <r- 3938 <— 5817 «- 9833 <— 1857 <— 2467 <r- 7185 *- 8751 *— 0158 *— 1062 <- 9246 2601 <- 8146 <- 111 .. at this time. have said. But..Before continuing with this very productive type of comprehen- sion exercise. And remember that your aim is to keep your reactions as I as exclusively visual as possible. Keep a record of your errors to see whether you can. refresh your memory by referring to page 62. let us pause for further practice in rapid perception and accurate interpretation of numbers. . 2954 <h 2061 9315 <- 0621 4386 <- 6210 5313 <- 2745 <- 8594 <- 3186 5672 <-. as I have also said. improve on the score you made on the previous four-digit exercise (page 93).

bridle Brittany briery broccoli bristly brochette bristled brochure British broken Britain brogan brogue brittle 112 . 0245 2236 9176 <-. keep your exposures infinitesimally short and your reactions as exclusively visual as possible. 9983 3612 7891 <-. but not exactly alike. Follow the usual procedure with the Flashmeter card. 3389 3169 0857 <-. 8399 6391 1987 *-. 4025 3126 5386 «-. Write your response in the blank to the right after concealing each word. and then immediately check on your accuracy. 1362 9316 7850 «-. 8393 1639 8570 ^. Keep a record of your errors.6213 2054 2226 ^. 5042 6322 NUMBER CORRECT OUT OF 50: IMPROVEMENT OVER PREVIOUS TRY (Page 93): Perception Exercise 9 Here again are words somewhat similar to each other.

This will not be easy but it is not this point to impossible. 113 .— brokage brownette brokerage Brunhild broiler brushwood broiling brushing bronze blushing brook blusher Brooklyn Brussels Brookline brutal brownish brittle browser brutish blubbery bitterish blueberry bitterly bruiser Brutus bruised budding Brownie bulbous browner Buddha browned buddy bubble brunette NUMBER CORRECT OUT OF 50: Perception Exercise 10 Proceed according to instructions on page 75. It is important at attempt to keep your reactions more visual than auditory. even on phrase perception.

S.-» -> -» Mairzy Doats -> Eat and be merry we -» God the people which for it -> stands save the king The king is dead -> of the people -» -» by the people -» lived in a shoe -* postwar plans -> cupboard was bare -> the Electoral College -> Mary had -> professorial dignity -> Can -» while the sun shines -» — clutching at straws -» -> broke the camel's back —> -» Yanks are coming -> woman who -» old -» To be -» -> -> -» that is -» be or not to the question the City of New York The New be a far It's king live the little lamb spring behind? toasted hickory dickory dock Ten little live and Indians let live Dewey -> Thomas -» the end of the road -» half a loaf -» Emperor Hirohito Long York Times -> In Bed liddle E. We Cry lamzee divy -» the of Reilly -> -> a wonderful time -» phones are cut — Wish you were here -» U. protests curb -» the time of your -» a non-Communist oath life life 114 Hungary is tense .

N. chief urged -» a severe cold -» -» such unexpected promises -» to bolster reserves -» an unexpected provision — has already emphasized — paralyzes Haiti's capital -» other rights granted — begun by Dulles —> -» British in Egypt -» violates the cease-fire -» Egyptian sources predicted -» 115 go to bars Moscow tariff rise his basic opposition .»> » — — > » the criminal code Home on the range -> two college groups -» vie for state aid -» read better and faster —> — How to make friends -» — and influence people -» on missing —> a stitch in time -» debate -> a needle in a haystack -» within a -» Buy more bonds -» the principal provision -» in the nick of time — the Asian resolution -» a pair of Kilkenny cats -» it is -» poor cock robin -» -> Watch -» -» — the Fords go They -» by satisfy crazy as a coot as happy as a lark major fight brews between public schools is airliner bitter week what happened tension gripped the city most of the city -» police squad cars -» during the day -» U.

Schubert.— rules are drafted -> —> police extend efforts -> drinking law proposed traffic accidents rise (Some of the above phrases were excerpted from umns of the New York Times. the answer question. an ability that every normal person possesses the ability to understand the central meaning of what you read. Reprinted with permission. What I am demanding of you. director of the 116 . believe me if you did not. as quickly as you can. more efficiently. until you have formed the reflexive habit of attacking a piece of writing with the psychological mind-set of discovering. And this you will learn to do through practice. ) the news col- • SESSION 9 CONTINUED PRACTICE ON SHORT SELECTIONS You are practicing. don't let yourself details. we enjoy Reading Clinic at Los Angeles State College of Applied Arts and Sciences. Whip is to one overriding the author trying to say?" through the following pieces with the conscious aim of grasping total meaning. through more and more and still more practice. to and sharpen an ability you already possess. Delwyn G. it is only a matter of your using that power more determinedly. of responding to the essence of the author's communication —don't get sidetracked by linger on individual words. namely: "What. in these rapid comprehension exercises. in total. more aggressively. Rapid Comprehension Exercise 6 When the individual photographs of a motion-picture film pass before our eyes at the rate of approximately twenty frames per second. none of your reading would ever make sense to you. From the Clearing House. You have this ability. as I present selection after selection. refine — is well within your power.

mean- . to an instinct. The word-by." Test Your Comprehension Which of the following statements best expresses the total mean- ing of this selection? a. The word reader perceives isolated word pictures at a slow rate of speed.if the process slows down so that each photograph remains before us for a second or more.word reader does not meaning from c. this was one of the later flowers of the genius of Freud. Harcourt. But to relate this destructiveness. perhaps. Brace and Co. But its parts. to turn destructive tendencies away from himself toward enemies that actually threaten him rather than toward the friendly and the defenseless. get a continuous flow of material. the more The whole is more than the sum of sense its it makes. d. Rapid Comprehension Exercise 7 new that the world is full of hate. If the individual photographs of a motion picture are presented too slowly. Reprinted by permission of the publisher. b. Test Your Comprehension Which of the following statements best expresses the total ing of this selection? a. boring. this evidence of a spiritual malignancy within us. The word reader sees the trees. parts. so he must learn to hate expeditiously. "The whole is more than the sum of a continuous flow of meaning. and almost meaningless. These impressions fail to blend into a meaningful pattern in exactly the same way as do the individual photographs of a slowed-down movie. the movie loses meaning. the more usual victims of destrucIt is nothing another. Our civilization has arisen from 117 destruction. The world is full of hate. tive energy. and to correlate this instinct with the beneficent and fruitful instinct associated with love. We have come to see that just as the child must learn to love wisely. b. but the forest escapes him completely. The faster a movie is run. Karl Menninger in Man Against Himself. that men destroy one and that our civilization has arisen from the ashes of despoiled peoples and decimated natural resources. the movie becomes absurd. As the psychologist puts it.

The ability to read is a yardstick of a person's mental d. This the startling conclusion from a survey by the American Institute of Pub- From the Reader's Digest. Anyone who has b. the person with a serious reading defect finds himself in the same cultural position as the illiterate. therefore. of an individual's mental ability. copyright 1949 by the University of Chicago. The is an evidence of our spiritual malignancy. Test Your Comprehension Which of the following statements best expresses the total mean- ing of this selection? a. As he grows older he is less able to rationalize the defect or to avoid the conflict associated with his deficiency and therefore accumulates further and further frustration. Copyright 1956 by the Reader's Digest Association. 118 . His disability is brought to his attention. Reprinted by permission of the University of Chicago Press.c. If a person is deficient in some academic subject such as arithmetic or geography. Reading is also considered a criterion. he can avoid facing his inadequacy by avoiding those subjects. Psychiatrists sense of frustration and failure as a reading difficulty. people are expected to be able to read competently. in the cultural sense. but in almost every other situation. however. in Clinical Studies in Reading. This Mandel Sherman. Destructiveness d. All difficulty in reading is ability. must learn child to turn his destructiveness against actual enemies. c. be easily circumvented. He is reputationally classified by his fellow-men either as an inferior individual or as a queer person. In one sense. nor in some cases can he even read the newspapers with a semblance of competence. not only when he attends school. Rapid Comprehension Exercise 9 The is majority of Americans have not read a book in the last year. A reading difficulty creates a greater conflict and sense of frus- tration than any other inadequacy. Reprinted with permission. He finds himself culturally in an inferior position because he cannot read books as ably as others. Inc. Rapid Comprehension Exercise 8 have observed that no other inadequacy creates as great a is partly due to the fact that everyone is expected to be able to read adequately in order to advance in his schooling. A reading defect cannot. considered either inferior or peculiar.

In the broadest sense seeing is not complete until what is seen is interpreted by the observer. In England about three times as many people are to be found reading books at any given time as in America. Six out of ten adults questioned said that the last time they could remember reading a book other than the Bible was a year ago or more. to a large extent. In seeing. retina. the eye takes light from an object and forms an image on the b. One survey recorded the following percentages of book readers: Great Britain. This interpretation is based on past experi- Seeing light ence. In seeing. Canada. lie — — Fewer books are read in the United States than in any major Englishspeaking democracy. did not read a book in the last twelve months. is a learned Jobe. one out of four had not read a book in the last 12 months. copyright skill. Seeing is. 55 per cent. We do not read enough books in this country. Australia. hence. nerve energy is passed through visual pathways to the brain. a learned skilL 119 . Test Your Comprehension Which of the following statements best expresses the total mean- ing of this selection? a. Even among college graduates. 31 percent. Only college graduates have developed the habit of book-reading. Reprinted with permission. c. More people read books c. by the University of Chicago. Rapid Comprehension Exercise 10 is a complex act wherein the optical system of the eye takes emanating from the object and forms an image on a light-sensitive layer. United States. to a considerable extent seeing Fred W. a mental activity. 17 per cent. This light energy through a photochemical process is transformed into nerve energy and passes through the visual pathways to the brain. d. in England than in this country. 1953. Test Your Comprehension Which of the following statements best expresses the total mean- ing of this selection? a. Many Americans b. Seeing is d. in Clinical Studies in Reading. the retina. 34 per cent.Opinion.

learn to read. But. Efficiency. most people do not acquire maintain a constant rate regardless of its less this time to read than knack of difficult flexibility. Test Your Comprehension Which of the following statements best expresses the total mean- ing of this selection? Reading efficiency implies knowing how. must be able and understand what they mean. c. therefore. so that simple passages take ones. a student stuck in low gear is handicapped. d. However. With practice. able. but understanding need not come at the same rate for all. a further skill is very helpful matching speed to — understanding. Then when some ideas can be understood more easily than others. one does have to learn to read and in more or less certain ways. they efficiency. and historical documents may all have to be understood. b. where reading is the chief tool for gathering information. initiated Peter L. The reading process is comparable to other fundamental native processes such as respiration and nutrition. The reading process is not certain things by school instruction nor does it emerge as a phenomenon of development after infancy. Frank Laycock. Spencer.Rapid Comprehension Exercise 11 An early stage in learning to read is recognizing simple printed words and what they mean. Formulas. a. The innate reading process has to be developed and implemented just as do the other processes in order to make them effective for the needs of the organism. Test Your Comprehension Which of the following statements best expresses the total ing of this selection? 120 mean- . poems. and then being able to do so without undue trouble. Especially in college. Not everybody understands at the same rate. College students To who to read slowly are handicapped. in The Yearbook of the Claremont College Reading Conference. recognition gradually embraces more complicated words and ideas. short stories. and being change speed in accordance with changing material. in the Journal of Experimental Education. one to recognize simple words Rapid Comprehension Exercise 12 One does not have to learn to read. implies knowing when to change speeds.

the factors in this change: 1. 4. change in your intellectual and psychological attitudes to reading. there should have slight. and should not.a. second nature. key: The hension correct answers to the compre- tests on the last seven exercises are as follows: 6-b. but only with ideas. A realization that main ideas are more important than minor details. in short. you are well into your training. 9-d. with still further training and with continuous daily practice. page by page. c. Reading is a natural process. A realization that reading is not directly concerned with words. 8-a. briefly. rely for your practice this 121 . efficient habits and aggressive teehniques will become reflexive. A realization that you can significantly enlarge your recognition span and interpret more accurately and more rapidly what your eyes feed your mind in each fixation that you can do this by the simple process of making greater demands on your perception capacities that. d. almost automatic. 2. 10-d. 11-a. 7-d. is like respiration or nutrition. Reading Reading is not started by school instruction. 3. A CHALLENGE TO YOUR READING HABITS By now. 12-b. Let me since occurred at least a catalogue. b. But of course you need not. change in your attitudes will finally be translated into a change in your habits and techniques. A realization that the desire to get the main idea quickly will speed up your rate so appreciably that you can actually feel yourself going faster and with little loss in comfort and very likely a substantial gain in comprehension skill. and perhaps even a decided. or even phrases. Reading has to be developed and implemented to be of greatest use to the reader. — — — As your general training continues day by day. you can actually train and educate your vision.

but what- maximum speed that the maand what he wants to get out of it permit. It can be one of the popular reprints that you will find in any stationery or drugstore. easy or hard. when you will have a few hours at your disposal. that you may wish to read for more than the plotline. The untrained reader. just as strong You may find that an emotional satisfaction from such 122 you will get fast cruising as . all reading gets the same treatment. Read — whether it be a magazine article. It is true that reading should be suited to the material at hand. you will recall. Sometime today or tomorrow choose a novel of the sort that appeals to you. to meet a challenge that I wish to confront you with. should you restrict your reading to this book. he pushes along at the terial — best sellers. on the other hand. or ask the librarian at the local library to ommendation. and read to get those main ideas of nonfiction quickly. Next find an evening. but this is no justification for being poky. In all your reading from now on and the amount of reading you do should increase as your skill sharpens and your rate accelerates it is important that you practice the techniques you have been learning. toward becoming a trained reader. skimming or skipping where you can. and uses tiling he is reading. and techniques. I believe. just a short. instead of getting tails. The important thing to keep in mind is that your method of reading and your rate of the plot rapidly. And so you are ready. or stylistically so delightful. follow the general lines of bogged down in any of the desome novels are of such depth. fast-paced. You are on your way.exclusively on the material in this book nor. during your training. Nothing heavy. or a book for the main ideas. now. readable novel. rapidly historical novel a following the general lines of the plot. interesting. no make a rec- thousand pages long. but aiming to get through. or stop at a bookstore to rent or buy one of the current ever the type. preferably within the next day or two. or perhaps you've had something lying around the house that you've meant to get to. but somehow never did. has a variety of speeds whichever is required by the type of A trained reader. Then see if you can meet this challenge: read the entire novel through in one evening. a newspaper columnist. is likely to use the same technique and the same speed for everything light or heavy. simple or complex. — — And if you're reading a novel.

terial and training in seeking out is show syllables. considerably shorter. as —one can always remember meanand clarity than ma- or no meaning. for yourself if this is not true in respect to your Below are twelve questions own that explore your ability to re- call the gist of the short selections that you have read in this chap- ter. the total number of pages.* If you can meet this challenge. Try it soon. efficiency.— ) from more leisurely reading. or poetry. sentence after sentence. Instructions for gathering these statistics will be found on pages 163-164. You will realize that you do not have to read as slowly as you used to! gist A SECOND TEST OF YOUR RETENTION AND RECALL One I of the chief means of increasing your retention pointed out at the end of chapter successfully discovering the The reason for this is 2. poky reading that causes the untrained reader to take days or weeks before he turns the last page of a book. however short of total success it may fall. during your reading. ingful material with greater ease. how the structure these main when you ideas. keep a record of the amount of actual time spent on the novel. and you will be practicing the kind of rapid reading that you are attempting to master. (Psychological experiments memorize nonsense takes considerably longer to and that the period of retention and selection. the approximate number of words in the whole book. and when you can sense. And even if you do not meet the challenge completely. reader should miss. or running text. the effort. and your average rate of reading. you will learn that it is far from necessary to indulge in the slow. than in the case of related words. You you have an experience no will will discover that it is possible to get the and the flavor of a novel in a few hours. the main ideas of material. of a piece is built around tract more meaning than and follow. is main idea of a obvious that with it little recall. Determine reading. 123 . will be beneficial to you. When you read to find. as you perhaps were * When you do your reading. you cannot passively absorb fail to ex- word after word. You may again be surprised to discover.

according to Freud correlate with the instinct of love? Mandell Sherman. How Which are better learners. 3. 2. 10. 10. 4. 6. Is 11. 9. read enough books in this country? Dyes seeing to a considerable extent a learned Does reading efficiency imply the Dno Dyes Dno change speed in skill? ability to accordance with material? Dyes Dno 12. A feeling of frustration and failure. The instinct of hate and destructiveness. What instinct does 8. Can people think without language? Dyes Dno What kind of reader does not get a continuous flow of meaning from material? 7. 4. Yes. Wall Street was doing a bad job of explaining its operaand purposes. No. was less money being invested in stocks than was available? Are fried foods indigestible? Dyes Dno can your diary help your doctor? 2. By giving him an account of your previous illnesses and physical reactions so that his diagnosis and treatment will be more efficient. What feeling. that your memory is keener than you realize. Yes. Why. No. 11. does a reading difficulty create? Do we 9. Adults. 12. adults or children?. Key: tion NUMBER RIGHT OUT OF 124 12: . but the essence should be the same. 5. 3. No. Must the reading process be trained in order to become effective for one's needs? Dyes Dno — Here are the correct answers your language may of course some instances. 6. 5. 7. as of 1949. Yes. How well did you do? differ in 1. 8. The word-by-word reader.when you took your first retention test. 1.

1056 <- 4962 <- 9246 <- 0538 <- 3508 <- 6429 «- 1605 <- 6227 «- 2964 <- 5061 <- 2276 <- 5803 «- 6015 <- 7622 <r- 8035 «- 2386 <r- 7309 <- 0210 <-__ 6823 <- 0937 <r- 2100 *- 8623 «- 3790 <-- 2001 <- 3268 <- 9037 «- 1020 «- 3417 «- 8251 «- 2664 <- 1743 «- 2518 «- 6624 <- 4731 <- 5812 <- 4662 ^- 7134 <- 1852 «125 9443 . if any. Follow the usual procedure. and keep a record of your errors.• SESSION 10 PERCEPTION TRAINING IV Perception Exercise 11 We return now to further practice in rapid perception and ac- curate interpretation of four-digit numbers.

9344 *— 3568 <— 0-4fiQ ^_ 4439 *— 5386 <— 4RQ0 <- 4394 *— 6904 *— 40Qfi <- 4943 *— Qfl4fi <— NUMBER roRRF. cabala cadenced <r- caballero cadger cabana cadgy cabinet cagey cabaret cameo cabbage cameleer garbage camellia cablegram camelopard cabriolet camels cacao cameral cocoa camisole cackle camomile cackler camphorate cadency Canada Canadienne cadenza 126 if <— any. .frr ottt of 50 Perception Exercise 12 Here are words somewhat similar one to another. Follow the usual procedure. and keep a record of your errors.

and move each line which the card quickly enough be able to make only one fixation for each exposure. excessive auditory reactions to the words in the selection try to decrease. But persevere. If you are at all successful at this time (and eventually success is quite attain127 . your success in this training will be that the selection continues to make sense as the phrases flash through the card window. reprinted permission ) and the phrases will continue in meaningful material below right. Inc. This may not be easy. by special . Aim. as much as you can. If strong auditory reactions are an in- grained part of your comprehension. for instantaneous recognition of appears in the card window. your reliance on inner speech as you follow the ideas into which the so that The you will criterion of — phrases combine.. as before. Perception Exercise 13 The is from Journeys Through Wordland (copyby Amsco School Publications. 1942. New York. Avoid. you will not be happy when you reduce your dependency on them. as much as possible.comedienne candlefoot Canadian candied canary candled cancerous canfield candescence canine candidly canister candidature cankerous candlenut cannery candler cannonade candlestick carom NUMBER CORRECT OUT OF 50. succession.

Just then a seeds 128 little skunk . -> At Saratoga were not — are acres and acres growing you will be able to shorten significantly the fraction of a — second you spend on each fixation your mind will not have to wait until the words are heard before it calls for more material. grub worms -» These -» -» -» -» -> are from grown little young seedlings It -> the men -» in charge -» of the trees -> became aware that many was not known had come from. where the grubs ground One feasting on the tender which are planted in the that had been trees -» -> was but there they were. year plants. -> of -» -» They soon learned ground where the State of that the reason New York for this -» grows thousands -> of trees fierce little -» every year. in early spring. and no one knew how to rid of get them.

-> The gardeners -> at Saratoga a skunk - named loves better -+ skunk Eric. but the skunk -» did their best had a -» wonderful appetite. -» any desire was not long -» he might have before the last -» of the grubs -» Eric stayed had disappeared -» maybe he -» knew it and the trees 129 to to sure overcome go away. in short. for his breakfast. -» and supper built a the him warm house than nice fat -> for winter. that . -» a generous supply and only -» of food one skunk -> and. -» made There were millions -» he always had of grubs.— -» were out -» of peril. -» happened by — just an ordinary everyday Now. little skunk. juicy grubs. there's nothing lunch.

but so can do it many that very toss is much like himself -> all -> he could save -» the lives of thousands of - How was your comprehension good Dfair Dpoor young trees every year. What is . There is in Seattle. roll its eyes. in a cage. in its can hairy fingers It sit promptly exclaim. under the conditions required? Perception Exercise 14 Now we shall dispense with the Flashmeter card as we practice on another selection from Journeys Through Wordland. Bob Seymour's ape move its 130 ears. who a man Washington. As in the two previous the selection continues to exercises. Later exercises of this type will be of a more difficult and adult character. making one fixation to a line. the criterion of success make sense as your eyes sweep is down that the columns. and play Well. a tune. things it its It can even grasp an accordion a real ape. and yet adequately following the ideas. "How can anyone make a real ape!" you will is mechanical. I have purposely chosen such simple material so that nothing will interfere with your efforts to decrease your reliance on auditory reactions. reducing any excessive dependency on inner speech. You have no doubt noticed that this material is on an unusually easy level of vocabulary and sentence structure (Journeys Through Wordland is a vocabulary-builder for the sixth and seventh grades of elementary school). and stamp its foot. has made an ape. Simply run your eyes down each column.

1 1 the explanation mechanical ape. Mr. Can you think of an appropriate name for this uncommon creature? was your con iprehension under the conditions required? Dgood fair Qpoor (Check one. that you if saw electrician. an expert appearance undoubtedly assume that was it alive. Seymour has not yet named his ape. it spent four years in a zoo and $5.000 you would on How his is so real and electricity.) 131 . of this wonderful life-like It by Its animal? moves its actions so ape-like Mr. Seymour.

• Take a lary • is as five-part test that will indicate good as Learn how easy it whether your vocabu- should be. you: large reading vocabulary is an aid to rapid comprehension. comlittle. if any. in why a Discover this chapter. swift and accurate perception. it is to bring your vocabulary up to levels.CHAPTER 6 HOW TO BUILD BETTER READING VOCABULARY A Preview Aggressive comprehension. • And so. Chapter 6 will explain the techniques to new words to your use for adding scores of reading vocabulary. and general habits of cutting efficiently through the details of material to the hard core of main ideas: these are some of the hallmarks of the skillful reader. Equally characteristic of such a reader is a large and ever-increasing plete absence of all forms of vocalization. infrequent regressions. vocabulary. 132 efficient . dependency on inner speech.

Take This Vocabulary Test You may make an whenever you feel that you have an even chance of arriving at the correct answer. color. or if you haven't the foggiest notion of its meaning. and equally obviously. is a weak less that conscious he it is is by means that he is less of vocabulary. scenery. conversely. Nevertheless the vehicle on which ideas. a page of print contains not words. words individual English words or combinations of words. these things ride is feelings. one of the factors that may reduce comprehension and slow down the rate of reading. The more familiar a reader with the words he is reading words. So. and the is reading. but rather action. intelligent guess are familiar enough with a word to PART I Directions: Next to each of the key letter of the correct definition to words in column A. 133 . as baseless guessing will invalidate your score. movement. do not attempt an answer. all and thoughts. Do not guess wildly. copy the be found in column B. the he realizes words that he is reacting to the content of a sentence or paragraph or page. one of the factors that contribute to efficient and rapid reading is a large recognition vocabulary. obviously. How skillful about your and own effortless vocabulary? Is it as large as it should be for reading? Let's find out. that may even encourage regressions and vocalization.— * SESSION HOW GOOD IS YOUR To 11 READING VOCABULARY? a skillful reader. If you have never in your life seen a particular word.

to 10. b —poor. Is a voluble person generally silent? 7. consummate liar a skillful liar? Does a martinet insist on strict obedience and 2. to distort 8. concoction: a refusal. part in Check the correct answer to each question. to lie down part n Directions: Write to the left of each meaning which most 1. 9. fear. 5. number the letter of the clearly defines each word. 8. c—rambling mediocre: a—ordinary. to shift one's course lament e. to 3. c— coloring candor: a — frankness. 4. Do Do 4. yes excessive eaters lead an abstemious life? yes complacency and anxiety usually go together? yes yes no person self-assertive? as purposely? no no yes no yes no yes yes Is a discipline? yes 10. 9. Is a panacea a cure-all? 8. c —optimism — — b —mixture. 2. to take a /. b — c— spry a—happy. to utilize 5. to 9. c —refrain egoism: a self-interest. b —well-connected. b—corruption. to 7. Does a misogynist enjoy the company 134 no no no of women? yes no no . b — knowledge. 4. Is a diffident 5. Does a phlegmatic person become easily excited? Directions: 1. b — coherent: a— powerful. to mock h. inability refusal. to eradicate chance put out of focus soak completely i. c— prayer pollution: a—doing away with. c —necessary abstain: a— b —splotch. Does inadvertently mean the same 6. to veer to a. to hazard b. to chew be sorry make fun of d. 7. to use j. 3. to erase g. 3. to saturate 6. 6. agile: ask. to recline 2. c — b— arrogance: a— c —pride c— imprison a—complicate. b —sweetness. to munch c. release. extricate: talkative.A B 1. 10.

135 . they are more nearly opposite in meaning. 6—b. all yes. pathological 7. obfuscate 10. if it is generally false. check T. 8. 2—O. 2. plethora of money forces people ukase paean is is to live in poverty. veracious 2. check O. 7— F. 10. 10—T. 1—a. 8— c. 3—F. 6—S. Crooked business houses try to mulct the public. Delight in panoply indicates a love of simple things. 6—b. F F F F F F F F F F Key: Part Part I: 2—e. 5—O. 9—0. 4—a. 7—O. The automobile is an anachronism in America. word and rv definition are nearly the same in meaning. A truculent person is fierce and quarrelsome. 3. T T T T T T T T T T life. 6—F. 8— S. II: i. 7—g.PART Directions: If check S. contrite —O —O S— O S —O S —O S —O S —O S— O S —O S—O 5. 7—9: 10—no. 10—c. stolid 4. 1. Summary A A A justice is dealt out to military offenders. 1—/. check F. Part III: 1—6: Part IV: 1— S. 1—c. %—b. a song of lamentation. 9—a. 3— b. Part V: 1—F. 5—T. 3—a. 5. 10—O. 10—f. 7. equivocal S truthful S generous sluggish sorry mild diseased praise self-denial clarify clear part v Directions: If the statement is generally true. 6. parsimonious 3. 4. 9—F. 2—T. 4— 5—h. 4— S. 5—c. 9. 8—F. 3—S. 4—T. vitriolic 6. asceticism 9. 8—b. peonage Industrial is an important aspect of American Medicine has therapeutic value. 9—d. all no. if 1. disparage 8. commonly disobeyed.

in some small way. The success of your learning will constantly be tested. ignore any of the wordstudy material. I collected such words from Back book. I in 1942. but which occur with sufficient frequency in general writing to be of immediate usefulness as aids to reading comprehension. If your score was high (80 to 100 per cent) you will probably be able to breeze through these exercises with great rapidity.Scoring Allow two points made on for each correct answer. No matter how large your vocabulary may be. And so. realized that I besjan to it the following sources: 136 . to make your reading more efficient and more satisfying. Add up the scores you the five parts. every word you add to it will help. for a period of about a year. As anyone with a rich vocabulary will agree. every interesting word that can be added to one's personal treasury is grist to the mill. for that reason. 90-100 excellent ( college graduate level) 70-88 good (college sophomore level) 50-68 fair (high school level) 30-48 poor (elementary school level) 0-28 VERY POOR — The lower your and score on this test the more important later chapters will get you started — it The exercises in do them carefully and building your vocabulary immediately. start is to this con- scientiously. for vou have a rich background. adding to your vocabulary has never been a chore. and the more actively you participate in these tests the more surely will the new words become permanent and valuable aids to your reading skilL A STARTER SET OF WORDS when work on the first edition of this was necessary to prepare a short list of words which are not usually found in the poor vocabulary. and consult the chart below for a rough gauge of the present state of your vocabulary. But do not.

the Atlantic Monthly. How frequently these top 500 occurred can be judged from the following table: 109 words 158 words 35 to 51 times 25 to 34 times 214 words 20 to 24 times 16 words 15 to 19 times 3 words 14 times Since these 500 words are the ones which I most frequently en- countered over a twelve-month period in a representative cross section of American reading matter. including Harpers. Fortune. Five popular novels. I made a notation next to it so that a total of frequency could later be calculated. surely. and successfully aid a serious student in building an effective reading vocabulary. I then rearranged the words in order of their frequency and chose the 500 which had appeared most often. a reader will frequently 137 — .1. and Coronet. Post. the Saturday Yorker. these words. In order to narrow the fist still further. in alphabetical order. and each successive time a word appeared in any of my sources.743 uncommon words which I had encountered five or more times in the various books and periodicals I was using. Eight popular nonfiction books. The pages. the New Readers Digest. the Evening 3. 2. and the Post. book reviews. 4. as a useful starter set for vocabulary improvement. A number of widely read magazines. who this mini- wishes to develop Without a complete mastery of at least meet blind spots that is. the Herald Tribune. Esquire. At the end of the investigation I found that there were 1. To solve this problem. I kept an alphabetical list of all the uncommon words I encountered during my investigation of the sources indicated. I feel that mum his an adequate understanding of the words on list is critically comprehension important to the reader skill. I offer them to you. Life. and signed columns of editorial New three representative York newspapers: the Times. The problem was to discover whether professional writers use any group of uncommon words with enough frequency and regularity to permit the construction of a definite and not too cumbersome list which could most quickly.

138 . You might. by the same technique. You will then be asked to continue. I shall choose twenty of the words for discussion and learning.words which are keys to the author's thought but which. at this point. how to use a dictionary most effectively in adding these words to your vocabulary. step by step. of the reader's unfamiliarity with them. in the next section. and explain. mastering the remaining words. many of the 500 Words That Belong in Your Reading Vocabulary * aberration amenable assuage * abject amenities astute abominable amorphous atavistic abortive atheist abstemious anachronism analogous * abstruse anathema augment * acerbity animosity acme anodyne * * * * acumen adamant auspicious * acrid acrimonious attrition austere * anomaly * anthropoid * anthropology avidity anticlimax badinage * autonomous avarice adroit antipathy * adulation antithesis * affluence aphrodisiac belated agnostic aplomb benediction alacrity apocryphal alleviate arbitrary beneficent archaic benevolent benign altruism ambidextrous * * argot * ambiguous ascetic * ameliorate assiduous baleful bathos blithe bovine * bromide * Starred words are offered for study in this and later chapters. and by the end of the course you will have mastered about a third of the complete list. Then. In later chapters we will cover successive groups of ten to thirty words in daily practice sessions. and a number of specific vocabulary manuals will be recommended so that you may still further add to your reading vocabulary. skim rapidly through the list to see how words are totally unfamiliar to you. convey little because or no thought to him.

* fortuitous effete * fracas egomaniac * fractious egregious frugality * contrite emasculate convivial empirical functional * emulate furtive * encomium corpulent cryptic * germane enervation culinary enigmatic culpable ennui ephemeral cupidity futilitarian * corroborate fulminate 139 grandiose * gregarious * gullible .) • dexterity cavil * diffidence exigency dilettante exotic expedite celibate * chauvinism chicanery chimera dipsomaniac expiate dishabille disparage * clairvoyant disparity * clandestine docile claustrophobia * coerce cogent cogitate consummate contentious extirpate extrovert dogmatic dormant dour dubious fatuous fecund * fetid fetish dulcet commiserate complacency compunction concomitant condone expostulate fiasco fiat * duplicity * ebullience flagrant effervescence • ( adj.) bucolic cursory bumptious cacophony cynosure * equivocal dearth • cadaverous epitome equanimity debauchery decimate * eschew * esoteric cadence esthetic decorum cajole * calumny defunct ethereal capricious deleterious * captious deprecate * eulogy carnivorous depredation carte blanche desultory * euphemism euphony castigate detract evanescent execrable eugenics catholic (adj.

) malignant malinger * obsequious manic * obstetrician * iniquity 140 * obdurate obfuscate * oblique oblivion * obloquy .gynecology halcyon • innocuous martinet " insidious maudlin harass harbinger * insipid mayhem insouciant megalomania melange hauteur intractable heterogeneous intransigent histrionic intrepid mellifluous * introversion mendacity Mephistophelian holocaust * mercurial homogeneous o ° meretricious inundate hyperbole hypochondria mure iconoclasm metaphorical irascible idiosyncrasy itinerant ignominy meticulous * militate jubilation * kleptomania * mirage misanthropy misogyny jingoism illusory * imbroglio immolate metamorphosis inviolate * laconic mollify * impious implacable moribund latent • impunity impute lechery * myriad levity j * inane * incipient nadir libidinous * limbo limpid naive nebulous nefarious lithe * mulct mundane lethargy inadvertent inclement mordant lascivious implicit impugn mitigate o lampoon imperturbable nepotism loquacious * incompatible nostalgia incongruous incorrigible lugubrious incredulous Machiavellian indefatigable * malaise novitiate * nuance nymphomania indigent * malediction indolence * malefactor ineffable * malevolent inexorable * ingenuous * malign (vb.

) pathological prosaic sacrilegious pedantic prurience • pediatrician pseudo * penchant psychotic sadism sagacity salient (adj.) penurious puberty sanctimonioui peonage puerile sanguinary perfidious pugnacious perfunctory punctilious peripheral pungent saturnalia persiflage pusillanimous saturnine * sanguine sardonic perspicacity * pyromania schizophrenia perspicuity * querulous scourge philander • quintessence sedate phlegmatic pique * quixotic sedulous placate plaintive * rampant senile rationalize sententious raucous 141 * sepulchral . revulsion pallid presentiment • palpable presumptuous * risible prodigal • risque panacea * panegyric paragon prolixity rotund rubble rudimentary prodigious * paranoia paroxysm ribald prolific promiscuity ruminate parsimonious * propinquity rustic patent (adj.) predatory resilient ostracize predilection paean pre-empt presage opinionated opulence orthodox palliate • repudiate respite * retribution.recalcitrant obtuse platitude occult plebeian recondite ominous omnipotent omnipresent plethora recrimination poignant redolent polyglot redundancy regimen * pompous omniscient omnivorous portentous regurgitate * posthumous relevant pragmatic preclude renegade * orient (vb.) * propitiate saccharine (adj.

eulogy 10. panegyric 9.shambles * taciturn * tantamount tedium simulate sloth * urbane utilitarian vacillate * sonorous temporize vacuous vagary vapid sophistry tenet vegetate sobriquet temerity solicitous * soporific tenuous specious therapeutic venomous sporadic titanic veracity titillation * torpid stilted stoic verisimilitude toxic * stolid * translucent stratum vicarious vicissitude strident * travesty * stringent virile virtuoso suave trepidation truculent subversive truism succinct turgid virulent * tyro * ubiquitous * ukase surfeit * unctuous * volatile * * synthesis tacit vitriolic vituperative surreptitious sycophant visceral vitiate supercilious (adj. sporadic 3. gregarious 5. encomium 8. vicarious 4. incompatible 7. 142 jubilant egregious . 1. 2. anomaly 6.) vindictive trenchant subterfuge summary verbatim verbose voluble unrequited unwitting wanton upbraid zenith vortex VOCABULARY STUDY I Let us get down to work by considering twenty words chosen at random from the list.

contrary to what might be expected. or a conflict. 13. warm Franco of when the German An encomium is a armies formal. In February 1944 Admiral Fletcher's Task Force bombarded Paramushiru. these may be used in the singular. obstetrician 20. Chamberlain finds this one distinctly different. captious 17. by Harold Callender. who feel happy over something they have accomplished. A Preface to Peace. elated. 19. People who feel — If you cannot experience certain things in life directly. is used. "an anomaly among books of its type in that it seeks to base its hopes for the future on the fair and accurate reporting of present facts/' Apparently. unusual in that it deviates from the general rule for such books. encomiums. 15. misanthropy philanthropy anthropology 18. Mr. expression of victory. The Tribune editorial pointed out. misogyny gynecology 14. for anything sporadic occurs only occasionally in no particular pattern. part of the Japanese homeland. Romantic movies provide a vicarious thrill for people whose lives are barren 143 . the two simply could not get along. ukase 16. said the New York Times. Synonyms of this word which are worth knowing are panegyric and eulogy. pediatrician John Chamberlain. usually the plural form. In other words. praise. that Spain heaped encomiums on Hitler seemed be within sight of to generally public. anthropoid 12. called An editorial in the New York Herald Tribune in February 1944 claimed that the international situation proved that the Falangist State. a contest. out of his wide experience with such books. by reading books about foreign lands. meaning Spain. was incompatible with the United Nations. you will have to be content with experiencing them vicariously. that sporadic and systematic are conand trasted words. in addition. are jubilant they've got what they wanted and as a result they feel set up. triumphant and joyful over the outcome of a struggle. then. formerly literary critic of the New York Times. It would seem. This was no sporadic raid.11. but rather a part of a systematic pattern. One can travel vicariously.

greg. Gregarious people like to flock together. Misanthropy. comes from a Latin root meaning flock of sheep. who called women the "long-haired. A misanthrope hates all mankind. If you know the root anthrop. is And most useful word: bad that it stands out finally a egregious which so is (ex) from the flock (greg) of bad things. not from a direct and personal participation in some act or experience. Anything segregated. the way sheep do. philanthropy. and that those boys and girls who want education badly enough to make great sacrifices to get it will derive the most benefit from it. Any feeling is vicarious which springs. who had just attended a conference on education and didn't quite like what he heard. mankind. A ukase is any Strikes are not prevented Post. the study of the development of the human race. especially over trifles. is opposed to the more common term. like an egregious error." . an egregious crime. short-brained was one of the most famous pessimists and misogynists among philosophers. was sometimes called a misanthrope because his actions seemed indicative of a deep and unwavering hatred for mankind. editorializes the New York by eliminating the causes of labor troubles. humanity. manlike. or in some way being an in- of love active spectator. you will be able to recognize two other words anthropology. writes the editor. of others. and prefer friendship and social intercourse to solitude. Anything or anyone taken out of the flock is egregious. A person is captious who easily finds fault. or an egregious insult. Human They enjoy the company beings are by nature gregarious. or pastor. but from reading or hearing about it. they like to be part of the crowd. a hatred for the human race. This point is raised in no captious spirit. Schopenhauer. and anthropoid. The Saturday Evening Post opines that conflict is an important element of education. The important syllable of this word. more discriminating 144 sex. A congregation is a group of people who have flocked together to listen to their religious shepherd. anthropoid apes. and charitable acts toward. by ukases. a love for. Hitler often : as in the phrase.and adventure. but official decree having the force of law.

in your everyday reading. of their significant implications. in varying contexts. It is . A for the is specializes in the treatment of female disorders. the study of a doctor women only. true? false? 3. nor with the pediatrician. you will become a little more keenly aware of their hidden overtones. who women's diseases. The root gyn. Vicarious pleasure is always keener than direct pleasure. cares for infants after they are born. true? false? 9. No attempt is being made at this point to delve very deeply into we are discussing. our interest is in testing the success of your his aversions. of their subtle emotional shadings. true? false? true? false? customary to eulogize the deceased in the funeral oration. a misogynist hates philosophy found is is in gynecology. enough of an indication of the meaning and emotional flavor of the words has been given so that you can understand what an autiior is trying to say when he uses them. 4. you should be able to mark each of the following statements either true or false. true? false? 11. true? false? 7. If these Test Your Learning by 1.) However. true? false? 145 5. Anomalies 2. meaning woman. the doctor who who also gynecologist and delivers babies. ( That is more properly the meanings of the words the province of a dictionary or of a vocabulary-building manual. twenty words have made at least a surface impression on your mind. their very nature. The name misogyny. Incompatibility makes for a are. should not be confused with the obstetrician. true? false? Newspapers heap encomiums on our military heroes. true? false? 10. A panegyric is insulting. TRUE? FALSE? 6. Early in World War II we made sporadic air raids on Europe. Hermits are gregarious. Some nations have made egregious attacks on an unprepared country. rare. News of a victory makes us jubilant. true? false? 8. happy married life. The Nazis ruled by ukase. And every time you meet these words. Right now.

which are indexed] 3. 5—T. in alphabetical arrangement look each one up. Here are the first ten. $6. 3—T. if you wish to keep your vocabulary-study in a more permanent form. or. find the information that will help you answer the questions below. 11— T. in your own phraseology. you will make a concerted attack on these words. Kind people are usually philanthropic.. so of these 20 valuable words. b. 1. 2—F. Now I far only scratched the surface ask you to dig a little deeper. Key: 10_T. Casanova was a misogynist. is false? false? false? false? false? false? false? false? false? 1—T. gynecologist is a woman-hater. 9—F. 19. pediatrician a foot doctor. . Fish are anthropoid. 16— F. Merriam Co. American College Dictionary [Random House. $3. & C. A 17. and write your answers either in the margin of the page or on a scratch pad. We have. $6. write briefly the general meaning of the word. 14.75 thumb-indexed] 2. 20. Then. 4— F. 13. 6-T. which you will find either with the word or in preceding entries. $6. 14—T. Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary [G.50 thumb-indexed] With the dictionary as your guide. 146 a. 18—F. using a good dictionary as a help. 17—F. An obstretrician treats young infants.. Webster's New World Dictionary. true? true? true? true? true? true? true? true? true? Captiousness often creates resentment. 12—T. 16. Anthropology is the study of insects. A 18. 20—F. 13— F. Misanthropy is a widely held philosophy. in a bound note- — book. as I have indicated. 15. First. 7—F. 15— F. Write two forms of the derived adjective. I among the best published today: 1.75 thumb(If find suggest any one of these.12.. 8—F. you your present dictionary inadequate in any way. anomaly read and understand the nontechnical definition. Thorndike-Barnhart Comprehensive Desk Dictionary [Doubleday and Co. 19— F.00 thumb-indexed] 4. College Edition [World Publishing Co.

What does the Greek root anthropos mean? c. Does the word connote a pleasant or an unpleasant character- istic? 5. briefly. Is it 9. d. two adjective forms of encomium. is meaning of the word. Say it aloud. (2) the adjective form of eulogy. anthropoid Write word. Find. c. 3. encomium a. does the Latin root grex. (3) the verb form of eulogy. word? this Write a synonym of the word. What part of speech c. in a. Write b. What is the word for a student or expert in anthropology? c. in preceding entries. in preceding entries. meaning of the word. Find. Write briefly the general b. Write that form which means the state of being an anomaly. your own language. (1) a speaker or writer of eulogies. Now make c. gregis mean? 6. Write the adjective form of anthropology.c. the following: briefly the general meaning of the word. 2. captious a. gregis mean? briefly the general normal to be gregarious? gynecology Write briefly the general meaning of the word. Write b. 147 . b. What c. the following: briefly the general meaning of the word. What briefly the general meaning of the word. ( 2 ) Write two synonyms of encomium. 4. anthropology Write briefly the general meaning of the word. a. Name an animal that may be called anthropoid. gregarious a. which you will find in a preceding entry. Write b. does the Latin root grex. (1) the form denoting a writer or speaker of encomiums. the general meaning of the b. egregious a. eulogy a. Write b. sure you can pronounce it correctly. 7. 8. a.

eulogy. 7. c. chimpanzee. b. anthropologic or anthropological. alousness. c. b. c. Test Your Learning After reading over the notes you made. 1. eulogist. (2) encomiastic or encomiastical. 5. b. orangutan.b. c. 6. Does one generally find anomalism? Are birds anthropoid? Would an anthropologist necessarily know much about primitive cultures ? 4. or. 10. answer the following questions yes or no. Key: — anomalous. praise. plaudits. anomalism. Does one generally eulogize one's enemies? Are sheep gregarious? How about wolves ?_ Is Is cats? 9. — (1) (2) (3) eulogize. a captious person likely to be popular? murder an egregious crime?.. a. 7. — herd or — (1) encomiast. Find. flock 9. — adjective. d. flock. commendation. unpleasant. 6. gorilla. c. c. b. — anthropologist. b. b. 3. people? Does a gynecologist have mainly male patients? 148 . ( 2 ) the term for the specialist in gynecology. in preceding entries. 8. incompatible Write briefly the general meaning of the word. panegyric. b. (2) gynecologist. 3. 1. etc. third. anom— man or mankind. 10. carping. Does an encomiast have a low opinion of his subject?. c. yes — woman or female. b. 8. On which syllable does the accent fall? Write two noun forms. 4. critical. c. — or herd. ape. What c. (1) gynecologic or gynecological. — b. b. 5. etc. 2. 2. c. of course. gibbon. laudation. caviling. the following: does the Greek root gyne mean? (1) two adjectival forms. anomalistic. incompatibleness or incompatibility. c. etc. eulogistic.

Does a misanthrope love people? 3. sporadic 4. ukase 5. write the derived forms. 3— —no. their children? Key: 9 — 1 —no. 8— you have a good grip on these ten words. 2—no. Here are the ten words on which to work. panegyric 10. Are great men often panegyrized by their biographers? 6. philanthropy 3. 2—no. Do parents sometimes enjoy youth vicariously through 8. yes. Are labor pains an obstetrical phenomenon? 5. 5— —no. thoughts of divorce? Key: 1 —no. from your previous work with the dictionary. jubilant 6. I let us follow shall not take space to ask because you have already learned. 8—no. 1. and see whether the word is built upon a Greek or Latin root that would be useful to you in figuring out the meanings of related words. vicarious Test Your Learning Reread the notes you have made on these ten words. you yes. — yes. 10 yes. 4 yes. no. note the pronuncia- and say the word aloud. Is a philanthropist interested in the welfare of others? Are sporadic and constant synonymous? 9. Does a misogynous attitude attract women? 4.Does incompatibility between husband and wife often lead to 10. Does a doctor engaging in pediatrics have infants as patients? 7. Is jubilation over failure a normal reaction? 2. 7—no. tion. pediatrician 2. Is a ukase usually obeyed? 10. 10— yes. 3—no. 6—yes. if any. 9 Now that —no. misanthropy misogyny 8. obstetrician 9. Please be sure to follow these directions exactly. 6 specific questions yes. 5—yes. the general routine to follow with these words. the same procedure with the next ten. 149 . and make your notes in writing on your scratch pad or in your notebook. 4—yes. 7. then answer the following questions yes or no. 1. In each instance rewrite the meaning in your own language. yes. 7—yes.

When you can do this and the following exercise comfortably. as explained on page 62. by five-digit 5 9 *— 77 2 <- 19 32 6 <— 3 5 *- 8 6 4 9 13 <— 329 1 *- 7 <— 7 386 *- 7 2 8 4— 32 6 4— 32 98 1 *- 4 12 9 542 <— 9 18 *- 3 7 1 06 65 <— 5 76 <— 88 <— 43 45 *— 56 *— 6 553 40 7 1 7 2 8 4~ 7 3 9 4— 53 96 4- 63 1 4— 11 4 4— 23 63 *- 19 <=— 3 *— 386 <*- 2 12 150 1 . you will be prepared for complete five-digit training.and four-digit numbers is equal to that occupied numbers. is The span occupied by the following three. but one or two digits are omitted in each instance. Follow the usual procedure. this ex- digits" presented. and keep a record of your errors.• SESSION 12 PERCEPTION TRAINING V Perception Exercise 15 To help you prepare ercise in "jumping for training in five-digit perception. if any.

764 4— 5 047 <=— 3 927 <- 534 8 4- 23 69 *- 1 057 *— 579 1 4— 02 39 89 97 <— 62 31 4— 562 4 1 690 <— 7 207 4— 9 153 4— 624 3 <— 329 *- 21 07 <— 1 NUMBER CORRECT OUT OF 50: Perception Exercise 16 As further preparation for combining four digits with a here is an exercise Follow the same procedure as five-digit training.. letter. 78J08 4— 92K04 *- 44N62 *- .. before. 1M302 ^_ 52D20 <— 3B307 <— 2B605 4— 86G55 *- 4D170 *— 9L820 4— 93M92 6F132 4— 4C312 t— 68N84 7G196 4— 8F102 4— 6P108 4— 42Q42 4— 9Q307 *- 77Z24 *- 4— 84L46 4- 93P30 4— 22Q90 4— 9B607 3X404 4— 8R202 5V902 4— 6P070 1A043 4A103 4— 9B706 9T307 4- 4— 3C405 <— 8R100 34C10 <— 7Q707 151 .

Proceed remembering and your responses to keep your exposures as brief you can. as possible as exclusively visual as 64582 4— 62111 4— 19382 4— 63218 4— 66966 4— 83921 4— 74521 <- 83623 4— 93862 4— 89361 4— 98931 4— 45674 4— 73652 4- 75231 4— 62590 4— 63923 4— 82730 90013 09091 4— 84721 4— 94194 4— 83670 4— 14729 4— 10982 4— 76283 4— _ 84720 4— 84013 4— 89321 <— 84982 4— 94821 89209 4— 87210 4— 95726 4— 98721 4— 09370 4— 72639 4— 83200 4- 83920 4— 83729 4— .67R77 <r- 2R225 4- L5507 4— 82S55 4— 61F38 4— 6P075 4— 49U93 4— 93P07 <— 67Q82 4— 77A82 4— 6P108 4— 527L6 4— 82B04 4— 8H522 NUMBER CORRECT OUT OF 50: Perception Exercise 17 You now ready are as before. 152 . for training in five-digit perception.

run your eyes rapidly down each column. a vanishing race. Giraffes belong to to exert himself of oats. as indicated by the arrow. The material in exercises 18 and 19 is Journeys Through Wordland (copyright 1942 by Publications. reprinted by permission). quite often. You no will have difficulty recognizing him —he has such a long neck! You can imagine how little he has 12-inch tongue!) Would you to like know what Jack Here his daily 1% eats? is menu: pails But if you weighed over 2. New it again from Amsco School and 25 pounds of hay. in just of his cage. allowing only one fixation in the center of each line. In the reaches Bronx Zoo. and can be found the top an apple. to reach 12 potatoes. The criterion of success is whether comprehension is clear and continuous.000 pounds (as Jack does) you'd doubtless need just as much food. because he That's a lives Jack. with his isn't it? York City. 3 carrots. 153 .. Inc. in Africa. a few places (And he half a cabbage. the paint of food. and with decreased reliance on inner speech.4— 84730 09412 94729 <~ 9283R <- 84729 *- Q4K21 <- 36258 *- 87291 *— 64820 <— 93821 *- 84720 <— NUMBER CORRECT OF 50: OTTT Perception Exercise 18 Without using the Flashmeter card. likes to lick considerable amount a 21 -foot giraffe.

to find out He went to San Francisco market. Major decided 154 shark livers to make into . that the livers off swimmers' legs and and a New York of soup-fin sharks disagreeable ways fishing authority. once a sleepy little in were buying all the soup-fin local fisherman fishing village.They on the top leaves are timid. Most of us think of sharks as fearful fish that chew at in the in other selling them $210 a ton San Francisco I why. a fishing tour California. Chemical laboratories will tell you their best friends many a for Fort Bragg. and learned Harlan Major. (something that He was amazed keeps people with no uncertainty at the great activity strong and healthy). Fort Bragg But the people when he made had proved to uncommonly be rich Vitamin A of Fort Bragg. can run swiftly and of trees. Do you like to feed that > s way the they acquired think their long necks? perhaps How was your comprehension good Dfair Dpoor under the conditions required? Perception Exercise 19 Continue as before. get hold of creatures Mr. of the country. (the kind make general nuisances stopped at around Fort Bragg) of themselves. has become richer was now experiencing they could catching the huge unusual prosperity. that sharks are going on there.

your greatest period of vocabulary growth years of your life — was during the granting that you are now first twenty over twenty. because that was the period in which the world held its great- — you wanted to learn. After that. Sec- ond. Why then? First. the means by which curiosity is satisfied.1 And little pills for people who so every the fearful creatures day whose the Fort Bragg livers are keeping a nation wish to avoid fishermen illnesses. 155 it slows down so radically . because you read more books ( again. A large vocabulary results This at a much is definitely phenomenal rate for from wide learning and varied reading. known: for most people vocabulary grows the first twenty years. unless you are an exception to the general rule) in your first twenty years than you will read all the rest of your life unless you consciously plan otherest and freshest novelty for you wise. by com- parison with the former rate of growth. youth. put out to sea in good health! to look for How was your comprehension good fair poor under the conditions required? * SESSION 13 HOW TO BUILD YOUR VOCABULARY WHILE READING (VOCABULARY STUDY H) It is safe to say that. because that was the period of your formal schooling. because learning is natural to childhood. and adolescence. Third. unless you are an exception to the rule. and words are the symbols of learning.

admittedly. more im- interruptions to complete concentration. is not the most delightful mental activity one a foreign language. Mostly through doubling. quadrupling the amount of reading you do. if can imagine. So that throws out the seemingly logical method. or your copy of Caesar or Cicero. And through being on the alert for new words while reading. examples of be suggested later. or by a direct study of the dictionary.that for practical purposes one might almost say that dead it comes to a stop. two steps. Exactly There are some conscientious individuals who follow this practice —and they doggedly thumb through their dictionaries for any word whose meaning they cannot immediately grasp. 2. And more practical. the average person who finished his formal education grows greatly in experience. The reason is this: after twenty. it takes dictionary-thumber is snail's is is an excellent concerned. but. can you accelerate your vocabulary growth once you've passed your twentieth birthday? by means of vocabulary-building manuals. through changing your reading habits to include the better magazines. tripling. completely practical method is this: Let any new word you encounter in your reading leaves us is register. in your mind. how do you go about it? The seemingly logical method to suggest is that you read with a dictionary at your side. a greater range of Partly which will nonfiction books in a wider variety of fields. in so far as vocabulary-building However. but practically translating you remember your high-school experiences with your French or German reader. because the not reading at all. for a second or so. to dictionary pace. but paratively How. much of the joy out of reading. little in has com- pure knowledge. and this. then. This idea. searching for a method that A 1. Spend a few more seconds puzzling out from the context in which you find That's Just all. constant from book or magazine shifting not only obviously slows reading to a portant. sets up numerous In addition. its probable meaning . 156 it. the more adult newspapers.

Then what happens? Your eyes are opened to coats. will not detract from your reading to the completeness of your comprehension. than you have ever spent before. be an old Then subsequent encounters speed. Because you spend a few seconds registering a new word in your mind. In any case. let us say for the sake of argument. Each time you meet it in a different context. the next time you meet it it will hit you a more strongly than it did the first time. you buy a new and expensive fur coat. if you are a woman. without realizing it. and are. Until. Increasing your vocabulary by this simple process of staying on the alert for new words as you meet them in your reading actually works. Then what happens? Everywhere you turn you see the word. The rest happens without any further effort on your part. the second appearance will begin to set you straight. Or. or newspaper writer seems tenaciously bent on using just that word in a hundred varying contexts. a dozen times in a Then something month and be external opens your eyes. a "dead" "alive" for you. Every book. you might encounter an unfamiliar word —the same word completely blind to it. and will Remember: add until friend. on the alert for its next little — And you its appearance. you become alert to new words. One of a number of possible things might happen to wake you word suddenly comes combination of syllables becomes up. you come new word. To explain this phenomenon. magazine. Or. Perhaps you hear some friends discussing the meaning. a meaningless pregnantiy meaningful. and puzzling about it. will meet it again because you are now conscious of existence. it to its will meaning. or spelling of the word. let me draw an analogy. derivation. of course. if you misunderstood its meaning the first And time. will often you may meet them.— Then go right across another on with your reading. You spend — $150 for a new overcoat more. Where once before you saw men and women walk157 . its meaning will become a little clearer to you. your mind will be unaware of their existence. no matter how skip over them. Perhaps you read an explanation of it in some such book as this. Without a conscious mind-set. the third and fourth and subsequent appearances will add more and more Eventually.

cacophony 4.*' nition. Let's try it. dipsomaniac 3. and which ones look shabby. you are. So as you continue your direct study of words. Prison doctors have learned to detect willful malingering. mayou notice which ones are new. b— a 2. or inside it. Business executives are usually political 3. Gullible housewives fooled. "coat-conscious. it gives you a warm thrill of recogmeaning becomes clearer and clearer at each new encounter. shape. one cannot help feeling vin- dictive. vigil loss r> 4. compare with the answers given at the end of the test. its use more and more understandable.down a unimportant ing street. b—pretense of men of acumen. let the new words sink in deeply. You have probably observed this phenomenon over and over in your personal experience. obdurate 10. for as long as your own coat retains its novelty. illness. — caused easy prey to unscrupulous salesmen. novelty for you. gullible vindictive 1. to. then continue with the explanations of these and related words. you are "vicarious-con- Every time you meet it. man you now see woman coats. How well could you puzzle out the meanings of those you — Check what you consider the haven't seen before? correct definition each word. acumen 7. In a word. —eager b —depressed for revenge. Become hyperconscious of the new words you learn and then notice how those very words begin to pop up over and over again in your everyday reading. . c 158 . 2. illness fall easily 5. So long as a new word. retains its with a new word. His all-night to of sleep c—brought a—exhausted. terial. each with a comparatively You notice color. On hearing of such atrocities. malinger 6. Vicarious is alive scious. Imagine that you found the words below in the following sentences. for querulous 1. Its for you. c— evasion of duty —cowardice. 5. a — terrified." And that's the way it is say vicarious. c —mental quickness a— enervated him. power. c—overanxious a—stupid. implacable 9. enervated 8. b—wealth.

) 12. placate (vb. 3-a. malevolent. c—coldness The condemned man's wife begged for a pardon.) 6. b—tavern owner. a Key: —unyielding. 10-a. 4-b. c person mor- — — 7. complaining. To rifying. b—honest. Querulous wives wear their husbands' patience thin. incendiary (n. 5-b. 7-c. 3. perspicuity 16. malingerer." Acumen. "harmful". 9-b. 6-a. "a curse". for practitioner of the art indirectly derived male. 8-a. c— armed a 9.) A some physical inability." Acumen and perspicacity are close acute. The hope of democracy lies in the implacable foes of totali- tarianism. which is mental keenness. eugenics 7. to pretend illness. a advertisement writer. c—unfavorable 1-b. malignant malevolent malign (vb. RELATED WORDS 5. to malign. and malaise. but the Governor was obdurate. badly. b frowsy-looking. or the purpose of shirking one's duty. the cacophony of a big city is often ter- —rush. perspicacity 15. a 10. comes from the same root as which means "sharp. — — — bidly addicted to liquor 8. an etymological root which is is a from the Latin adverb also responsible for the English words malignant. arsonist 11. "Schenley's" is a beautiful word. b—unimpressed. The word is complacent 13. 4. 2. inexorable 9. adamant 8. "wishing harm". 2-c. rustic visitors. or at least a commutation of sentence. 159 . —unyielding. euphony 6. "a vague feeling of physical discomfort. To malinger is 10. malediction. b—harsh noise. malediction malaise 14. pyromaniac 1. plaintive 17. c selfish a To a dipsomaniac. a verb meaning "to spread slander about someone".

whether physically. you are enervated. arsonists. or fatigue is eneri.e. for attraction. People who suffer under the burden of a different kind of psychic disturbance namely the inability to resist setting fires are called pyromaniacs. pacify. to use the legal term. pleasant The same root. keen mental ability. sound. when you call him perspicuous. Perspicacity should not be confused with perspicuity. is a distinctly different emotional A dipsomaniac is morbidly addicted to the consumption of alany form that human beings can tolerate. or fatigue 160 to enervate. When hausted. nagging. fretfulness. a disparaging adjective. change one's mind or decision. but people or things.. He is a sot. There flavor in the two words. Complacent and the verb placate come from the same root as implacable. as for insurance policy. the science of good breeding. frequently encountered synonyms of implacable are ada- mant and inexorable: all three words moved made mean virtually the same thing. a slave to John Barleycorn. easy to understand." A complacent person is smugly pleased with himself. you are completely weakened or exor utterly fatigued. weaken. in — — these unfortunates. the verb is such weakness. a continual imbiber. exhaust. mentally. to placate is to soothe. fire has a morbid and irresistible or. Do not confuse cohol. is a much pleasanter word with the connotations of while plaintive melancholy or mournfulness. is the opposite of euphony. if their meaning is readily grasped. or morally. only people show perspicacity that is.synonyms. indicates habitual complaint. possess perspicuity. sharp discernment. the Latin word placeo. . incapable of being or to Cacophony. is the quality of being clear. is found in eugenics. But querulous. and through a desire fire for illegal gain. you are paying a compliment to his lucid style. who set fires maliciously example collecting on a Two whom with incendiaries. exhaustion. and in quantities impossible to describe or even imagine. "to please. from the Greek word for good. which — Querulous and plaintive are synonymous in the sense that both have a primary meaning of complaining. Thus. When you call a writer perspicacious. eu. harsh sound. The state of vation. you admire the keenness of his intellect.

in this section how have at best been discussed well you can do on a quick review test Test Your Learning Directions: If two words are the same in meaning. placate. if they are opposite in meaning.. perspicuity. The noun is gullibility. Here. arsonist 4. tricked. kind 12. clearness 8. 13— S. tired 4.(someone). inexora- S O 17. querulous. perspicacity. cheated. implacable. teeto- O skeptical 5. 18—S. stu- pidity taler O curse 14. The if you are gullible vindictive person harbors grudges and. seeks to retaliate for real or fancied wrongs. forgiving 13. stupidity S 3. vindictive. 6—0. 16—O. order. now. 9— O. or fooled. acumen adamant 161 3. malaise. or after a stormy emotional encounter. enervated. Hence. check O. 2. look each notes according to the instructions on page 149. Key: S. 3— S. adamant S O O 18. fire- bug 1— S. pacify pyromaniac. you believe almost anything you hear. 1. 17— O. let us see The spirit of charity to him. exhilaration complacent. usually maliciously. dipsomaniac. 2— O. malevolent. 4— O. you are utterly without skepticism. cacophony . discon- tented cacophony. satisfied O O O 7. is the complete Working with your list of the 27 words in alphabetical one up and take dictionary. 19—S. ble S S O O 9. One can feel enervated during illness. acumen. 16. 10— 11— O. 11. O O O O O O O 1. you tend to be overtrusting and unsuspicious. 10. deceived. 8— S. malediction. euphony S obdurate. 19.e. O O malignant. 12— O. check S. 15. charitable 6. 15—S. is i. or from unrelieved and monotonous work. A gullible person easily gulled. shirk S 2. 5— O. 14— O. malinger. 7—0. gullible. or forgiveness is unknown Although the words superficially.

4. or duty mentally keen mental keenness the crime of setting fires one who has a compulsion 3 4 s or or fi to set fires 7 7. illness or work is required. feeling of physical discom- 19 fort 13. to slander 13 162 nr . 7. perspicacity 10. write the Make the verb. malevolent Study your notes. 1. above. and when you feel that you have command of these words. not to be pleased 11. or adjective form) that 1. 2.8. Test Your Learning Referring to the list following definitions. or or 9. a curse ft 9. harsh-sounding 9 10. implacable 23. pyromaniac 14. 6.e. incendiary 24. placate 12. revengeful 8. 21. noun. malaise 26. malinger 20. word that fits each of the sure to supply the part of speech (i. obdurate 17. 6. 18. perspicuity 11. malign (vb. querulous 15.) malignant 19. 5. unyielding one who pretends disability to avoid 3. one who 10 sets fires mali- 11 ciously 12. euphony 5. do the following exercise. complacent dipsomaniac enervated eulogy 9.. malediction 27. gullible 22. vindictive 16. plaintive 13. inexorable 25.

self-satisfied good breeding 21. unhappy and 18. TITLE OF NOVEL: 2. 4. sad. or perspicaciousness. pleasant in sound 15. 23. 15. compute HRS. and understandable 23 adamant. euphonious. deceived 17. turn to any full page in the book. 10. a point you reached some days ago. perspicacity. malignant or malevolent. 19.. 16. easily 17. 2. 7.. 3.. inexorable. ca- implacable. malingerer. enervated. malediction. fretfully 18. 19. pyromaniac. TOTAL NUMBER OF HOURS AND MINUTES SPENT IN READING: 5. wishing evil or 22. First Novel Read in One fill fol- in the Sitting 1. 17. 21. weakened 14. Have you met this challenge? If you have ( and I assume that as a serious student you are lowing every item of your training with scrupulous care ). 5. to soothe 16. 18. 12. clear Key: 1. 22. malign. 14. exhausted. or obdurate. ble. science of 21.14. placate. 13. challenged you to read a complete novel in a single evening. . 9. 11. statistics required on the chart below. 22. querulous.. incendiary or arsonist. 8. perspicuous A SECOND CHALLENGE TO YOUR READING HABITS I Toward the end of chapter 5. perspiacumen. complaining mournful. APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF WORDS IN THE NOVEL: To arrive at this statistic. eugenics. vindictive. 20. smug. arson or cacious. gulli- complacent.. AUTHOR :_ TOTAL NUMBER OF PAGES: 4. 15. cophonous. malaise. plaintive._ discontented 20. 19.. 23. incendiarism. 20. 163 MENS. 16. 6. hateful. 3.

you have to strive once again for a new pinnacle. you divide 200 into 100. into the figure in item 5.000 and get as a result 500 w. YOUR AVERAGE RATE OF READING: To arrive at this statistic. would like to read. As you know. (If you are not a novel-reader.000 words. (If you have not read five novels in that period of time and that averages out to less than one every four weeks write down as many as you have read.m. Thus. "That's a book I want to read. and divide this if the novel contains approximately 100. reduce the figure in item 4 to minutes (for example 3 hours. and multiply by the number by the number of of lines on the page. and you in have to draw once again on your innate capacities.p. 20 minutes would he 200 minutes). and have never said to yourself. W. You are now ready for your second challenge. TJien multiply your last figure pages in the book. if you remember them) of you have completely read in the last six months. ask your friends or your local librarian for suggestions of the sort of book you would prob- or ably enjoy." make a choice of four titles from the recommended list on page 359. To prepare you for your next pinnacle I ask you to fill out a second chart: Novels Read and Unread below the titles (and authors. if you prefer.P. Fill in five novels — — l.) 164 .M._ 2 3 4 5 Now fill in the names of four novels you have intended to read. the goals are set just a little higher. the guiding principle of this or any other training program is that as soon as you comfortably attain a certain degree of skill or excellence your performance. 6. or. but have somehow never got around to.the average number of words per line.

) As before. And then attempt to meet this second challenge to your reading habits: Within the next week. If you can meet this challenge successfully (and you can if you five — — — — 165 . ( This discipline. all by itself. when they get into bed this is not for you if you wish to become a better reader. or pick them up in inexpensive reprint editions — source at a stationery store or newsstand. you will not become a rapid and skillful reader. each in a single evening. (You will not learn to enjoy reading.— — 1 2 3 4 Of the four titles listed above. as a kind of harmless sleeping pill. keep a record of the number of hours and minutes spent in actual reading. skimming or skipping wherever and whenever you wish. allocate two of the evenings you planned to devote to your training to the reading of novels. a remarkable and effective method of developing faster reading habits. note the total number of pages and decide. if you dip into books only occasionally or at odd moments or for a few minutes before you fall off to sleep at night. going fast enough to get through in three to hours of concentrated reading. approximately how long it will take you to get through. and aiming for a quick total picture of the plot. read these two novels. Some people use books and reading purely as a sedative. This should not be a difficult assignment for you at this point in your training the only obstacle you are likely to encounter is that you may not find the time. buy them from a bookshop. Possibly you are working on this book in the evenings if so. which is known in the trade as "pacing oneself " is. Then figure how many pages you should read every hour in order to meet your self-imposed deadline and see to it that you meet it. from your previous experience with reading a novel in one sitting. no more. But one doesn't find time for leisure reading one makes the time. ) And you can make the time during the next week. you can arrange your schedule in such a way that two evenings out of the next seven will be free for reading you can if you really want to. Before you start each book. obtain any two from a convenient borrow them from a friend or from your library.

They make the full books a week. think what — pleasure and relaxation. in sharp contrast. devotes some part of his twenty-four-hour day to honestly try). 166 — more books a week try it. You may wonder. you may have been unable to fill in a simple list of only five novels read in the last six months. You too can enjoy reading two or discover how right I am. whereas. whether good readers do in fact read two at least two. an extremely pleasurable and relaxing activity and even the busiest person. now. because reading books is. if he is at all sensible. you can cover (allowing some weeks for the reading of nonfiction or of magazines ) fifty to one hundred novels in the next year. indeed time for books. and . for them. They will mean. At the rate of two novels a week.

And it is this basic message. he senses the structure and organization of the writing. he does not get enmeshed in details. time-checked selections. above all else. driving always — for the gist. that the aggressive reader wants to understand as quickly and as clearly as he possibly can. on main ideas. In this chapter you continue training the aggressiveness of your own comprehension. get down efficiently to basic meaning. or illustrate main ideas. clarify. • Become more adept at recognizing an author's pattern of and at using this pattern to clarify your understanding of his main ideas. support. • Learn more about how subordinate details serve to introduce. • Develop still further your ability to speed through words and thinking. convincingness.CHAPTER 7 HOW TO READ WITH AGGRESSIVE COMPREHENSION Preview The aggressive reader pushes through material intent on total meaning. For this purpose you: • Work on nine long. the central ideas. but instead sees them in their proper perspective as a means of giving impact. 167 . and solidity to the author's basic message. explain.

add up is What to? is (And the final meaning that all the words and sentences these are not. you 168 able.Chapter 7 offers you additional practice in speeding up your comprehension. you ata complete unit by purposein chapter 2. you read. but only three ways of framing the same question. and asks you to make a detailed evaluation of your progress to date. final. as . sentence by sentence. is the important quesand you must learn to tion you must force all material to answer extract that answer quickly and skillfully from the mass of words — and details. in total. • SESSION 14 RESPONDING TO TOTAL MEANING To read aggressively. What is the main idea of to react to — fully seeking out the What. to "touch the mind of the writer in his writing" (as John Ciardi. one of the editors of the Saturday Review. shows you how to use a new technique for increasing the usability for your peripheral vision. three separate questions. the central. you must get into the unshakable habit of viewing material as a whole. of course. you must be to. the twelve rapid comprehension exercises of chapter tempted each selection as answer to one dominating question namely. no matter in what form we express it. In the four articles you worked on and again in 5. or word by word.) This. You have probably made a good start at developing this valuable habit. But in order to find. the piece. the author trying to say. and respond actively and total meaning of material. has so well phrased it). instead of passively absorbing it thought by thought.

You may not be able to follow these instructions with absolute success right away. One of the overriding values of detecting the pattern of a you don't have read every single word. or completely unimportant to the final meaning of the selection. But if you study carefully the discussion that follows each piece you will gradually learn more and more about structure and pattern. and make no attempt to inhibit inner speech these factors will take care of themselves if you follow the other instructions carefully. i. you practice correctly and conscientiously on the nine long seyou will find yourself moving a little closer to your goal of becoming an aggressive and rapid reader. you must be able When you can do all this. when you are pretty sure you know what a sentence or paragraph will let contain. the broad structure of the writing. you will gradually develop a keener sense for what an author is doing and for how he is doing it piece is that to — single sentence. or every single With these selections we resume our time-checks on your statistical evidence of your constart your timing at the first black shall reading so that you will again have tinuing progress. efficiently. Skim or skip whenever you feel you can safely do so. Cover each selection with a slight. what is likely to come next. less important. confidently. even though you will try. keep plowing ahead notIf lections in this chapter — — withstanding. by thinking along with the author in the pattern he has set up.. but conscious.e. as you read. but don't these details slow you up. 169 . avoid unnecessary regressions if a word or a phrase eludes you. essentials. Do. As in the past. try to get a feeling for the pattern the author realize how is using in presenting his material to you. is to To do this rapidly and accurately. Keep clearly in mind that your dominating aim. pressure on your speed. then you will be to think along able to — its with the writer. with an awareness that you are going fast. or every paragraph you know. and whether it is important. and speedily —to strip a page down then you will be reading aggressively. when you can accurately sense how a writer has organized his thinking and in what pattern he is presenting his thoughts to you. try to sense grasp total meaning.must be able to meet the writer at least halfway. try to the details serve to highlight the main ideas. however. Pay no attention to fixations or eye-movements.

faculty an fall members who had indicated were two sections on the interest in reading training organized into basis of convenience in scheduling. Selection 7 PROFESSORS LEARN TO READ by Esther McConihe J. the challenge from a group of also 3. Reprinted by and their plained. Needless to say. sional journals. some of whom "Profs Learn to Read. Head conof the . tachistoscope. and a professor of geology and astronomy. were demonstrated author of many of English. A 10-week program of weekly hour and a half sessions was started. blank. purpose in training ex- The group decided upon testing to determine the status of each member's reading permission. doctors in from the Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing. Adult Reading Center. it marked the beginning of considerable interest in a training program to improve reading efficiency that had been inaugurated after repeated requests from an interested faculty to "give us a chance to brush up on our reading tech- research the School of Medicine. academic status of the group indicated considerable expertness with the written word from extensive experience in both reading and writing. in the appropriate number of minutes and seconds you required to the selection. and of two workbooks on word study. i7a Mrs. McConihe is skills. among 4. a dean of the liberal arts reading pacers.e. The table for computing your rate will follow arrow. and school and professor reading films.when you reach the second arrow. At the opening session the members were introduced to the pro- The cedures. articles in profes- two books.." appeared over a story in the campus paper at Western Reserve University. the exact finish each comprehension test. II Early in the 2. of a member of the Law School fac- From Adult Education. an author. professors have written extensively for publi- cation. When the headline. 40 included. niques. others. note. a university librarian." The this calibre was great. Western Reserve University. "gadgets. The "students" Ill semester. I Start timing—> several ulty." the i.

Since this was inspiring to the writer and would have opened the eyes of many something of the complex nature of reading and to present the various techniques which are useful to the on could from week to a good motivating his progress week. C2 Read- Form T. For this group the films were of less value than my experience has shown them to be with most adult groups. Results of the tests were given to each member be discussed below un- The following were devoted scopic eight sessions to training. individually in a personal report. Series B.. to the level of his reading their problems." 6. zeal with applied them- humdrum selves to this Form Test. ods are too short and infrequent to develop the requisite skill in reproducing such an exacting pres- shown its by one member was met by a suggestion from another who had encountered the same test number made a problem such groups rarely equals phrase reading because the practice peri- entation as a seven-digit it Many a "Yes. using one of the several 9. 5. reading pacing devices with which many reading training centers are equipped. Each person was urged to bring a book of his own choosing but was advised to keep to easy171 demonstrate . Tachisto- practice with digits was a group of very was necessary only to stress various means of utilizing the already good language and logic skills of the members and to press for speed of comprehension. experience nessed if they could have wit- it. This is device because in individual member graphs so that each graphic it form. and Speed of Reading were administered. These orientation periods were also the time for individual members to air and " the group i. which have been explained in detail in many places so need not be discussed further here. Group data on this testing will up able readers. Digit reading for lar devices. Each 1/100 of a second. of the underclassmen of the university skills needs. Frequently — der "Results. A second mechanical technique was the Harvard Reading Films. phrases was one of the most popu- and the group was very quickly reading phrases of from 21 to 25 typewriter units of space in 1/100 of a second. the Minnesota The able adult in bringing his reading A. but put the leader to devising realistic suggestions for meeting the problems which were aired during these discussion periods. presents progress Many times a reader needs this tangible proof of progress because at first he may not be aware of improved speed in day-by-day reading. 7.sequently at the second session the Cooperative English Test. 8. At each session a brief lecturediscussion period gave the instructor the opportunity to suggestions. which the groups ing. were plotted watch in own problem. session concluded with a timed reading Results of this test.e. Between sessions each member came to the Center twice a week and read.

The greatest gain by a reader was 135 per cent. or pauses. Another reader tests. and reported back on all intersessional material assigned. . about benefiting from the train- Here are some of their com- ments: 13. were given at every session." It may be expected that . they were in dead earnest the results of such this check in . ". with comprehension held constant. and the words per minute computed by the The central thought of the was written out and this material was discussed at the sessions. IV 11. These were read at any time between sessions. 10. but what about subjective report and observation? Here the results are varied and interesting. complex organization of flowing prose at first to develop a rapid ideas. This being a group of persons for whom good reading is as essential as good intelligence. . Easy fiction furnishes the best practice because it offers no obstacles from unfamiliar vocabulary. per line. reading at ticles. when a course with such a group? As measured by standardized reading reader returns for a re- six months. 172 ". more notice- able gains will be an attempt pace with rhythmic eye movements. and wrote at the close of the course. a gain of 285 words per minute over his entering speed. So much for formal gain. This member benefit of was. The emphasis in programs like this is at first on improving the mechanics. but I believe it is due to the fact that I do not yet feel the degree of security which I hope (and plan) to achieve. the group's interests as well as for the particular techniques being developed. Selected archosen for their suitability to involved throughout the training. although challenging. Such discussion was fruitful reader. 12. What were found the techniques disturbing. or unfamiliar content. This reader had perfect attendance. article in revealing to the group the read- ing experiences of the several mem- bers as they experimented with the techniques they were practicing. A third area of training home without was the group as a whole made 76 per cent improvement in speed. unaided. the ability to free oneself . rapid rate they were developing with the pacing machines. For a time during the course my pride suffered acutely and all kinds of blocks and distractions came between me and those timed readings you gave us. by observation. a good return sweep to the next line with rhythmic progression across the line and down the page are some of these. extremely ego- coaching or machines. Fewer and shorter fixations. the same smoothflowing. attempting to reproduce. Members were urged to read an hour a day. I am not yet over that. rhythmic. timed. ing. used the reading pacing machine between sessions more times than any other member. showed only 10 per cent gain in speed and with it a 10 per cent loss in comprehension.

I must concentrate. Needless to everything at the same rate (an on-going process still) from the feeling that everything must be read with which complete and specific for 20. but what I have gained is an appreciation of School professor. but sometimes a specific word makes all the how difference to read." my ability put the techniques to use throughout the course and took active part in the discussion. This has been proven to me many times over." 14. 15. It also eliminates un- rid posts of organization. but " responses mentioned above were the times when the instructor learned a good how deal about read. "I remember . Several showed up in the instructor's office me increase speed even in articles from which I need to get minute details. 16. All to get out of the piece. "One technique 'previewing' aids in retention of the my mental When I sit "Improvement in outlook on reading. that has necessary detail. so am I not in danger of missing the meaning if I read by phrases?" "We've been trained to believe that every detail 173 . look for the sign- 17. "Am I well-trained adults not insulting the author when I read at breakneck speed something which it took him days or weeks when to write?" "What do I do these transitional words don't really 'transish'?" (This from a Law was to increase my speed." to skim medical and nursing literature. . speed as is necessary. and read with a flexible speed that depends on what I want "Has given me a new method on reading." 18. such as topic sentences. I the believe particular material read. then again more myself doing that with I material." 19. The "Yes. this?' I my "Has increased was a lively and illuminating experience requesting additional training. Most of the and the members dis- covered to their surprise that this skill. in ". which had always been a vital part of their stock-in-trade. words and transitional summaries. get of distractions." 'Why am 21. details. . reading now. been me think I I had usually simply started at the be- ginning and read. Now I know I can read much more if I do not try to between understanding and not understanding. this course for both the participants to a piece of reading." down now myself. "What I expected at the outset — 22. I really ask of attack reading I believe this has helped leader. could be considerably improved.) "Yes. about it less — rapidly the find I slowly as I meditating thought or may need feel the some enjoying some on for idea of reference for getting has been a frame of being the material Heretofore read. I can get what I want from an article by skimming in the right way. one reads with variations . ." realize I read particularly useful to thought skimming here. difficult clinical particular passage. my feeling of resentment about having so little time to read.

M. Compute Your Rate (Approximate number TIME 2 min. within its own framework. The was a learning between leader and group which resulted in an experience that was rich and rewarding to this author and... 4. 4 min. taught.. 2. 3 absolutely essential.M 720 655 600 555 515 480 450 W. 15 sec. 30 sec. 5 min. A — siderably sharpened. 4 min. 3 min. and sult lively RECORD HERE THE TIME REQUIRED MIN..... 4 min. There was great interest in a training program to improve the reading efficiency of professors at Western Reserve University. 3 min. 30 sec. ON THIS SELECTION: SEC. and timed tests were given.. techniques for better reading were problems were discussed.P." group of professors who had had extensive experience with the written word were trained in specified ways to improve their reading as a result. 5 min. 3. speed of comprehension was stressed. 1. At each session of training.. Test Your Comprehension Which one of the following statements most accurately sum- marizes the main idea of the selection you have just finished? Check your choice without referring to the text. 174 425 400 380 360 345 325 300 . <—End timing re- atmosphere of mutual respect. they increased their speed by 76 per cent on the average and learned with surprise that their skill could be consions. 4 min. 30 sec. 5 min. of words: 1800) TIME W.P. 2 min. 15 sec. 30 see. understanding. 45 sec. 45 sec. This program went on for ten weeks with hour-and-a-half ses- and used a number of electrical "gadgets. 45 sec. 15 sec. it is to be hoped. What if I read a patient's chart like this?" (This being rapid overviewing and the comment being made by a member of the nursing school ) Each objection was legitimate and each had to be answered faculty. to the 20 persons who successfully completed the course. This program was started as a result of repeated requests from the faculty. 3 min. 6 min.

is that the first purpose of reading any purpose common to all readers is to get the central meaning of the whole and to recognize how the author organizes his facts and information to make this central idea most clear. rather What am some personal —unless. since these details are by now so familiar to you. considered in and completely its entirety. McConihe used. long habituated to concentrating on the important elements of material. ) A teacher of reading would also be interested in the specific methods that Mrs. As a teacher. he had details. he might be especially alert to the implications of the last two paragraphs. As a student who himself is being trained to improve his skill and speed. 30 9 min. (Possibly. 10 min. What parts of the selection you read carefully and what parts you skimmed depended on your purpose.P. but would likely skim the section to discover whether it contained anything that was new to him.. then. you skimmed nevertheless. for private interest in these details as than in their total meaning. simple. 275 260 240 225 7 min. sec. to wit: Paragraph 1: Introduction.TIME W. YOUR RATE ON SELECTION 180 165 7: W.M. TIME 8 min. Thus the skillful reader.P. despite your interest. 7 min. 210 200 sec. 30 sec. would sense selection I saying. you were no doubt particularly interested in paragraphs 6 through 10. Paragraphs 11 through 22: Results of the training. most convincing. Paragraphs 4 through 10: Explanation of the training offered. most effective. 6 min. Discussion of the Selection When this article is clear. 30 8 min. 11 min. the organization is logical.M... Paragraphs 2 and 3: Kind of students in the course. in which the actual details of training are explained the more general reader might have skimmed through this part of the article. in which the author explains her reaction to her students. —a — 175 . W. And I think that any skillful reader would have largely skimmed paragraphs 12 through 20 as soon as he recognized that these were repetitive details of the — students' subjective reactions to the training reasons of his own.M.P.

and copy that figure here: Average Rate on Selections 3-6: Now W. a skillful reader will react to material according to any individual purpose he He may have. His mind is focused now on discovering whether there is still room for improvement. so that on page 393 and draw a you will have a continuous basis for comparison with your rate of reading for the nine selec- on the chart on page 393. line 1 lines. which you will find on page 393. you will be able to compute your speed in words per minute. and so he is alert to the continued development of the main theme in paragraph 11 (they increased their speed by 76 per cent) and again in paragraph 21 (they learned with surprise. he does not ignore the details. go faster or slow up. Above and beyond this primary purpose of quickly finding the — total meaning and general structure of writing. Such a record 176 will tell you. push aside details once he understands their function or concentrate on them carefully all depending on what his purpose is.).M. Fill in. turn to page 392. also. First. Plot each speed on the graph. where you have recorded your average rate on the four timed selections of chapter 2.once that paragraphs 2 and 3 of at this selection begin to develop the main idea. at . instead of getting lost in them. they've had so much experience. At the end of each of the remaining timed selections in this chapter. locate this figure on the graph straight line parallel to line AB. consciously or otherwise. etc. Aha! he will think to himself. Keeping a careful record of your progress is one of the best in- centives. skim or read thoroughly.P. however. will — You are ready now to record your rate statistic for selection 7 on a new chart and graph. Correct choice on the comprehension test is statement 3. Although reading for the main idea. he fits them into their proper place in the framework of the piece and notes how they contribute to the central theme by this means he can skim through them whenever he wishes to. these professors should already be good readers. and connect the points by straight tions in this chapter. in self -training. for maintaining your enthusiasm at a high pitch and your effort at a maximum. However.

how much success attends your efforts. Stern is Assistant to the Dean. perhaps oversolemn. But every age has and helpful and noticing some for tonight. the quotation from Miss Allen's poem above are from a poem Me To Sleep. 177 .— a glance. New York University. how well you are doing. We moderns know better carefree. other. Sentimental as it may be." by Elizabeth Akers Allen. —we learn. JUST FOR TO-NIGHT" 'MAKE by Milton R. We children hold that childhood is such a difficult time of life that we have child guidance associations and study psychologists pick if we again. Division of General Education. extreme. If we mature adults who are studying in evening classes could be modern children again is to-night. "just clinics and child and "child-centered" endurable for the to live through it. Mr. Mother." tions in order to 2. Stern afford to throw stones at the late Start timing-* Victorians. child just for that in class considerably surprised at than to think of childhood as happy and — we spend inexcusably sentimental and in- its own kind we who have created the soap opera can scarcely of way and the way grown- Whatever the subject matter whether it is the dates of English 5. kings or how Oliver Twist to pick pockets. "Backward. easily time might be turning backward ourselves. children From Pleasures in Learning. Publications and Counseling. how much we would cannot actually be perhaps we can up a few homes and a host of sentimentality. this quotation accurate. By worth a moment of study by people in evening classes for what it suggests about the learning process in children and in grown-ups." The lines — called "Rock is standards. O Time. in your flight. by hints the differences between the of similar institu- children learn make childhood infants who have ups leam. We faster have gone to an- and more And 4. Make me a child again just for 3. turn backward. Selection 8 ME A CHILD AGAIN. who was born in 1832 and died in 1911. published by the Division of General Education. like —when it comes to learning something new. New York University. Reprinted by permission.

easy to understand. African animals or the less Museum for both teacher of Natural History. They want mastery and power. new and the all second-graders discovery of ideas. and a major almost a compulsion to be "experts" part of growth on practically every subject that comes up. children have a natural or unaware built-in motivation. where first-graders are And the development They want to be communicated with. are by and large cautious learners. adults have often into life grown people reacquire these qualities? Make-me-a- some bilities not equally impor- ence. because they must. learning. First- delight in words. and they give their parents moments of enormous pleasure by their sudden. Adults they are often tissue — have scar so it on their child-again-just-for-tonight very well. They have more re- —and experience enough. but quickly acquire the habit of lying equipped with more answers. unexpected grasp tant. There are other wavs in which grown-ups are handicapped as learners. — With edge. I think it is. the mind. even as the bounce board of skeptical usually learn faster than adults. but is mature student or seven-year-old? 9. child in an unhappy as a defense situation mechanism. Adults. Perhaps a key idea to keep in mind is that of purpose what educators (and the Navy) call motiva10. and mature men and women need something of the enthusiasm and unself-consciousness of the of things. But contemporaries luckier his thirstily drink in useful information of kinds. But can for the these responsi- is is they are to capitalize fully if in the classroom seeming ridiculous. and others have drifted of that subtle instrument. They want to be in touch. the grown-ups have largely forgotten how to use their teachers. They want to understand communicate and and 178 whole- is to to be understood. Furthermore. 7. . in motivation Children a long is children. child 6. warmly embracing may the teacher as a learner. Attitude afraid to ask questions for fear of sponsibilities But is. Actually. Adults also are handicapped as students by the fact that they have largely got out of the habit of listening.A hearted scholars. or new new places on questioning. They in the and is a price- classroom students. Evening college administrators say that adult experience commodity the map. literally thirst after way to knowl- They have grow. Some adults have all to recapture gotten more or less unconsciously habits. is of the spontaneity of the six- tion bad experi- really possible it cannot usually be lightly shrugged off. too. They are more timid than youngsters about asking questions. They have many more demands on their time than children. And keep their teachers wedded to the profession by their enthusiastic curiosity. into the habit of accepting whatever the "experts" say. on the other hand. 8.

it years old. 18. Let him! He can purpose does not classes. afford to is How easy 17. not as b-o-u-g-h. English well and goes to an evening make them learner as can be as active a we were when we were six very. art?" world. istry. is pronounced the Make me a child again just for Each of us in the classroom tonight? or out. But whatever we study. quizzing a teacher or read- ing a book. or whether enjoyable and fruitful in out of the into or skill. in their world. the reality of an anti-intelit Let him answer "Yes. "Yes. very obvious can the adult student feel sure of social approval. But adults. too. But with the adult student in evening if operate in such an automatic and Nor does the come in for such complete approval and sanc- do so boldly. 14.' then?" often persuade themselves they can be ignorant. instinctive adult student always stand literature. "Does he aspire to be an 'egg- fashion. then he not only Not only does the truant officer come after them if they stay away from school. overcome this handicap he needs more education to get into a better paying job. Indeed. 12. too head. who does not praise has to go to school. children have sanction approval for drive. there is. to find a rationalization to avoid trying to understand anything We cult. sure that try to dissuade and take pride in the child's expanding knowledge. music. then he and college to almost instinctual this The whole society is or organ- may feel fairly nobody will him from studying in the afterschool years of life.And 11. cannot afford not to know. Children." enthu"There are thousands of siastically. It makes them too helpless and powerless. he to come may run if a certain when he aspires to anything further. Is there a better use of a man's time?" 16. he has to defend himself for going. but it ized to further is a rare parent it. lectual climate of opinion. seems sometimes that information tion curiosity about philosophy or dangerous thing" or "You can't teach an old dog new tricks. "Does he propose to under- tion in his efforts." There is. us. like more money or higher social prestige. If he does not speak is or are sparked of rabbits or the circumstance that of silent or ning study we second-graders approach the birth an adult Only when the purpose we proached amount 13. in their 15. will find in open mockery of eve- r-o-u-g-h same technical by chemsuch study most the way if it ap- is first- and 19. We can take conscious account of our adult purposes and 179 give us pleasure in . But if his goal is not going to pay off immediately in some highly visible way. and whether we seek to overcome an obvious handicap of communica- diffi- know how little time how difficult it is to win all mastery over any subject. and the omnipresent "experts" are all too eager to give us escape through the cliche of "A little knowledge is a knows enough rain.

M. 2 min. and notice the pattern Mr. 3 min..P.M 345 325 305 290 260 235 220 200 TIME 7. SEC. 1 min. 30 6 min.. Adults would be happier if they could be children again. now. 3 min. 3. 45 sec. 4 min.... (Record if children do. «-End timing it. YOUR RATE ON SELECTION 8: on the chart and graph on page 393. 865 745 650 580 520 480 435 400 370 2 min. Discussion of Glance back 3 min. 1 min. of words: 1300) 2 min.. 4 min. 45 sec. 1. Children usually learn faster than adults. 2. 15 sec.learning in the same way the sense and courage to acknowl- as did our There is the child in each of us.. 15 sec. 30 sec. 30 sec... 5 min. Adults in evening classes would learn faster and more easily they reacted the way Compute Your Rate (Approximate number TIME 30 sec. W. 185 W. sec. 2 min. 4 min. 4. RECORD HERE THE TIME REQUIRED ON THIS SELECTION: MIN.M.. 30 7 min. sec. Stern has followed in presenting his thinking to the reader: Paragraphs 1 and 2 and the beginning of paragraph from a poem are used as a springboard to the central 180 3: Two theme. lines .P. 15 sec. less conscious drives. Test Your Comprehension Which one rizes the most accurately summayou have just finished? Check of the following statements main idea of the selection your choice without referring to the text. Adults like to be experts on every subject that comes up. 45 sec. 3 min.. 5.P..) this statistic tlie Selection at the article. Adults are cautious and timid learners and hesitate to ask questions. 5 min. We have but to be aware of the fact and have edge early. 30 sec. 6 min.

serve as transition to paragraph 10. Correct choice on the comprehension test is statement 5. a little defter. in your technique. and the answer to that question in paragraph 9. with which. But with every selection you practice on. habits. And as you study the discussion that follows each piece. if they wish to learn as effectively as children do. are the best learners. in the form of a question. and (2) purpose and drive*.) No doubt you realize that the selection you have just finished appears to contradict the paragraph on page 109. Learning to sense structure as you read is not easy. etc. the more clearly and easily will you be able to see all — this. how he uses his details for a and subordinate points to elaborate on. do you agree? 181 . from your own experience. which claims that adults. The last sentence of paragraph 8. not children.. namely ( 1 ) attitudes. how he skillfully shapes a mass of words into a unified and artistic whole. of course. should have the same purpose and drive that motivated tral theme contrast characteristics of children their learning earlier in life. Or. clarify. you will learn to see a little more clearly how an author organizes his thinking. Paragraph 4: Transition. you will become a little surer. Paragraphs 10 through 17: The second part of the development of the central theme adults. — Paragraphs 18 and 19: Summary the central theme is restated in terms of the two parts of its development. and I am not moment pretending that it is.— — — Paragraph 3: The central theme is explicitly stated adults in evening classes would learn faster and more easily if they reacted the way children do. (The more skillful and lucid the writing. and and of adults. I suggest you reread that paragraph and decide whether it is possible to reconcile these seemingly opposed views. Paragraplis 5 through 8: First part of the development of the cen- between the learning attitudes. if you find them unreconcilable. how he develops his theme. and drive home his main idea in short.

—they are forced to take by easy stages. 4. . yet he was given one of those rare honorary degrees of Doctor of Science. 182 two solid hours. ScD. 6. Such crowded study or practice produces fatigue or boredom which hinders learning. But they are also helped by circumstances text it periods. But during his lunch hour he attended staff lectures. 7. When things." Then. Start timing—* Spare-time learners hand anatomy are usually the best learners. of course. Instead of practicing at the typewriter.Selection 9 TAKE IT EASY TO LEARN BETTER by Donald A. 5. there is taking breathing spells. Reprinted with permission. You can't gain wisdom quickly. "and I'll do them for you. in is time between learning learning complex an extra advantage to soak in beginning something new When it also speeds up learning to have breathers. Laird. and he had to leave school and go to work be- 2. or behind the steering wheel. or piano. laboratory. which he stud- way. he bought a second- From Your Picking up his education in this pecially efficient since there fore finishing the grades. but drinking in every word that was said. the janitor who became a leading medical scientist and teacher. Burchell made himself one of the world's authorities on bacteriology and on the anatomy of the head. for Life. but you can gain wisdom steadily by easy stages. watching the interns in the "Teach me how you do these things. carefully pretending he was in the lecture amphitheater for janitor work. Their ied in his other spare moments. Most eager beginners push themselves too long at a time. from his small savings. Surgeons from all over the country consulted this former janitor before performing puzzling head operations. Edgar Burchell. Such spare-time learning is es- by the fact that they want to learn and consequently try to learn. When his twelve-hour stint was up he remained at the infirmary. Other work prevents them from applying their learning themselves to learning for so long that they get dyspepsia of learning. 3. He was one of nine children. is an example. rate of learning is helped. He had never been a medical student." he said to them. for At twentytwo he was scrubbing floors twelve hours a day at the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary.

practice only one hour.

Then take


some features of a game or
The clever teacher, or ex-

a breather before doing the second


hour of practice or study. You will
be fresher when you start the second lap. Such spaced practice or

pert job trainer, has the knack of



better for learning than





arousing the learner's interest to
the point of actual excitement.

ambitious individual often




lets his

ambition provide the excitement.


11. Keeping score on oneself gives
some of this game spirit to the lone

some maturation of the nerve connections which have been exercised

People usually master a
as golf or bowling
quickly largely because they natu-

total length.

Spaced practice not only eliminates fatigue and boredom, but also



seems to take place during the
space between practice periods.
Whatever the reason, however, distributed practice is better than continuous




keep tabs on


Score keeping


how they're doing.

easy for some kinds

of learning, such as typing speed.

These scores can be charted week






one's learning

periods can be safely used only after

curve, or rate of progress in master-

one has acquired considerable skill.
9. The most efficient distribution of

ing the subject.

study sessions varies
with the kind of material being
learned. Each person has to find



the best distribution of practice that





him and his task. Follow these
two guides in spacing your learning

Sometimes a numerical score

not possible, but there are other


to find

an indication of one's

The person who



improve his handwriting, for
example, can keep samples of his
regular Saturday morning penman-


ship for a period of time, pasting

Each practice should be long
enough to warm you up and to



allow the peak of your present


be reached.

it is

should be halted when faboredom, errors, or slowness






side to observe the

13. Don't guess at your progress
possible to figure

some way



keep a week-by-week record. This
record can give you the encouragement needed to break through a
temporary slump in progress.








fun, less efficient



be made longer






the learner


excited about learning. Learning






effective in a group,

since individual progress then ac-



shows rapid
few days; then
After six months of


progress for the





take a full month
make as much progwas made the first week.

of practice to
ress as




often called the principle







one closer


ing loss of 50 per cent. This back-


the increases



he never becomes king of any trade.
15. It is when the gains slow
down that you must become excited
over even a slight gain.
16. Extra




needed where the gains are small,
or when the job seems to be mastered at



not enough to be satisfied.


children re-

small; so thus


to perfection.



school stopped.


a gain, bringing


was not overlearned at school
and because learning stopped when

they know
about 20 per cent less than they did
in June. A year after graduating
from high school there is a learn-



is still


While the



per week








turn to school in the

sliding in learning



more marked

among businessmen than among


Keep your


learning useful by

spare moments.
growing by expanding your




and thinking.
what we have learned.
What we have let slip is what we
reading, observation,



used to be.

learned" makes the learning more

permanent and

easier to











can weave their

17. Taxi-drivers

vehicles through congested traffic







have overlearned
months and months of practice








frighten bystanders, but these






which are not
routinely used over and over so
job details

they become overlearned should be
practiced in spare and slack times
until they are overlearned.


For example, when Raymond

L. Ditmars


sixteen his job did

not give enough practice for him

overlearn his


Conby taking


sequently he practiced








higher degree of motor



can be learned
developed by the




23. Sensory-motor



volves the cooperation of muscles

Learning to play a mu-

sical instrument, to typewrite,


handle many factory jobs are examples of sensory-motor learning.
24. Ideo-motor learning combines
thought processes with
muscular actions. Learning shorthand, bookkeeping, or a foreign
language are examples.

25. Ideational learning
est type, in


the high-

which muscular


are not appreciably concerned. This

the sermon in church!



of the simpler factory opera-

skill also


world's best safety records.

simplest learning

muscle control, as in learning to
walk, swim, throw a ball, and in





in the

realm of ideas.


Such a


from mus-

ideational part of learning removes


one from the wage class and promotes one into the salary class
from a job into a position, from an

cular to ideational learning


venient, but

practical life learning




usually a

occupation into a profession.

mixture of several of these levels,

one is possibly
marked than the others.




level of learning for

and the same job may







also vary


during the different stages of learn-


Laying bricks may be primarily a muscular task in which
case we have a "mechanical" bricklayer who is assigned to rough
work. After the muscular parts of
bricklaying are learned, however,
ideational learning can be added
as Frank Gilbreth did when he
learned to lay bricks with about

efficient learning are pretty



one-third the conventional


of motions.



a job are likely to be
then the sensory and



or mechanical as-






higher aspects are neglected, the


no more than a me-







stay with

you longer. Do this by:
1. Wanting to learn.
2. Taking it by easy stages

higher pay, ideo-motor

and ideational the

Pushing yourself

—but not



the point of staleness.


mere motor learning have
lowest pay scales, sensory-motor



your learning.

tion of learning levels: jobs



low earning level
and discouragement. Speed up

Keeping a





Getting excited about learning.


call for




ules run parallel to that classifica-


jobs the cost runs into the



and ideational



costs business

the outset.



around $100 to
an employee on the
simplest job; the average job has a
break-in cost of $400 to $500; on

the practical world salary sched-

jobs a

The laws

"break in"

one should strive to learn not only
the motions of a job, but also the

involved, the laws for

ness as for the ambitious individual.

chanical worker.
29. For


learning are as valuable for busi-


The motor






Keeping up practice as





Using your head.

Learners come to be earners.
<—End timing

30. Learn to use your head along
with your hands; then use your
head more than your hands. The



Test Your Comprehension

Which one
rizes the

most accurately summayou have just finished? Check

of the following statements

main idea

of the selection

your choice without referring to the text.
1. These are the main principles of efficient learning: space your
practice; keep a record of your progress; overlearn; use your head
along with, or more than, your hands. Apply these principles if you
wish to get ahead.
2. Learning in spare time is better than full-time learning, because
there is time for knowledge to sink in between practice periods.
3. Never break the rhythm of your learning. Keep at a learning
task continuously, without interruption, for quickest and most per-



Learning of physical skills is much more difficult than the acquisition of mental abilities.
5. Learning starts off slowly but gains momentum in later stages,
with spectacular gains toward the end of the learning process.

Compute Your Rate
(Approximate number
2 min.
2 min., 15 sec.
2 min., 30 sec.

2 min., 45 sec,
3 min.

3 min., 15
3 min., 30
3 min., 45
4 min.



of words: 1825)





4 min., 30 sec.



min., 30 sec.




min., 30 sec.


9 min.

on the chart and graph on page 393.)

this statistic

Discussion of the Selection
"Here," Dr. Laird
efficient learning.

in the piece



saying to his readers, "are the principles of

Apply them


you wish

this explicitly stated


to get ahead."

it is


clearly implicit,


beginning to end, in every sentence, in every example, in every


In paragraphs 1 through




the author explains in elaborate detail

for best results space your learning

of these principles


take your learning in easy stages, etc. For the next


four paragraphs (through 13), he offers and enlarges on his second
suggestion keep a record of your progress. In paragraphs 14

through 21, he calls for overlearning; then, through paragraph 30,
he describes four broad types of learning and suggests that you
[or] more than your hands."
"use your head along with
Finally, in the last two paragraphs, he sums up, under seven
headings, the four major principles around which the article is




Correct choice on the comprehension test




Selection 10





by Virginia Hurray

Start timing—>

never marry.


fact that women
men and that





a matter of cold




enough unmarried men today


am amply forewarned

the eligible

At 27,







The authors

are outnumbering




dreams of




of articles

on the

(have you noticed

that they are invariably

men?) are

altogether too distressed and ap-











much gloom

presented with too
and foreboding.



Nevertheless, I can face the pros-


pect of middle-aged and old maid-

snatching of other women's hus-

enhood with something


like indif-





I'm glad to have been exposed
to the statistics:


But I




what the score


vinced that the

statistics are

From Look. Reprinted with





say to these worries!

insult the integrity of


belittle all the efforts that par-



and teachers made

in our childhood to

fill us with the
determination to lead moral and

useful lives.


are based on the

permission of the Cowles Syndicate. Miss Hurray

feature writer for the Youngstown, Ohio, Vindicator.




old Freudian idea that sex is the
one all-important fact of life an
idea with which most psychiatrists
today do not agree.
Frankly, like most other members
of my sex, I hope to marry. But I


not interested in getting a hus-

band by hook





are most of the single girls of



all unmarried
mature age are frustrated

insinuate that







says "frustrate"



I'm thinking of several dynamic
school teachers

cheerful domestic whose dutiful
performance of household chores is
a great contribution to the smooth
operation of her employer's home.
These women are all unmarried.

Judging by the generally pleasing
dispositions they display,

say that they

Let's look at the

The very



articles that




warn us


shortage protect us from

disappointment. For
that not



we know

of us can marry, the

mateless future will be less of a

a third


to prevent


I ask,

ried? Is that




"to render null or ineffec-



find real reason to rebel. I

could cite here the names of


that marriage




However, most of the eight million women who must remain single
are, like myself, not unusual.

may have





most of us
of us







of attain-

full life?


one means

real purpose.




most tried-and-true



means, but




of course,



it is

famous unmarried women in the
arts, ^sciences and professions. No
one can call them "null or ineffectual."

to get

purpose? Or do

ing happiness and a





be married because

The answer

In the second meaning of the

of us

meaning for
from attain-

ried just for the sake of being mar-




ing a purpose.




lead lives which


are far from "null or ineffectual."

But there

from attaining a pur-

are past

charming hostess at a restaurant
where I sometimes dine, and of the

point; to render null or ineffectual;
to prevent

know who


40. I'm thinking of the elderly

not the only one.


What if I don't get married? I
can perfect whatever work I earn


living by,

sential to









a basic need for



all of



merely show aptitudes. Some may
become famous, but most will re-

friends too. Being unmarried

main unknown. Nevertheless we
can and do lead full, satisfying,


effective lives.

leisure time than a

important to



Because a single



can become

possess brilliant talents; most of us



employer. (Isn't that,



has more

married one,


can become a zealous volunteer
worker whenever there is a campaign for some worthy purpose at
my church or in my community.
As a single woman, I'll have more

The number

time for hobbies.







mending clothes for her husband
and children I can conscientiously
use to do fancy embroidery, water-

whatever else I like.
Will I be lonely? I don't think
so. With all the contacts I'll have
colors or



opportunity to




in club




should find at
beings with



a few



and committee


share enough similar inter-

est for friendship.

you are going

ber that




longer than

men. Thus wifehood entails the risk
of widowhood. And the woman


has given

husband may






also guiding




ing the young to worthy adulthood.

imagine there will always be a







neighborhood, or a youngster my
pastor can tell me about who could

do happily with more adult attenthan he is getting. If my


maternal instincts really want to
come to the fore, I believe I'll have

no difficulty finding


How about sex? Will I not have
missed something if I go to my
grave without ever having known
connubial bliss? Undoubtedly, yes!


just as a


woman woos

about the independence she lost
when she declared her wedding
vows, so, too, am I inviting trouble



by concentrating upon sex and what
I'm likely to miss by not being wed.

her time to her

muGh more



death than the woman of
the same age who has never experienced the close partnership of mar-


after his


if I


don't get married?







most of the other eight million
remain single.
Stop worrying about us!
«—End timing

women who must

If I



child. It


compare the
loneliness of married and unmarried women you must also rememIf


should not marry, will the

blooming of my womanly personality be thwarted by my failure
to experience motherhood? I certainly hope not. Motherhood, as
I've seen it at best, is more than


Test Your Comprehension

Which one
rizes the

most accurately summayou have just finished? Check

of the following statements

main idea

of the selection

your choice without referring to the



Unmarried women are happier than married women

longer and have more interesting




get married, but it is foolish to become anxious
about the unmarried state.
3. Married women can also be frustrated
this feeling is not re2. It's all right to

stricted to spinsters.



full lives.


women do

not marry, they can lead

The problem

no point



happy, and

not as bad as some people think.

in getting

married just for the sake of being


Compute Your Rate
(Approximate number

of words: 1060)





1 min., 15 sec.


2 min., 45 sec.
3 min.
3 min., 30 sec.
4 min.
4 min., 30 sec.
5 min.


30 sec
min., 45 sec.

1 min.,

2 min.
2 min., 15
2 min., 30




on the chart and graph on page 393.)

this statistic

Discussion of the Selection

Taking a second look at the article, notice the pattern around
which the author presents her thinking:
Section I: Miss Hurray introduces the problem ("I may never
marry"), tells why the problem exists ("aren't enough unmarried
men"), and how she feels about it ("something like indifference").
Section II: Here the author begins to develop her main theme
she shows how an unmarried woman need not be frustrated in any
of the dictionary meanings of the word, but can, on the contrary,
lead a fruitful, effective, satisfying, and purposeful life.
Section III:

her theme


the author pursues a second tack in developing

—she shows how,

as a spinster, she will capitalize on the
advantages of being unmarried while nevertheless, as far as she can,

avoiding the disadvantages.


Section IV: And now she sums up, very
she wishes to leave with the reader.


Correct choice in the comprehension test


the final message



Selection 11




by Benjamin Fine

timing—> For many years eduand psychologists have insisted that the I.Q. remains constant. Allowance was made for
slight variations, perhaps five to
ten points, but this was termed the
"margin of error." Basically, the
belief existed that a person retained

tested twenty years ago



In doing so he tested not only the
individuals but also the theory that

who had an I.Q. of 110
age of 14, would have the
same I.Q., with slight variation, at
the age of 34.
4. It did not turn out that way.
a boy, say,
at the

the amount of brains that nature

Those who had additional years of
schooling had raised their I.Q.'s by
as much as fifteen or twenty points
with due allowance for the mar-

endowed him

with, and that very
be done about it. Most
textbooks on the subject upheld

little coi-!d

that belief.








had the

intelligence quotients today.

twenty-year study,

gin of error.





Dr. Lorge


conducted by Dr. Irving Lorge,
head of the educational research institute at Teachers College, Columbia University, presents evidence

to his far-reaching conclusions:

that the intelligence quotient fluc-


tuates with the


an individual







boys who, twenty

were matched



intelligence score, let us say

pleted a four-year college course.


issue of the Teachers College




sets of

105. But one of the boys had
continued his schooling and com-

published in the

of that study


of educa-


other boy had stopped at the
of elementary school. This




retained his 105 I.Q.

Dr. Lorge set out to discover
whether a group of individuals

go backward. The student who had
gone to college had raised his to


the New York Times, reprinted with permission. Dr. Fine is Education Editor
Times and author of a series of articles on "The Crisis in American Education."

of the

did not


125. That

was not according

to the



Subsidized by the Carnegie Cor-

poration, the study


in 1921,

under the direction of Prof. Edward
L. Thorndike,


a representa-

sampling of 863 boys in the
eighth grade of New York City's
public elementary schools received


of the eighth grade retained his 100

of tests for abstract intelli-

gence, mechanical adroitness and
clerical ability.

In May, 1941, as the twentieth
year of the experiment came to a

close, Dr.


who by

that time

had succeeded Dr. Thorndike






did not improve, neither did

it go
10. According to Dr. Lorge, the
mental ages of the men who com-

pleted three years or
lege are




of col-

years higher than

men who completed
than two years of high school.
Men who had equal intelligence at
the age of 14 revealed striking differences at age 34, depending upon
those of the



in the

of education received


11. In other words, while the in-

Teachers College, invited the original group to come to the college
for a retesting. In all, 131 responded, enough to provide a reliable

tellectual ability of a person

cross-section of the original group,

boy who comes up the
"hard way" has the same advan-

and thus

of the larger student body.

In essence, the study showed

men who had gone to college made higher ratings on their
intelligence tests than those who
that the


not. Strikingly

enough, even as

as a year of schooling raised

the I.Q* And the more education a
person received, the higher his I.Q.

9. For example, a boy who at the
age of 14 had an intelligence quotient of

100, raised that score to



he grows older even though
he does not go to school, his full
lost as

abilities are

not realized.

It is


true that a

tages as the person



However, even
though education makes a profound difference, Dr. Lorge warns
that "it would be overly optimistic
to expect it to change the least able
into the most able."
12. "An adult's measured mental



ability is related to his intelligence

as a

boy and

to the extent of his

subsequent schooling," Dr. Lorge
<—End timing

115 or 120 by going to school. On
the other hand, another boy who
stopped going to school at the end





Test Your Comprehension

Which one
rizes the

most accurately summayou have just finished? Check

of the following statements

main idea

of the selection

your choice without referring to the


50 sec. — 2. . 4. Fine. Fine saying here? Simply we have long held the belief that the I. sec. 2 min.P. Continuing description of the study and repeti- —"additional theme I. person's full abilities are realized. 3: 4: tion of central it —con- Now Dr. . can be increased by schooling. .. sec. 1 min. The words "intelligence quotient fluctuates with the amount tral of education" obviously are the first statement of the cen- theme. A person's 5." 193 . Education can change the least able into the most able. Paragraph Paragraph what you the article.P. call stancy of I. for through education a 1. . essentially. will.Q. with education. 1 min. then.Q. raised . sec. the springboard. (Record W.Q.W. sec. of Old belief new study—fluctuation of I. 342 313 278 250 228 208 sec. . the introduction. TIME W. schooling . Fine starts describing the study in detail. . The I.. Paragraph 1: What. 30 2 min. Paragraph 2: Now. 1 min.College graduates have higher I. 10 sec.. 3. 40 sec.. 2 min. is Dr. 15 sec. 30 min.'s than uneducated people. 20 min.Q. 45 3 min.'s.M. explains. that This is expressed in the first sentence and the rest of the para- all graph merely restates. I..Q.. remains constant.Q. remains fairly constant over a twenty-year period. 1 1 1 min.. a new study presents contrary evidence. says Dr.M. Paragraphs 1-2.Q. are the beginning.M. Very little can be done about a persons brain power he has what nature endowed him with.P.. . 2 min. Compute Your Rate (Approximate number TIME 40 50 of words: 625) 939 750 625 517 470 418 375 sec. YOUR RATE OF SELECTION 11: on the chart and graph on page 393. or clarifies the same point. ..) this statistic Discussion of the Selection Let us again look back at the material and examine the author's pattern of thinking.

and how it proves that schooling increases the LQ. paragraphs 1-2: boil A it all down? 20-year study shows that the LQ. Dr. paragraphs 11-12: Schooling increases the LQ. this time a specific example to support the central theme. Paragraph 8: Results of the study and again a restatement of die central theme. Summary. further restatement of central theme. and he adds. . (Correct choice in the comprehen- sion test: statement 4. describe the mechanics and the results of the study this is the middle of the structure. and how the subordinate details provide background and support the central theme. The efficient reader does all this boiling down as a matter of habit. his sensitivity to structure helps how him see clearly and quickly the twelve paragraphs of this piece are related to one another. 194 for. sons It full abilities are realized. the end part of the structure. paragraphs 3-10: description of the study. explain. can be increased by schooling. or if preferably we included the implication in paragraph 11. we might add because through education a per- paragraph. is inferentially. pervading almost every can be expressed quite as starkly as the LQ. Paragraph 7: Still on the study.) So what have we here when we Introduction. fluctuates with education. Paragraphs 11-12. Paragraph 12: Continued summary in the form of a quotation from one of the directors of the study that again restates the centheme. Fine's central theme is inescapable. that the reason that schooling helps a person realize his full abili- ties. tral — Paragraph 11: Summary — in short. then. then. for the results is Fine is saying. Paragraph 6: Still on the study. are a kind of summary of tral all the rest of the article. this. Dr. Body.Paragraph 5: More details of the study. what the study proves. Paragraph 10: More examples from the study to support the centheme. Paragraph 9: Still on the study. Paragraphs 3-10.

83720 <— 83720 if any. even what pattern the author is if only dimly. The kind of practice immensely valuable in developing selections. * SESSION 15 PERCEPTION TRAINING VI Perception Exercise 20 Before you do lined on page 62. and directly after a session of perception training and vocabulary study you will have a chance to continue your practice on four more you. Keep review the correct procedure as out- a record of your errors. 84727 <— 74820 this exercise. through realizing. following in presenting his thinking to and study you are now engaging in is and strengthening this habit. 10392 <— 83720 *— 09287 <— 83920 *— 93820 <— 83721 *- 83720 *— 19382 *— 71819 *— 93827 *— 93820 55267 *- 93821 <— 84721 74629 <— 11029 11029 <— 64527 88377 *— 83720 84720 -t— 93827 *— *— 62539 4— 195 .In your work on this chapter you too are attempting to develop down material through sensing the indispensable habit of boiling the relationship of the parts.

71 _ 32748 4— 84095 4— 4fi5*3 4— 67328 4— 05489 4— 23867 4— 26312 32748 4— 91270 62739 4— 58463 4— R9S91 4— 68973 4—.745 4- 94840 4— 94894 *- R4723 4— 94804 4— 84796 4— 7ft«Kfl 84793 4— 84785 NUMBER CORRECT OUT Ol * 50: Percept ion Exercise 2 1 Conti nue as before. 81754 4— 29395 53264 4— 9. 83980 4— 1R070 4— 84725 4— 76422 4— 79201 4— 93726 *— 84950 4— 34658 4— m 196 .62539 <— 84762 4— 79R04 4— 02928 4— 93802 4— 9SU9T7 4— 83726 4— 83762 4— 45731 83728 4r- 93802 4— IKON 4— 94850 4— 83762 Q9.0791 4— 10972 4— fflWMt 4— 21362 4— 27912 OQ917 4— 54729 4— 38564 199.

see page 68. is will a rosy-cheeked child the rosy-fingered dawn -> with -» a characteristic smile full speed ahead -» the lumbering elephant -» a strong -> -» 197 brew of coffee a snowy landscape his bulging muscles . that somewhat longer these disconnected phrases are for the most part — now you must. for a time. instantaneously. This you -+ -> not going to be child's play. You may not. Or perhaps you actually may not catch the extremities at all what you don't see you will nevertheless be able to surmise. kind of perception training that will us once again use the Flashmeter let card on phrases. rely more strongly on interpreting the somewhat indistinct peripheral images that your eyes will photograph in the fraction of a second in which each phrase is exposed. (To refresh your memory on peripheral and macular vision. have any realization of seeing the outer extremities of the exposed line. to the complete phrase in one single fixation. as soon as you start to work. ) Keep these exposures as brief as you possibly can so that you will gradually adjust to reacting. You will notice. and probably with great than the ones you have practiced on in the past to — accuracy.K 4- 31642 4— 72931 4- 0SRR7 ^ 94370 58712 4— 76489 *— 36918 4— 58116 <— NUMBER rr>TmTr<~r mrr of 50- Perception Exercise 22 As preparation for a new follow in the next exercise. be successful. but with effort and practice soon be doing better than you may expect.50948 4— 97466 4— 32177 4- 76328 4— 26054 4— 58317 4- 43888 4— 80576 <— 5R39.

— 198 . So follow the instructions carefully. three columns of print. You will find. was not particularly easy this exercise. below. Fixate in line with the broad cise. may at first be even more difficult. when you finally attain some degree of success in perception drills of this nature.view mirror a dreamlike sequence -» that clammy feeling in mob psychology -> his depressed feelings under other circumstances -» our early ancestors changing circumstances -»• his royal ancestors many -> tall waves of the ocean ancestors Perception Exercise 23 Now I have a different type of task for you.-» a furiously speeding car furiously revolving —> his happily smiling face slowly revolving -» a mud-stained finger articles of faith — an ink-stained face his religious beliefs -» an ink-stained wretch principles of learning -> mud-splattered fender — a grandstand seat —> mud-splattered his military their window uniform unknown beliefs their threatening gestures -> two broken windows her beautiful fingernails -» a black telephone our foolish fantasies -> a rear. slightly narrower than those previously used in the book. continuing the challenge. However. the rewards in terms of comfortable speed will amply compensate you for any initial difficulty. The preceding exerwhich challenged you to make greater use of your peripheral vision.

and it worked. night. which we is located at approximately the center of each need the Flashmeter card in this and the following exercises).black arrow. Reprinted with permission. and offered a job my boss. a wholly involuntary process that can be refined and perfected only through constant and unremitting practice. and saw night.' We the last I that went. of her down being trundled a long corridor in a wheelchair. The more rapidly you move. Concentrate on three things: (1) going very fast. "Because one day was I by another company. she When I saw her the next morning she was lying very still and white and with the sweetish smell of ether on her came breath. and (3) understanding what you read. one of them dangling from a slender string. knew that he him. so station for the take Owl me home. think I'd bet- ter go. promised me ten when he I told more a week I offered to help her." he said. "it was because once I met a young person coming up the stairs of an apartment house with her arms full of packages. Some of this practice you've already had in our previous phrase-perception training now. I told her of the boss's generous? she If he. "Because one night she woke me up and 1 said. the more you will have to make use of your peripheral vision. She still is. "Because 'What do you mean. dollars At the door of her apartment. I didn't think she'd mind. like advertisement of the Travelers Insurance Co. 199 was she to . generosity. A and 'Wouldn't you in nurse asked. a wholly new and very effective approach is being made to the same goaL column ( shall not — LIFE INSURANCE I "Why life did you buy insurance?" I asked him. should have paid it to you before he had to. in the present exercise. So I quit and took the new job. to I said. I late one while she and were waiting at a dimly lighted railway An I'd When stay. you were worth much to said. in spite of her protests that could walk. "Well. (2) keeping your eyes focused in the center of each line so that you will not be tempted to make more than one fixation. I saw that if she was quite pretty. 'We could live on the money I'm spending railroad for What do you try We it?' fares! we say did. and read down as rapidly as you can without loss of comprehension.

that I bought life insur- even of the setting sun. as you go on. From the IThe tin little gods. ance. it won't be content to reign in the Herald Progress. this "And if the premiums could be paid along a coun- surely upon a She "What a place would be for usl' Yes. keep your eyes focused on the center of the line and let your peripheral vision bring you the two ends. and that others wouldn't tell I in blood. Remember go as fast as you can without sacrificing comprehension. to be read in the same way. Virginia. follows us home. windows that wouldn't interest babies ablaze with the light you even if I did. what a place it has been for us! our own. instead money. "Because its "It's these many because of memories. Efficiency right Watkins it is I trouble is that a jealous god. is all with efficiency place. I Like most in its the store. Ashland. the factory. Because his conscience would give him no rest if he didn't. 3. 200 shop. the Because life insurance is a safe investment Because he wished to protect someone he loved very dearly. it wants to rule our play as well as our work. pernicious anemia would be a of pleasure. Key: Subtract three from five to determine the number of the 1. 2. Perception Exercise 24 How was that? Hard? It will become easier and more comfortable Here is a second selection." you and Did you understand what you read? Then check the reason why man in the story bought life insurance. one au- tumn evening.I I see him?' But interested in then just I —not wasn't cottage. Reprinted with permission. while we were driving we came small white road. try lei- said. it . in the shop. — EFFICIENCY by Paul F. correct answer.

course that people in the world. efficiently. we squeeze the most work and pleasure will out of every hour. making sure to follow the instructions exactly. 201 . the efficient stream- relaxes for higher production. Americans are the most work and 2. shortest loaf living eat. We wish we would return to that pleasant day when we con- sidered time a friend and mechanize our homes. If we efficient it. are efficient. pack- pocket-sized We possible. than we did spontaneously because our schedule called for But that of wouldn't be efficiency. to a consider time a competitor instead of a friend. rather matter. sics. things condensed the clasput energy in pellets and culture in and because we wanted to. live by the clock even when man on schedule with one eye on the clock and the other on an appointment sheet. both at at play. Key: Subtract eight from ten and add one to obtain the number of the correct answer. Perception Exercise 25 Continue as before. minute Did you understand what you read? Then check the point Mr. Watkins is making: 1. The trouble with us is that we job. And we must be Americans efficient. 3. We sixty-miles a a live instead of a competi- when tor. on holidays and Sun- the an like ant like sluggard. line our leisure hours time doesn't standardize To and the God great Efficiency smiles. and sleep.Iwe And so days. that most most of we can go the do the things in the period of time even so places. It i£ all right to be efficient and concerned with time on the we ought to be less a slave but outside of our working hours time schedule. We ages. make busy bee look Even the idler. 4. speed the ma- the squeeze of most out each shining hour we have chinery streamlined the opera.

bridle. educators Now but. more than I ever educated him! Journal.A CHILD'S VOCABULARY by Anna Perrott Rose was It Jimmy through John that I discovered that a vo- cabulary an is out- growth of experience. went with it. alarmed. Reprinted by permission of the author. But ter of he sailing when we tried to in- crease his vocabulary by making him memorize words arbitrarily. A A child with a poor vocabulary child's words he is not very intelligent. chances the Ladies' I many on offsprings' merely it felt continent. absolutely no with to I a hearse. he became conFrom "Jimmy John. stirrup." blacksmith. I then realized that make a memo- Home activities to be least. that a and happened that Jimmy John had not been looking at the hearse when this was vocabulary the officer if I a new parents do not realize an this. The first time he saw a live words. we saw a you know when hearse in front of our talking experiences are vital to the growth children's their for showing titude say reduca good in those "ap- which and demuch on a tests" later so good vocabulary. Jimmy John educated me. soldier standing there come pend calmly to someone. I think. and there- fore many all he "What's dat?" funeral procession of asked. lary. 1. said. dare say a good Some time can't I had discovered as ing child this found I out for myself. later he words that there describe anything about After summer a him. although begin to it had His Army procession. No hearse anywhere. nor do they know in the that by limiting their announced was a they the may. Did you understand what you read? Then check the central point of this selection. he acwithout quired effort fused and mixed them rize up and misused them amusingly. 2. of unconsciously acquired nautical terms as a matcourse." in attention focused with he had hidden from our pet in terror. he has to them. house and when we rather peered out. vocabulary comes from experience he has to — learns. someone said. As fast as he learned some activity. From the pony he learned vocabusuppose all child's "It's saddle. 202 live the . and so on.

higher distinction my from descent Fatima in some want I than find I honor to command to respect. I do not with the thought of a man who gave up his throne but still thrill his income from the people he re- collects fused lege The serve. Reprinted with permission of the author. Key: Add four and one and subtract three to determine the num- ber of the correct answer. 203 has away from has . If I another line refugees these their about from who responsibility gifts squander the brought them by ig- and norant supersti- have no pains to tious people they been at educate or enlighten I should not feel that anything of tance was from my life. Perception Exercise 26 Continue as before. more and and their jewels. there is an vulgarity ultimate about educated minds with no thoughts be- yond their own sen- sual satisfactions. their Bematritheir gums. A 4.3. Maybe with my ing out I should run tongue hang- to slobber represent the over every titled pen- of sioner vulgarity. weights. their tune." way around. They essence From the impormissing I no vulgarity about poverty which has been forced on somebody by misfor- There is ill-luck. I must people and report that nothing them. When I woman read that a been robbed of jewels I join with all who cry that the criminals must Post. Aly Khan. monial flipperies. TO BE FRANK by Frank Kingdon I I would on record that tired of the go saying as am I I like to and sick Aga Khan. whole horses. their kit ka- never saw boodle. New York of exploited who his run duty his office. to sycophants who of privi- toady to these decadent sprouts of historic heritage I find nauseating. personal There gar nothing vul- is about illiteracy where opportunity for has been learning denied. no vulgarity is complete than riches used for nothing but display and indulgence. or circumstances of there the life. Children educate their parents more often than the other child with a poor vocabulary will not pass "aptitude tests.

left of question it. $450. but I still wondon't scales beings much the the berobed bejewelled Aga. Dr. the that find When friends. 1. I would put the "naked fakir. be waste. 4. can. Kingdon believes that robbery of unproductive people of great wealth should be severely punished. I story aside I with the esti- lay am but cannot read without my I such stuff gorge rising at the do in- represents. Dr. I that the scale with the and to rob. sentment cases symptoms thing of in our believe I are some- of rotten state antics far people.000 I can only guess at justice what the paltry $350. Kingdon thinks that people of vast wealth who contribute nothing to society and fail of their duty to mankind are symptoms of something rotten in our society. Dr. I such tions of these fabulous wastrels. Dr. Key: Add two and four and subtract one. and his they revel in descrip- and antisocial fea- first ture is not whether here. 2." who went back to his peo- among such cized without leaving ple the a rancor in the minds them. Kingdon thinks that people memory of Gandhi. When I go a little further and some I hope nobody will dub me a killjoy. Dr. mated value of these gim -cracks m her bags varies from ass. Kingdon doesn't like titled nobility. but I it. any their If stir a re- qualify that will will with the Aga one for can oblivion. Kingdon does not cherish the 3. who rob vast wealth should not be punished too severely.000 difference means kind wealth can be publi- Winston Churchill once called Gandhi a fakir. in read whether anybody has any right to own so conspicuous and lived among who those Human this wasteful of the society certainty prince will rise though he were as a sparrow's feather. 6. Dr. know whether there ought to be begums der tuary jewel man think doubt the against think these hu- people should be allowed to go around robbing begums." "naked The phrase was intended to demolish the Mahatma.000 to $ punished. Kingdon finds that people of vast wealth are antisocial. 204 . I it not believe and may who lives as a volup- snobs that from his and I will throw in with him all possessions. Did you understand what you read? Then check the statement that best summarizes the content of the piece. 5. or think me a pompous day happily eliminate them.

record all this information briefly in your vocabulary notebook or on a scratch pad. Finally. blithe 12. 205 . halcyon 20. effete 16. Study in its common notes and take this series of short tests. baleful 11. 18. is to write a short sentence or phrase using each word so that your learning will take a more active turn. put away all your look up checked. voluble 9. note and practice its correct pronunciation. and discover from preceding or following entries its related noun or verb forms. suave 6. meretricious 23. insouciant 21. sanguine 5. naive 24. For best results. sanctimonious 4. quixotic 1. unwitting 8. oblique 25. An excellent idea. abstruse 10. Check off those with which you are partially or wholly unfamiliar. fetid raucous 17. when you feel that you are ready. pallid Now your dictionary each of the words you have or nontechnical meanings. corpulent 14. 3. carnivorous 13. also. taciturn 7. if any.• SESSION VOCABULARY STUDY 16 III Here are 25 words selected at random from our master list of 500. defunct 15. understand its derivation. libidinous 22. germane 19. Then study your notes until you feel that you have pretty nearly mastered all the new words you looked up. abject 2.

hard to understand smoothly gracious 5. absurdly chivalrous 3. Does naivete betoken a lack of experience? Dyes Dno 8. sanguine hopeful despondent SorO? SorO? 6. Match word 1. and check the proper letter. Are oblique answers evasive? Dyes Dno 9. germane 8. corpulent 4. defunct 7. Is an effete civilization young and vigorous? Dyes Dno 4. pallid Check ay no answer to each question. 1. commonly understood? Dyes Dno 2. . Does a baleful glance show love? Dyes Dno 3. Is 1. Is sanctimony sincere? Dyes Dno II. . corpulent III. the 9. IV. 1. abject 2. — — scious taciturn—talkative voluble— — — 4. Does insouciance indicate anxiety? Dyes Dno 5. carnivorous 9. unwitting uncon8. Is meretricious display cheap and flashy? Dyes Dno 7. germane SorO? SorO? slim 3. raucous 6. fetid 5. Are libidinous thoughts pure and innocent? Dyes Dno 6. —meat-eating —malodorous c—peaceful d—wretched e— pale f— g—hoarse h—pertinent — extinct a b 3. blithe to definition. — — . halcyon fat i j— 10. blithe SorO? 2.Test Your Learning I. SorO? SorO? SorO? silent Choose from the list word — oblique—indirect naive sophisti- cated 10. each SorO? SorO? definition. that best fits carefree 2. a yes or abstruse language Decide whether each pair of words is more nearly similar or opposed in meaning. suave relevant discourteous 7. Are quixotic people impractical? Dyes Dno 10. 5. harsh-sounding 4.

19. naive. talking mainly or wholly on meat. 10. no. 1— d. baleful. 22. suave. hypocritically pious. holy. 8—a. 2— O. 24. insouciant. 2a insouciant. germane. 24. 9—c. 2— 3— 4—b. optimistic. 1. 19. unwitting. i. raucous. halcyon. 27. relevant 11. 3—S. 5. 17. indirect 16. mane. lustful unworldly gay 23. sanguine. 9—O. 7—S. mean 9. is malice 17. ger- 14. 7. 18. pale without anxiety 26. 15. 16. effete. 13. no longer 20. carnivorous. 5—O. no. closely related. 11. sanctimonious. 1-5. oblique. 14. libidinous. 6—O. 207 . IV. abject. raucous. colorless having an offensive smell. 5—g. 25. 2. 8. disinclined to conversation 29. 27. without realization of what one 8. pallid. 4— O. 6-9. — 10. 12. subsisting 30. or religious 7. 20. 10—S. — doing. 22. fetid. defunct. 1—S. f. blithe. pallid. attractive or alluring in a cheap and full of showy way _ 15. 18. corpulent.— e - 6. 30. meretricious. 3. 4. 25. having hoarse 13. 9. 29. 10. 8—O. in existence 21. abstruse. j. taciturn. peaceful lost vigor or energy. 6— 7—h. 10— II. 23. 28. 28. III. yes. quixotic. with great and easy fluency Key: I. quixotic. romantically impractical. stout — 12. 6. 21. voluble.

and how to pursue the central theme of material so that you can quickly. you will recognize them as related factors that work together to produce upon you. reflexive. in order to see clearly the inner framework that holds the ideas together. And as this happens. more efficient. that. you will find that you are also becoming much more deeply involved in material. 208 . so to speak. from intelligent. gradually. the effect or the impact — that the author is striving for. to X-ray a piece. you will no longer be passively absorbing the ideas and details. Such learning and overlearning can come only from practice. mastery will be achieved. efficiently. Slowly. When you have learned how to do all this.• SESSION HOW TO The how X-RAY MATERIAL discussion that follows each selection in this chapter signed to show you how 17 to think along with the author as is de- you read. and that you are pushing through much more rapidly and purposefully in pursuit of — his central Not only meaning. little by little. one after another. you will understand them as parts of a unified whole. habitual pattern in your everyday performance. you will become surer. more skillful. the reader. or that you can immediately put into operation simply by understanding it. and correctly distill out of a vast mass of words and sentences and paragraphs one final and total meaning. But with enough practice. you will see them as components of a total structure. that you are taking a much more active role in responding to an author's thinking. as they appear on a page instead. persistent practice on selection after selection this is not a technique that you can master overnight. then you will be reading with aggressive comprehension. when you have learned and overlearned it so thoroughly that it has become an integral.

and the external world might as well. better concentration all these are rich and desirable dividends. for the time being. if you feel that such skimming will not be detrimental to efficient grasp of total meaning. 1. at this halfway mark in your work Deeper involvement in material. for earnest study of the and for inspired effort in applying from your work in any one selection. what you learn. 4.You will discover. For concentration. Try to sense the broad pattern of the author's thinking. that your mind has. or that you have in actuality been concentrating on the sounds around you. 209 . not on the thoughts contained in the lines of print. 3. that your concentration will be improved. to each subsequent selection that you read. a author's thinking. They are dividends you can receive if your investment is great enough. also. in reading as in any other activity.) more dynamic response to an and more purposeful pursuit of central meaning. and start all over again. you are undergoing some deep emotional stresses if you are actively engaged in searching for the pattern and structure that underlie what a writer — — is — saying. be completely nonexistent. of course. and purposeful involvement that inner distractions cannot occur. active. been wrestling with a totally irrelevant problem. consists of such deep. mind-wandering is eliminated. perhaps angry or perhaps amused that you have become so scatterbrained. And that is why. and keep in mind. So you go back. faster — in this chapter. five important rules that will be most helpful to you at this stage of your training: discussion of every selection. Skim whenever you wish to. This kind of thing is unlikely to happen unless. as you read. Let us turn now to the remaining selections of the chapter. Push ahead with conscious speed. 2. I ask for continued practice. Purposefully pursue the central ideas so that when you have finished the last line you will have a clear and accurate understanding of the gist of the author's communication to you. (How often has it happened to you that you find yourself reading the words on a page with absolutely no response to their meaning suddenly you stop and realize that you've been going through all the motions of reading with none of the effect. 5. Avoid unnecessary regressions. for the last few minutes.

Could anyone think of a better as juiceless expressions. True. A recent for using liar" when word for the expression "petty the correct but forgotten it is fibster? Is there any word in use today than can express more readily the ability of single the fingers to enable the brain to through edition of Shakespeare. have passed into words deserved to die. word word from standard Anglo-Saxon publicized drawn they were when Shakespeare used them. But this still leaves a fair number of words which are as the bloodstream of the general vo- indispensable to the language today been has steadily expanding in range. Is there a better verb to slang. have been driven out over the years by of pithy.Selection 12 BANGLING THE LANGUAGE by Norman Cousins Start timing-* For some years. a number large of these words which. with the blessings of the lexicographers. either because they were replaced by sharper. Cousins Saturday Review and author of Modern Man Is Obsolete. essential flat. Mr. entertain- describe the act of pushing and poking about in a crowd than the verb to prog? Is there any excuse new This trades. sports. Every so we often see impressive cabulary. more satisfying words. But very of lists little new said is about the fact that many useful words are dying out each year not because they lack value or vitality but because of increasingly and speaking. and shrinkage sented by the loss of current is repre- thousands words words which. variety. precise. and color. in a sort of Gresham's law applied to vocabulary. or because they were strictly a product of their times. someone who defining for house servants out from under the unsuspecting noses of his best friends than the word slocksteals ster? This is not slang but a lost reg- English. 210 is touch And of referring to the editor of the . For the fact remains that our language may actually be shrinking lazy habits of writing — despite the highly stream of new recruits ularly from ment. recognize provided explanations for twentyfour hundred words which had long alone than the lost word felth? what a objects shorter way Reprinted from the Saturday Review with permission. events. the popular impression has prevailed that the English-American language since passed out of general usage. for example.

people — decision. life. then we have been enfeebling English by neglecting such trench- —move with "smattering" ant verbs as to tolter the slowness and heaviness. Picturesque. gainly. keek (combining peeping with slyness). etc. we "smash sion derived. to time. nerve-wracking and quarrelsome). (combining leanness and lankiness)." We use —walk up and down while pondering some rax—reach and the same bangle— away an inheritance by and gowl —weep anger than spuddle—assume pompsorrow. maffle (combining stammering and blundering). lazilanken and sleepiness ness. to stretch at fritter carelessness in stupidity. . Knee-crooking is 211 "Henry alcoholism. make for an effective and lucid use of Englist — lish. all at once). or. virtue. elegant. heaviness. combined with the prefix mis. is opposite. Only sloominess in our thinking could be responsible for the fact that although we use the word we have neglected much more useful noun from that describes word indifferent? Yes. to strome which it Similarly. wrong wrong Misproud proud for the reason. time-saving expressions we have bangled over the "bereave. sloomy (combining dullness. to tesquely." word to trifles. there is is a long of other words which. mistaken acquire — lead have things misfare — mislive a to to turn out poorly. the mislike. to rather to of airs in mission. in overstuff gro- to slorp a gluttonously sound into to eat and with monstrous effects. but smither. provoca- The word "same" has an equally useful samely.word an unweaned infant than the old there any one word suckerel? Or taverner for tavern-keeper? Or nappy for mid- an attitude not so strong as the word dislike but stronger than the day sleepiness? word economy If expression of is a then we have injured the language through the loss through disuse of such words as flinders (combining fragments and splin(combining janglesome ters)." but what about reave? years would include barrel-fever or ("To reave the orphan of jug-bitten to describe the disease of —Shakespeare's mony" his patri- VI. which combines is souse and booze. If one of the proofs of a virile language is its ability to generate verbs with striking power and pithiness. variant. The word "ungainly" is in common usage today but not so cellent its affirmative handy way who tive. Incidentally. is overlook the use the it smatters. — misexpense place. the execution ous a minor stodge — thrump—bump crowd. a someone of describing shapely. —using wrong purposes. misgo arrive at the money for misbelieve — wasted the to convictions.") In more directly. an ex- way of describing a tiny fragment. which can be used instead of the phrase "always the same. even the the matter of precision. matters small describe or trite expres- to smithereens. noun bouse.

In no branch of language there is greater need for endless reinforce- ments than the uncomplimentary reference. the status of a blockhead. mole." so commonly used describe to in the recent war self-debasement in honeying up to a superior. and procurer. Forswat and forswunk is a good phrase to describe someone who is grimy and sweaty after he emerges from a long day's the coal toil in pits. strumpet. lings. sleuth. slo- flutters would aptly be termed tireThose who can converse only by arguing and snapping and by exhibiting their tempers would be gan. chuff—a Shakespearian describe someone ite to favor- who con- wealth into extra chins. snack. mome someone not quite arrived at. we have num- only to consider that a large ber of words which had virtually disappeared towards the end of the nineteenth century have been and are since rediscovered mon use today: grub. about the English fishwife who looked on blandly when Daniel O'Connor accused her in court of being a perjurer. sliver. glower. Consider these lost gems: gowk an open-mouthed fool. uncanny. Is it dump. suppleness. The word fluttersome could hardly be improved upon for a picture of someone gadding about at a party talking with much emotion and sense. little The victims such of such as these may be restored to the language? Far from it. a lost but handy word describing a slave to words for words' sake. hummel kink.probably the etymological ancestor of the expression "brown-nosing. or rediscov- not that they add to one's choice in speaking or writing with greater precision. tinsel. kindle. pixie. tramp. color. glamor. Test Your Comprehension Which one rizes the of the following statements main idea most accurately summa- of the selection you have just finished? Check your choice without referring to the text 212 . incidentally. gab. ON THIS SELECTION: hope that words SEC. <—End timing dumb- RECORD HERE THE TIME REQUIRED MIN. described as the language but that they enlarge toitish. short too The value ered words croon. but well on his way to. slick. monger. fellow. malodorous. tryste. jabbernowle a slow thinker and a — — bore. hotfoot. forbear. snarl. They used to tell the story. quash. in com- blurt. small-time for bell. sheen. thief. runt. lush. mean slick. Certainly no one wants to be word-ridden. deft. sag. bolt. imp. but who put her foot down when he called her a parallelogram. foreword. scroil much to is of new cleave. reek. grip. sumph verts extra his — — the same man upon becoming a —a —a dumble— blockhead. afterword.

( Development of the theme with specific examples. min. sec. Our language may be shrinking and losing some of its force because of the thousands of old words that are no longer used. and picturesque words that are now obsolete. words don't 2. don't have New Compute Your Rate (Approximate number TIME 30 min. Correct choice on the comprehension test is statement 4 213 . suppleness.. pithy. Cousins' pattern of presentation is admirably clear-cut: 1.. striking.P. 364 319 284 255 232 213 _W. YOUR RATE ON SELECTION 12: on the chart and graph on page 393. of words: 1275) sec. 30 3 min. It has been popularly thought that our language is expanding in the in range. 4. ( Recapitulation of central theme. 1. min. 1 sec. and again. the opposite may be happening because we neglecting the older words. 3. suppleness.. economical. summarizing sentence at the beginning of the final paragraph. min.) Instead. have the impact of old ones.M.. 850 730 638 567 510 425 2 min. 2. But we are rediscovering many of these useful words. min. but perhaps we will rediscover some of them and thereby be able to add precision..M. and color. sec. sec. after rich and elaborate supporting details. 1 min. variety. 30 sec. High school students cannot understand Shakespeare because we have lost so many Shakespearean terms from the language. 45 W.M. 2 min.P.P. (Introduction. 6 min. 30 sec.) 4. (Record 3 4 4 5 5 TIME 30 min.) ) We enough words in our language. W. precise.) this statistic Discussion of the Selection The central theme of this piece is explicitly stated in the last sen- tence of the first paragraph and the first sentence of the second paragraph. and color to our speaking and writing.. 3. whose value is that they add precision.. and color to our written and spoken expression. Mr. Look ( are lazily Central theme. 15 2 min. at all these excellent.

For illustration.' 'geno- cide/ and several Ain't going highhat Nope. and Reprinted with permission. maybe it's because our inborn culchaw and refeenment just overcome us from time to time. you guys have now and then expressed great the general public. again. not least. and we'll try 9. snash. 5. without having to go grubbing into a dic- scorn of is cealing thought or lack of thought. hence "vulnerable" is a well-known word to millions of people. Breathes reader a there know doesn't that who "intolerable" — means "unbearable"? though we must admit we prefer the latter. griff. 4. ain't. many-syllable words which almost everybody who can read understands. now and then we an overstuffed word fall into this column. Sorry. viable. "Incompatibility" familiar word because is a widely of the many divorce suits brought on grounds of —meaning two just can't get along incompatibility married persons together. 8. cozen. gloze. W 7 understood. though. browsing editorials through recent I have come across such things as 'intolerable. 7. An meaning likewise clean. we 2. what in the blue But there are plenty of big.Selection 13 IT Start AINT THE LENGTH.' 'incompatibility. 214 is we'll . intentionally. When you're writing for a friend to the following effect: "In your editorial column. here are some shorties which we'd call real $7 words. ITS THE OBSCURITY We timing—> from hear $7 words or worse. and wouldn't use here at this let time without explanation: adit. e submit that three of the four specimens listed above by our pal and critic are widely 6. 15 or 18. the main object windy language. editorial in the good (except therethey're New York News. ohm. Well. But it's Latin. as we figure it. big $7 words. because so few people know what they mean. perfectly English or Scotch words ergo tionary to find out blazes you are trying to say. modal. Those are all — fore). of yours. Bridge is a tremendously popular card game. on be ye?" at us.' 'vulnerable. mure. long. erg. and other methods of con- to use language which that public can understand at a glance. If other biggies. "Genocide" something else admit we muffed a ball when we dropped that one into this column without explaining what it meant. that this aspect of the use of language is not as simple as the mere difference in length between a word of four letters and one of 12. We do think. 3. ergo.

the three that this words answer the question? <—End timing Why the boys can't just say "four-party. two famous dictionary makers of generations gone by 10. There are whole battalions of words in common use nowadays which wouldn't have meant much. This it dub theses is. and whole group. as some is suspect." "directive. to Samuel Johnson and Noah Webster. is. but its obscurity. Test Your Comprehension Which one rizes the of the following statements most accurately summamain idea of the selection you have just finished? Check your choice without referring to the 215 text. if anything. That or be polite maddest fascinat- the very longest non-scientific big us more people are well aware of the mean- shot fired in anger from start to make subject of big still the fact that most is finish of the fracas. blackball enough it. To make little originated. Huge though old anti-etc. —only they called themselves lexi- cographers. "chairborne. otherwise. If most people know what it means. of a new word. know what language. In the gobbledygook of diplomats and bureaucrats. ON THIS SELECTION: MIN. to the readers an explanation in parenyou feel you've got to use in if it." a plane is what gets safely off it the ground. go ahead and use it. crats to confuse word in describe officers modern wars who is to never hear a there ing and historical background of one. at the Nurnberg trials of German war the criminals." beyond most RECORD HERE THE TIME REQUIRED present-day diplomats and bureau- SEC. are word of all in current dictionaries. he is in no way a $7 mentarianism" 12." a It's It 13." which a popular public. of Latin aim with malice aforethought and befuddle the general human and derivation. there are any number of big. to the best of ing. "onesided" and "order" us — unless. 11. no matter how 15. means murder it racial or other our information. "airborne." when is atom. these. the you're discussing which baseball. . 14. Here's the cide. Among in connection these are "fission. about to "unilateral" is —and most of us means simply because it has been so widely hailed as the champ. of course.not to such a thing happen dope on "geno- let again. that it isn't word which should this part the size of a rule it out of newspapers." used with when "blooper. fat blimps of words. So we'd say." it of the technic of using the English Among and "antidisestablish- word. "quadripartite.

45 3 min. Size by itself is no criterion of obscurity.. Cousins' article. it may be used in the paper's editorial columns no matter how long it is. sec. sec.) 3. with further illustrations Paragraphs 7-13: Consider these examples of big words. some commonly understood. . If a word is English or Scotch. 3. Correct choice on the comprehension test 216 is statement 2.. like Mr. 1 1 770 660 579 514 462 420 385 sec.The have used long words in the past do so in the future. 2.P. 15 2 min. and editors are sorry that they will not public. Paragraphs 3-6: 2. or it may be short and difficult to understand. 3 min. sec. 1 min. 1 20 min. sec. Compute Your Rate (Approximate number TIME 10 sec. Paragraphs 14-15: Size by itself is no criterion 4. we're going high-hat by using $7 words. 1 min.. We're not. 40 min.. it may be (A few A word may long and still illustrations to fully be short and comprehensi- support the theme are included. 30 sec. 30 2 min.. 50 sec.M 344 308 280 257 220 TIME W.P. Central Theme — difficult to understand. follows a four-point organ- ization: 1. some not.. of words: 770) 2 min. expressed sentiments.P. Diplomats use long and obscure words to confuse the general 1.. sec.) YOUR (Record this statistic Discussion of the Selection This editorial. Introduction contrary to our —Paragraphs own 1-2: We've been asked whether. 2 min.M RA' IE ON selection 13: on the chart and graph on page 393. 30 min. A word may be long and still fully comprehensible to the readers of the paper. 1 min. W.. 193 4 min. 4. Recapitulation — of understandability.M.. or ble to the general public. Development of central theme. rather than Latin. W.

The death fellow drivers. 3. both the number and 6.51. It initial years. ing driver saw. In grim reality she blame. if alone. if was equally to 7. That most of 4. is lists. 8. In Texas. commanding him to stop. Reprinted with permission.Selection 14 GREEN LIGHT MEANS DANGER by William She had the green she drove her Start timing-* Dutton the Confidently light.294 intersections of all kinds. Only some traffic or law or others control. the most likely point of danger. The message of these studies is that a green light means not safety. Collier's. Indignant witnesses blamed the man of Moreover. she had but looked to as the crossings. copyright made ratio at light-controlled crossings as compared to those unmarked was slightly higher than Wilmington's. On crossings. trust in survey covered one year and 9. 217 . rarely are these violations deliberate. today. to stop signs. records of the state police show that more than 80 per cent of its highway deaths there are the result of motorists violating 9. the red tires in was 8. For unmarked died that night. 2. At stop 3. She similar study as a check. too late. fault common to one of the largest contributors to our mounting motor casualty us. embraced 15 study. The amazed Wilmington engi- neers asked the Philadelphia Bureau would have been no had placed too much a green light and in her there make a The larger of Traffic Engineering to accident. They happen every day 1949 by The Crowell-Collier Publishing Co. 2. for slow lights. to every one death at marked slow. It never occurred to her to look to the left. the left. at the main highway a speed- severity of accidents shrieked as crash. He jammed on his brakes. but: Beware of death! the 5. From Delaware. newest studies Wilmington. grew moved up from none signs. S.606 intersections and re- black sedan out onto the six-lane vealed that the danger ratio at light- highway controlled to cross.27 occurred at crossings he had broken a law. according to two of of how and where fatal accidents happen. streets.65 times higher than unmarked and unguarded cross- deaths. 1. traffic controls in horror at the to The woman was He killed instantly. and his light impending terms ings in that city.

a potential 10. the most proclaim the arbitrary greatest control. by the law of averages. let if killer. Wil- adult. . No at that crossing. Its 12." Schools teach pupils the National Safety Council of Chi- this fallacy. Koester. — and maimed or they who and child. it? cross fast first 14. 16. don't 13. <—End timing our views. wrong. Mothers especially seem to think that their children will be safe if they "wait for the green light. Mr." warns another car is approaching him a crossroad. Our mistaken notion of controls neighborhood agitations for traffic lights as soon as a is reflected in few bad accidents happen at a local corner. Test Your Comprehension Which one rizes the most accurately summayou have just finished? Check of the following statements main idea of the selection your choice without referring to the text. in to err is human. need The turn green means to for caution. "Controls driver end danger." says E. It is safer to cross against the green light than with the green light 2. 15. just as careful no 3. SEC. may good is is was against him until too late. the easy victim of the mington's chief engineer. They proclaim it. be. now in- duced by from yellow to proceed with eyes open and wits alert. F. That reason is usu- light ally a record of previous accidents that are actually warnings. The green light gives us a false sense of security. There are more deaths at traffic-light intersections than at uncon- trolled intersections. "We (and this means all of us) must change our thinking on traffic creating a false sense of security controls. Koester says. if unwilling What to do about "When you reach a corner and from even you have the right of way. later the first didn't see that the red lights and other controls greatest traffic hazard of will continue to be until is our and it we change all. for here people have been killed makes the that emphasis RECORD HERE THE TIME REQUIRED ON THIS SELECTION: MIN. when traffic signal the green light is We in our favor as we should be are when governs an intersection. 4." control is put up without strong reason.And because every community. Lights. the controls all Each of us who drives becomes. and police land can't put a in the stop to them. Schools and parents teach children wrong concepts about 218 traffic. The exact opposite attitude is assumed by most drivers toward controls. The teaching cago. only in part. 1. 11. The feeling of safety.

. 300 268 244 224 210 198 sec. 1 min. 30 sec. .. but do not therefore a simple technique. it is tween the also the foundation of all parts. sec. according to two of . as you now realize.M. And training in aggressive reading demands of you a deeper and more active recognition of. the relationship between the parts of material I say "simply" because infer that this is it's that and no more. 2 min. 15 sec.Compute Your Rate (Approximate number TIME 50 of words: 670) W. . 45 sec. TIME 804 670 536 448 384 335 2 min. 30 W. and reacting to.) (Record this statistic Discussion of the Selection Reading aggressively. or one that Seeing relationships is simple to apply.P.... Paragraphs 10-13: Pounding should react to a green home light. . 219 of the central theme —how we . 45 sec. 3 min. 15 sec. 1 min.. 2 min. — . 3 min. how successfully did you grasp his total meaning? Let us go back to the selection and examine the relationship bethinking.M. after all the very basis of intelligence is and comprehension. it demands that you think while you read. 15 sec. . 1 min.M. Paragraphs 1-3: Narrative introduction leading up to an interpretation that foreshadows the central theme " too much trust . Paragraph 4: More elaborate expression of the central theme. 1 30 min. How clearly did you sense the pattern of Mr. sec. is simply a matter of quickly and efficiently grasping total meaning by understanding. .P. YOUR RATE ON SELECTION 14: on the chart and graph on page 893. 3 min.." in a green light. Dutton's article. W.. plus facts from the studies Texas. with transition to the detailed support the newest studies. .. 2 min. the components of a piece of writing than you have perhaps been in the habit of using. and response to.") Paragraphs 5-9: Support of the central theme by a description of made in Wilmington and Philadelphia.P. (".

all Correct choice on the comprehension test is statement 2. In a San Francisco of a suburb. on a hot August night. Before police could stop the drink-crazed driver he had crashed into another car and sent six per- in jail? Police roared northward at 80 miles an 2. Reprinted with permission of the author and of Reader's Digest. The two lesser charges brought a fine of only station From Readers $200 injured there. Selection 15 IS TRAFFIC-COURT JUSTICE BLIND? by Albert Q. 3. When he was taken to court. and 14 as transition from one section to the next: Paragraph 4: "That fault" refers to the error of the woman who proceeded confidently when she saw the green light (paragraphs 1-3). Paragraph 14: "The exact opposite" will be discussed in paragraph 15. too drunk even to ready to testify. a penitentiary reckless penalty driving in and driving on the wrong side of the highway. what everyone already knew. that Is driver carries hour. Paragraph 10: "What 11-13. California). the felony charge was dis- The were sons to the hospital. Maisel Start timing-* It was 2 a. Digest. and a slap-on-the-wrist li- cense suspension of 90 days. Note how the author uses paragraphs 4. "according to . studies" leads us to the content of the . and walk. he was examined by a doctor who confirmed.Paragraphs 14-16: Further variations on the theme —how most of us mistakenly react to the green light. now charged the man with felony drunken driving (which Hardly. but they weren't even called to the stand. had gotten behind the wheel.m. 10. following five paragraphs. At the police missed. The exact opposite of what? Of what was described as ideal behavior in the preceding paragraphs. 220 . . bv chemical test. Six people had been maimed because a madman. with the last paragraph concisely summing up that has gone before. a man lurched out bar and into his car. "about it" links to do" us what's coming in paragraphs tells those paragraphs up with the preceding in- formation.

Did he end in the killing his victim penitentiary? Not at A charge was substi- all. Not a that's right. New York City's magistrates last parking cases rose from year discharged nearly two-thirds 9. 10. S. Minn. 11. after paying a $75 fine. Overtime less than 22. land. The entire increase is accounted for by and the killer. In Syracuse. These motorists.000 besides. now the coast where Ore. of negligent homicide stuted for the original indictment and squad cars to spend their days ticketing parked motorcycles cars. six In City. for moving N. that officials in parking-law year was in Salt 1940. convictions violations increased less still than ten per cent between 1936 and 1948 while convictions for parking violators increased more some 32. 5. Y. Throughout the country. and ridicu- enforcement.. income Cleveland's traffic fines last times as C. In Detroit. dismissals. than 450 per cent.200. How far this has gone is demonby St. lously small fines. guilty — of little more than trying about their business. from 7.000 people on our highways every year and maim 1. walked out of court a free man. But there is another shocking side to the traffic-court picture. strated almost doubled: 63. police and the courts have ganged up on the least dangerous of motor-law offenders the harried salesman and the busy housewife who violate parking ordinances.Move up 4. traffic- revenues have jumped more than 400 per cent. In most cities. In 1940 that city had 31. 12. go being to effi- Police are taken off their is a gold mine great as Charleston.747 traffic cases. Lake Utah. Last year the load on its courts had 8. 6. fine traffic fines cost courts of and forfeitures operating and yield the all pay the municipal city a profit of $3. 91 per cent complaints with either a suspended sentence or a small fine..000 last year. police complaints against parkers increased 65 per cent while those they convicted.266 cases. of all the defendants who were tried before them for drunken driving. In city after city. In Los Angeles.000 in 1940 to nearly 55. to Port- motorized a maniac was brought into court after and running from the scene. Mich. and Kalamazoo. the campaign to soak the parker has more than doubled the already 221 . Records such as these go a long violators were let off — — nonparking against increased less than two per cent. single one of the five only five who received jail sentences served more than 30 days. Of the drive against parkers. Behind this urge to penalize parking lies the discovery by many way toward explaining why we kill serious offenses are all too easily tax-hungry municipal written off the books in a flood of there continuances.000 others.. are pursued with single-minded ciency. These cases are not exceptional. Paul.100. between 1940 and 1948.

If their stories were glib. 17. it. First he had his clerk call up all who were ready to plead guilty. As my over with. Plead guilty and get it cynicism." 20. they work against year and a half. Typical was the performance I witnessed in a New York court last summer. The magistrate cut her short with "Lady.done wrong you wouldn't be here. he finds numerous prescourt. Drives against the parker not contribute to traffic safety. put it: "Don't be a dope. But to accomplish this prodigy of law enforcement they had to let up elsewhere. sures exerted to induce a guilty 40 courtrooms months watching this parody of justice. Judges are so busy mechanically repeating the routine of "Five dollars and costs" in trivial cases that they have no those caught parking in restricted time to deal properly with serious areas. 19. "guilty with Many were speeders. to ask for special consideration. Now get back to your seat and take overwhelming burden of traffic cases that have clogged our court machinery for years. 15. the of were overtime parkers or —an hour Next later — came the an explanation" group. 18. Those who pleaded not guilty had to wait till noon before they were even called before the bench. the ticketed citizen has the right to demand his still day in But when he tries to exercise that right. they got off with fines which were sometimes less than those of the parkers who had pleaded guilty before them. city after city has resorted to a or register new device cafeteria than 70 per cent of —the cash- court. New do often For the last York City's have been conducting a savage drive against parkers. if your turn 16. a burly truck driver. One woman approached the bench with a baby in plea. violators. like The "guilty" everyone vast else.807 you hadn't 222 . Confronted with further loss of time from work. many offered to change their pleas to guilty. More all traffic tickets served by the police are now an- such Violations Bureaus.270 fewer speeders. Anyone offering a not-guilty plea or an explanation was gruffly ordered back to his seat." majority Without discernible rhyme drew fines of from four to ten dollars. The judge arrived more than an hour late while nearly 200 accused motorists sweated and fumed. Last police year they ticketed 83. They caught 8. or reason they 13. 6. Small wonder that the attitude of the average motorist tagged with a parking ticket is one of utter neighbor in court. Then the vast majority were held over for a trial at a later date. As the number of trivial traffic cases has grown. All the overtime parker has whether to do is to plead guilty guilty or not swallow his perhaps swerable in — — explanations and valid mitigating answer "Yes" to the of "Yawanna pay?" clerk's refrain 14. True.806 more parking-ordinance violators than the year before. I have during the sat in last six her arms.

The revenue from these meters will finance Chicago called upon the Northwesttraffic safety. Instead of chasing parkers International Association of Chiefs of Police for a plan to cure difficulties. ern University Traffic Institute and 26. had a this is only process of driving ever before to park in injuries. The number of motorcycle policemen was trebled and 54 special trafficcontrol autos were added. our 223 . N. 27. Chi- cago had 529 year since. Reckless and drunken driv- ing were placed at the top of the enforcement 24.000 worth of new projects to house 15. Yet. Ninety-four lives and thousands were saved of injuries avoided. Men were called away from the fruitless job of tagging parked cars. a large shopping center. Nearly 30. 23. The list. 1948 (the year before the reform). is planning $19. pay-off has been dramatic. away with punitive fines. Accidents. only three speeding tickets were issued. there are which still still far too think of many cities parking as merely a matter for police action. Y. 28. first outlying arteries. In the deaths dropped to 435. As a result. Pittsburgh has set up a Parking Authority and is issuing $34. A new policy of selective en- was developed. Meter revenues have soared and the money is used by the Parking Authority. the city put meters on its main streets and dedicated their revenue to the improvement of parking facilities. In the year ending June 30.500. But Chicago the —which average in street safety of cities the —has fallen among the largest country. new off- street parking spaces. Police were instructed to give priority to forcement violations connected with traffic accidents. with one large underground municipal garage already paying for itself.000. These plans are impressive. Long the heap in finally owned its busiest streets lots but in and garages. and deaths have all increased in 1949 over the previous districts perience.. Now the city is planning to invite more cars than has always been below the national into last place step.000 in bonds to be liquidated by the income from 32 big public lots and garages. Denver has a $4.000 program under way. which set up the first Parking Authority in the United States being issued in in 1947.000 cars. New York 25. Until these cities wake up. San Francisco. 21. Outstanding in this respect has the of been the achievement of White Plains. viola- In the month of February. Chicago has knows The shoppers and businessmen out of town by the parking-ticket route has been halted.000. 22. traffic traffic deaths.000 parking meters are be installed in the Loop and on to different ex- the bottom of at —not on the municipally year. its Studies made early 1948 showed that 80 per cent in all traffic tickets Chicago were for nonmoving tions.fewer drivers who ran through red lights.

. real Test Your Comprehension Which one rizes the most accurately summayou have just finished? Check of the following statements main idea of the selection your choice without referring to the text.. min. min. W. 30 45 sec. Experience proves that whether you are guilty or innocent.P. min. YOUR RA re on selection 15: on the chart and graph on page 393. 6 min. you can save time and trouble in traffic courts if you plead guilty... 10 sec.) 224 r (Record sec. traf- problems.traffic record here the time required continue to be courts will swamped with on petty violators and this selection: min. min. Traffic courts are generally abusive toring public present-day 3. 6 min. 15 sec. min. sec. min.. Traffic accidents will decrease more parking and discourteous court setup enforcing the law against serious 4. 30 sec.P. 45 sec. L Parking meters are the best and simplest method of solving fic 2.M. 15 sec. 30 45 sec. 15 sec... Compute Your Rate {Approximate number time 2 min. 5. perpetrators of serious usually escape with light and inadequate punish- ment. space. W. 4 min. <—End timing sec..M 376 356 336 320 306 292 278 267 247 229 this statistic . TIME 800 738 692 640 580 533 492 457 428 400 4 min. 15 sec. law enforcement for safety will continue to be sacrificed. 2 min. —and traffic the traffic is to the mo- the chief cause of problems. 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 min. of words: 1600) W. rather than on detecting parking violations. min.. 30 45 sec.. 7 min. min. min.P. sec.. 30 5 5 5 5 min. sec.. 4 min. when our concentrate on and on providing cities traffic offenses.. 2 min. Because our traffic traffic violations courts are inefficient.M..

M.P. parking space.Q. : (i. W. W.P. your rates on selections 7-15: selection SELECTION SELECTION SELECTION SELECTION SELECTION SELECTION SELECTION SELECTION 7 (professors read) 8 (ADULT LEARNING): 9 (LEARNING PRINCIPLES): 10 (MARRIAGE): W. this part of central details theme. Paragraph 28: Recapitulation of the complete central theme.— — ) Discussion of the Selection is making three important points in his article: (a) and courts are cracking down on parking violations.M.M.P. or worse than. illustrative.M. followed by many cities. trate Paragraphs 6-7: First part of the central theme how this attitude explains the poor safety record on our highways.M. with narrative incidents to illushow lightly the traffic courts are punishing serious offenders. Copy. With this training of the chapter. from the chart on page 393.P.M. W. Maisel police Paragraphs 1-5: Introduction.M. rather than on serious traffic offenses. usually off-street.P. Note the clear-cut pattern of the author's presentation: Mr. and how police and courts are going after the illegal parker. Statistical. All right.P. (Para- graphs 11 and 12 contain significant details that explain the causes — problem the desire for revenue on the part of municipaliand the fact that the courts are so clogged with parking cases that there is no time to deal properly with serious violations.P.M. W. we selection conclude the comprehension and we are ready to recapitulate your rate statistics. and shoppers and businessmen are being driven out of town. W. W. rather than the reckless driver. . Paragraphs 8-21: that elaborate upon.P. (b) as a result. Paragraphs 22-27: The second part of the central theme is elaborated upon the way to solve the problem is to provide more parkof the ties. and (c) the sensible solution. and and supporting clarify. ing space. safety on the road is as bad as.P. AND SCHOOLING): 12 (OLD WORDS ) 13 (LONG WORDS ) 14 (GREEN LIGHT ) 11 : : : 15 (TRAFFIC-COURT JUSTICE ) 225 : W.M. W. ever. is to provide ample. Correct choice on the comprehension test is statement 3.

Add by 9 these figures. and fill in line 4.W." rate (line 1).M.P. phase 2.W. Next copy from page 392 your percentage gain in chapter 2 to fill in line 5.PHASE 2 W. 7: . (1) Use the figures from lines 1. % % % - 2: - - copy the rate at which you read which you recorded on page 11. 3. below.P. -+z> y 250 fcr-J N INITIAL RATE 200 A B r *\ %> 1 11 12 SELEC :tions 13 14 AVERAGE. entirely hypothetical look something like this: IMPROVEMENT GRAPH.M. statistics) may of course. a graphic picture of your progress to date.J^J ^^*\ r -J E. carry the result to two decimal places. Take your average (2) 4. Label this line "average. Let us do two more tilings with these statistics.P. selection in the book. Now divide your average gain (line 3) by your initial rate (line 2).P. (3) To complete rate. and fill in the appro- on the nine selections of this chapter on the graph on page 393. PHASE 2 L5 . Now you have the first line 2 of the chart. AVERAGE GAIN*.M. (4) PERCENTAGE GAIN: (5) PERCENTAGE GAIN IN CHAPTER (6) GAIN IN PERCENTAGE: . and complete the chart by subtracting fine 5 from fine 4.W. locate that figure straight line parallel to The completed graph (assuming. divide cord the result in the first line your average to find (1) AVERAGE RATE IN CHAPTER (2) INITIAL RATE: and re- . Then subtract line 2 from line 1 and write the answer on fine 3.M 450 400 300 /4 — PHASE 2 JV 350 L < /. and priate spaces on the chart on page 393. and draw a line AB.

expose the numbers for a fraction of a second. Reproduce each number Do not say the digits to your- in the blank to the right and then check your result 20739 ^_ 68973 43872 *- *— 84725 63416 81754 *— 93726 <— 50743 *— 29395 *— 53264 <(— 60739 ^« 21362 *— 53842 60842 4— 54729 <— 96476 91647 *— 30805 *— 23487 4— 62739 45731 4T" 15293 32748 26312 <r— <— 10873 *— 92745 92856 *— 76412 73214 13468 *— 21467 *— 86410 *— 05708 *— 84723 *— 91376 73986 *— 80768 32748 <— 04396 *— 227 .• SESSION PERCEPTION TRAINING 18 VII Perception Exercise 27 Using the Flashmeter card. getting a visual impression. self.

107Q3 <- ftfi49.64662 <— 42137 39872 47318 <— 06421 20643 02146 <— 70764 31846 94210 ±— 77737 NUMBER CORRECT OUT OF Perception Exercise 28 Proceed as before.n 94057 20586 *- 30641 70856 15846 05708 43218 97624 <— 54564 53910 38413 <— 80832 86581 57641 *— 30846 38462 18765 *— 74321 43865 68430 *— 39874 90308 90468 +— 46852 21643 38597 90468 30431 20578 91087 *— 48765 64062 *— 98543 30984 4— 32167 68432 43786 <— 43856 25979 73210 *— 73218 <-_ 46213 50755 228 50: .

saying the phrase to yourself.» 93042 60646 40434 40646 30707 NUMBER CORRECT OUT OF 50: Perception Exercise 29 Using the Flashmeter card. attempt to recognize each phrase in one exceedingly brief exposure. Avoid. if possible. differences more conservative producing hundred million Chinese greater understanding few. start one million Japanese the earmarks of believe in hard his privileges large combustion of scholars why this play has -» -» band on conspirators in larceny or three friends big commercial debt — -» insists of the long night heart of the matter in action working on a shoestring relatives tied to her apron strings softness of flesh 229 . -> a fashionable audience preparation for disaster -» the evening performance yearns to re-establish -> frame of reference -» tens of thousands fraught with urgency -» one of Germany's might -» two -» small — all —> -> -> -» much if his Union work many needy chamber of South Africa have fascinating histories history of the affair end any.

is estimated at $10. and cartoons did died on March 19 at the age of 74. . 'Tarzan of the Apes' 230 in his spare time at the Chicago Public Library. income from the was Mr.this series of words found brief period of exposure to his return of the good this briefest synopsis for better or for her optional accessories will high-octane gasoline found many easily run for to his damn Yankees sat down for life worse office dismay Greeks bearing reclining figures those dismay gifts supper won the pennant Perception Exercise 30 Now. About 36. Publishers' Weekly. on extensive research in the four corners the Tarzan movies which Mr. Burroughs' first sale it published book. dispensing with the Flashmeter down each column of print with only relying. copies a fictional Caspar Hauser are 23 Tarzan books or ape-man.000. from visual responses than material in this exercise is sweep and fixation to the line reprinted. with permission. was written while the author was a department at Sears manager Roebuck. whose jungle of his exploits known have been and his sold. more on The if possible. one card. attempt to on inner speech.000.000. Burroughs of the globe.000 creator of Tarzan. and was based to people of his books. Edgar Rice Burroughs.

publishing department. and hundreds of was short stories. the late Herbert A. its tremendous of thirty-five other books possibilities. After a few installments had appeared.He I I first the manuscript to a number of Eastern publishers but they down too. then director Mr. then head of was published turned He it then sent to Argosy which promptly accepted McClurg's three years ago. in southern California on Wabash Avenue. would contain that as soon as they were published. . Burroughs who immediately saw was the author it Magazine it for serial publication. The Mr. Gould talked all I book for a sent last Tarzan book. Mr. McClurg published it 1914 in and it of adventure stories. discovered there was a How demand books became best sellers." too fantastic. Foreign Legion. Burroughs of McClurg's found himself famous his set up own publishing company retail store overnight. over it with the late "Tarzan and the as being Joseph Bray. the complete story. it is located in a was your comprehension? Dgood Of air Dpoor 231 town called Tarzana. Gould. Succeeding Tarzan some years ago. He an instant success.

The printed line is a blur because the eye moves pause again. efficient become more move and they they become more they right kind until they reach the end of the line. During the movement from one pause to another. just as the fingers skillful with practice The movement somewhat is the movement. Strang is Professor of Education at Teachers College. can be trained.Perception Exercise 31 Continue as before. Poor eye movements to train the eyes. underlie In order to understand how efficient reading. Dr. The and like a flash Reading Exercises. THE IMPROVEMENT OF EYE MOVEMENTS by Ruth Strang I I Good eye movements or the violin. no words are recognized. steadily across the page. of of the of an automobile make another swift on the piano From Study Type starts" make a swift movement. She is the author of nu- . work eyes Rather. 232 College. Columbia University. in reading. Accordingly. on of print are not moving smoothly and so eyes along the lines your eyes better. With the "by of training. it is first necessary how are signs of to learn lack of they are used skill in reading. like movement down with a street traffic lights with stops in its many and starts progress. As you read we should understand how the eyes work and how to make them a line of print. fits pause. Reprinted with permission. and Director of the High School and College Reading Center of Teachers merous books and articles on reading improvement.

may make These nine pauses. as and whether depends also that of pauses per line of the total time spent in movement. pictures See whether his eyes show clearly 233 sometimes move back . and other of the printed words. easy material Even the pauses which we read are only about just for pleasure one-fourth of a second can be understood in length. how many the poor reader only one. his eyes moved backward along the line of print. each person's eyes Only about 6 per cent is I in a single pause. while made he read. Count the number of times his eyes on each pause line. of course. You can see for yourself how one's eyes work when he reads. the slower is the rate facts about eye movements were discovered by taking of reading. not time is words clearly. reading distance from his eyes. by making following the experiment: Punch a small hole in the center of a separate page of print. and other at a comfortable A good reader may pause only four times in reading a line difficult material which we must study require a larger number on which a poor reader of pauses per line. The more pauses.I between There to see the I stops. Put one eye to the little hole in the sheet and watch as his eyes he reads. with very few pauses but that is long enough pauses per line. The number of reading on the of often difficulty the material and the purpose It is during the pauses we comprehend the meaning for we which are reading Stories it. Then ask your friend to take in mathematics problems to hold the sheet an "eyeful" of words. moving pictures The good reader of the eyes of people may be able to recognize four or five words who were The reading.

mechanics to the For example. The newspaper column so is narrow good readers that can get the meaning of a line by letting their eyes rest on it only once. beginning to the of by lack by means of of comprehension. at The eyes are not checked way of increasing our eyes naturally take in mixed up second number the read material so of the centipede A than to wonder might put us that got eye movements. its improve to better to think of way the best is the eyes. in reading a paragraph. way improve eye movements is to read words of can take in at a single pause of the eyes is to use the daily newspaper for practice material. An attempt to grasp in their the meaning forward movement of this short line began to think about we each pause. and an accurate jump line to the next are signs of efficient reading. . Eye movements cannot be improved it is To do pauses our eyes are making. Reading many easy with no attention no backward from one some Such reading. trains books interesting movements. sweep his eyes from the end of one line of the next line. meaning how many by thinking too much about them. only one pause Nor do they gives excellent practice have to go back over the line to pick up the meaning 234 in increasing the of number words recognized at each stop.I I * across the line a good deal and how quickly of interesting material and accurately with keen attention. of eye of the words. Few pauses. movements. we If eagerly that is not too difficult for us in the state a group of words as soon as it which leg to move The to best first.

words. should try the words on either type one or more words The about one-fourth In that short time. you sweep down each column. first set of cards If we can get the meaning of three or four quick as a we able to recognize words flash. in size. students way toward becoming good readers. see page 230. can take in a line of print rapidly only one or two words and are well on our may have one word in a quick glance. or paste the meaning of the of a second. we may be words words each page. five inches In the center we may They type to hold the cards which we can make three for this kind of drill. it. depending on your peripheral vision to bring you the extremities of each line. by going finally. and uncover each card These cards may be by for we of each card to recognize At cut from magazines. practice on reading narrow columns of solid you can without loss of comprehension. text as rapidly as Fixate at the broad black arrow as 235 . Some on each: How as they quickly turn together. first. two words.) A I * way third the second of learning to take in the meaning and of a phrase or clause rather than of single a smill notebook on up to a group of words on each page at a comfortable distance and practice getting from our eyes ourselves. We may ask someone words practice cards so five or six to use is like to use set. was your comprehension? Dgood Dfair Dpoor Perception Exercise 32 And now. ( For full instructions.

off to the by piece of who conclusively Japs were worthless as air fightthat the ers because their were anti- quated only to take a canvass a "expert" which come out with idyllic featuring planes rapturous descriptions silly aviators. Unfortunately. Some years ago. one of our best- appeared the dropped dead. Japanese another periodical was "fan" believe me. copy and getting to the printer on From Shake Well Before divorce courts. promise of a first-class case of stomach ul- motion and cers. The day ticle after the ap- peared with a lead article designed to prove never Hawaii that could be attacked suc- And just cessfully. Simon and Schuster. new writand artists. if you don't articles one the the cover Especially you pause. this piece that will —perhaps featured on —look able.ON A MAGAZINE COVER by Bennett Cerf Have you ever entertained the notion that editing your dish? little maga- a would zine be just If so. Another editor lined up eight pages time for every issue are only part of their problem. the day before the ar- Jap raid on Pearl Harbor. home of two famous Hollywood love-birds a day or so after said love-birds have hit the front page with a dyspeptic the specimens Finding now extant. Reprinted with per- . No job in the world offers a surer and quicker to give of the of vulnerare course. and a description of same by the highestpaid Britain. journalist The in editor was correcting proofs New York. cock-eyed. mission. news magazines not mention to picture periodicals. inroads life all in a night and marched proved club. and plagiarism the fighting suits. often the of of all holding onto avoiding libel super-colossal free-for- and ers then them. when our unprepared pitifully inade- quate forces were beUsing. They must also live under the fear perpetual that something is going to happen while a num- known magazines of ber is on press or about to hit the stands and of eager beavers in the advertising depart- ment. and their bombs were duds. intended is leading their I make one puddle-jumptheir pilots were ers. 236 octogenarian colored photographs of the accession to the throne of King Edward VIII. an enterprising editor bagged a piece by a noted octogenarian which gave his in details secrets of longev- ity. you have the ing knocked an ridiculous.

ran it and the story of Long's death in adjoining columns. The manager proud of this circulation was so machine that he wrote a long article about it and hailed the company that built it as . Long was sense "boners" on the volved." When it appeared. Jay Darling ("Ding"). At enormous exhe installed a complicated machine pense. Peace Advocate. and est German were tramping already through the towns of soldiers Belgium. One spent by of a sealed and as touching them. "The World's Great- earthquakes. in April. are etc. that isolated all the plates of pa- index tions of the big Listen ager! trons war.— I when wife called his "Hurry up out. if hasn't 237 at all. Even now. It ically five or six automat- printed their names and addresses at the tops of one of those irresistible form letters "Surely that you begin not going to allow yourself to miss a single issue. cartoon a bit in During edition Do you to still yearn be a magazine edi- tor? as a sad edition news weeklies had to be ripped apart at the last moment because of some sudden and spectacular happening. see them. the and dropped them in a time nothing chute without human hands even so much these weeklies before press praying that will sitate simply train assassinated. a big financial digest devoted most of an issue to a widely interpretation bullish of market. 1914. 1947. as indispensables. wrecks but in the concluding panel he showed Mr. in no Western One paper. whose subscripwere going to run out in weeks. the It stands reached the greatest during the Wall Street crash In history. "Yet nothing ever seems to happen to Huey Long!" Three days later. Public complaining to his wife. records. Man- ager Durocher. a magazine featured an about article calling Kaiser. Or maybe you'd your hand circulation man- like to try and the after a soft shell crab.. In October. them Their wives contents. want if you Edward to hear the over abdicate radio.. another periodical printed Leo Duropicture cher's on its and hailed him one of baseball's cover. etc. made a drawing in labeled "The 1935 Fates Are Funny That Way. The great newspaper cartoonist." In August. a pictures of a fight be- tween a flounder and na- of series week-end away from since he office came down with pneumonia trying to catch his occur to spend neces- a complete re- shuffling of an issue's were tough breaks. Ding's late. suspended the entire These were season. received fact. the editors of the to one of tale of them. part of the editors in- they floods. unfor- had just been from his job as manager of the Brooklyn Dodgers for tunately." the whole it tional depicting calamities. 1929." the twenty-four hours stamped envelopes. and there are dozens more like them on the television.

Magazine editors have special and peculiar problems (largely in relation to "timing" ) that A magazine tion manager. Did you follow the thinking of this selection? Then check the main idea. the Unfortunately. From son is the New York a Max. 4. 1. Mr. "I give up! A check for five dollars. 238 *JL*i-.834 letters manity." in them liver all. magazines Don't become an editor. Magazine editors are a rather scatter-brained lot. and had wouldn't could take a hint. 2. he wrote to the magazine. plied: "If I flavor. problems are harder than those of a circula- Despite the editors. spat out deftly the shell. renewing him his subscription was about to expire. The local postmaster had to hire telling the editors. swallowed. editor's make their lives particularly trying. named cracked a pistachio nut. 5. When subscription. World-Telegram and Sun. With en- is without or baffled the ranger succeeded their Montana in digging himself out magazines march onl a rancher from under. Key: Subtract seven from eight. manage still add to survive. my a special truck to de- closed herewith. Perception Exercise 33 Proceed as before. Reprinted with permission. one. you? What re- am coffee I give I in business for?" The customer.benefactor a hu- of received 11. machine went out of kilter one day this summer. who chewed. and before the slip-up was discovered. WHAT? YOU A QUIZ CLANSMAN? by Murray Robinson I A customer walked into a neighborhood candy store in Brooklyn and said: "I a pint of want coffee ice The party proprietor.& . 3. Robin- a staff writer for the World-Telegram and Sun.

apparently seen other in some time: Quiz tions with other ques- his the conversation who hadn't —the by between two subway riders City noused is Here's a recent girls. anybody "Does here this around ever neighborhood want butter pecan?" he answered. "Why should I keep butter pecan if I couldn't sell customer and. he the lied score. And the customer You comin' out tomorrow? Second Sportsman: customer reared. They're the peo- get I all-quiz. but with evi- never peril each press?" ques- questions.— — said: "All right. "Don't you think I have troubles of my himself had fallen into answer system ownr of a even. "Who wants hear your trouto bles?" he demanded. Under tions. are but How even? how nine? So know Where working you now?" "Did you ready?" "In by he don't? I if in will forget al- same the place?" "Is a it so unusual for girl to hold a situa- tion for a year?" They matching were si ill questions . "are you forgetting what the doctor said? Why do you have to Me get so excited?" good? Second I pecan'll do. wit. parted. the question after two habit affirmative Max and a spread York his wife over New who answer ple losing their franchise. nothing but ing The two members all can else sample statements. Their conversation goes like this: First Sportsman: You woikin'? Second Sportsman: 239 ex- should suffocated? I take and express The get local enough?" isn't fast "Don't you have to by nine?" "Does HE get get in makes strangers blow a "Why the phenomenon This clan "You take the make a ers something I ain't got?" Max's wife. tal- Sportsman: First Doin' Who this Max had You woikin'? woikin'? any yourself Sportsman: does any good in here swindle? Sportsman: First three spoken times. pint." said. flat heatedly. His wife had spoken once and had asked two. effectively strange language questions. ever try business? "Did you THIS lousy Do custom- want something I Why do they always want their gaskets. de- he as walked away." Max cracked an- and pistachio other looked dolefully at The the customer. butter she "Max. test of a game. in a whole month?" The Max with looked at him sudden interest The customer was now speakand respect. cracked a pista- of statement. cult Clan. Nothing but questions. but the members consider it got in stock? delicate fencing chio loudly for attention. "You think you got troubles?" Max asked they dent relish. Take two sportsmen of the Quiz Clan who meet at the races. who had been arranging halvah on the counter.

clan. whose coat of arms a pant mark on smaller is ant^y-red large question parade route qualify for coated with a month's grime. and answers: "What do YOU always says: "Whatsamatter. green up and The cop And he of field bilious the old lady always there a parade?" illegible sign.?" them are Every bus rider has met the This driver always has a bus whose signs a you read?" Cops guarding her Did you follow the thinking main idea. ram- in Some usually member- the ques- tions with other questions. members of the Quiz Clan always answer 1. condone 12. eschew 3. subtract two. "Is think. There 3. 6. peering futilely at the totters St. "Does ship this bus go to 42nd you ask him. to determine the number of the correct answer. emulate 2. cajole 8. expostulate (with) 4. castigate 9. ameliorate 7.when ter the local's clat- drowned out the quiz bee. Key: Add one and three. In 2. lady?" can't question marks. Mac. cogitate 11. driver with a card in the Quiz Clan. to one of asks: looks at steadily a of this selection? Then check Some people never answer any questions. extirpate 5. is something wrong with people who never make an af- firmative statement. New York. People in 4. New York are cranky and difficult to get information from. cavil 10. harass 240 fulminate (against) 19 . • SESSION VOCABULARY STUDY Words for IV Today 1.

3. mulct 14. improve. 24. think deeply 6. avoid. 11. inure (to) 19. a sacrifice. 23. tially unfamiliar. (b) part of speech. make more 15. criticize slashingly 17. 7. „ friendly or favorable 16. Next. punish in order to correct condemn loudly and vehemently 4. make 19. . (d) derivation. and write your own illustrative phrase or sentence. persecute pettily 10. doubt. and (e) sample phrases where these are given. away from 1. immolate 17. over trifles __ accustom (to something unpleasant) 22. persuade by flattery prevent from happening attempt to equal foreshadow overlook ( an error or offense ) 14. find fault 21. impugn 18. sacrifice. . vided for that purpose. work (against) cheat (of) by trickery 8. imitate in order to make equal . predict 20. remove or destroy completely 25. reason seriously with in order to dissuade 9. 12. offer or kill as 18. coax better 241 . First. presage 16. torment. challenge as untrue 13. stay 2. Test Your Learning I. propitiate check those words with which you are completely or parLook these up in your dictionary. (c) related forms. impossible .13. Pronounce each word aloud. From the list above choose the word that most closely fits each Write your answer in the space pro- of the following definitions. study your notes in preparation for the following tests. call into 5. preclude 15. taking notes on (a) meaning. . militate (against) 20.

preclusion. or impugnation. 18. 19. condone. It sets ever higher (but always at- wonresponse. 5. but derfully comfortable and gradual development of long-familiar. amelioration. condone 16. 1. impugn. 1. 10. inure. finally. 17. immolate 14. immolation. 9. propitiate _ _ 10. 5. discipline. eschew 18. fulminate. 16. militation. ameliorate. 7. It continuously challenges you to exploit your innate. 14. 6. propitiate. 15. be somewhat uncomfortable. preclude 8. militate 7. 20. 10. cogitate. 15. eschewal. 19. preclude. cogita- emulation. 8. book involves a tredemands the acquisition and refinement of a great number of new and complex skills. impugn . condonation. 13. 11. and your capacity for selffor a brief period. as arduous and intensive 242 —but also as rewarding . harass. Write the noun form of each verb. tion. it draws heavily on your time. 4. presage. mulct. harassment. 14. 17. preclude. 13. 24. 18. but perhaps dormant. 21. cavil 13. expostulate. harass 3. 12. presage. 3. 25. 4. This is.II. 2. castigate. expostulate 19. 16. propitiation AN ANALYSIS OF YOUR ACCOMPLISHMENTS The many-faceted training mendous amount of learning. and the tainable) goals. inure 5. cajole 12. emulate. extirpate Key: L eschew. cajolery. habits of new and more efficient responses that will. fulminate 1. extirpate. 7. 9. 3. It talents. castigation. 2. castigate. impugnment. fulmination. emulate 17. ameliorate 11. 12. extirpation. cavil. immolate. cajole. offered in this of very difficult learning. cogitate 6. 8. 15. 6. militate. cajole II. cavil. your energy. 2. 22. inurement. expostulation. 23. presage. indeed. It requires the sloughing off of inefficient. presage 9. 1L emulate. And. castigate 4.

GOAL 1. of — — improvement. where you need to devote more effort. and in what aspects of reading you have made the most us pause to date. hension from main concepts as you read? Good [Jyes \Jno Spectacular etc. let draw up a kind of balance sheet of your progress to what you have accomplished and have not yet accomplished. you will have a graphic appraisal of your progress so far you will be able to tell at a glance where your weaknesses and strengths lie.m. in what areas you must invest more time and practice. and as honestly and objectively as you can. —a learning experience now as you are ever that your formal training is likely to more than undergo.% and fruitful And so.) 1? What is gainr 2. Greater effi- Do you the percentage of your — actively distinguish sup- Poor Fair ciency of compre- porting. And in column III check the word that fairly assesses your accomplishment to date.p. clarifying. Do you alertly follow central theme? [Jyes [Jno Do you work details an author's quickly sense the frame- of thinking that shapes an author's presentation? [Jyes [Jno 243 . In column I of the chart below you will find a fairly complete list of the goals you have been attempting to reach during your training. when you have filled out this chart. half over. In column II are pertinent and searching questions that explore how successfully you have reached them answer these questions in writing. Then. (See page 11.. of your successes and your failures. YOUR EVALUATION OF ACCOMPLISHMENT QUESTIONS Increase in general speed Do you now consciously and de- move liberately faster through Poor Fair material than you were formerly Good in the habit of doing? [Jyes [Jno Spectacular How much faster do you now read than you did on selection w.

Can you read through a selec- DPoor liance tion rapidly with less awareness DFair Decreased reon inner speech of the individual words than of the ideas and thoughts they add to? dyes Dno Can you do the digit DGood DSpectacular up exercises without repeating the numbers you see? {Jyes Dno 7. whispering. YOUR EVALUATION OF ACCOMPLISHMENT GOAL QUESTIONS Decrease of time reacting instantaneously to four- DFair and DGood fixation Do you any greater feel combinations? five-digit \Jyes skill in Dno What DPoor DSpectacular do you generally score make out of 100 tries: on fnnr-dipif numbers? nn five-diVit o numbers? nn individual words? 4. and less when you Are all other vocal or apparatus lip motor responses completely quiet? Dyes Dno Do you ever feel hoarse after a 244 DGood DSpectacular . Elimination of motion- DPoor read? \Jyes Dno other parts of your vocal DFair Are your lips absolutely movements. Greater use of your peripheral fixate at the center of DPoor a narrow column of continuous DFair vision text and read down with good comprehension? [Jyes Dno DGood DSpectacular 6. Enlargement Do you respond accurately to of recognition disconnected span single phrase-units Flashmeter in exposures? Hyes Dno Do you feel that you can run down a column of connected phrases in single fixations and with good comprehension? \Jyes DPoor DFair DGood DSpectacular Dno Can you 5.3.

spent on reading Do you. set yourself a high but reasonable goal of so many pages an hour. Better reten- he pre- dyes \3no Have you made a creditable two retention tests (pages 48 and 123)? Byes Uno Is your understanding of most of what you read strong enough for you to hold it in your mind and recall it when asked to? Dyes score on the tion Spectacular directly par- Poor Fair Good Spectacular Uno 11. or words? Dyes quently to Uno Deeper and more immediate 9.GOAL YOUR EVALUATION OF ACCOMPLISHMENT QUESTIONS long stretch of reading? dyes no 8. word. actively and ticipating in the ideas sents to you? 10. so many hours for the complete book? \Z\yes [Jno 245 Spectacular . Good when you sit down with a novel. punctuation. More especially time. Elimination of unnecessary re- and by this means the improvement of the smooth flow of meaning gressions Do you have enough faith in your comprehension to read always forward even if you occasionally miss an unimportant point. longer to read a Poor novel in a single sitting? Fair Have you attempted full blocks of contin- Hyes Uno uous time. concentration right into material Poor pursuit of central meaning? Fair Can you jump in Good dyes E\no Do you think along with the author. or phrase? \3yes Poor Fair Good Spectacular \3no Do you have to go back frecheck on figures.

more time hours twice or three times a Spectacular you will be able to spend on read- week. without referring to previous pages. Self-discipline Have you spent a half-hour to Poor (The more you Fair this abil- an hour most days of the week. the training is over. Dno Do you \3sporadically 246 Good .COAL YOUR EVALUATION OF ACCOMPLISHMENT QUESTIONS Have you been able to meet such dyes Dno Have you read goals? at least way three since you started your training? \Jyes Hno novels What in this are the titles of these nov- els? 1) 2) 3) 12* Improve- ment reading of vocabulary Have you directly studied a large number of new words by Poor actual reference to the diction- Good ary? \Jyes Name Can of Hno Fair Spectacular your dictionary: you. or do you pick this book up only sporadically? ^methodically develop ity. on your training? [Jyes ing after your methodically continue your training with no wide gaps. alternatively. one to two or. think of ten new words you've learned? (i) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) 13.

SELF-EVALUATION GRAPH Spectacular Good Fair Poor 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 GOAL If you compare your performance six months or a year from now with your performance before you picked up this book. lip movements. Pleasure in reading Are you beginning to find greater enjoyment in the printed page? DPoor Dyes Bno Do you get more stimulation from reading than you used to? Uyes [Jno DGood DFair Spectacular As you glance over your appraisals in column III you should. assurance." Let's make a graph of your self -evaluations so that we can see the results in a continuous profile.'' a slightly larger number of "Fairs. don't expect to stretch your perception span from four digits to five digits in one quick session. But don't expect a revolution overnight. try to double your speed immediately. find that you have checked off a few "* oors. if you are at all like the typical adult who embarks on a long and intensive learning program. long-run change will be tremendous. regressions.14. for example." and an occasional "Spectacular. give yourself enough time 247 . and. on the other. avoid a feeling of frustration or discouragement. Don't." a still larger number of "Goods. Take it easy. and inner speech at one big jump. you will receive a growing sense of satisfaction. don't. the over-all. If you set for yourself such goals as are easily attainable. in short. on the one hand. and success. don't try to eliminate all vocalization. you will. aim to become an expert reader in five easy lessons.

you will find yourself on what we might a "performance plateau. call yourself to a problem ( say speed. of concentrated reading." That is. So let us catalogue the general progress you can reasonably expect to have made up to this point: in 1. finally. A 4. Be satisfied with a 25 to 50 per cent increase in speed at this point your work. sure steps. Occaduring your work. 7. you will continue to apply sionally. no matter what his age. and so on. lip movements. and de- pendence on inner speech. motor responses. digit. When you achieve your by these short. Freedom from word-by-word reading. Greater ease in perceiving 5.or phrase-perception. A decrease in regressions. or regressions. goal final effortless. One more point. It is impossible for a person of normal intelligence. A new attitude to the main ideas and structure of material. right down the line. Take your time and work for the long pull. It is in a skill if he keeps practicing regularly under guid- impossible for you not to increase your reading efficiency and speed if you apply the guiding principles in this book reguand patiently. be elated if you have decreased any tendencies to vocalization. 2.and get there by short stages. 8. now. More immediate concentration and improved retention. or nearly every day. 3. from enslavement to the unimportant words and minor points of material. use of 248 . feel triumphant if you have begun to look for main ideas and to sense structure in much of the reading you do. 9. rapid reading will finally be habitual and and practice. not to show improvement ance. Be a sufficiently strict taskmaster to keep yourself at your training sessions every day. The ability to cover an average-length novel in an evening 6. your achievement will be permanent and efficient. And. The development of regular habits of work and practice. but do not be so unreasonable a taskmaster as to demand immediate suc- larly cess. before you resume your training. vocalization. 25-50 per cent gain in speed of general reading. a growing realization that your potential reading ability is far better than your performance before training may have indicated. full phrases in single fixations.

your body will start distributing it to the proper organs. you are refining solidating your previous gains repair of tissues. response to structure. 249 . — — and integrating new learning. but your performance will apparently not improve to any measurable degree.— peripheral vision. or are conyour mind is not quite ready to translate what it has absorbed into actual performance. broken down into its nutrients. It is as if you were filling your tanks with fuel while the motor idles. when the learning is integrated and refined. or as if your body were digesting the food you have eaten before transforming it into energy or assimilating it into the blood supply for growth and plateau. pursuit of central theme. the only thing you can do to hurry the ending of a plateau is continue intelligent and purposeful practice while maintaining your enthusiasm and desire at a high pitch. These plateaus are temporary they almost invariably occur in every extended learning process they are no cause for discouragement and they usually vanish as suddenly as they appeared. And since refinement and integration of learning and consolidation of gains are largely an unconscious process. the wheels will start to turn again. When — the fuel is all aboard (to continue the when the food is analogy). ) as earnestly and as enthusiastically as ever. During a etc. the performance plateau will disappear.

chapter 8 tells you when and where. and is applied to specific selections. learn how the technique in various circumstances. • You are challenged to read a complete issue of your favorite magazine in a single evening. shows you how. you have now sharpened your comprehension and perception skills. In material must be read for the over-all ideas. to suit certain needs and pur- poses. skimmed. this chapter: • • You You get intensive instruction in skimming. and should be. to 250 You have now come sufficiently . • SESSION 20 REASONS FOR SKIMMING far enough in your training. Almost all reading can be skimmed here and there.CHAPTER 8 HOW TO Some SKIM more or less thoroughly. some only and some can.

Yet 21 words out of the 54. a. (In Latin. from sentence to sentence and line but such is the nature of our language that it than 20 to 30 per cent. page 220.m.) Now this sentence-structure may look peculiar.. efficient reader. by practically ignoring. In a San Francisco suburb. even being aware of it. should one skim? When is skimming necessary? When is it useful? When is it. of course. a man lurched out of a bar and into his car. more or less engage in this kind of skimming without. to line in all material. He does this by paying very little attention words like to. and if you now read over 300 w. man lurched out of bar. You yourself. on the contrary. 251 varies considerably.p. for. almost meaningless words were of material you've already read — — restored: It was 2 a. ready to use one of the most effective weapons in the arsenal of the rapid. To begin with. unimportant. approximately 40 per cent of the conhave been eliminated! The percentage of unimportant words tent. let me present to you a few sentences that will sound familiar. linking words the.m.. let us understand that the trained reader always skims to a slight degree. (These sentences look familiar because they are the opening lines selection 15. is. For example. sent six persons hospital. with. etc. hot August night. because ideas are not usually expressed in such telegraphic style but you cannot deny that there is exactly as much meaning in these lines as you would get from them if the unimportant.m. That weapon is skimming. and what does one lose. it. into car.. on the other hand. sentences from which the unimportant. is rarely less . undesirable? What does one gain. 2 a. if you have increased your speed by 25 per cent or more. Before police could stop the drink-crazed driver he had crashed into another car and sent six persons to the hospital. was. on a hot August night. perhaps. and. crashed another car. Before police stop drink-crazed driver. roared northward 80 miles hour. to. San Francisco suburb. linking words have been omitted: Why — . and roared northward at 80 miles an hour. by skimming? Are there various degrees or extents of skimming? These questions are worth exploring.

as I have said. pronouns are almost always omitted. So. and restricting yourself largely to the opening lines and. linking. and complete skimming. without perhaps realizing it. the closing sentence. perhaps. are skipped reflexively. skipping all details. if you read efficiently and rapidly. a section. Partial and com- — and deliberate each type used if it suits your purpose and if the material lends itself to such skimming. in which you read only for the gist or final meaning. all illustrations. on the words that actually express thoughts and ideas. to skip a single meaningful word. But there are two other degrees of skimming partial skimming. is no stranger to you you Ve been doing it for weeks during your training. partially skim a page. or a chapter. and statistics. . except. of each — paragraph. You are slightly skimming right now if you are reading this page with any skill. then. in the fine print of a contract or other legal document. (The unimportant. in which you go through a selection picking up mainly the central theme. In all your phrase-perception exercises you are forced to ignore unimportant words in order to respond to the meaning of a phrase in a single. a. and most other linking elements are indicated by the endings of the major words. the significant details that develop and clarify the theme. and only as much additional material as you want or need. perhaps for years if you were a fairly efficient reader before you started this course. He does not do this in all articles or stories ( although he does in most books ) for sometimes the style is so delightful or the details so essential to his needs that he does not wish. almost automatic. And in those exercises in which you attempt to train your peripheral vision.there are no words to correspond to the. or a complete novel or book of nonfiction. however. skim through rapidly. words. at least occasionally. Slight skimming. are conscious is . split-second fixation. you skim at least 20 per cent of all material without thinking further about it. or cannot afford. Should you skim? I cannot imagine any efficient reader going through a long article or story. or by a copy editor or proofreader. all clarification and development. or an. who does not. occasionally. Slight skimming is reflexive.) And any person who efficiently 252 plete skimming. you again. examples. concentrating your mental responses only on the meaningful terms.

or necessary. for an accurate grasp and retention of the significant points. then partial skimming is useful. your attitudes about writing be253 to revise . you will want to learn how fro skim successfully so that you can use this technique whenever the exigencies of time or circumstances require it. Should you skim? By all means. for skillful skimming does not in any way deprive you of the total. Complete skimming. final meaning that all your reading aims at Indeed. the bare plot. or the main points.and skillfully does a good deal of reading. even necessary. there are times when partial skimming may aid comprehension. the atmosphere. that the author's main idea is becoming obscured and you are in danger of losing the essence of his communication. on the other hand. is a valuable tool only under certain special circumstances. if you have no more than a few minutes to devote to a long article. and many other things but these are things you either do not want or need. the structure of the material. — — — cess. in addition to one or more daily newspapers. or other piece of writing from which you wish to extract only the final meaning. the background. then you necessarily skim it completely. the explanations. illusand background information. report. You lose the flavor. If time is absolutely of the essence. And you should skim with a clear conscience. frequently does a great deal of partial skimming and finds that he — misses nothing of crucial value. or so overfull of minor details. Such skimming is useful also as a means of reviewing. or are willing. story. As a person training to develop the greatest degree of reading that your capacities permit. or whose profession requires him to read material most of his working day. and the needs that you are satisfying by reading make such skimming valuable. useful. You should partially skim when- ever you feel that the dictates of time. to sacrifice. or whenever your own skill needs or desires dictate Possibly you will its have use. who (as I expect it eventually be true of you) goes through several magazines will and books a week. If so long-drawn-out. under the circumstances. the details. When your recollection of the main points or gist of material must be refreshed some time after an original reading perhaps for a test or for an oral report complete skimming can produce efficient recall in minimum time and with minimum effort and maximum suc- material is trations.

that pensable. material. sort- are you too con- servative in your approach to material to take short cuts or to rely on time. every paragraph tion. supremely important? ability to comprehend that Or are you don't you so trust ing an author's chaff from his wheat? Or.and work-saving devices? I doubt that you would still answer any of these questions in the affirmative after the extensive practice you have had in stripping a page down to its essentials but if you would. tract these — or of less essential. Refer to selection 15. PRINCIPLES OF SKIMMING What is skimming? To skim milk. Let us go back to the article on traffic-court justice in chapter 7 it might have been skimmed efficiently and successfully. is getting the essence of material without reading all of it it involves judicious and selective skipping of nonessential. but you have to ex- where you find them. or so economical and concise in his presentafore every sentence. you are psychologically and intellectually well prepared to start using the technique more extensively. every thought. page 220. If you have already attempted to skim on your own. then. matter. Skimming. you extract the important parts —that the main points and the significant details. the richest part. To skim reading is. without detailed guidance or instruction (and I hope that you have). diffident is indis- about your your competence in finally. you have been asked to skim a little in novels and in a book of nonfiction in order to meet a time can happily adjust to doing a certain amount of skimming whenever you read. and follow along with me as we skim through the piece. off the top of the bottle. Paragraphs 1-4 contain narrative incidents showing how lightly 254 and see how . You have been invited throughout this book to do a certain amount of skimming whenever you felt so inclined. Do you feel guilty if you do not read every word an author has written? Do you consider every author such a consummate stylist. you take the cream. which is not necessarily at the top. some successful experiences with skimming should change your feelings.

. or substantiation of.) indicate a shift in pattern from examples to causes. so you drop down to paragraph 11. tails of etc. in the two paragraphs. You skip down to paragraph 9. You read this entire paragraph. do you actually read? Comparatively little.) and then skip down to the last line (slap-on-the-wrist license suspension) to realize what point is being illustrated (light punish- first ment). you have the central theme as far as it has been expressed. and also all of paragraph 7. . .— the traffic courts are punishing serious offenders. where you recognize further central theme material. and then continue skimming. Paragraphs 26 and 27 are quickly recognized. from the opening 255 . . . You pick up the important question and answer that open paragraph 3 (Is that driver now in jail? Hardly. In paragraph 22. from the beginning of each of these paragraphs. the arrest. . How much You know of this that narrative details in a nonfiction piece are not important for themselves.. The beginning .) that support is continuing. so you drop down to paragraph 6. the problem. and skip the rest of that paragraph. If Chicago has had a different experience you know that something new is coming. so again you skip down to the final line or two ($75 fine. what you have already learned. . so you skim rapidly through the de- the crash. recognize from the first two words (In Detroit . . . So you read most of paragraphs 22 through 25. for you recognize quickly. Paragraph 8 opens with How far this has gone is demonstrated so you know that this paragraph will contain further supporting details. a similar opening (In Syracuse ) shows more support. the medical examination. of paragraph 5 tells you that nothing new will be added here. that this whole section of the material will only add support to. where the first few words (Behind this urge to penalize parking lies . by reading only the opening lines or sentences. You read paragraphs 11 and 12 fairly fully to pick up the causes of the problem. by full reading of only two paragraphs out of seven. . . picking up the rest of the central theme the way Chicago has solved ated. The beginning of paragraph 4 indicates further incidents. where you soon recognize that the central theme is being expressed. Now. walked out a free man) to realize that the same point is being reiter. the comprehension clue is the word different. In paragraph 10. but serve only to illustrate a point. . through paragraph 21.

of the entire article.lines. or when the limitation of time or the character of the material suggests it. — reading only the opening (or. You use it when you want to. How much of the total piece have you read? Out of the 28 para- graphs you've given a more or less thorough reading to only 9 (paragraphs 1. And some material can. in other parts. be skimmed in certain parts. occasionally. skimming that I have mentioned). And whether or not you skim also depends on the nature. is a kind of reserve high gear that you shift into whenever circumstances is make it useful. to whatever extent you wish. the closing) lines or sentences. how much you leave out and much you how you yourself will determine according to what the writing contains and what you wish to get out of it. you can successfully skim. at other times. but read thoroughly. any solutions that When piece of writing that is readily skimmable. to read quite thoroughly. This may more of the opening sentences or possibly no few words. and says it so lengthily. so you skip down the last paragraph. 2. when you have to. even leisurely. and when you can accurately sense the pattern of an authors presentation. then. reflexive. the have worked. This was fairly complete skimming. style. you will prefer. decide to skim. 11. which of course you read fully. has so little to say. 12. and should. or so pleasurable that there no point in doing any skimming at all (other than the slight. you can readily distinguish main ideas from details. the causes of the problem. these are the principles you follow: as much of each paragraph as you have to in order Read only to discover whether mean reading one further than the or first contains details or a main idea. 22-25. Sometimes you will feel in the mood to skim partially or fairly completely. out of either need or desire. it 256 . on the contrary. When you 1. The extent to which you skim. and content of the material and on what your purpose is in reading it. Skimming. so difficult. even somewhat slowly and carefully. that it is a sheer waste not to skim. so complex. and 28) the rest you've skimmed. since it is to a recapitulation. as elaboration on the Chicago solution. Some material. is a tool you use with discretion. yet you've extracted significant information all the —the problem. Skimming. in brief. so meaty. in short. Some writing is read.

If the opening line or lines indicate that a paragraph will ex- press or extend a main idea. or from facts to conclusions. or lead to. and the closing paragraphs often recapitulate the main points that the author has been making. or that of importance to you. from your total involvement in. If you are pretty sure. on the contrary. what an author has been saying. It interested in is only the basic framework. If it it it will contain other material completely. Follow comprehension clues to discover whether material is continuing in the same vein or whether a change of pattern is oc- — Do the first few words indicate that more of the previous coming? Then skip down to the next paragraph. or extend his main idea? Or that he is about to shift from introduction to development. is . any number of paragraphs in the middle of material may be important if you stay alert to the author's pattern you will have no difficulty in discovering these. the skeleton. read 3. 8. and getting down to the basic framework you are. pulling off all the flesh and laying bare the — skeleton. all the details leading up to it. skip along to the next sentence. that a paragraph is made up only of details that illustrate. repeat. to read also the last sentence or two of each paragraph. When you skim to any extent you often do not read complete sentences. appears. Read thoroughly all paragraphs containing expressions of the main idea. that you're when you do complete skimming. and accurate understanding of.2. in a manner of speaking. all the superstructure. or elaborate on what you already know. 6. of course. support. Do the opening words suggest. or from narrative to interpreta257 curring. on the contrary. or from development to recapitulation. 7. the central theme. that you know what the tag end of a sentence will contain. The first few paragraphs usually ( but not always ) either set up. So it may be necessary. And. that the author is about to express. Sometimes the main idea of a piece is expressed at the end of one of the opening paragraphs. When you do partial skimming. 5. clarify. so pay particular attention to these. Try to sense the author's pattern of thinking. you read in addition any details you consider significant and anything else that interests you. at the beginning. skim it 4. What you are doing in skimming is clearing away all the padding.

I all of you have it. But R. you would expect the check to be much bigger considering the name of the corporation which has a lot of company. you would be surprised. R. a your recognition of what important to the writers basic message and what is considerably less important. though. 2. skimming and skipping again when you come to paragraphs of details or of unessential information. the industry and his key job. or from a description of a study or experiment to the results or findings? Then you will read thoroughly. and. If you saw his monthly paycheck. Inc.A.A.'s company has just in the last five years given him: 3.Or that he is beginning a whole new section. PRACTICE IN SKIMMING Let us apply our eight principles of skimming to a number of selections.) ( Reprinted. is getting the essence of material To decide what parts to read on two things: your rehj to ability to sense the pattern of writers presentation. from the New York Post. virtually all his entertain- 258 .'s paycheck would give you a badly distorted view of the actual financial setup. through is without and what parts this. A handsome expense account which covers by permission. tion? Skimming. cate. is known F. For in addition to a cash salary. You will notice that Exercise 1 is somewhat less than half of the material in printed in boldface (heavy black) type. The Hall SyndiMiss Porter is the financial columnist of the Post. 1 "BENEFITS" FOR BIG BOYS by Sylvia R. from the cause of the problem to the solution. the boldface print —skip Skimming Exercise all the Read only rest. reading skip.A. moving. Porter one of the policy-making vice presidents made of a nationally- money in the last few years. said. say. Copyright 1956.

travel costs. The deals make the executives all but immune to offers from the companies' competitors because the men would have to give up their impressively attrac- his tive benefits 11. In corporation after corporation key officers are getting contracts and pay deals that rival or surpass the one R. buy a big chunk of the company's stock at a specified now and 1965. Am I making this report on R. tion to buy a this plan. if some are of the ways corporations are compensating key men — outside of cash? These: A Under key employee gets the opcompany's stock at a specified price during a specified period of years. retires.A. It also provides him with a new car every year and a beautiful vacation haven. when and as he sells his shares. he also is in a position to move easily and comfortably in the so-called million-dollar circles of our land. the executive prefers he many have salaries after 65. A when him as a "consultant'* at $14.A. stock option deal." you would find that in this era of stiff taxes on high incomes R. The profits of some men who have stock option deals 12. thereby fife. A retirement program under which he's already guaranteed $21. Some utives really eye-popping incomes for tracts to this. if you added to R. The stock is now quoted at $40 at which R. A life and his retirement benefits are steadily a year for 5. can buy (or has bought) the stock and privilege to price at any time between above the price paper profits on the stock top a quarter-million dollars. he still can exercise his option at the fixed price.000 a year he's 65. contracts I've seen give exec- In addition.'s cash salary all his "fringe benefits. his gain will be taxed only at the capital gains rate. top management men are being tied to their jobs for life by a "golden cord" of fringe benefits. A deferred bonus arrangement. meaning at a top of 25 per cent. 4. If the stock soars during the period. is not only building a major estate for his family.A. In (and 14. has. remain as consultants at impressive 259 cases. found only one in which the chief sales executive is compensated by salary alone. So. In corporation after corporation.A. Under officer a cutting his year-to-year tax liability.A. 9. 8. 10. etc.A. because he is so exceptional? Oh no! The point is that R. 7. will get) Handsome payment some of his bonus after retirement programs. the company votes the bonus payable in installments over a number of years. special contract retaining for ten years beginning 6. As an illustration. What they quit. con- . is becoming less and less the exception. the magazine "Sales Management" made a survey of 50 leading corporations a short while ago. a specified total of the run into millions of dollars! 13.

in which the central is no theme extended the fringe benefits. 16. including a restatement of the central theme.. realizing. and so you is read more or less fully. and these keep the executives all but immune to offers from competitive corporations this is the gist of the piece. having read. recapitulation 260 — — . profit-sharing arrangements. only paragraphs 1. statistics on the rate of rise in executives' salaries are meaningless unless the fringe benefits also are included. Let us see how we apply our skimming principles to this material. The monthly pay check of a key executive. The opening lines of paragraphs 8 and 9 state that R. as you read. in full. you skim by reading only opening lines.Rich insurance policies and fat expense accounts. Fringe benefits. fits. In paragraphs 16 and 17 you recognize a recapitulation of the total piece. and 17 paragraphs out of seventeen you have a clear understanding of what the author has said and of the pattern in which she has said it. of an American executive is less and less the financial well-being and it'll continue to be less and less The cash paycheck yardstick of his so as his fringe benefits multiply. for top in forms men to turn down flatly It's becoming hikes in cash pay in favor which are subject to only moderate taxes. rather than the cash remuneration. for this section of the article contains corroborating and illustrative details that support the statements made in the first two paragraphs.A. etc. you skip to paragraph 10. more details. All this theme material. exception. deferred bonuses. — — six stock options. programs. retirement programs. 10. and you read most of is clearly central it Then. Central theme. extension of the theme. commonplace pay of 17. Thus. such as expense accounts. supporting details. keep executives tied to a corporation. from paragraphs 3 through 7. and these you pick up by skimming paragraphs 12 through 15. Paragraph 11 is a guidepost that alerts you to coming explanatory details. The publicized 16. are more the yardstick of re- muneration to executives than their actual pay checks. 11. that these details for the most part are a repetition of those found in paragraphs 3-7. 2. special health many other variations of bene- 15. is surprisingly small but his cash salary is no — indication of the actual financial setup. says Miss Porter in paragraphs 1 and 2.

or if you had some special interest in every bit of information. and Shakespeare. 5. out close attention we we give close attention to a sermon. Without it one would never be interested in and enjoy the great music of such composers as Bach. from Your Life. and literature. . painting. and Leonardo da Vinci. realize the importance of concentration — that is. are we willing to pay the price for this kind of improvement? 2. you would not skim it this — Skimming Exercise 2 Directions: Read. E. 3. and appreciation of. then. again. a lecture.D. of course. Chopin. whereas withare able to recall but very little of what we have heard or read. Michelangelo. There can be no doubt that concentration helps us to remember more accurately. the finer things of life. for instance. What have you lost by partial skimming? A certain richness of detail and explanation. Ph. Most assuredly. Cochran. mainly. or can recall a rather large part of it. a structure to which you are keenly alert as you skim through the content. or the famous paintings of such artists as Rembrandt. In reading or writing. and Mozart. that the selection contained why. the rest only skimmed. Inc. experience that anything we when we read. close attention increases our efficiency and enjoyment in curately 4. which you must expect to sacrifice whenever you skim and very little else. Pope. as move why along. If this richness were important to you. more fully. HOW TO CONCENTRATE by Most of us BETTER T. no matter how minor. or the classical literature of such writers as Browning. In fact. analyzing. Also. and more permanently. Reprinted. 261 Copyright 195 7 by the Kingsway Press. it increases both the accuracy ments. such as music. and speed of our moveeither more ac- we can do and more rapidly by increasing the degree of our concentration. only the boldface print. concentration begets interest in. certain paragraphs are to be read more or you less thoroughly.— is the structure of the author's presentation. by permission. the giving But do we know how to improve ourselves in this connection? Also. We have all learned from of close attention to anything.

everything we what the do. listening to grand opera. but for the most part it is due to learning and training. and the we must give it if are to do close attention. 9. "Make hay the middle letter to occur? letter that occurs the greatest proverb: "A good 6. First. If you are poor in attentive ability." Which is "No wind can the fourth letter to occur? 4. the artist will see things in a picture that the untrained person will miss. If you can solve more than five of these correctly in eight minutes. To be sure. try to rate as well as you can your ability to concentrate. learning a poem. Second." 5. watching a sunset. musician will notice features in a symphony that the untutored listener will overlook. Two different letters occur only once in the following proverb: "Be not wise in thy own eyes. but of sufficient complexity to require continuous attention for quick solutions. Six different letters occur only once in this proverb: do him good who steers for no port. The degree of your power of concentration can be determined fairly well by the following test. occur? 3. it is not because you were born that way. or making out our income tax report. but because you have not learned to concentrate. 7. "can I improve myself in attentive ability?" A good question. this would probably serve as a stimulus to improvement. and find enjoyment in it. "But how. Without close attention. For example. 8. 6. Have someone time you so that you can give yourself fully to your work. playing golf. as something beyond control. we would not only waste much time and energy but would be only partially successful and by no means happy. Here are the problems: 1. whether it be reading a book. or attentive ability. and here are a few suggestions. shooting at a target. writing an article. which consists of ten simple problems based upon familiar material. it is to some extent due to inheritance." Constantinople occurs just as far to the right of does to the right of a in the alphabet? 262 C ." of different letters that occur only once in this proverb: "Don't judge a book by 7. avoid thinking of concentration. Write the Find the is name number is as it What letter in number of times in this rather to be chosen than great riches. we it well." Which is the second letter to occur? Four different letters occur only once in the following proverb: "A drowning man will grasp at straws. occur only once in this proverb: Which its cover." Which is the third letter to 2. you are above the average in concentration." you ask. If you should find yourself somewhat lacking in this ability. It matters not activity is. Seven different letters while the sun shines.

"Quite simple. mentioned? (The answers are What another is letter. and second letters of the alphabet were interthe third and fourth." and this desire is imperative if you are to improve yourself in this connection. Third. does she do? Well. memory. This the certain letter first as follows: 1-h. 14. I think you will be able to say with some enthusiasm. take the case of the young woman who said that she reduce her waistline. Fourth. 2-m. I want to reduce my waistline. whether it be concentration. reasoning or what not. in everything you do. and battles were being fought in places of which we had never heard. the most boring material will become fascinating when it 263 12. she could very easily say. geography was a rather uninteresting subject when we were in school. the fifth and sixth. To most of us. try to see its value in reference to your own life. If you will do this in regard to concentration. and also the tempting foods and soft drinks she had "Why. form the habit of having a definite purpose in whatever you plan to do. I dare say. A certain letter other letter is is letter of the alphabet so formed? the fourth letter to the left of the seventh letter to the right of N. your mind is like a ship without a rudder. 7-i. not at 11. Without a purpose. drifting hither and thither. N and R in the alphabet. also first would then be the nineteenth 10. Whenever she thought of how much better she would look and how many more dates she would probably have if her waistline were considerably reduced. 10-Q. she could just as easily say. 16." But whenever she thought of the many bending and stretching exercises to which she had to subject herself. 4-w. 9-T. 8-S.) 10. But there was a vast transformation in our attitude toward it during World War II when certain of our allies and our enemies were people of whom we had learned but little. and so on. "Of course I want to improve myself in attentive ability. more pleasant to . 6-12." you say. You have to consider both the pros and the cons. wanted to to be sure. imagination. to avoid. is letter that is the third letter to the right of the letter that Suppose the 9. What midway bevveen changed. 5-e. Similarly the encyclopedia or the study of economics or a foreign language were uninteresting until we found some immediate need for them. So it is with your improvement in any trait. To be sure you really desire to improve. No. all. 15." What it depends solely on whether she finds it be more attractive with a suitably reduced waistline or to keep to her accustomed method of eating. illustrate. "I don't think I want to reduce my waistline. In fact. 13. Hence.Write the 8. 3-g.

Paragraph 6 you read fully. The question. tells you that the article will provide what you want. while have to pay a price for improvement. This record should include at least two things: (1) noting the ease with which you learned to eliminate or ignore distractions. where still further values are given. such as the reading of a 1. but if you keep a record. and this makes concentration easy. you will be surprised how quickly and how well they work. Also. Many other suggestions could be given for improving your attentive ability. You next skip to paragraph 3. But if you follow these five suggestions. In this case. has been said that "nothing succeeds like success. ? reinforces the promise. a section . The first paragraph. If you decided to skim an article with the title "How to Conwhat would you want to get out of it? Generally. and the following the author will question. you want a quick and accurate understanding of the essence of material when you skim it.begins to serve some impelling purpose. similarly. some purposes are much better served by skimming than are others. recognizing it as a transition from values to you'll means —a new section of the structure containing the real meat of the material. can be skimmed much more readily and successfully than others. you will not always be conscious of any improvement. thence to the first sentences of paragraphs 4 and 5. But do we know centrate Better/' of course. and that this ties up with the first sentence of paragraph 1. . you will be stimulated to continue trying to improve. . are adding that we willing . Without such a record. 264 is starting." which Some kinds of material. you start to skim. which you read completely. It is indeed true. Now you read the first sentence of paragraph 2 and realize that the author has begun to enlarge on the value of concentration. where the opening sentence offers further information on value. 18. and (2) keeping track of the time that it takes you to do certain things. clearly aware of what you expect to extract from the material. specifically. how to improve ourselves in this connection? implies a promise that tell you how to concentrate better. With this in mind. as I have indicated. Fifth.000-word passage or the typing of 100 words without an error. 17. you want to know just how to go about concentrating better. keep a record of your daily improvement in concentration.

. and drop to paragraph 8 for the second reading only the first sentence. Now you skip to the final paragraph. that the article contains. so you skip to the opening sentence of paragraph 14 for the fourth rule. Now you go to paragraph 9. — By skimming you have lost the details and explanations but assume you were willing to do without. the essence of the material and it is for the purpose of extracting the essence with a minimum of time and effort that skimming is these I — used. omit the explanation in the rest of this paragraph and in paragraphs 15 and 16. ex- (a) the values of concentration. then. and in which you find a sort of recapitulation of the body of the article. and read the fifth rule in the to opening sentence of paragraph 17. and 13 you recognize immediately as elaboration on the third rule. (the first. Read these lines plus just as much additional material as you need in order to come away with a feeling that you understand what the author is saying. except for details and ex- planations. rule for better concentration. skip the explanation and details. All right.Paragraph 7 the first starts off with First . you push along rule. By reading only three full paragraphs out of eighteen the sixth. which you read completely. . 265 . else. 12. And this is all. you have successfully tracting from it: skimmed the piece. You read the is rule. the lines that must be read so that the bare essence can be quickly extracted. you know. and the last) and the opening words or sen- tences of the others. this. and (b) five rules for better concentration. You have not lost the main points. . of course. by the use of bold- face print. Paragraphs 11. paragraph 10 for the third rule. Skimming Exercise 3 In the following piece I shall again indicate. skipping this mass of details in the form of a test (if you were not skimming you might be tempted to take the test). where the opening lines indicate further details on the second rule. you would not have decided to skim.

Styles change.98. Millionaires.000 or more — a year. by permission. and says is getting smaller all the time. a fellow with energy. That. come in all shapes and sizes. Then. It is the million-a-year group that the Internal Revenue report discusses. and back in 1929 before Wall 2.HOW TO MAKE by Joseph A MILLION T. perhaps after almost a lifetime of labor. you can't afford one. there are those with an annual income above a million. Morgan told an acquaintance who inquired about the upkeep on a yacht: "If you have to ask. and cash. (J. this situation is not quite so alarming as it might appear on the surface. that is. Alexander Phillips. stocks and bonds. Then there are those with net assets of five-to-ten million.000. men and women with incomes of $1. But. according to financiers. have just barely managed to amass a million dollars worth of property. say the authorities. Mr. Some get into this select bracket only now and then. In 1950 there were 219 in the million-dollar-a-year class. They are big wheels only in their local communities. from the member of the New York Times Sunday Times. possibly in a year when they sell an oil well or a uranium mine. 266 Magazine." Now the Internal Revenue Service has come along with a further markdown to 148. of course. once complained: "The '400' has been marked down to $3. However. bemoaning the decline of moneyed society in the United States. and for them life is often a race to keep up with the Vanderbilts. say the revenue officials in a report just published. others have a million dollars coming in every year and these are the big rich. likely to imagination and luck can Reprinted. 4. many of whom have inherited money and invested prudently. Nolan is a staff . little Street's graphs went though the floor there were 513. they point out. The massive fortunes of the "Pittsburgh millionaires" of the nineteenth century and the "Detroit millionaires" of the Twenties are a phenomenon not be repeated. They can live comfortably these days provided they don't splurge on things like overly fancy yachts. is all we have left in the way of real millionaires. There are the ones who. P. still scrape together a modest million or so in the course of a lifetime if he knows the ground rules and takes advantage of them. in millionaires as in millinery. statistically but namelessly.") 3. investment counselors and tax specialists. Nolan The late man-about-resorts.

Baruch. he has away the bulk of his money. and the same rate of return (33 1/3 per cent). Mr. After the first year their of books looked like this: Original Investment Return on Investment Net Income (after 10 per cent deduction for expenses) Federal Taxes Income After Taxes Living Expenses Profit Reinvested Added 10.320 45." Actually. Five times as hard. qualifies as amassed a fortune once estimated at $25 million.000 in just eleven years. It is harder to make a million now than it was forty or fifty 5. who certainly an authority. Laurance S. in the opinion of Bernard M. used to have it. A.000 22. years ago.320 15. Baruch.000 would have permitted him Lower to tax rates plow back his original and a lower into his business a sizable portion of each year's income. B. with the same capital ($150. A.352 154. and one statistician figured at the turn of the century that if his money were left to accumulate at the going rate for thirty years. I'll always have a dollar more than I need.000. though he told a friend not long ago that "right up to the day they put the coffin lid on me.648 28. It is a hypothetical case history two men going into the same kind of business. costs being thirty-four years altogether. Now 84. B in 1955. would have run up stake to $1.000 16. who made his first million before he was 7.000 4.352 Mr. cost of living Mr.352 24. Rockefeller. A started in 1920. at two different periods. Guesses on the size of his wealth ran up to $2 billion. quietly given Statistical 9. Mr.000 45.000 7. $150.. the 1955 man. 11. It would have taken him what they are. On the other hand." 8. a private. non-profit research organization. once remarked: "We just don't have money the way people used to have it. Point 1. it would amount to $90 trillion. chairman of the board of Rockefeller Center and a grandson of the first John D. B.Financial experts do not see eye to eye on many things thes* /fays.000 50.320 172.000). these days is support for the theory that it is tougher to make a million provided in a study just completed by the Tax Foundation. Investment Makes Mr. $150.933. Mr. but they do agree generally on these three points: 6. would have found that at the end of eleven years he had increased his investment to only $239. taxes to make his million. 267 and living . the 1920 man. not many people ever had money the way Grandfather John D. At to Original this rate.680 37. 30.000 50.

C. 13.000.000. There are dozens of these "gimmicks. For instance. Capital gains are the profits a person gets by selling stocks. was put on the books to induce people to risk their capital." says comedian Bob Hope.Chances are strongly against anybody's making a million by depending on salary alone. under which assets held for at least six months can be sold and the profits taxed only 25 per cent. it is possible to figure out very roughly from a tax rate schedule that the Federal Government's claim on Curtice's income would amount to something like $595. "Today.000. But by taking advantage of the capital gains tax he can get off by paying only $25. D. Charles M. see it.000.000 from his vast steel enterprises. even to use it. Point 2. 15. A further indication of the futility of depending on salary alone to make a million is found in the Internal Revenue report on the 148 million-dollar-a-year men and women. in his lifetime aires. Industry's highest-paid executive is Harlow H. bonds.000. the first of the successful "amateur" uranium prospectors. Point 3. 18. The result has been to give many an enterprising fellow a few dollars he can call his own. became a millionaire on the strength of this "gimmick. This tax concession. who collected $686. 14. Capital Gains Deals. 16. A persons best bet for making a million is to take advantage of some of the "gimmicks" that are available. too all the way to Washington. invests his man of $100. Though actual income tax returns are confidential." He sold his Utah 268 . he can were taxed finds sell out six as ordinary pay the Federal Government $66. So no companies are paying million-dollar salaries any more. 19. he paid his chief lieutenant and golfing partner. houses or other property not a part of his stock-in-trade for burlesque is on more than they its way back to cost him. reading that York. a salary of $1. Not only did Schwab have no Federal income tax to pay. They got almost half their money from dividends and another quarter from the sale of assets at a profit. but his dollar went about three times as far then as it would now.798. But in the old days you were allowed to feel it. land. Vernon Pick. In 1900 when Andrew Carnegie earned $23. Salaries accounted for less than 2 per cent of their total incomes.000 in salary and bonuses last year.000. president of General Motors. New Burlesque proves to be such a hit that the months later at a profit income he would have Suppose a man." In the higher-income brackets the tax collector now takes up to 87 cents out of every dollar. Schwab." but here are three that the experts say have been responsible for making many of the "new" million12. Curtice. 17. "the dollar goes a long way. If this profit to money in a theatre.

Stock Option Plans.000 a Texas twist." 22.000.000 shares. The executive now has 20. dozens of vice presidents have become millionaires through stock option plans. The story is told of a board meeting at which the president of a large corporation was being badgered about a poor performance in one of the company's divisions. Two years later. one Texan brushed off a rival with the crack. He became a millionaire last week. in many an expert's book.") Reputedly wealthier than either of them. A year later. 26. from Henderson County alone) and equally fabulous stories of their antics. In another year. the stock is up to $125. 24. Texas' best known oil millionaires are Sid Richardson and Clint Murchison. 20. glancing over his new six-car garage and seeing only five pairs of fishtails sticking out of the stalls. Someone suggested that the vice president in charge of the division be called on the carpet.000 — ing a cent of taxes. it is — . say. "I can't chew that guy out. their oil wells ment" They can continue these deductions and can also write off large sums — for the life of as "intangible develop- costs." Not long ago. the stock is up to $150 a share. He pays not the regular price of $75 a share but the originally agreed on price of $50." 23. That is 5 per cent below the market price of the stock. The plans work like this: To give a key man some additional reward that will not be grabbed up by the tax collector. each worth $75 on the market after the split. Like the one about the Houston oil man who. told his chauffeur matter-of-factly: "Buy me another Cadillac to plug that hole.370." Because of the risks involved in drilling for oil the Government or more to sink a well that often will turn out to be dry allows oil men to pocket 27% per cent of their gross income before paytion for $9. The company decides on a stock split of two shares for one. so the executive decides to 269 21. five years to make up his mind whether he wants to buy. "Hell.000 shares of stock at $50 a share. This tax aires (fifty." said the president. make it a hobby instead of drudgery. the stock has gone up to $75 a share so the executive borrows money and buys it. I try to have fun out of business. So he already has a "paper profit" of $250." During the past five or six years of the bull market. whose estimated million-dollar-a-week income makes him. The executive has.uranium mine last year to an investment company called Atlas Corpora- and was able to keep 75 per cent of his take. Depletion Allowances. 25. a company offers him an option to buy 10. bonanza has produced a fabulous number of Texas millionsaid. "the richest man in the United States. Murchison says: "I don't know how big it is. "That guy never had more than forty or fifty million to his name. is 66-year-old Haroldson Lafayette Hunt. (Of his fortune. though. These have been called "capital gains with $100.

That leaves him $1. and the best bet is to take advantage of available "gimmicks. followed by several paragraphs of explanation.000 in the clear. the sentences of paragraph 4. 2 and 3. you have found and extracted three important points harder now to make a million. right at the core of the author's communication he is going to tell you how to make your million.500. prepare you for main points to come.000. alerts you to the three "gimmicks" that are most effective. followed by more explanation. but they get it eventually." Most of them don't make it or keep it in a single year. depletion — allowances. obviously. you've just about finished reading. points are fewer millionaires than there used to be. Point 2 occurs in paragraph 12. you realize. and the 1. Nolan's article you decided.sell his 20. But if they are just plain. since these hold out little and final out that there promise of anything new. Having skimmed more than half the material so far. planations you read depends on if How much of the details and exwhat you want from the material you need only the bare essence. 20. 27. chances are against making it out of salary. Paragraph 17. he has a he gets $2.000. how You skim paragraphs sentence of paragraph 3 reiterating the point of paragraph first title. Few of them are wealthy enough to be mentioned in the same breath with the Fords or the Woolworths or the Astors. from the just to what you might expect from it suggestions. Allowing profit of $2. which summarizes the second half of the article. on make a million dollars.000. and 24 capital gains.000 shares at this price. gardenvariety millionaires and not the super-millionaires of yesterday. The first paragraph. who used to say: "A man who has a million dollars is as well off as if he were rich. On this he pays a capital gains tax of 25 per cent. then. and point 3 occurs in paragraph 16. final The single sentence of paragraph 5. All told. These and other "gimmicks" are helping many today to realize the American dream and ambition of "making a million. which you read fully. they can perhaps take some consolation from old John Jacob Astor. Skimming. which you read fully." — — Before skimming Mr. gave you the pure 270 gist of the piece —the three . and skimming through you pick up the three from paragraphs 18. for his original stake of $500. the first of these appears in paragraph 6." You are now.000. and stock options. except for the opening sentence of paragraph 27.500.

And it is certainly not possible to feel a strong and satisfying emotional response to an article. a piece of writing is usually robbed of much of its sparkle and pleaswhen are clear. a tremendous amount of material in a very short time without missing anything of crucial importance you can strip a page right down to its essence. I do recommend that you engage in occasional and skimming whenever you feel so inclined. Does a long article offer more explanation and illustration than you want or need? Skim the parts you can do without. or examples. without wading through paragraphs of details. or a book from which only the key ideas and salient points are picked out. now. when the sole purpose of your reading is to pull out the essence as quickly as possible. and skim the rest. flavor. obviously. a loss you expect and are resigned to before you start. complete skimming does involve some loss. explanation. support. Is there a longish book you have to get through within the next few days? Decide which are the most important chapters. and convincingness with everything but the main idea stripped away. As you have discovered.— points in the first part of the material and the three popular "gim- micks" described in the final part. Do you have a rough idea of what the next few paragraphs of a piece of writing are likely to say. So I do not. or whenever your needs are best met by such skimming. WHEN TO We SKIM how the technique of skimming operates. a story. read those. most useful. On the other hand. when you skim fairly completely. you can cover. Does an otherwise excellent novel seem to be getting bogged down in superfluous detail and descrip- partial — 271 . However. Skimmed material is deprived of a certain amount of richness. and are you impatient to get on into new territory? Skim those paragraphs the author might have been better advised to leave them out in the first place. recommend that you skim everything you read complete skimming is a technique to be applied when time and circumstances demand it. and what advantages and disadvantages it entails. its final meaning. on it is — — urableness. and the reader must be content with unornamented and unclothed final meaning. the personality of the author often fails to shine through.

self. intelligent and skillful skimming will prove a valuable cutting instrument completely. how longwinded some writers are. Skim occasionally. in short. getting a visual impression. skim their if it suits your requirements. to become repetitious myself. Reproduce each number check your Do in the not say the digits to yourblank to the right and then result. And you suffer no loss whatever if you skip the tail end of a sentence or paragraph which is only repeating what you have already learned and understood. With the large amount of reading that you should expect to do in the next months and years (and which a later chapter will discuss with you in detail). to • SESSION PERCEPTION TRAINING 21 VIII Perception Exercise 34 Using the Flashmeter card. partially.Skim along tion? at until the plot thickens again. Skimming cuts the excess fat off the frame of an author's work. expose the numbers for a fraction of a second. at times. skim. judiciously. 15862 ^ 42935 93764 4— 67381 08731 4— 03164 15986 *— 98765 <- 30941 60641 *— 71328 <— 4— 94390 *— 272 . and at (You'd be surprised how immeasurably work improves with occasional skimming! In doing any kind of reading you sustain no loss of any significance if you skim intelligently here and there. or. according your needs and desires of the moment. So. by all means skim when you read.

and be more aware of the ideas than of inner speech. making only one Go fixation to the line.. as fast as 273 .19640 <— 05962 S6947 <— 64385 67381 <r- 06641 *— 05786 <— 07777 *——. adequate comprehension permits. 05687 <— 39816 <— 50678 4— 52152 *— *— 46872 *- 30167 <— 67047 86542 <- 34642 4— 85058 10879 <— 25879 68436 *- 38564 59321 «- 37037 *— *— 51876 *— 43871 4— 90391 *— 18764 17834 *— 43987 *— 39860 11814 4— 56821 10739 44187 *— 18764 40692 66238 *- NUMBER CORRECT OUT OF *— 50: Perception Exercise 35 Sweep down each column.

and to for several years. Greenberg: of the author. that cannot our mental property importance it any more. is and may have spoken devoted happen he uses the language Use remain a single schoolbook a if forever. lost What so well is 274 known is not known that the spacing New The School Vork. of these intervals. Reprinted with permission Memory and Concentration in New . it is to important in almost every country. to everyone. than people and and be forced have been checked learning and repetition of York. but. on psychology it nor understand wrong that of the factors regrettably neglected speak do as well as I one admit that he can neither You know usually assume.THE INTERVAL IN LEARNING by Bruno Furst The interval between is much more and double-checked it is that any subject matter entirely to Of which we once learned Almost every good book and mastered will and learning stresses the I have not yet seen constantly. it completely Forgetting. Dr. assume in our school education. may have to experiments repetition necessary You know that takes advantage German repetition. professor. rather fluently Ebbinghaus. Furst in our minds. much time From Stop So is Director of Publisher. the ability his tests keep alive the facts are by not using in this particular line. but course. is for everything that a person which we wish a foreign language of these findings. far.

109 times the second day. It is the same peculiar occurrence which helps us to solve a while we problem are dreaming. A more complex subject which required 504 in repetitions the first Whenever it 158 times day. It is is. you have do not Thus repetitions for all three consecutive add up days to 342. 30 per cent Ebbinghaus with the 504 repetitions that a subject on a single day. to learn something new. requires only will see you can master repetitions 68 it on the two following days that has found which requires and then repeat and you compared if memory. learning repetition. effecting a saving try to master and 75 times the third day. The only explanation it.amounting to role approximately in time-saving. it completely on the Be if first day. Since time with less effort. one of the strange learned in one day of great value of the 38 repetitions if nobody should make use to they are fail such a over three days. time-saving device. especially a problem on which we focused our attention before going to sleep and which proved too for tough solution. it learning of if it is so easy to apply and work even when the actual task as the proper spacing of one day could be mastered by repeating especially memory continues to of spread out phenomena human mind that to all of us. satisfied you acquire a fair knowledge of allow 275 has ceased and even when we are asleep. it better or should be. sink into your time of plays a very important if I I \ of repetition to which is possible .

I * for both phenomena is the fact that of our conscious of the "threshold" and our subconscious between the conscious our subconscious mind continues working and the functioning as two mental and thinking which are while our conscious mind eternally divided. 1957. I The other night climbed nessee up to we Ten- Williams' second-floor two-room apartment in E. to easily removable. New excerpted from a column in the York Herald Tribune of March Inc. He has a home in Fey West where he . by the Reprinted with permission. wrong evidently It is can easily lapse from the conscious whose separating wall on problems and for every thought better to think of which produces dreams must be able much subconscious mind. 58th St. The following material is for the New drama 3. does he try to shock his audi- 276 ence. It is The same mental power to work as them to the subconscious. what land of people he writes about. such as why he writes plays. and does he consider himself a moralist. is asleep. a or is he an optimist pessimist. by Don Ross. and had a little talk about several subjects. Copyright 1957 York Herald Tribune. into the conscious speak How was your comprehension? Dgood Dfair Dpoor Were you comparatively unaware of inner speech? Dyes Dno Perception Exercise 36 Sweep down the narrow columns of text. and we are two rooms sometimes able is flexible and to solve them. reading as fast as you can for good comprehension. activities over this threshold It is figuratively accurate to think to draw a thought from the subconscious mind. and fixating at the broad black arrow in the center of the column. feature writer section of that newspaper.

" inflec- either Maggie or Brick was sordid. from the Psycho- Marietta Karpe." by is reprinted. in crude ways." they was clear that the more Mr. think petti- I ness and meanness are would never Serafina Mr. I thought both were admirable different people in ways. you of filling with your sordid Are they to which voice. his at New York apartment because his new play. the One well-known 277 tresses of Broadway of starred in a fairy tale. Mr. I have protagonist always thought. word came.I of his time and does his best He was work. A I I much spends me who was The Glass sordid in Menag- 'The In erie'? Tell Rose was thought of sordid people. Williams me. and analytic Review Recently. hiss- ing word the way a sordid that indi- cated he didn't think much of "I it. Brick was troubled. think she was rather noble. "Orpheus Descending. with permission. 1956. sordid? that Is Some people accuse plays tion in hearsals. his an unusual is blend of Dixie-British. I deeply people are think don't troubled She was trou- sordid. I choose that person a sort for don't of a main because interest Perception Exercise 37 Continue as before. He was born in Mississippi but has spent much time abroad. Alma Miss bled. "I can't think of any of my main ters charac- who have been sordid. The following is an excerpt from "The Origins of Peter Pan. tlie applied as sordid. Williams fixed vodka on the rocks for his guest and himself. the his preposterous a desperate. nobility. I thought Big Daddy had almost a his a certain and stature bigness. in 'Summer and Smoke' was almost a puritan." opens at the Martin Beck March 21." he said. and he had to be close by during repleasant-faced man on the plump side. Williams took a long pull on the vodka the and answered question with a some- These things can be very beautiful. think don't "I DuBois was Blanche sordid. those of access to a television set were witnesses to a surpris- ing spectacle. right? characters. ac- playing the part of a . us who have of January. and settled himself comfortably on the sofa and waited for the short first a little question. Maggie was and what indignant be- it think don*t Tattoo' It to more "Coming to 'Cat on Hot Tin Roof/ I earthy sensual.

possible that Broadway Maude Adams the tide role. as adults well as children. This was a complete Broadway pro- cheerfully way ences react that a at cost approximately of $400. as a movie. Pan." by Sir Matthew Barrie. not thur. and each time the part of Peter Pan was played by a prominent actress generation.- 000. and on records. What makes all these swered with a rousing would not be too surprising if it had been on one of the "Yes!" to the question: ances "Do you believe in fairies?" What special alone. of take this in another revival Miss Adams in with 1912 and 1913. a revival in Marilyn with 1924 Miller and in 1928 during the run. plot. Howwe examine its if the story we more find that closely. and French producParis and an also a Italian for the period of half tionally there were many more performances in Eng- of this play "Peter The Furthermore. Mary Martin. and delightful show" that ever appeared on telecritics "the as is an certainly honor unusual bestowed on a simple whimsical fairy tale. and a phenomenon worth investigating. through with Eva Le Galienne. the play had a total 278 over all the United States. and the next day it was hailed by the most polished. televised na- of over 700 perform- in production in Turin. tion must touch on a basic and universal need. which has made audi- Broadway on childhood? James duction. Peter Pan. This in self usual pro- children's but this play grains. to am I referring to the play. ence of magic does this play have that would cause coast. but especially aston- is it we consider childlike simplic- ishing the ity if and unsophistica- tion of ever. One fact becomes immediately obvious: children who through the night their in fly air at night- . was broadcast at ingly and an audi- back to many millions The theme of viewers. deals it with the basic problems of life: with the problem of aging and death versus eternal youth and immortalThe author of ity. mature adults so it play "Peter Pan" was first produced in 1904 and has been revived six times since then. Matthew James Sir Barrie. In addition to that the story also very successful was in book form. little boy. from coast adults to revert will- for night. This would be a very remarkable success for any play. that From the first produc- 1904 in London and in 1905 and 1906 on Broadway tion in vision. This a century. is concerned with these his from problems earliest works on and seems to struggle with them all his life. for a period of two hours. in revival another 1950 with Jean Ar- seriously? diences play How with all is au- and finally the only at children's mat- recent brilliant revival inees but also in the with evenings always an- on tour land. finished. shared by everybody.

The Wheelers are directors of the Reading Clinic at the University of Miami. can only the that Peter from indication the stance not made same sub- is ordinary as children given is in refusal to be his touched by Wendy. even with good comprehension. Wheeler and Viola D. sentence to sen- adequate various af- is ability rela- 3 ) deterauthor-reader mine purpose. Barrie make fused to re- conces- sions in his conception of the "careless boy. Wendy but play." His ideas on the sub- seem to be beyond critical argument and logical surveillance and seem to him mother would like a caress boy. fatigue and daydreaming. sometimes the result and sometimes the cause for the extensive read- readers control speed. In the play. This was an afterthought of Barrie's. Other deeply per- meaning for a him. I Slow readers. by to read by thought purpose but also the units. Improve- line. in the H{gh School Journal. tence.I gowns dead only obviously are The children. haven't time boredom. als. and chap- sight and meaning vocabulary. slow reading is tedious. Perception Exercise 38 Proceed as before with the following material. re- with plete differentiate accommodate not only material and rates to fected ( 1 ) skills. and it posed quite a problem for after the stage ready critics accomplish the feat of never growing up is by dying at an the stage direction be- early age. Furthermore. which is excerpted. and aca- demic success cult can unless is diffi- students compete with classmates in quantity as well as quality. are jeop- ardized by slow reading habits. of deficiencies in other ing required both They reading and out Many of jobs in school. Coral Gables. and (6) eliminate in- ter to chapter. comprehension needs within a selection by varying speed from line to tionships. way that a child show had algone into rehearsal. ner speech. see (2) ( ( (4) use key develop 5) paragraph to paragraph. Florida. with permission. cause during rehears- up to that point. ideas. Mature Slow reading. 279 . from "Improving Rate of Comprehension/' by Lester R. Wheeler. But Barrie little other changes in the tousled fondled a demanded and had had hair Peter's and directors ject remained adamant on have that detail against sonal all arguments from actors and director.

A already reader. from Over- word emphasis on analysis. than to silent Many slow rev- reading. with easyreading materials. pronuncia- tion. Theoretically. Ef- details. ideas become dividual's widely separated Only then does the reader give sharpens their wits for better may have developed correspond to an inthinking. rather than from too stem fast. in- readers slow of or illustrative. but such is not always should full attention to the context and overcome enemy arch the — of the case. slow reading comprehension may be a mental habit of long stand- Obviously. chapter a of paragraph is and comprehension retention. concentration. efficient rate more see relationships which he has read. through past than to experience the reader important words. Relation of Rate to is clearly. a reading speed which approaches thinking rate improves compre- made adequate Comprehension. a reading rate. however. There is no merit in rapid or slow reading except that it meets compre- often Mature readers detect key ideas rapidly and subordinate non- and Ideas. In re- porting on a selection slow reader tends to recount isolated details and incidents rather summarize key thoughts. the Key Not every word Recognizing tion from oral to silent more readers hension. erie and other de- ficulties ficiencies in mechanics important. when of reading. lost. a carry-over earlier training. reading. rapid ficient concentration in a reading selection By and essential duced and college have not hension needs. phonics and oral reading tend to establish habit more patterns related closely to oral reading.ment in these skills improve rate. Slow related rate sen- the tend to ( 1 ) confuse supplemental material with main ideas. mental materials that 280 a to frag- . (2) give equal emphasis to important and un- reading should Usually explanatory or repetitious. and only further confused ( 3) comprehend iso- lated ideas rather than wholes. tence. careful CAREFULLY!" Rapid reading discourages the kind of "careful" reading that connec- contributes supple- mentary thinking. is teacher ad- "Read this monishes. vocabulary dif- ing. again. this may be due to over-conscientiousness. To some extent. two-thirds reading. affect readers in high-school transi- continuity of thought intervening tives and In key so by idea distorted slow lost among a details. is large. hension compredifficulties from too slow.

2. prodigal 15. write O. 3. Write the noun form. 10.. loquacious 3. prolix 11.. omnipresent: 2. 1. 14. omnipotent 4. 15. aberration 6. for each . . sepulchral 8.• SESSION 22 VOCABULARY STUDY V Words Do for Today the usual dictionary research on those words that are unfa- miliar to you.prodigal dealing —wily . loquacious 5. 16. 12.verbose—laconic 10. ribald Test Your Learning If I. duplicity 7..ribald 1213.prolix 11_ . taciturn trenchant 14. insidious 4.. ubiquitous 16. verbose 1.omnipotent—weak -omnipresent—nonexistent -omniscient— ignorant -insidious II. omnipresent omniscient omnivorous 9. omnipotent IS.. write S in the preceding —deviation —double- — —economical -aberration 8- . two words are similar if meaning. then study your notes in preparation for the following tests. other than one ending in of the following adjectives.loquacious —talkative . . —wordy —humorless -sepulchral—tomblike .taciturn—talkative -trenchant—sharp -ubiquitous —prevalent . blank. in they are essentially opposed.omnivorous -duplicity 9.. omniscient 281 selective -ness.

ribald 11. II. prodigal 6. and you're ready to add it to your that appeals to you. and now find that you pick up a novel whenever you have a free evening. or any fraction of the issue Skim whenever you feel so inclined. cruising and skimming right through from beginning to end before you put it down. omniscience. each in a single stretch of con- tinuous reading. find an evening in which you will have an hour or two at your disposal. success. taciturn 9. finish that magazine from cover to cover. 2. 7—O. or of the family. 11. taciturnity. 10—S. 4—S. verbose 8. 14—S. a half. 6. 4. 3—S. collection for the Salvation Army. 9—O. ubiquitous 7. 9.trenchant 5. and pacing yourself to finish within a few hours. omnipotence. Key: 11__0. you decided to go through — yet looked at. until you've reached the point where that particular issue holds nothing else for you. 8. Read those things in the magazine which interest you — it may be a total of a third. prolixity. 5. ribaldry. nor even every article and story. probably with reasonable to cover three not-too-heavy novels. i_S. 3. 8—0. 6—O. ubiquity. prolix 10. Here. 16—O. if reading. three quarters. nor every page. 5—O. verbosity A THIRD CHALLENGE TO YOUR READING HABITS You have already attempted. 2—S. skip whatbut stay with the magazine until you've got out of it what you want. 12—S. I. and sit down with an issue of any magazine that you generally read a new issue that you have not (Possibly. 10. is another challenge for you to meet. now. 7. ever you like. trenchancy. omnipresence. 13— O. prodigality. 282 to pass it on to other members . Within the next few days. This does not mean reading every word. you were delighted with the efficiency of this type of more than the two books required by the assignment in chapter 6. loquacity. Before the evening is over. 1. 15—S.

in rapid pursuit of the central theme of each article. Have an awareness.Read. of the structure of thinking and planning used by the author and think along with him as you read. of course. you will discover that zine reading done as you used to you can get twice as much maga- —and in the same time and prob- ably with greater enjoyment! 283 . Try to make it a habit to read magazines through. If success attends your efforts. if you can. either immediately or — eventually. in one sitting. in this way. as always. for the general framework of the plot of each story.

• force. • Sharpen your response to main ideas by trying to answer. in your own words. you work on a number of shorter selections. as a warm-up to a third round of timed reading. practicing to: • Increase your skill and speed in driving through details to get a total picture.CHAPTER 9 PRACTICE IN DRIVING FOR THE GIST Preview Now. a Chapter 9 challenges you to read a selecand then tell what it tion through quickly says. 284 . or reinmain idea. questions on the central meaning of what you have read. Understand more clearly how details contribute to.

if any detail is so prominent that it catches and holds the weakening the effect of the whole. in one way or another. the sculptor carves a nose and a mouth on the face of a statue. for without them there first details design. eye. Like any other creative artist. So also in a piece of writing. the whole dress. the whole building. for example. the author arranges his details to achieve a total effect. a building. we say that the composition lacks unity and is an artistic failure. In a landscape. Similarly. a final meaning. a would be no fashion way total effect. but the painter. you strikes the over-all design.* SESSION CONCENTRATE ON THE All the parts of any artistic GIST! whole are intimately related. the sculptor. the decorator hangs drapes and pictures in a room but it's the effect of the whole statue. but it's not the tree or the spots he wants you to see as much as the whole sweep of the desert or the whole bowl of fruit. the architect strategically locates windows and doors in a structure. the architect. the artist consciously and deliberately uses his details in such a achieve a maximum When you is —what artist. or in a still life he may have painted some spots on a banana. a lasting impression. or the whole room that the artist Indeed. the or the interior decorator has so arranged the details that although each by as to look at a painting. it — room and all these are artistic and with the greatest impact are there. the designer places buttons and bows in a garment. The itself. to the final result. the artist may have a palm tree at the edge of a desert. a piece of sculpture. and he no more wants you to concentrate on 285 . or a beautifully furnished compositions 23 may be and disposed comparatively inconspicuous nevertheless contributes. thus — is striving for. dress.

accurately. aiming for an efficient you are not to revert to group of short grasp of the main any old habits of slow. and when you combine the two you have all the circumstances that make efficient reading possible. the architect. a piece of writing cannot be comprehended in a single glance. at. fast. habit of pushing through to the without waste motion or time as quickly as 286 you comfortably lag. or what a the gist of he does intelligently. can. or untrue. before he can fully appreciate the author's final and total meaning. and in accord with truth and reality. to read a did in chapter 5. The reader. understand each selection main thought. dawdling comprehension. If .isolated details than does the painter. need no longer remind you to "read fast". well-based. has to work at seeing and understanding the over-all meaning. trying to say to him. he has to do a certain amount of thinking about the details. Get the main thought. fast. as illogical. And rather intelligently. he has to fit these details together in his own mind. as I selections. or reject Again it I unfounded. the sculptor. comprehension. keep training your new gist of the author's ideas rapidly. as you have already discovered from your own experience. And. instead. words and details do not get if he of. ask you. find it. away with the final meaning the author than some entirely different and incorrect mean- Accurately. The reader has plow through the individual details. he has to understand to details not as support writer for. so that he comes is aiming ing. is to. unlike most other artistic creations. the dress designer. or the interior decorator. look for the I . Instead. a skillful reader. so that he can either accept the author's thinking as logical. is all this independent elements but as steppingstones or as explanation or clarification and rapidly." There are "fast perception" and "fast comprehension". get it . he has to weigh the relative importance of these ideas. Unfortunately. Needless to say. He has to translate words into ideas. So you need not keep telling yourself . so that the way in the of his total understanding. purposefully ideas." Such self -urging may as you read: "I must go fast. and get out. Rapidly. if not inevitable. by now you have matured in your reading attitudes to the point where you are aware that there is no such objective phenomenon as "fast reading. lead to tension and thus reduce the ease and smoothness of your quickly.

intellectual. regression responses. for the number of comprehension moment. or to do something be honest in successfully. tendencies to vocal responses. Self-respect depends upon an emotional equilibrium in which anger. just express your thoughts in a way that is clear to yourself. — It — — From Talk. will test your understanding of. upon the adequacy to meet a situation. but too many of us dwell upon self-appraisal.— you follow reading technique properly you'll be aware. further reference to the material.) Rapid Comprehension Exercise 13 SELF-RESPECT AND SELF-CONFIDENCE by Douglas Remsen. to one doesn't shoot at the moon and torture oneself means knowing what one knows and more important knowing what one doesn't know and not being ashamed to say so. (Answer all comprehension questions on the first five selections before checking with the key that follows exercise 16. puritanical. Be brief. motor responses. next will come one or more questions on the important contributing elements that explain or clarify the author's main point Write out all your answers. in each case. not that you're but that you're understanding fast. The standards we set unconsciously social. resentment. After each selection there will be a Answer these without.D. No one can live with himself comfortably without self-respect. The first question. Self-confidence depends upon ability. 287 . perfectionistic we rarely meet perfectly. Reprinted with permission. the gist of what you have read. and love are supports to the person's efforts and activities. It incorporates also a capacity to take stock. word-by-word responses. and your ability to recall. so that for missing it. without self-confidence no one can enjoy the sense of satisfaction in accomplish- ment. questions. fear. M. not whips which drive and lacerate. You'll be avoiding this fast. vital response: the intellectual and psychological response to the author's main ideas. excessive auditory responses you'll avoid consciousness of all responses but the one — in fine. and use your own words do not be concerned with style or grammar.

2. But who symbolizes authority. he stutters miserably. You will not be surprised of authority. This constant equivalent — of "you stupid chokes the childish struggle for being im- idiot" little portant and for building self-confidence. There any praise or approval and self-confidence is "Aren't no thought effect. not with It's What you have done and experienced can be the foundation for self-respect and self-confidence.the things we didn't do. He is when he issues commands as a drill when he meets any confident and sure. the of approval for his accomplishments. never stutters sergeant at the armory. and depression. Take stock. Stop it!. inhibitions. the fear of being shamed throws a dither. Then there follows self-abasement. He first when he faced uniformed authority five years ago to take a person failed. As a small child. This quirk of human nature frequently has its roots in the home and environmental settings. little Willie is subjected to a the constant barrage of: Don't!. but with excitement. but only the belittling condemnation of "Aren't you ashamed?" time for an inventory. makes for self-respect and self-confidence? way do childhood relationships frequently play a role support an adult's self-respect and self-confidence? 288 . In what in failing to in brief. Mr." The parent forgets that he or she is Olympian authority in the small one's eyes. Why did you do that? equivalent of "You stupid little idiot. Quit!. and lethal dose of poison to you ashamed is no thought of giving fumbling successes of the child. to the point where the things done well are insufficient to support our self-respect and nurture our self-confidence. X. What. the doubts of an inhibited soul! Comprehension Test 1. sends the alcoholic to have another drink. And the final to the budding self-respect of yourself?" administered so frequently with of its stultifying the stutterer into the neurotic to hide in the cave of his inhibitions. In later years. never offered him stuttered as a child a word and symbol test to learn that his stern father. a stutterer. inferiority feelings. the questions we didn't answer.

He said half of them would be able to do it and the other half would not. Britain.000 was a definite and language. Darlington also asserted that in families. Spain. Denmark. he pushed out his tongue in the form of a cylinder and challenged his audience to try it. it extended from Iceland through Norway. saying that continu- ing work on blood group distribution would definitely establish a connection between heredity and the character of language. Different hu- in the — persons in Britain alone had been grouped connection between genetic characteristics man and heredity. Heredity. Reprinted with permission of the Times. Greece. the children in learning to speak had characteristic impediments that represented individual exand could be identified with the parental genes. re- the pressure of dialect change. he added. the Levant.000. Burma and Siam into China. Excerpted from a news item in the New York Times. To support his claim of the relation of language to genetics. Dr. Cyril Darlington. a fellow of the Royal Society. declared that language dialect — He and speech said that it depended on characteristics now had been well established by work on blood groups as a result of blood transfusion work war more than 4. To demonstrate this. a geneticist. he maintained. he took the sound "th" and showed that. South Arabia. what factor of people's speech patterns? 289 is the determining causative . South India. Darlington. are not just acquired habits of locality but a definite expression of local or regional characteristics arising from hereditary types produced by intermarriage. far from being an Anglo-Saxon characteristic as generally supposed.Rapid Comprehension Exercise 14 SPEECH PATTERNS 1 jterally putting out his tongue at his audience. Comprehension Test 1. Dr. According to Dr. In fact. that there groups have different tongue and throat formations that he said are transmitted by parents. he declared. it corresponds accurately with the geographic distribution of the O blood group. pression of a genotype Dialects. as sists much as local loyalties.

290 York. An old precept admonishes us to count ten before acting in anger. The important thing is to realize in our moment of anger that our adrenal glands have flooded us with energy winch demands an "out. From we should release By immediately drawing it off Talk. and the only thing we accomplish are really seeking at the the other fellow may by retaliation. But for many and if for no other. by other types just as well The been mobilized by our anger best way is and with energy that has of action to utilize the to counteract. a type of experience that everyone goes through is this reaction. immediately into some constructive the "charge. If this is impossible. is But we accom- for ourselves release of the tension that the situation has built plish this usually at the expense of erasing many times in we analyze retaliation. I turned my mobilized energies into a quite different channel and accomplished a task I had been trying This his and the life. Darlington arrive at his conclusion? Rapid Comprehension Exercise 15 RETALIATION REACTION by James Sonnett Greene. M." we avoid the danger New Talk. then for purely selfish ones we should not reasons — — react destructively. and thus our retaliatory reaction. to get to for several days. we typical first reaction is one of we find that the only thing moment. My first reaction was to retaliate. If up in us. at my expense. By what means did Dr. but having learned from sad experience the folly of acting destructively when in an emotional state. far from "paying him back. Reprinted by permission. The late Dr. tion. by some constructive the harm that the other person has done us." actually plays into the other person's hands. We real can release tension reward to ourselves. I thought of that recently when someone I had liked and trusted took advantage of that trust to advance himself personally. action." and that to play safe channel.D.2. Greene was Medical Director of the National Hospital for Speech Disorders. and editor of its official publica- . any feelings of guilt or remorse have. the energy should be drained off in some other useful activity.

The written language consists of "characters. These meanings are revealed only by the characters. the physiological result of anger? Rapid Comprehension Exercise 16 CHINESE. Karlsen is Professor of Education. What 3. therefore. Reprinted by permission. 1955. JAPANESE. there are only about 600 different word sounds. presents some unique problems. when angry emotion War is aroused act quickly —but not in retali- never pays! Comprehension Test ) . San Diego State College." or "too. What. China has the most unusual language of Excerpt from a lecture delivered at the Claremont College Reading Conference. California. In Chinese. What is . This situation exists to a slight degree in English. California. 291 . but they cover more than 50. its potentialities for harmful consequences to our- others. These characters are usually combined. The sound "too" can be spelled "to. ation. Dr.of explosion with all selves and In brief." "two. AND POLYNESIAN by Bjorn Karlsen Of whose written languages do not utilize the them all." and has six different meanings.000 meanings. according to Dr. San Diego. Greene. In what are we way really seeking when we react with retaliation? does such a reaction play into the hands of the object of our anger? 4. Claremont. are the best ways to react when angry? 2." each of which has one sound functioning more or less like an English syllable. The teaching of reading in China. however. forming nearly the countries in Asia Roman alphabet. too. Many of these characters sound alike but look different and have different meanings.

An expert on the Chinese language. of a great number of obsolete characters. is of the opinion that China system of writing. Twenty five years ago. wrote: "Another difficulty lies in the cumbersome written language which makes it impossible for children in the elementary school to learn to read and write more than the rudiments of the language. Jimmy Yen. who was ber of the U. S. scholar. His word vocabulary is three times as large. Dr. but the word itself Each character takes on an entirely meaning. the character mean "a thing. A second approach to this problem has been the development of 37 phonetic symbols (Juyin Fuhau). (For example. The average student in China will know 5000 characters by the time he reaches twelfth grade.000 characters.000. partly because of the existence all. but the two characters combined east. by most people. They spend half their time in acquiring this meager command of writing and 292 . one that is affecting many millions of people. So far. Education Mission to Japan shortly after a mem- World War II. This problem does not exist with the use of after characters.") It is quite obvious that this language One Chinese never become read. none of the solutions suggested seems to be satisfactory. Although this does simplify the processes involved in learning to read. using 22 letters. a Chinese unabridged dictionary could contain 45. one syllable might have 100 meanings so that a word written with phonetic symbols or letters would not convey its exact meaning. It has been estimated by one Chinese authority that a minimum knowledge of 5000 characters is necessary for a person to manage his own affairs. a person is only partially literate having learned these characters.times as six retains its different many polysyllabic words as monosyllabic. However. is a very difficult one to learn to Fang Chao-ying. Finally. Few books are printed using these symbols and they are. First of much effort has been exerted to reduce the number of characters. and has developed reading materials using nothing but these characters. Three solutions for this problem have been suggested. considered merely as stepping stones to the learning of the characters. These attempts have been quite successful. several systems have been devised to Romanize the Chinese languages. This number has recently been reduced to 10. which are relatively easy to learn. The problem is a difficult one. because of his knowledge of polysyllabic words. however. the Chinese character "Tung" means "Hsi" means west. Frank Freeman. Similar problems exist in Japan. and most Chinese will agree that the written language is one of their biggest educational will literate with this problems. original pronunciation. has determined which 1000 characters are most commonly used.

child by parents instead and abasement of the and praise for accomplish- Criticism of approval ments. What makes Chinese 3. important material. not constantly dwelling on one's failures. in most of the written language There are. 293 . Karlsen account for the low literacy rate in China and Japan. in the Comprehension Test 1. This is a quite remarkable fact considering that many of the people on these islands were cannibals only a century ago. 5 vowels and 7 consonants. making the language 100 per cent phonetic. sulted in. and repeated. since it offers The third paragraph contains an explanation of the cause for self -doubts. The alphabet has only 12 letters. What makes Key literacy rate in the Polynesian Is- so difficult tn read? Polynesian so easy to read? to Exercises 13-16 (Your language will of course differ from that used in the answers below. and the high ?. etc. at the other extreme. 2." ) reading. The main idea is explicitly expressed in the last half paragraph. They more than a modicum The mission recommended a simplification are therefore unable to learn of the content subjects. which would overcome these difficulties. adequacy. in the form of a personal exhortation to the reader. Each letter stands for one sound. Ability. except for The simplicity of this language has re- Europe and North America. How does Dr. Refer to each selection when you study the discussions. not setting perfectionist goals that are unachievable. Exercise 13 (page 287): 1. the highest literacy rate world today. In using this system. reading can be learned in a very short time. The missionaries working on these islands have developed a written language which is probably the simplest in the world. some languages that are easy to learn. instances in a couple of hours. and successes. but the thoughts should be similar. in the final paragraph all else in the piece Discussion: of the first — is elaboration and illustrative details. One of these is Polynesian which consists of a group of dialects spoken on the Polynesian Islands.

Discussion: As you main or would expect in any news item. Note Chinese is how closely the important details hard. i. though at first apprehended by the eye.e. and Polynesian easy. to read) tie in with the (why main idea. is fundamentally grasped by the mind through the powers of interpretation." An important detail explains by what means the conclusion was reached Exercise 15 (page 290): structive action. differs from true forms of you cannot respond to the effect of the whole in a single glance. and accurately at the central point —namely the relationship between literacy and the structure of the written language. one containing a whole mass of details that the reader must sort in his mind in order to arrive neatly. In reading. Release of the tension (or draining off of the excess energy) produced anger. Dr. how retaliation affects the other person. The three important details queried in the test (what Discussion: After shadows we seek his when we retaliate. the "viewer" has to work at seeing and understanding. the different tongue and throat formations transmitted from parents to offspring." and point. and what anger does to our physiology) all explain the reasoning behind the author's central thought. 2. for a page of print. with elaboration illustration rounding out the "story. and the ease of learning to read the simple Polynesian written language. A we have decided. 1. Relieves his guilt or remorse. ( counteracting by engaging in some paragraph 2 ) damage through con- useful activity. The difficulties of learning to read the complicated Chinese and Japanese written languages.Exercise 14 (page 289): Heredity. visual art in that . or By 1. Discussion: Here is a more complicated selection. The and the fact that the different word sounds combine to make up so many diverse meanings. Greene foremain point toward the end of paragraph 1.. and analysis. some introductory material. 2. 3. 4. efficiently. Exercise 16 (page 291): 1. By clas- sifying people into blood groups. by Flooding of the body with energy by the adrenal glands. The small number of characters and the fact that the language is com- large number of characters pletely phonetic. 294 piece of writing. reasoning. and pounds it home again in the final paragraph. expresses it completely in paragraph 3. occurs right at the beginning. 3. the "lead. 2.

It —when you first continued through And much room for elementary and high school and into your late adolescence. Thus a child born today in the United — From The New York Times Magazine. His efforts to prolong life (occasional lapses into wholesale homicide notwithstanding). Let us continue. and aware.your vision can be educated so that you respond more work of art. However. as you read. an unprecedented gain of more than twenty years in little more than half a century. Reprinted by 295 permission. This process of refinement started years ago learned to read at the age of six or seven. and by now these skills should be sufficiently sharpened to enable you to jump into a selection and react so quickly to the gist of an author's thinking that it might almost seem to exaggerate a bit as if you are comprehending the essence of a paragraph almost at a glance. have succeeded. the training you have been receiving has aimed at further refinement of all the visual and comprehension skills that efficient reading demands. how the important details provide the necessary foun- — — dation for clear and full understanding. confident that you need not get entangled in the minor details. the immensely valuable practice in which you attempt to respond quickly and accurately to the main point of a short selection. drive straight for the gist. possibly. Since 1900 in America. though there was still improvement. As before. he has never doubted that it should be and for as long as possible. now. reasoning. then. Rapid Comprehension Exercise 17 LENGTHENING LONGEVITY by William C. for example. . so your powers of interpretation. it stopped.8 years. he has stretched his life expectancy from 48 years to the recently announced figure of 69. FitzGibbon Although man has often been in doubt as to how life should be lived. and analysis can be refined so that you respond more effi- But just as intelligently to a ciently and more rapidly to what a writer you on a page offers of print.

When an American wakes to find that he has reached the life expectancy figure of 69. Denmark and England have rates much the same as the United States. The newborn child. at 75 he has about eight years. where the rate is 32.) Otiier low rates: Egypt: 35. he shouldn't expect to perish before the day is up. the farther end of the average. Comprehension Test 1.8 may expect to live 10 to 12 more years. at 80 he has six. * What Do * has happened to life expectancy in most Western coun- 1900? is exercises a main reason for the increase in life expectancy? 17-20 before checking your answers against the key on page 301. No recent figures are available on Russia. In the Middle Ages the figure rose to 35. Two thousand years tofore — — ago a Roman urchin could count on 22 years. (Scientists doubt. comet fame. in Eng- land and Wales. according to the Metropolitan Life statisticians. that anyone has lived beyond 150 years or that medical technique can ever extend Today's increase in tries.States has the bright prospect of living out the legendary (though here- uncommon). one of the early innovators being the English astronomer Halley.8 years. Mexico: 39. go on ad infinitum. incidentally. never had it so good. however. with no change from then until 1838 when. Life expectancy tables had their start in the middle of the seventeenth century. He is one of the lucky ones who probably will live out the years at A man reaching 69. Lowest life expectancy among countries on which figures are available is in India. In the Bronze Age so studies of unearthed bones reveal an infant had a life expectancy of 18 years. life expectancy is common to most Western counNorway. Puerto Rico: 46. Sorry. (India is the only country where life expectancy of males is higher than that of females. three score and ten. Since of life expectancy is a figure arrived at by averaging a population's death ages. Sweden. — life expectancy much over 100. . with other European nations close behind. the expectancy hit 40. This does not. the biggest single reason for longer expectancy has been the drop in infant mortality. the Netherlands. What tries since 2.

At night. such as a tin box. If a church instead of a nearby gambling joint is struck by lightning. fence pole or human being becomes the best target on a prairie. Electricity also is conducted easier through wet objects than dry. not the inside. This makes the church vulnerable than a low building protected by a grove of trees. Consequently. stay in the bedroom if necessary. Older tots are helped by watching and discussing the flashes and roars provided the parents show no evidence of alarm. When fishing on a lake. The majority can be calmed by a story or song. Theodore R. spire more On the other hand a single tree. Swimmers should leave the water and seek protection.Rapid Comprehension Exercise 18 LIGHTNING AND SAFETY by Dr. more so when representing the only inlet for a bolt of lightning within a radius of miles. 297 Inc. When an electrical charge strikes a hollow object. metal auto or steel freight car is struck the occupants need not worry provided they are not near an open window or door. his Some adults also tail close call with nature's fireworks. at the first sign of a storm. it is poor policy to be in an open boat in the middle of a lake or under a lone wet tree on the golf course during a storm. Reprinted from the —New Chicago-Tribune New York Sunday News by York News Syndicate. The best targets here steeple below are projections of some height. enough to between his are frightened. The experiments of Benjamin Franklin 200 years ago helped dispel superstitions and primitive ideas about this natural phenomenon. The child who frightened by thunder and lightning needs comfort is rather than ridicule. Lightning represents a discharge of atmospheric electricity from one cloud to another or from a cloud to the earth. They realize the church was struck because its is the highest point in the vicinity. row for shore pronto. Van Dellen A flash of lightning make legs. shack. particularly those who have had a and a deafening crash of thunder are a child scream and a dog scoot under the bed. permission of the author and of the . This means that when a house. the people no longer are amazed that a good rather than a bad place should bear the brunt. the charge runs down the outside.

while helping to alleviate the teacher shortage. isolated trees. valley. How 3. the foot of an overhanging cliff. are the Times. quality Hard-won is professional standards are losing ground in taking a back seat. . The ultimate sufferers. Educators have become outspokenly alarmed over the gradual lowering of admission standards to the teaching profession. or dense woods. preferably a large if caught outside. many of the nation's schools. hilltops and open spaces. creates an even worse problem when quality children. they point community and the nation. the is ignored.Stay indoors during a thunderstorm but shelter. If these are not available look for a cave. Reprinted by permission from the Sunday edition of The 298 New York out. Unqualified teachers are being recruited into the classrooms in all grade levels. The subject of teacher quality has been singled out for special study by the forthcoming White House Conference on Education. Many educators contend that the current emphasis on quantity. wire fences. Keep away from small exposed sheds. Comprehension Test 1. depression in the ground. These sentiments are being voiced with increasing frequency at educational gatherings. choose a safe metal building or a dwelling protected against lightning. What kind 4 What makes 5 Why should you do during a lightning storm? should you react to a child's fright over Hghtning? is of structures does lightning generally strike? indoors safe? water unsafe? Rapid Comprehension Exercise 19 IMPROVING TEACHER QUALITY by Benjamin Fine In the frantic search for more teachers. What 2.

Miss Amy Hostler. President Hostler spoke as chairman of a session on maintaining the quality of teacher education. 299 ." she pleaded. then the outlook to is indeed grave. "It is time to combat the assault on the dignity of our profession. we are intensifying the very problem we are trying New to solve. In her remarks. The MC introduced an eleven year old Excerpted from an address delivered at the Claremont College Reading Conference.If children are adversely affected by unqualified teachers. kindergarten and primary grades are concerned. the damage even more lasting and serious where younger children in the nursery. If said. educators rather than caretakers. I heard part of a quiz program over the car radio. Bishop Recently. if we do not seek quality an even greater degree than quantity. told a session of the conference that "by forsaking quality for quantity. representing medicine. "Let us send into the nation's classrooms men and women who are teachers rather than custodians. president of the Mills College of Education in York City." President Hostler represents a college that specializes in the preparation young children. we do "could be a shortnot improve teacher education by providing a broader scope of studies and a more scholarly approach to science.500 members the fields early of childhood education. while driving from one school to another. the arts and humanities. This belief was underis scored at the four-day biennial conference of the National Association for Nursery Education which ended in Boston yesterday. psychiatry. child development. of teachers of concern that is Comprehension Test What is the result of our frantic search for more teachers? Rapid Comprehension Exercise 20 QUIZ KID by Katherine V." "Focusing our sights on mere numbers. social work and teacher education." The Boston conference was attended by 1. she voiced the shared by an increasing number of spokesmen for educational institutions that prepare teachers for all age levels." she sighted way of solving the teacher shortage. however.

money enough to buy a bicycle. MC. "Think. He would have gained respect for the fairness of the adults in charge of the quiz. in my estimation. In desperation. this is the name of an animal we think of at Easter. for time was running out. the MC said." Hilarious laughter followed this answer and the boy was awarded the prize he sought. that because his need was urgent the money would be loaned to him on terms that he could meet. from the Claremont College Reading Conference Yearbook for 1954. self-respect. I believe that the boy should have been told that he had failed to answer the questions correctly and that for that reason he had not won the money. What." six letter of heavy silence the "BUNNY!" shouted The in it. the boy. but. What can this boy read from this experience with adults other than that it is funny and lucrative to he ignorant? To me this episode is far from laughable and far from unimportant. The youngster was well poised. In this case. and ultimately by "The next question. Through such action the boy would have gained two things more important. Comprehension Test 1. California. Dr. Claremont. and in the community at large. Reprinted.boy as a contestant. a six letter word ending in it." Still no answer from the boy and the MC said. "Maybe it will help you to know that the word begins with the letter r." There was no response. Bishop's opinion. It is an example of the unreality that characterizes adult-child relations at home." said the learn to do in school. "asks you to name three things we words of a song each of these begins with the letter r. than money. by permission. and established his need for a bicycle in an admirable manner. Bishop is Professor of Education at San Francisco State College. The first question was put to the boy. in Dr. "Look at the pictures. I'm asking for the name of an animal. "Give me the name of just one of the three. does this episode illustrate? 300 . at school. The MC asked him to give a word ending name of an animal. what do you do when you open a book?" There was no hesitation now as the eleven year old boy answered. studio audience roared with laughter and the boy was given full credit for a correct answer. "Tell me. In the fulfilling his obligation. the MC said. After a second or so now." Since no response was forthcoming the MC said.

in essence.) 2. Van Dellen to avoid being struck by is obviously telling his readers lightning. Key What would have been the result of this preferable method? to Exercises 17-20 (Your language will of course differ from that used below. Exercise 20 (page 299): 1. isolated. in the first is paragraph. Discussion: 2. the outside of a hollow object. is on details pointing out in total is life that expectancy has increased tremendously in recent years and that is a drop in infant mortality. show no alarm. High. 3. projecting. he is cautioning us. to remain indoors or in a safe shelter during a lightning storm. Clearly. Exercise 17 (page 295): than 20 years. what the author life —more in infant deaths. thus creating worse problems. Discussion: The gist of Dr. stated. Drop We It 1. etc. How does Dr. etc. Be comforting. causing damage to children. community. has increased considerably have here a mass of interesting expectancy. Refer to each selection when you study the discussions. What has the child learned from his experience?. and to avoid places usually struck by lightning. the biggest single reason Exercise 18 (page 297): or in a safe shelter. but the thoughts should be similar. and is supported and explained by a wealth of detail. Bishop think the problem might better have been handled? 4. etc. as you might The main idea is re- peated and extended throughout the piece. and nation. 1. 4. The unreality of relations between 301 . During a hghtning storm stay indoors soothing. Fine's article expect in a news item. 3. Lightning charge runs Wet objects are better con- ductors for electricity than dry. 5. Though using a large how number and scientific facts. down 2. calm. of details Exercise 19 (page 298): We are sacrificing quality to quantity in order to alleviate the teacher shortage. Discussion: Dr.

four-. Bishop's episode shows. that adult-child relations are. and five-digit numbers is equal to that occupied by six-digit numbers. Discussion: MC's questions. The span occupied by the following three-. her position with two further the boy might have been treated this realistic more approach would have served him better. . efficiently. Dr. 3. rather than given to him. Bishop then important details realistically. it is funny and tion of the radio quiz. . in reacting quickly. but one or more digits are omitted in each instance. unrealistic. . since he failed to answer the ques- Respect by the boy for adults' fairness and for himself. First. however. and the child's naive Then comes an important detail (". it pays to be ignorant. what an author is saying. The money loaned. be ignorant. and in using the important details of material to round out your understanding. this ex- "jumping digits" is presented.") that prepares the reader —how and how clarifies as this for Dr. 4. lucrative to main idea. adults That 2. you will be prepared for complete 302 six-digit training. the answers. Most of this excerpt is devoted to a narrative descrip- tions. of longer selections in what you have learned to a third round which we shall measure your performance and over-all comprehension.and children. The finding training in this chapter has given and following main and accurately to the gist of you excellent practice in ideas. let Your next step is in terms of speed to apply us devote a session to perception and vocabulary improvement • SESSION 24 PERCEPTION TRAINLNG IX Perception Exercise 39 To help you prepare ercise in for training in six-digit perception. When you can do this and the next exercise comfort- ably.

. 407 4— 16 4— 1 *— 42 6 63 2 4— 42 76 7 4— 5 68 4— 1 90 4— 7 78 4— 66 89 4— 302 1 4— 6 2 4 4— 96 4— 19 64 4— 2 4— 53 2 7 4— 107 2 <— 7 8 4— 91 98 4— 3 50 9 5 4— 55 87 4— 53 2 7 4— 79 4— 74 6 4 4— 4 35 4— 4 4— 39 1 2 4— 90 8 3 2 2 51 -. here with a is an exercise letter.71 ^_ 4— 9 65 4— 5 4— 17 9 4 62 4— 54 3 2 5 4— 390 10 4 4— 2 29 7 4— 39 7 4— 703 9 4— 68 9 9 4— 2 4— 9 87 4— 87 9 6 4- 1 65 2 4— 4 4 3 4— 6 63 4— 3 78 3 i 2 9 4— 64 3 8 4— 28 1 *—-. 2P7643 598R72 <- 64S421 <-. 75T953 303 <- . 73 NUMBER CORRECT OUT OF 50*. Perception Exercise 40 As further preparation combining five digits 5L4382 4r- 9R7641 for six-digit training.

Reproduce each number in the Do not say the digits to your- blank to the right and then check your result 824793 796531 <- 679154 <- 912345 435689 563978 304 «- . 854C94 39N518 62D593 46T107 <— 8P9134 <— 50312R «— 9R4178 <— 99L506 V54318 *— 8S9188 4— 38G518 51P684 6R9881 <r- <— 84D871 *— 423S43 8Q9538 *— 5R8916 4P7861 «- 2R8712 4— 5G8432 ««— 5S2132 <— 43K519 <— 9P1234 4T1078 *- 77K622 <— 8Q7841 <— 9G6712 <- 84K418 4— 94K492 4— 1R4114 «- 954U86 4— 62L599 <— 94H913 *— 22H516 33J617 NUMBER CORRECT OUT OF ( SO- Perception Exercise 41 are now ready to start your training in six-digit perception. Using the Flashmeter card. getting a visual impression. expose the numbers for a fraction of You a second.82Q951 <— *— 51Q860 <— 84M912 86B847 *— 546 A91 753B82 413P92 <r- «— 518P67 *- *- 719S22 <— . self.

135697 4— 943762 397428 4— 472747 479231 4— 329682 246815 4— 484263 814563 4— 836425 683159 4— 983682 632748 4— 839402 763894 4— 790432 749382 782379 *— 908416 4— 037513 4— 827364 4— 928732 4— 4— 837290 4— 4— 983110 4— 119820 4— 4— 198112 4— 4— 836453 4— 364717 4— 714902 700080 134762 4— 854819 839190 376987 725368 4— 197426 4— m 274379 736291 4— 837283 954032 *— 754637 841390 4— 736457 738572 4— 4— 4— NUMBER CORRECT OUT OF 50: Perception Exercise 42 Sweep down each column. making only one Go fixation to the line. adequate comprehension permits. or in artificial light . and correct use of those muscles \ \ cannot injure them. as fast as Your eyes ace muscles. and be more aware of the ideas than of inner speech. most of your reading If you make sure do 305 to in daylight.

to avoid use a lamp. and see that the bulbs are no weaker than 75 watts. by means of Perception Exercise 43 Continue as before. at night or during the morning hours? Some people so sleep much deeper at night that they are not disturbed by a noise that would wake them up in the placed in a no shadow that falls on the page. placed to your whenever left practicable. especially at night. The important things any considerable amount of reading a sufficient intensity in a for hours without feeling moving Avoid of light train. generally agreed doing lights home. and the also doing any great amount complete absence of reading of shadows. the slightest fatigue. shoulder. ideal. From "You Can Remember. THE BEST TIME FOR LEARNING Did you ever when your is is it notice sleep deeper." A Home Study Course in Memory and Concentration. are: go on reading to left produces of reading 75 in your coming over so that the act that overhead from a frosted bulb and of sufficient strength It is shaded lamp preferably for your type of eyes. 100 watts of electricity. Bruno Furst and Lotte Furst. your causes no strain. shadowless reading you can. 306 . by Dr. conditions. Try under these ideal conditions. Reprinted by permission.

it is still important for you of your "best time" and deeply is alert but make use to happen in everyday your job permits you tests have proven that the person All this can the late afternoon to learn and memorize. to mental work. is the evening hours breakfast between the depth work full day's to devote hours to reach the connection for a morning several a and the best time too tired after usually need course. Whether easily who sleeps during the early hours of the night as a to morning. is and full of life the your best learning time. peak of their mental ability. is other hand. people who sleep deeper should not concern us in a you may be after awaking.I The immediately opposite That fact in itself On the memory but there in the very interesting after of your sleep Their best learning time you Many and evening. Doing require you save spend your so will much and "best time for learning" Therefore his best the hour may be for business may he wakes up learning time it Frequently your moment in the Some day another question. work memory be aware of to or not for such life. holds true for the morning sleeper. is effort will on some kind considerably shorten of mechanical work. the time you need If your "best time" 307 to devote to repetition. you is possible to adjust your working hours and to do mental work course at such times as are best for you. . in the evening.

then take the following test. 2. 3. debauchery 14. claustrophobia 13. iniquity 20. fits Referring to the list each definition 1. bromide 14. nostalgia 4. bromide 12. acerbity 11. Review your notes. fracas 18. sourness of taste on this jingoism kleptomania page. pronunciation. fear of enclosed places 2. Test Your Learning Write the adjective form for each of the following: I. hauteur 19. quintessence sadism tedium 6. sadism tedium Do kleptomania limbo malefactor opulence the usual dictionary study on those words that are not com- on meanand usage in your pletely familiar to you. derivation. 10. altruism 10. persiflage 8. 7. claustrophobia 15. debauchery 16. 1. 3. iniquity II. great injustice 4. 4. altruism 12. opulence 5. notebook. 7.VOCABULARY STUDY Words for VI Today 1. nostalgia 6. acerbity 9. choose the word that best . 5. bathos 13. 8. ebullience 15. bathos 11. and writing a brief illustrative phrase or sentence for each word. ebullience 17. jingoism 2. related forms. seduction from virtue 3. recording the essential information ing. quintessence 9.

tedium. 24. 9. debauched. 8. sadism. opulence. embodiment. 22. abundance wickedness 24. opulent. great wealth. overweening haughtiness 13. concentrated essence Key. 15. ebullient. 6. altruistic. sadistic. 16. opulence. 17. compulsive and pathological thievery wrongdoer. fracas. 19. tiresome cliche 14. 7. 25. 8. acerb. 9. great 23. jingoism. advocacy of a warlike foreign policy. debauchery. 7. 14. 21. great noise or disturbance 8. 20. bantering. 4. bromidic. 1. 11. falling off in dignity or importance. iniquitous. nostalgic. iniquity. 14. acerbity. greater interest in the welfare of others than in one's own wel- fare being boringly wearisome bubbling enthusiasm homesickness excessive indulgence in sensual activity 18. 10. 2. 4. bic. 21. 18. claustrophobia. 20. quintessential. quintessence. claustropho- jingoistic. 10. bathos. altruism. bathetic. persiflage. 13. malefactor. 13. bromide. ebullience. 5. 1. hauteur. 6. tedious. II." 5. 11. acerbity. quintessence. kleptomaniacal. sudden 10. debauchery. harshness of temper or attitude 25. 11. kleptomania. state of 19. 3. 7. 2. 12. I. limbo. pathological cruelty 6. 3. 5. 16. witty talk 17. iniquity. 12. 9. condition or state of being forgotten 12. nostalgia. 22. 15. 23. perfect 15. 309 .

• Are confronted with a fourth challenge to your reading habits. Chapter 10 gives you added training in aggressive and rapid comprehension.CHAPTER 10 HOW TO WHIP THROUGH MATERIAL WITH GOOD COMPREHENSION Preview Your training is winding up to a close now. Try to increase your responsiveness to an author's pattern of will • thinking. • Sharpen your skill in stripping a page down to its essential meaning. Practice to keep up your new speed even though the material be somewhat more difficult. 310 . and in this chapter you: • • Tackle a third round of timed reading selections.

—— ———— • SESSION — 25 BREAKING THROUGH THE SPEED BARRIER For many weeks you have been training to increase the efficiency by intensive practice: 1. and making greater use of your peripheral vision tion. In covering a complete novel or magazine in one evening & In improving your reading vocabulary 7. 5. In reducing regressions. eliminating any tendency to vocaliza- and decreasing your dependency on inner speech In enlarging your recognition span. In speedily pursuing the central theme of a selection while of your reading habits sensing the structure of the author's thinking 3. so to speak. in a manner of speaking. you will continue to extend your horizons. less important parts of material in general. Are you ready to branch out some more. In these final stages of your work. and fly off into new territory? Are you gram. practice in still further speeding up your perception and in enlarging your span of recognition. practice in adding still more words to your reading vocabulary. In skimming the And. 4. in learning to niques that help you strip a page employ down to all the aggressive tech- its essential meaning in —techniques which. There in refining 311 . and practice in covering a complete book of nonfiction in two or three evenings. the least possible time permit you to break through the speed barrier that stands in the way of the inexperienced We are and now approaching unskillful reader. shortening your fixation time. the final phases of your training pro- — is still a good deal of practice ahead of you practice and perfecting all the techniques of rapid and efficient comprehension that you have already learned. In consciously moving faster through material 2. to spread your wings.

Now sometimes.M. Find these statistics. and your average rate on the nine selections of chapter 7. keep a careful reccompleting the chart and graph as you go along. By now. But you do more than that. the central theme. unvarying speed. In short. understanding rapidly.) your comprehension to you. the important details as support. faith in And have As a on the four two figures your initial rate on selection 1. You skim. you may slow up. easier. and you think along with him in that pattern." and the other 2. sufficiently sharpened your general reading skill to cruise through somewhat more complex selections with at least the same speed and accuracy of comprehension that you have shown on previous. whenever the content of the page and your purpose in reading call for. W. elaboration. but will vary your pace to suit the 312 varying content. You aim main idea. responding rapidly. and intelligently.M. of course. You will probably not be able to read all the fication.) Are you ready more to react the this in first what you read? (We work on Have you developed enough do a certain amount of skimming? skeptically to part of chapter 11. thinking "average rate. as in chapter 7. Label one line "initial rate. phase ord of your rates. clari- main idea. and copy them below. new categories of books? (We cover this question in the second part of chapter 11. you . or extension of the selections of this chapter at the same. you use every technique you possess to understand quickly.ready to read new magazines. the what you will) of the material. You sense the pattern of the author's thinking. which you recorded on the chart on page 393. by now. without guilt or anxiety." Again.P. the gist. skimming. INITIAL RATE IN CHAPTER 1 (Page 11): W. new authors. depending on the nature of the material and on what you want to get out of it. or admit of. whenever you read. AVERAGE RATE IN CHAPTER 7 (Page 393): On your third-phase progress graph (page 394).P. identical. However. for a quick grasp of the total meaning minor (call details as it background. selections? This is the question we shall answer in the present chapter. you should have the feeling that you are moving along at a rapid clip. draw a straight basis for comparison with your performance selections in this chapter line parallel to the we base line shall use AB to correspond to — each of these fig- ures you have just copied. you may reduce your rate. You see the rapidly. accurately. which you recorded on page 11.

was obviously unsuited for general use. A brief discussion following each sider the pattern and framework comprehension test will con- of the author's thinking. Old-fashioned cures like asafetida vitamins." The pharmacist filling them specifically From The American Mercury. The scope of the investigation was consequently broadened in the hope of finding a tion. Diehl. vaccines. dollars' had led me to believe morphine might be of value in relieving acute head colds. Selection 16 FOR THE COMMON COLD 'CURES" by Harold S. In an effort to discover an effective cold gations remedy. investigations were carried out by the Students' Health Service of the University. in order to continue refining your awareness and understanding of the structure of writing. referring to the selections as you do so. studies grew out at The of a chance obser- Each study was planned to avoid prejudice for or against any particular medication. may be Some of them. . In this way. M. in many effec- less harmful. a series of investi- was begun ten years ago the University of Minnesota. Yet remedy that would be equally shows that many of the most widely advertised remedies now on the market are tive careful investigation utterly worthless. Reprinted with 313 permission.D. Exten- worth of commercial remedies are sive tests corroborated this observa- timing-* Despite Start vation which general skepticism about cures for the com- mon still cold. and camphor are no longer toxicity in vogue. but in their place has come a whole new arsenal of popular remedies — but morphine.will ful. nasal medications and other drugs. millions of that sold in this country every year. of the most widely used cold came under close but preparations study. Physicians wrote prescriptions merely for "cold medication. The definitely harmful. Study these discussions carefully. probably never again. because of its and the danger of habituation to it. fact. if your training has been at all successread as slowly as you did before you started working in this book.

amytal. For the purposes of our studies. Some of them ex- perienced such prompt and remarkable improvement. "genuine" or otherwise. aspirin. of the study. thinking that they contained medication. halibut (which is vitamin A). therefore. tained and the results tabulated ac- This group of remedies included cording to the various medications and iodine. the results from it are very little better than from know what proportion of patients would recover without treatment the period forty-eight-hour which results other words. These were included so that we might (which is sold under various names) and soda. calcium liver In each of these studies some of oil compound the tablets and capsules given out pirin-phenacetin-caffeine contained only milk sugar. In our studies we selected this control group showed that ap314 tablets as the . the reported patients the on results cards prepared for Upon the basis of these reports the this purpose.used in sequence the medications being studied at the time. atropine. In this study we gave sufficient dosages of soda to produce much more alkalization than is possible from any of the commercial preparations sold in drug stores. Yet the results of this Advertisers alkalization were exactly the same from the sugar as those reported tablets. that they went out gardless of the is true re- brand of aspirin used. Although aspirin ranks at the top of this group. After forty-eight hours of treatment. another widely recommended cold remedy. control the sugar tablets. Approximately 35 per cent of the students who got the sugar tablets reported "definite improvement" or "com- plete cure" of their colds within forty-eight hours. Even sults less valuable were the re- obtained from soda. In the group who re- ceived sugar tablets. Apart tions to be dropped or sprayed into from the humor of the situation. Finally. proximately 35 per cent of patients would have recovered quickly regardless of any medication. in fact. to be almost valueless. the pharmacist's record used. ephedrine. in for were reported. an as- effectiveness of the medication in each case was estimated. Perhaps the most commonly used most effective treatof all cold remedies are the preparaments they had ever taken. This of their way to praise the have emphasized the importance of "alkalization" in the treatment of colds. cold all less was ob- Virtually all of the most commonly used medications proved. the nose. Neither physician nor patient knew what medication had been given. on this basis. served as a "control group" for the rest The importance was clearly of having this shown in the very first investigations. we put down as of little or no value medications from which than 50 per cent of our subjects reported benefit.

difficult for way through These are microscopic. slightly which covers the membranes with a mucous film. Their constant use may even destroy respiratory epithelium. nasal though they may give temporary relief of congestion 315 . filter out the larger which particles of Next in the defense system are numerous foreign material in the air. This stage of On branes opens a portal of entry for with no elevation of temperature of four to five intact. At the entrance to the nasal passages are tiny hairs. infection. minutes. Nasal preparations may be harmful precisely because they can destroy or interfere with this defense system. days. sprays or More oils. often mild general symptoms —but posure like other may be followed by infections by be caused germs that happen to present in the nose and throat. important. remains whose symptoms are injury to this the nose. A delicate from mechanical injury by particles of dust. called vibrissae. and runs a typical subacute course of two or three weeks. but little may do harm by constantly produce a moist. who used the same as those tablets. Only 31 per cent reported benefit from about sugar it." It was transferred to unlabeled sticky secretion and then dispensed surfaces of the bottles. and occasionally mild headaches. Drying and medicated oils first slow and eventually stop the action of the cilia.the most extensively advertised and branes of the nose. The mucous film also protects the membranes of the nose interfering with the body's natural defenses. discharge. much like fields of grain. Nasal preparations not only have value. glands located throughout the mem- it coat and underlying ex- mem- Last of nature's defenses are the and a usual duration secondary mucous the as long as the other hand. from which they are disthe charged or swallowed. to the students with the directions given by the manufacturer. yellow discharge. stuffiness of watery nasal sneezing. The secondary stage is accompanied by a thick. They pick up cells and particles of foreign matter and carry these to the pharynx. shown Medical that the usually initiated has research common by a cold is by virus or which gain entiy through upper respiratory tract. Nature has provided man with remarkable local defenses against these bacterial invaders. dryness of the throat. haircovering most of projections mucous membranes in the nose. and is renewed approximately every ten It has been estimated that 75 per cent of the dust and germs present in the air are removed in this manner. These glands widely sold brand of "nose drops. They are in constant wave-like motion. The film is in constant movement toward the pharynx. cilia. It is extremely bacteria bacteria to find their the this mucous covering primary stage of infection follows.

and many reliable studies have shown that its continu- sprays and gargles. this aids in the elimination of the sup- of oily substances into the lungs. orange juice and other of the liquids drinks. adequate and balanced diet is necessary for the maintenance of health. an increase skin. Another popular belief frequently produce a distinct irritation of the nasal mu- stresses the value of large quantities of li- cous membranes. Presumably. for example. Furthermore. including the tak- ing of vitamins. Two ment have received tice. A complete. should be It may be some basis. is to in- crease excretion.and stuffiness. These preparations may destroy germs in test tubes if given sufficient time. This sounds plausible. Equally useless are the mouth washes. our series of studies. and who take them lose more time from work than those that patients who do not. The purpose Finally. there is always the dan- ger of a specific type of pneumonia may from the inhalation ade. resist- ance to pneumonia. The other employs the various kinds of cold vaccines. It causes in blood flow to the result- and chilled. cent studies both tics show two re- that cathar- are of no value in colds. in the form of water. But none of them acts instantaneously. brandy and "hot toddies. in the form of whiskey. Cathartics of various have long fig- ured in home treatment of colds. for the use of alcohol in made in effort has been recent years to discover possible measures for the prevention of colds. in many of the ad- vertised remedies. Considerable or less univer- home remedies proved and are included wet the other hand. Actually. in this way facilitating the path of secondary bac- quids. posedly toxic products produced by the infection." is still another popular remedy of dubious value. But beyond 316 . introduction of medicinal prepara- done only when definitely indicated and recommended by a physician for the treatment of some specific Alcohol. cohol itself On sal causes nasal congestion valueless in our studies. the most ous complication of colds. Scientifically. only a very small proportion of the membranes of the nose and throat can possibly be reached by ous or excessive use lowers that For all result of these reasons. lemon- terial infection. nor are they effec- there tive in the weak solutions which can be tolerated by the membranes in of the nose and throat. al- seri- II more kinds. Several other or perhaps excuse. and warn against the but unfortunately there is no evidence that it actually occurs. One of them types of treatparticular nois the use of dietary measures. gargles and antiseptics urged by advertisers upon the pubHe. with a ant feeling of warmth if one colds. nose throat specialists tions into the nose. Fear of increasing that popularity prevented us from using it in condition. is the some people.

Studies have shown and man have a than twenty-four hours' duration. the value of cold were made over a period of several years. which contains vitamins A and D. alternately groups. maximum reliawho volun- report was age of 4. they had only 1. But — has not been shown that use of particular vitamins has any value it the prevention for of belonged. this re- vari- duction was the same as has been ous mixtures of the bacteria most commonly found in the nose and reported in other studies.— this general truth. but all students thought they were receiv- good results as did the got the vaccine. studies cines —not "cold serums" as they commonly —contain "cold shots" —the students vaccinated with controlled studies.9 colds during the previous year. The control group received blanks instead of vaccines. and kept a record of each cold of more which have been ice particularly exploited as a preventive method. reported just as bility. Here again. has been re- tained from injected bacterial vac- ported by a number of authors to reduce the severity and the fre- and most widely used vaccine. indicating are throat colds. The number and severity of colds experienced by these students were then tabulated according to the group control or vaccine to which they that both animals decreased resistance to infections of various kinds when suffering from vitamin deficiencies. This duction of 55 per an excellent is a re- cent—apparently result. may be better known and ap- parently this true for each of the vitamins. These vacvaccines. toward the study. In fact. no special ing vaccine. of called persons Our One was admin- hypodermically by mouth. here are the results ob- though cod-liver oil. which got noth- teered for the study were assigned ing of any possible value for the and without selection to control groups and experimental prevention of colds.9 colds. special pre- this completely neutralized by the control students who reported an aver- During the year of the study. To determine or it oldest reported had averaged 4.7 colds per person. It see group which thus easy to how enthusiastic recommendamay be made in good faith for tions 317 is . In other words. students the control group. a reduction of 61 per cent. most of these reports are based upon inadequately that during the previous year they cine. we took and the other cautions to ensure The that these vaccines are of value. istered infected Unfortunately. true of vitamins. Al- colds. The quency of colds. But even the physicians who saw these patients did not know which group they represented. and so had the same diet has value for either the prevention The same or the cure of colds. Each student reported to the Health Serv- is First.1 colds per person. attitude whenever a cold developed. with included two studies bacterial vaccines. During the year that they were taking the vaccine they averaged only 2.

during the year of the study the vaccinated group had an average of 2. the most valuable of all cold medica- group. ever. In our study. which are less toxic and carry no practical danger of habituation. While taking this medication. which was dosage.particular cold remedies. be and still entirely without scientific justi- however. I stated that morphine. distinct fication. then.500 students who were given this preparation for the treatment of acute head colds. proved to be the students of the experimental definitely group received capsules containing vaccine. showed excellent results but was discarded because of its dangers. But the control proved to be. The control group received capsules filled only with sugar. like an excellent virtually the result. Our A preparation consisting of one-quarter grain of codeine and most effective Of 1. remained 318 studies. But several other derivatives of opium. 72 per cent reported definite im- provement or complete twenty-four to relief forty-eight within hours.1 colds per person. the progress of the cold seemed to be arrested and the secondary stage of in Is tions. did reveal one group of medications which seemed to have in capsules or tablets. was so effective as morphine. The chief beneficial effect was a marked decrease or complete disappearance of nasal congestion and discharge. most of the students were up and about. of value in the treatment of colds? There is no measure that is uni- formly effective for the prevention of the common cold. This looked The codeine-papaverine mixture and was again approximately the same reduction as had been reported by other investigators. the average number of days lost per person from school work was exactly the same two groups! for the there any remedy. attending classes. The reports from the vaccinated group showed a reduction of approximately 70 per cent in the studies. They and administered average number of colds per person benefit. Neither howand since both are quite different chemically it was decided to try them in combination. valuable. This oral vaccine consists essentially of the same organisms contained are killed by heat the in vaccines for subcutaneous use. Our results with the oral vaccine were astonishingly similar. With the relief of these symptoms. To make the parallel even more striking. Moreover. in many cases. in the year of study.0 aver- age reported by the control group. have already which is a derivative of opium. also one-quarter grain of papaverine was reported the same reduction in the finally selected as the average number of colds. same as the 2. In our first and papaverine codeine both gave evidence of value in the treatment of acute colds. protracted nasal discharge avoided. in Had bed while using they it. after morphine. as in the previous study. it .

increasing general resistance. baths is for the treatment of consist of hot water." In a similar vein writes in protecting others supplemented by such other as is indicated. The smoker no longer suffers from changes in the weather. But usu319 it . commonly This called Co- not advertised to the pub- it is who available through physi- should decide what dosage it when and confirmatory reports have been published by several other Dr. Since these studies were made. and a cough soon users rarely have colds. ob- medicated ointments. treat- would dimin- ish their severity. Exercise. limit their spread and reduce the frequency of complications. in is results. Finally. stuffiness are may be Cocteau. nasal congestion blood vessels blood to increase and As a result. wrote that during the years in which he had taken opium he "never once caught cold. ment if it is of interest opium to recall the statement that De Quincey. too. re- opium down cent for powdered 50 per cent who measures are helpful in the treatment of colds. in his Diary of an Addict. the effect is pro- was longed and the possibility of their found that powdered opium and being of more than temporary benethe old-fashioned Dover's powder fit is increased. certain general hygienic should be used.* also be to included in this group of moder- The medications. has a similar effect. this connection. the larger proportion of individuals the proportion of good ported "complete relief" or "definite improvement" after the use of these preparations ranged from 57 per preparation. If such treatments are followed by rest in bed with sufficient covers to prevent cooling. but of physiotherapy. He never tained with massage or other forms catches cold. mustard plasters and certain still of moder- ate value. Similar effects "Opium. "is a season. in his Confessions. hot The effect of these to dilate the of the skin and flow through them. were several other opium derivatives. pavin. The is Quinine ficial. Russell Cecil of investigators. with hot or cold compresses. Bed rest advice. nor even the slightest cough. both found that the codeine-papaverine in mixture was particularly beneficial in used by their patients at the very beginning of the infection. valuable earlier in the course of the cold that ately this preparation is used. lic. cam. of Dr. frequently (a combination of powdered opium utilized by athletes to "sweat out" a and powdered ipecac) were benecold. reduced." he says. Hot baths colds air may or steam. a violent cold attacked me.probable that even better results might have been obtained. Fritz Hutter of Vienna. But after discontinuing the use of opium." Less effective. after. But cians. and to for quinine. and keeping the body warm. New York. In addition to codeine alone and papaverine alone. Going to bed and remaining there until recovery is good The value bed rest lies from exposure. In during the acute stages of colds. as the phrase is.

W. 4. ally die body gets record here the time required min. The 8. and then the cold may become even more severe <—End timing than before.M. 13 min. min. 750 600 500 429 375 min. 11 min. one of them at the end of his first paragraph many widely advertised remedies are worthless. or certain hygienic measures were found to provide any relief or improvement in the 5. Check main points.P. nesota.M. treatment of colds. Compute Your Rate (Approximate number TIME 4 5 6 7 to type of cold remedy experimented with was hot baths. (Record TIME 9 min. 10 min. results. of words: 8000) W. 8 min. YOUR I IATE ON SELECTION 16: on the chart and graph on page 394. Many less or 3. widely advertised cold cures and home remedies are worth- harmful.symptoms return when the chilled. min. nor vitamins and other dietary measures. Test Your Comprehension Of the following eight statements. some may be harmful. Students treated with sugar tablets showed little or no improve- ment. 320 Paragraph and he states 1: . Diehl has three main points he wishes to make. on this selection: sec. three are main points.P. quinine. 333 300 272 250 231 W. 2. Staying in bed for the duration of a cold was the only remedy that oils first showed any be dangerous. Nasal 7. min. and sprays were found 6. 12 min. Neither vaccines.PM. Only a codeine-papaverine mixture. pre- vent colds. These investigations were carried on at the University of Min- the three 1.) this statistic Discussion of the Selection Dr.

If. as having some benefit in the treatment of colds. — It works this way. etc. The statements you should have checked in the comprehension test were numbers 2. D. and 5. Section III: Developing his third point. 321 .— Section less or — Here the author explains why these remedies are worth- I: first point with the results of the exMinnesota. a town that needs a then applies to the local hospital for admission to the staff From the Woman's Home Companion. vaccines. only a codeine-papaverine mixture. He He finds man of his as a specialist. as structure of this article. Ratcliff axiomatic that the future of medicine lies in the hands of highly trained young physicians. Selection 17 GIVE YOUNG DOCTORS A BREAK by Start timing—> It is }. He then passes the examinations which qualify him talents. copyright 1948 by Crowell-Collier Publishing Co. or certain hygienic measures were found to provide any relief or improvement. Smith completes his long. comments on the values of morphine and of quinine. 4. vitamins. Diehl develops his second point parently cannot be prevented either by dietary measures colds ap( including vitamins) or by vaccines. harmful. Young Dr. massage. arduous and expensive medical training. Diehl explains how he found a codeine-papaverine mixture effective in providing relief or improvement. quinine. Again he supports his statements by results of tne experimental study. Reprinted with permission of the author. Yet in a shockingly high percentage of communities these gifted young men are being systematically barred from practice by older men medical monopolists. and dietary measures do not prevent colds. and with medical facts. and suggests such hygienic measures as bed-rest. you were reading. Dr. you were able to sense the three-part you realized clearly that the author's final meaning was somewhat as follows: Many advertised cold cures and home remedies are worthless or harmful. supporting his periment Section at the University of II: Now Dr.

Smiths have waited one Each patient was the wife of a to five years for hospital appointphysician! The doctors wanted their ments. But if any of his patients require hospital care. But of medical economics. It is robbing smaller communities of men who might whole practice of the bright young the revitalize medicine. But they are markable skill. War gave one rapidly growing southern city dozens of new in- required one or dustries more this —each Young physicians saw an easy means of getting doctors.him hospital appointment. Rappleye of Columbia University's College of Physicians and Surgeons considers this "the greatest waste in our he runs head on into the ugly facts present system of medical service. The older physicians he talks to are friendly. sort of action many west They men would have decreed that these to wait a But the swiftly. At the end 322 established point of doctors helping the young a Dr. would A filling find station operator impossible to keep a it an attractive corner. was The same also taken in coast cities. C. as into practice in the town. boils — — who make is too much medical practice to be controlled by any small group of monopolists. where Dr." this accentuating the drift to the It is many communities great a moved minimum of five years for a hospital appointment. In this respect they are like others involved in living. why go back to him? Of course there are a good many treat sniffles where there cities. he must refer them to a man already on the staff probably never to see them again. Therefore. Smith is told he must serve probationary period is left up in the air. In another the hospital town staff in the midwest required interns to sign agreements not to practice in the town for at least ten years after their training! In other situations young physicians receive hospital appointments —but have no patients referred to them by older doctors. hospital staff a "probationary period. Dr. There are cases performed only eight operations. and How is long to last Smith can and children's leg aches. Other physiwere quick to detect his reSmiths of America. and cases where appointwives to have the best. Yet there making a a difference. is A lawyer would find it difficult to keep another lawyer from opening an office." which permit will to take Dean Willard patients to that hospital. Dr. Patients conclude that there must be something wrong with Dr. In his first year he comparatively few. In want aggressive older doctors do not competition. Smith otherwise he would be admitted to the hospital. Pennsylvania cians . he asks? what about the Here ments have never been granted. This happened to a young surgeon in a town. Physicians do have the power to squelch potentially dangerous competition by denying hospital staff competitor off — appointments.

they will continue to learn in an internship form of slave be placed on another point: we aren't speaking here of graduates from Grade B medical schools. which was none too well off. as- sociated with the medical college tions for the nine internships trained. open surgery at Metropolis Grave-faced physicians prodded him with questions. During his eighteen months' in- had to rely on his family for help. Bed and board were free and there were no tuition or lab fees. We are speaking of the really well-trained young physicians who face the — same difficulties as the most poorly Let's take a specific case of what a well-trained young man goes through before he is ready to hang out his shingle. his class records and grades scrutinized. Even though he cut expenses to the bone. trips home (on a bus) and other expenses brought the total per year to two thousand dollars. Still. So Jim applied the if many for internship in teaching great hospital freshman cal college. they say. books and lab fees. In premedical colS. His past life was investigated.— of a year the A young man gave up. Jim was a big drain on his family. In most hospitals Jim would have had it. his eighteen room. more experienced man at his At the end of his internship Jim might have gone into private practice. the most highly qualified in the profession. When he completed this preliminary training there were twenty-five hundred applications for one in the It was simple enough. He wanted more graduate training as a resident. There were hundreds of applicain general Hospital. board. months But in at Metropolis he did a number of major operaalways. Isn't Many hospitals ship. To be practice. was a straight A's. one of the finest in the world. question naturally arises. he had to have some ternship Jim money make still — fifty dollars a month. lege Jim calmly — under stress qualifications for a good surgeon. Jim knew. But he still felt he wasn't ready. Finally Jim was accepted for one of the nine places. Strong emphasis should manual dex- fine ability to reason little surgical practice. The young men turned out today are. By this time he had decided to specialize side. clothing. surgery an art which is in teaching and terity acquired only after years of practice? professors He had in surgery. of course. to get an internship too choosy. sure. hundred places class of this He managed to medi- from which he had been graduated. a residency 323 . with an tions — older. brilliant student He knew he had to be good to get into the medical college he had selected. Tuition. The problem facing him now was to get an intern- answer this with an emphatic no. Such hospitals meager opportunities to learn. Jim graduated in 1939. But in offer is little one weren't hospitals better than a labor.

grinding work. junior assistant residency his assistant residency. to his readily recognized talents. kidney surgery. — pieces of surgery At this point the reader would conclude that any hospital in the country would welcome Jim. came back to student life and to a degree of notso-genteel poverty. When the invasion did come. 1941. Thus hundreds Metropolis Hospital. It was hard. Only five interns would be selected for junior assist- during this year removal of lungs. spots knew he would be communities by ready for his senior residency (one hundred dollars a month) if he could get it. had true. Religious and most poorly racial preju- dices further complicate the picture. 1945. This this — apply. He some rather sour thoughts about his wisdom in selecting medicine as a career. ant residencies month) (fifty fortunate —thanks dollars per Again Jim was in surgery. Then the Japs struck. The dollars a world-famous objection will be raised that hardly typical of the young physician entering practice.being the main avenue toward a Jim got the appointment. The By 1946 Jim had gone through his difficult He isn't of the best. When the medical college from which he was gradu- hundred and twenty-five senior residencies in surgery and Jim had picked one of the most difficult of — to skill. Furthermore. exploration of the common bile duct for tiny stones that cause blockage. Jim realized that in war was the greatest of all laboratories in which to learn surgery. In the United States there are probably no more than a all that Jim is barred from practice in hundreds of year. great At this point competition had become really fierce. He is is representative But the hundreds of Jims among the five thousand-odd physicians who will enter practice that year will face the same barriers confront the trained. Jim was uniform by February. Nor would he have the elaborate equipment and diagnostic aids which he had been taught to rely on. Jim moved into Holland. In weeks or months a man could accumulate experience he would spend years getting in civilian prac- tice. on December 7. fact men with a fraction might have to wait one to five years before he could perform the types of major surgery for which he has unusual talent. commissioned a captain. and He did specialty. Jim wound up his army service November. 324 of communities . Jim jumped salary: thirty-six The Jim is at hundred it. 1942. Thus the grind went on the grind that is required today of any man who wishes to in — — become a really skilled practitioner of a medical specialty. he knew that he would not have access to hospital libraries with the books and journals which he could not afford. Jim of his and He was now ated offered him a job as instructor in surgery. As assistant resident his salary was seventy-five dollars a month.

Check the main idea: Young doctors need more practice before they should be per- mitted to attempt 2. these young physicians might proThere are many towns of fifty thousand people with not a single modernly trained surgeon. automatically. The solution? There is no easy one. difficult surgical cases.As an denied the superior type of medical and surgical service which standards. appointments).P.. the problem is there an ugly stumcialists go together to give a — bling block on the road to better medical care. 45 sec. 30 sec. 30 sec.. Many older doctors who don't want competition bar brilliant young doctors from using their talents by refusing them hospital appointments (or by making it most difficult for them to get such 4. min. Another group contends this would produce ruinous competition which would tend to lower medical RECORD HERE THE TIME REQUIRED MIN. in- and other specommunity a miniature Mayo or Lahey clinic. doctors should be permitted to gain even if it is skill by practicing on not for the patients' ultimate good. It is one requiring thought and action. sec. 30 sec 482 422 374 337 306 . ON THIS SELECTION: SEC. Test Your Comprehension 1.. 843 749 674 613 562 3 4 4 5 5 325 TIME 30 min. min. Whatever the answer. One group suggests that once a student has passed his specialty board examinations which screen out all but the most highly qualified he should be admitted to any hospital answer vide. Older doctors do not want aggressive competition.. 3.P.M. The best medical minds are troubled by the situation. for as long as exists. 2 min. ternist. this is Compute Your Rate (Approximate number TIME min. pediatrician are — staff alternative they see group or clinic practice as the — —where an orthopedist. many communities will it continue to get 1920 medicine for 1948 ^-End timing ills. because they feel that the public will suffer. 15 sec.M. min. min. min. W. 2 2 2 3 a stumbling block to better medical care. min. min. of words: 1685) W... Young patients.

pletely and explicitly Selection 18 DIET AND DIE by Carlton Fredericks 2. 4 in the comprehension test).P. they forget that improper dieting can lead to grim and inexorable death. be They cut out fats and starches. Reprinted with permis- sion of Coronet and of the author. as you doubtless realized. right down to the last word in the last sentence of the final paragraph. Fredericks search consultant. The last two paragraphs. ises to and Men and women.M.) this statistic Discussion of the Selection Mr. Mr. 7 min. (Record W. painlessly. you Isn't Most Americans love old and young. 211 WPA* YOUR RATE ON SELECTION 17: on the chart and graph on page 394. quickly. Yet in their eager- ness to outwit the laws of nature and medicine. Inc. repetition of the theme upon repetition. Ratcliff hammers home one major point throughout this piece (statement no. plump and fat. sooner or later are tempted to try some "miracle diet" that prom- Start timing—> to diet. April. expressing it comby the end of the fourth paragraph (specifically in paragraphs 1 and 4). But wait a minute. contained two possible solutions. rich and poor. From then on.TIME TIME W. 326 is a nationally known nutrition re- . From that protest. statement about death extreme? Intelligent people don't go in for lethal diets and deadly food fads. 281 241 6 min. he piles supporting details upon details. copyright 1947 by Esquire.P. it is true that death certificates never read "Reducing Diet. 8 min. 1947. salad dressings or Coronet. perhaps they try minersome of the other widely publicized tricks. But can such dietary shortcuts lead directly to the grave? 3." Yet science has taught us that a to al-oil sure. Well. and the author makes it clear that we must find some solution if we are to have better medical care. shed weight easily.M.

died suddenly Remember Laird Cregar. only to fall victim to influenza. and bulk. the calory the god of movie stars. This did liant ous 6. let's certifi- did he decide to juggle calories with ened the body? histories in of cate didn't read "starvation. fattening condemned luncheons of so herself to breakfasts and butterless toast. if death comes on the heels of a reducing diet. Whereupon Mary — against a nervous breakdown. pounds. stark words: "Louis to sustain thing: proteins." 11. bril- and table coffee. The end of the story beat of publicity drums was no for the "new" Cregar. . phenomenon to this of the lens. cause the waistline is And be- the lifeline star. Actually it occurred on the operating table. the calory has driven studio notables to gastronomic on to to hold . yet everyone knows that operations are more often successful if the patient strong and in good condition. So no matter how the certificates may read. the case of a third By the grace of her for of film society. As delighted as his tailor. so he decided to reduce. he looked forward to more glamor- skimpiness to starvation. Now Hollywood glance at some case Hollywood. star Price Glory. The studio said: "Mary has been overworking. the wire services flashed the truth was. skimpy salads and Melba vitamin-free toast. this precipitous loss of the untimely loss of is Was weight and merely a life body." But or the inadequate diet that weak- 4. vege- suicide. What Wolheim's death tonight. She must guard strange coincidence? 7. 9. First. 327 pneumo- . minerals. beloved Louis Wolheim? Months and pounds passed away as he dieted. calories. failed to bring her weight down. ex- life. even Yet this pittance for a hard-working but bulky screen villain? Villains don't make romantic stars. In a few months he starved away 100 diet. 10. there are countless others who escape the grave. Mary's reducing diet lacked everything the to Then from the trick yet scarcely had she remodeled her wardrobe when she was rushed to a sanitarium. shifted known you don't have star to find the die Furthermore. but a muffled roll for his death.human body of proteins lacking in a full ration and vitamins stands little chance in a fight against disease. 12. vita- And how about bent-nosed. 5. who is the real culprit? The disease germ itself. dinners of one lamb chop. mins. She was another who found herself losing in the endless fight the against she of black coffee some almost camera. The human body needs Every- Wolheim. physician's intervention she still is on the screen. roles. be a movie in diet. fats. for the unthousands who ordinary learn too late. professor of mathematics. so let's call her plain Mary. Unfortunately. where the camera makes everyone look ten pounds is Thanks heavier." and forget waistline health? . 8.

In other words. After a few months every "guinea pig" reported insomnia. ample in calories." to be precise. including bone marrow. Delighted. say- when ing: "Plenty of time for that "Narrow wide ones.nia. It was adequate indeed. — — occur. This gentleman was happy to take her currency in return for placing her on a two-month diet of nothing but vitamin-rich bran and germ. As we prefer grains stripped of the attempt natural partially vitamins ger intuitively. So back to her doctor she went According to the Mayo group of volunteer subjects traveled to the edge of insanity on what seemed to be a nourishing diet.R.R. But it was too late. we do not replace the food values lost in eating muscle meats without the the pounds slipped away. her nails boils. as we coffins are civilized peo- our meat "fractionated" the muscle meats sepa- rated from the organ meats. the symptoms continued. forgetfulness. Further proof that proper nutrition involves far minimum number by the case more than a of calories is 17. they began slipping too fast. but far below the danger pale. baker's The Eskimos forestall this danThey gobble their happy til replace in organs. human cells too long deprived of essential substances reach a point where they cannot assimi- no matter late these how the concentrations are admin- substances. insanity. changing to terror when her face erupted with 16. and her hair fell out by the handful. walked out on him and into the hands of a "specialist" "naturopath. S. Then inactivity and a forced diet caused her to gain twenty pounds. high protein rich in Proud of her figure. He found her deficient in every- thing essential to tion. Clinic. anemic.R. And today she has a stock reply to everyone who mentions the sub- of the bulge successfully until she ject underwent an operation. doctor wisely refused to help." we So S. A diet. —un- to bread with synthetic ones. mashed potatoes and fruit juices." of reducing: much 19. istered. prolonged invalidism. confusion. S. and pregnancy complications. sallow. her ankles swelled. Fright then set in. Because ple. 18. just as you're completely well again. with the result that pernicious anemia and prematurely 328 . she didn't realize that nutritional deficiencies can become irreversible. apa- and "an inescapable sense" that some misfortune awaited him. this young Manhattan woman fought the battle brought her slowly back to normal. in fact lost animals from nose to tail. Sensibly she dropped the diet. Like many minimum nutri- people. vitamins and minerals. 14. a point in a vitamin essential to the nervous system. was too. happened to be lucky. Her cost as offered of Miss S. we —that like is. as to calories. 13. thy. While 15. 20. If you embark on a dolt's diet which they all are unless tailored by an expert to your own specificaany of these disasters can tions grew dry and brittle.R.

It down the peristalsis of phenomenon which —and Yes —the business slows also colon. the Eskimos cure them with animals' adrenal glands much containing high concentrations of 25. D. die from their diets is a testimonial not to the diet but to the adaptability of ple. Actually. human body.gray hair are rare in the Arctic. First. Dogs deficient in it look well and even eat well. For examwiseacres who substitute the the mineral oil for salad dressings are II 27. a 35-year-old Brooklyn housewife.000-a-year the that a laxative to nothing else. but fact that people don't 23. E wards absorbing the fat-soluble vitamins A. without warning. such as helping digestion. right up to the moment when. If I have persuaded making. a contributes to $100. in one step. W. But there^s vitamin C. 28. gland. Mineral oil hinders the body in there a is a die in diet. 29. they drop dead. We 22. We know 26. actually seen scurvy in children fed When plenty white contract explorers of —and orange juice scurvy up there. come responded suc- irreversible cessfully to B complex treatment. have much to learn about the effects of pantothenic acid on human beings. more mistakes than their instinct for error should better. grim mineral The oil.tooth-decay vitamin. it causes harelips. more still Mineral story. . A miscarriage and other pregnancy complications. she weighed 245 pounds all of it achave quired on a diet of penny candy. It may be D helps the plain overeating. 329 interferes with the absorption of C. the vitamin which affects the endocrine min-B complex the B complex which serves many functions. as in the case of T.000. Five feet six inches — tall. a neurotic frustration is a common cause. Some scientists suspect that the human embryo itself is affected by B complex deficiency. skin to assimilate oxygen. Vitamin skin trouble. — the implication is enough to against toying with vitamin-B warn com- plex. so few simple you that much the can be safe and you need do is follow rules. All 24. Mineral oil also I or even nerves. K is the blood-clot- ting vitamin that slows down or averts hemorrhages. too washes oil the vitamin out of the body. E and colds and off K. prevents if you are too fat you must discover the cause. Americans who contracted heart weakness as prisoners of war and were released before the muscle failure had be- 21. yet lack of it we know produces an unhealthy mouth and tongue. a glandular defect. and bone derangements in animals. successful. cleft palates.. It has not yet been proved that human harelips are similarly caused. to the forms a oil Suppose your "common sense" coating in the digestive tract which low-starch muscle-meat diet hap- sneers at the vitally important vita- pens to lack pantothenic acid. Yet reducing permit. the anti.

The kind and quantity must be determined in exact relation to goats for droves of fat females. avoid drugs. But the rare case of thyroid overweight sarily corrected extract. tion 33. Her grateful glands had finally responded. perform the vital That supplement deficiencies of a reducing diet. She felt she was eating more. Only one case of overweight in a thousand. can be traced to the glands. They sometimes lose weight under a diet of restricted salt and effective fluids. She complained that the skimpy meals merely added more weight. Glandular obesity is as rare as a hen's tooth. 36. In water. it is time to start shedding the pounds. 31. diet is the first step that must be taken. dietitian the toss 18 months. people whose tissues store abnormal quantities particularly vicious supersti- take vitamins or thiamine. for the gland come underactive is not neces- by administering may have be- for quite another reason: a deficiency of vitamin Bx 37.meat. And treatment is occasionally given for reducing. And a good way to begin is to get rid of all your food superstitions. The persuaded her to candy overboard. Often you hear people say: "Don't pituitary disturbance. always pleasing and soothing. but she lost 115 pounds in 30. weight she became pregnant for the first time in seven years of married life. Even her small amount was always there. At best they are 330 . Like coal. 35. A 38. 39. They Only calories make Vitamins have no calories. Like the furnace. Of course thyroid and pituitary obesity do exist. Her dietitian soon discovered she had never been popular with men. is you gain. while the skimpy meals were replaced by three balanced ones. coffee. "Don't make you Hydrated individuals. low only in calories. do. makes energy. laxatives cigarettes. say the specialists. 34. your body needs addition to getting rid of superstitions and guarding against nutritional deficiencies. It's No fattening." Just ignore food is fattening in itself. When But whether normal or otherwise. food the body's needs. No phase of nutrition has provoked more folklore than reducing. how do you know which shovelful is too much? The same thing is true of food. and that food proved a happy substitute. The magic road to sylphdom was never traveled with a suitcase of pills and potions. Everything else is secondary. and indigestion remedies. however. a frequent result once fatness has been overcome by a balanced diet. any more than an extra shovel of coal she reached her proper is is necessarily too much for the furnace. Yet glands serve as scape- food to burn into energy. them. Once you have discovered why you are fat. obesity eat that. 32. is why nutritionists with vitamin prescriptions." job of protecting you against the diets of the one which says. when gain. Without knowing how much fuel has already been fed to the furnace.

supplemented by baneful drugs 41. At 16. and thyroid matters tablets. and he may prescribe the same number of calories from a totally different diet to remove the same weight from a 200pounder. at the charts to see of walking is how many miles necessary to dispose lamb chop and an apple. deficiencies. Vitamin-B complex. A physician may order a 1. she carried 178 pounds on a five-foot chassis. starvation. Look each individual's needs. cases it is of never obesity. Massage is a wonderful reducer for the massager. Concocted of salts. well balanced but not As most of the nine-day wonder diets. 44. and a 1. on their eyes. Yet this imbalance is a minor drawback and fluid intake. Let those tried excess doses of various mass-production useless. to 45.200-calory diet of your masseur.200- 40 pounds off a 160-pounder. are merely powerful laxatives —and nothing more. was ordered. hammer won't do a sledge Even and it. hair and nails are proof enough of her ex- compared cellent health. they rush foods through the system so fast that the calories vanish along with the food. Try to pound of the calories in one — the fat out of a piece of meat. Yet she.K. For the first ten days she was restricted in salt because they lack vitamins. must be individually planned. minerals. are of no value unless taken under careful medical guidance. the wonder is that you 43. lived on a cruel diet of 800 calories a day. survive. worse. Most other "reducing aids" even 90-day schedules. multiple vitamin and mineral capsules were had surely you are not going to put that kind of a weapon in the hefty arms been taking. with rible Whether a reducing regimen who all cludes drugs. The youngster proceeded to lose 12 pounds in 40 Today she weighs 110 days. analysis. found this out to her eventual joy. Psy llium-reed laxatives. This is because the two people have different requirements. pounds. C. If this how to lose weight. 42. touted because they form bulk and thus create an illusion of fullness in the stomach. for example. she And to make kept gain- ing! 46. Her complexion.At worst they pack a terwallop of misery. and is your choice of proteins. or massage or nine-day diets? Exercise will not do it. 40. why bother to suitable Every for diet all in- psycho- and nine. warn against nutrition specialists them because their caloric restrictions are too severe or to the one they share 331 .or phenol products show you the cataracts diets. to Many substituted for the drugs she too high in proteins. So do the vitamins. a growing girl. leaves or herbs. and indulge in different activities. These and other variables must be carefully considered when one is calory diet to take eat at all? prescribing a diet tailored precisely But you still think there is a magic road to reducing? Exercise.

Whoever you are and whatever your individual requirements.) 332 this statistic . acid test of a perfect re- SEC. it should be a miniature of an unrestricted diet. 30 4 min. safe Compute Your Rate (Approximate number TIME sec. 4. A number of well-known Hollywood stars died because the strain of dieting as well as acting proved too much for their constitutions. min.. is low in total calories. 6.M YOUR I .. 3 min. 5. remember that a reducing diet should not be fantastic. min.M 407 380 353 336 317 285 259 238 W. 6 min. 30 TIME W. of a physician use common is not necessary in selecting a proper sense. Check the main Unwise dieting The advice diet if we just idea: will mean a sure and quick trip to the cemetery. and is nutritionally balanced.P. 4 5 5 6 of words: 2850) sec. (Record 950 814 706 634 570 518 475 436 7 min. 7 min. min. W. 30 sec. work out a diet which will meet every nutritional test. unbalanced. Except that it is low in calories. 30 sec. min. Test Your Comprehension 1. min. 2. It should be supplemented with the calory-free elements it lacks.ducing diet Ill 47. if unduly prolonged.. <—End timing RECORD HERE THE TIME REQUIRED ON THIS SELECTION: MIN. is this: Can you expand the size of the portions and live happily ever after? If not. the expert nutritionist mainly has to select fattening foods to be avoided. or deficient in anything essential to health. The 48. the and successful diet is made by a physician to fit your individual needs. 3 min. distorted. In preparing a diet. min. min.ATE ON SELECTION 18: on the chart and graph on page 394. 30 8 8 9 10 11 12 sec. 3. Improper dieting can be extremely harmful or even fatal.. min. think of those deceptive death certificates and. Nutritional deficiencies. can always be overcome by skillful doctoring.M.P..P. min. min. 30 sec.. with the help of a competent doctor.

even indirectly causing death. Correct choice on the comprehension test is statement 3. Fredericks has organized his presentation into three divisions. glandular (rare). Let's look at the piece together to see what these divisions are and what each contains. — on the main point that improper dieting and successful dieting.— Discussion of the Selection As you read this long selection. illustrations. elaborated can be harmful or fatal. Paragraphs 2-26: Elaborate development of theme. and guard against nutritional deficiencies. case histories. and explanations diets can be extremely harmful. get rid of food superstitions. Paragraplis 43 (last sentence) -46: Diets must be individually planned. and part 3 summarized the entire article. plus recapitulation of first part (diets can be fatal). then. Part 1. discover the cause of stoutness — is it neurotic. part 2 gave the rules for safe 333 . Paragraphs 28S4: The rules for safe and successful dieting. PART Paragraph 1: First 1 part of central theme improper dieting can be fatal. nor diets. part 3 Paragraphs 47-48: Summary expression of the second part of the central theme as detailed and supported in part 2. part 2 Paragraph 27: Transition from part 1 ("a die in diet") to part 2 ("simple rules" for "safe and successful" dieting). nor massage. First. of full of how bad this part of the examples. Paragraphs 39-40: Avoid drugs. you may have been aware that Mr. Paragraphs 41^43: No magic road —not wonder exercise. or plain overeating? Paragraphs S5S8: Next.

to prove our broadmindedness. laugh at and thus young encourage off- job as recreation leader in a com- color stories or ignore his locker- room language just because we know it is commonplace among munity center. You wouldn't want me smoking in the street. because a insists that "it's tails to dance? 16-year-old done. permission. however. or attempting to their ones who Methods in earlier doubts when quesabove arise. Reprinted by cal social worker. N. too. 334 New Rochelle. Mrs. LeShan. Guidance . cigarettes for a 12-year-old and sit by while he smokes them? ("I can get them for 2 cents apiece from a guy at school. sooner or later one question al- is most certain to arise: What shall we do when we know our children are doing things we don't approve we voice our objections? Or shall we accept the behavior on the theory that in this way at least of? Shall we avoid secrecy and deceit? Do we." These are the ing. I'll do I can't just do it this in behind your back!" Parents keep who want urgently to their youngsters' confidence by acting as "pals" might consider the you?") Do we. "If front of you." the adoles- may "somebody's liable to spike the punch!") Do we buy cent insist. years are useless (The 12-year-old who wants to try smoking will not be "distracted" for long by a lollipop!) By this time. No child of theirs do thus and so! Others.Y.. would their children with their own think- "mold them in own image." serve cock- youngsters at a birthday ("Otherwise." From The New York Times Magazine. youngsters have learned to hide what they are doing. suffer tions like the of control that worked now.Selection 19 COEXISTING WITH TEEN-AGERS by Eda LeShan J. is On his first by "meeting them at their level. he decided to gain other youngsters his age? their confidence —the — 14-year-old's For many parents the course is experience reported recently by a and child psychologist. Or they may not even resort to subterfuge but will announce. never in doubt. a clini- educational director of the Center. may have been confused by warnings against "indoctrinating" will timing—> In Start among parents any discussion of adolescents. wanting very much to be accepted by the neighborhood adolescents.

Twoought to be home by midnight on week-ends and holidays.He began spending a good deal as being permitted to earn time at their local hang-outs. dating behavior. he joined a crap game one night and rolled the controls of handling a dice like a veteran. felt their parents should know where they were and with whom. useful as such surveys may be in giving parents a picture of the social scene today. smoking. you get more and stiffening in the more more us instead of us getting like like In their attempts to be "modern" some mothers and may run the risk of a reaction similar to the social worker's experience. even though they on whether or not lights should be on during parties. an uneasiness later as they all walked home. Then after several months. It is as clothing considered appropriate important for children of all ages to have direct guidance and a clear makeup. youngsters in complicated the prompted an increasing number of surveys among parents and students business of growing up need more than the analysis of a of various schools on such matters questionnaire to guide them.) all left cannot live up to parental standards the time. Yet parfathers want to keep up-to-date. Often mothers and fathers can H help youngsters understand what Interestingly enough. and suggest more acceptable ways of sters doing. The They've ster's also desire for parental matters seemed aware for they thirds of the students thought they you!" from their allowances). the results behavior is appropriate and accept- as their parents. in money responsibility full scene results of such a question- naire suggest that. of a recent questionnaire given to 2. use of statistical recent survey included a question understanding of what their parents expect of them. At other times they may have to point out in no uncertain terms the hazards of certain conduct. He noticed a group around him. by their own steady example of maturity and good judgment. Doc.000 parents and students in a big city junior high school indicated that the students were certain about standards just as and un- limits While the youngdemonstrated a wish for many signs of increasing freedom (. (One for school and parties. Finally. should have adult supervision. one boy said: "You know. These youngsters said they thought parties should be planned. been cautioned against making their youngsters "different" ents friends. and seemed to want help in scheduling homework and keeping to a reasonable bedtime during the week. The adult wish youngtoday has to get a clear picture of the social where that their they own im- pulses might get the best of them. Even . think- and have ing he had been accepted almost as showed a strong member of the gang.such able merely 835 But growing up is slow.

youngsters will experiment with new forms of behavior in ways that parents may not like. may just add to adolescent conIt is certainly true that must learn to young think for themselves. although they may not always be able to live up to these expectations. when they will feel they must challenge parental authority. Test Your Comprehension Check the main 1. idea. Those parents who insist on rigid discipline and see that their standards are lived up to will produce the most secure adolescents. 5. 4. for parents as well as children. There will be times when their self-control will fail. But quite possible to encourage in- RECORD HERE THE TIME REQUIRED MIN. accepting the fact that behind- the-back experimentation the price fusion. Adolescents want parental control in certain areas. In a time of rapid social change they will situations requiring that it is immaturity inevitably of youngsters make them need tion still keep- mind the inexperience and from which which a strong foundato move forward. they need guidance and clear understanding of parental expectations. ON THIS SELECTION: SEC. The best rule to follow in this troublesome period is to teach young people to think for themselves. Adolescence is a period of conflict and insecurity. and should learn to find out what the adolescents themselves want. Parents of adolescents are constantly beset with the problem of the best way to handle their children. <—End timing face new judgments we cannot make for them. 3. however. 2." Young people gain strength in controlling their impulses when we hold to our point of view with firmness. while ing in for we sticking may be pay occasionally the validity and will to worth of our standards. when they must satisfy special needs whether their conduct has parental approval or not. fit into the 336 . people dividual thinking. Adult sanction for inappropriate behavior. Parents who act as "pals" to their youngsters will help adolescents community pattern.with the best of adult guidance. We must give them both "roots and wings.

min.: Compute Your Rate (Approximate number TIME 810 760 675 605 550 505 450 20 sec. of words: 1010) sec.P. min..P. with a kind of recapitula- tion in the final paragraph..M.P.P. 45 sec.. 1 1 1 2 min. W.M. 30 sec. min. 30 sec. next shows why it is so complex.. 30 sec. 405 370 340 310 290 255 225 W.. W. The selection first poses the problem. 1 min. Section Now of the II —The Solution the central idea of the piece.. W. min. min.M. finally indicates a solution that arises out of the adolescents' own Now let desires and needs.... min. 1 min. min. min. YOUR RATE ON SELECTION 19: on the chart and graph on page 394. with emphasis on the doubts of parents who be too controlling and on the possible negative results of fear to being too accepting. 2 min. 15 sec. 15 sec. Copy. 15 TIME W. . 40 sec. from the chart on page 394..) this statistic Discussion of the Selection This piece divides nicely into two parts: — Section I The Problem The first paragraph expresses the problem: How should parents react when adolescents do things parents don't approve of with acceptance or with objections? The rest of the section then elabo- — rates on the problem. (Record 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 W. 30 sec.P. is developed.M.P. us consider your performance on the four selections of this chapter..M. min. your rates on the following pieces SELBCTION SELECTION SELECTION SELECTION 16 (common cold) 17 (YOUNG DOCTORS ) 18 (DIETS) 19 (TEEN-AGERS): : : 337 : W.M. 50 sec.M.P. as summarized in statement 4 comprehension test. min.

% % % '. On the other hand.M. and complete the chart by subtracting line 5 from line 4. divide by 4 to find chapter. 10: W. Use the figures from lines 1. and fill in line 4. locate that figure on the graph on page 394. Now by your initial rate ( line 2 ) carry the result to two decimal places. This will depend on how great an increase in speed chapter 7 represented over chapter 2 normally. AVERAGE GAIN: (4) PERCENTAGE GAIN: (5) PERCENTAGE GAIN MADE IN CHAPTER 7: (6) GAIN IN PERCENTAGE OVER CHAPTER 1 (3) W. (2) Take your average rate on the four selections of this chapter (line 1). Now you have a divide your average gain ( line 3 ) . perception. there is no reason why you cannot even- that your speed has taken another healthy jump.Add these figures.P. To complete the first line this line 2 of the chart. your new skills vision before it is possible that you had so well integrated and use of peripheral of comprehension. the biggest jump is expected in the second series of timed selections (chapter 7). you started working on the selections of this chapter is so. and fill in the appro( 1 ) priate spaces on the chart on page 394. with relatively smaller increases showing up after that. 3. and draw a straight line parallel to line AB. Then selection in the book. as the new skills become integrated and refined. subtract line 2 from line 1 and write the answer on line 3." You may possibly have made no appreciable percentage gain over your average rate on chapter 7. and while future gains a time be small. or. and 4. copy the rate at which you read which you recorded on page 11. Label this line "average rate. If this self-training has may for 338 . possibly.M. phase 3. Next copy from page 393 your percentage gain in chapter 7 to fill in line 5. you may show a 10 to 20 per cent gain or more.M.P.P. W. much greater comfort is achieved. more nearly re- flexive or automatic. and the — habits and techniques become less self-conscious. your been signally successful. or your gain may be small. Let us do two more things with these statistics. and write the result in the first (1) AVERAGE RATE IN CHAPTER (2) INITIAL RATE: your average rate in below. graphic picture of your progress to date.

interested. choose a title in some field that you are currently studying. from your friends. field of interest. or even an entire book that you look forward to every reading experience as a pleasure. politics. that is simple. most successfully stimulate you. then. as something you cannot wait to enjoy that you find you have much more time for reading because you tently. preferably. or at a bookstore. Ask for a recommendation at your local library. or nonfiction titles are published in inexpensive paper-covered edi- ) Or make your choice from the books suggested on page 354. keep you engrossed? Your first step. —that you naturally move along is for much you faster. subjects can a book most easily. an article. and the determining factor in that choice is your zine in one evening. ics. 339 . economics. sports. information. that is written for popular consumption rather than for specialists or experts. mathemat- history. and interesting. to read novels through at one sitting and to cover a complete maga- Now let us see how successfully you can read a whole book of nonfiction in a strictly limited time. (These days. I expect with some measure of success. art. The important thing. a chapter. Or.— tually still further improve the skill and speed of your comprehen- sion. readable. is to choose a book to which you will be able to make a rapid and happy emotional adjustment. make the time. incidentally. A FOURTH CHALLENGE TO YOUR READING HABITS Which brings us to the fourth challenge to your reading habits. a field in which you are. indeed eagerly. vitally tions. psychology. What area of human knowledge. criminology? In any other. hold your attention and interest. You have already tried. or living can you music. at this point. religion. The secret of meeting this challenge lies in your choice of the book to be read. that — willingly. Find a book that is not overly long. many excellent which of these. get most excited about? Science. if you are a college student. to feel —subjectively much more compe- much rriore self-confidently than you used to in the past you are no longer intimidated by a page.

And go through either one half or one third of the material in a single sitting of no more than three hours. INFORMATION. you'll become absorbed quickly). of course. . nor every paragraph. is to return to the book as soon as possible within the following days in order to complete the remain- ing portion or portions. 4. Read the table of contents carefully so that you can make a quick orientation to the type of material you will be reading. and determine that you are going to finish one of those parts before you stop reading. That allows you up to nine hours. "In the last few months I have read almost a dozen solid. of course. Then arbitrarily divide the book into either two or three approximately equal parts depending on how long a book you are tackling. nor every page. — Do not study.) If you become really absorbed in what you're reading (and if your choice of title is a wise one. (If you happen to get more than one part done in that time. for main ideas. if you skim judiciously. Skim a little here and there. if you can meet it with any degree of success. of the it. should take any longer. Now start reading and read rapidly. Do not read every sentence. you will have no trouble staying with the book at least until you have finished the first portion that you decided to cover. title: 2. author: AREA OF KNOWLEDGE. . every book possesses in abundance). This challenge. for final meaning. so much the better.Once you have the physical book in hand. sit down with it when you have two to three hours at your disposal. even if at times the knowledge you gain from the chapters is somewhat superficial. and — 1. In any case. determine to turn the last page book within no more than a week from the day you started in no more than three sessions of continuous reading. in total no book of less than five or six hundred pages. Read largely for central theme. . Your next step. informative books that I would not have wanted to miss!" And let's keep a record of your accomplishment with the book you're going to work on this week. without becoming unduly concerned about the masses of details (which. for an over-all perspective. may open for you a whole new approach to nonfiction reading may make it possible for you to say three months from now. ETC NUMBER OF PAGES: 340 3.

847833 <— 938882 *— 857263 <— 847654 *— 837920 <— 784672 4— 847992 *— 948762 *— 837458 783092 *— 948702 <— 857639 837625 *— 837130 <— <— 847110 4— 837190 *— 948762 110390 4— 836873 *— 635382 847662 *— 759285 <— 745680 r— 100983 993372 *- 938810 341 . 6. getting a visual impression. 9. 835820 *— 847002 <— 112911 *- 748029 4—. yourself. 10. 7.M.5. NUMBER OF SITTINGS: D2 D3 DATE BEGUN: . Reproduce each number check your in the result. AVERAGE RATE OF READING: * SESSION 26 PERCEPTION TRAINING X Perception Exercise 44 Using the Flashmeter card. 8. expose the numbers for a fraction Do not say the digits to blank to the right and then of a second.P. 4 DATE FINISHED: NUMBER OF HOURS SPENT: APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF PAGES READ PER HOUR: APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF WORDS PER PAGE: W.

when awake nothing to do they either always have collaborators tolerate being alone. <- 857031 <— 837013 <— 798011 4- 524389 998881 <- 928312 89. fixation to the line. Perception Exercise 45 Sweep down each column. Brace and Co. and they usually in the baby is never left alone. and Man. manifest themselves in a sociable person and does not manner even as the with the mouth may. that has outwardly Instead. form are not only very sociable.88QQ «_ KftfWKS 4- 846726 4— 467930 746293 *— 736523 039281 <— 847291 <— NTTVmF. by Gregory Zilboorg. but some of them do not of the individual's being rather a to if or. they who does not like to be like work alone. and they usually do. Reprinted by permission of the publishers. they do independent work. Go you are making only one adequate comprehension permits.D.R flOHRKCT (KIT of SO. Harcourt. The following material is excerpted from Mind. 342 they concentrate best when there are people around and when there a little is even noise. Such people are frequently admired for their extraordinary powers of concentration . I Tlie oral trends may.. New York.002988 847302 *— 834499 *_ 830012 <— 837257 *— fi97809. M. feeling that as fast as and be more aware of ideas than of inner speech. Medicine. Such people at alL appear little do.

and there mostly depressive that they can write swing into a the middle Marcel Proust. By of larger perceptual units in reading. Buswell. word method. the radio. Yet it is exactly this rattle may and din makes that for them it concentrate so well possible as soon as but they concentration literally in quiet sets in is in nature. Copyright 1939 by the University of Chicago. Under the old 343 for was which oral reading largely responsible. The University of Chicago Press. Reprinted by permission of the publishers. despite the rattle and din around them. and they are apt of his without interference. psychology has calling attention to the importance contributed a new methodology to its teaching. children developed an ability . Such people are also Such individuals given to moods. who wrote a real chance to concentrate state of great cheer. with utmost to concentrate. of the street like may just as easily a part They in a are self-centered charming way. The following is excerpted from Remedial Reading at the College and Adult Levels. Remembrance such people are apt Things Past a great deal in the glass-covered despite the apparent booth push and powers of the porter of concentration.— I or turn on in Paris. either drop their work to procrastinate of of the Ritz Hotel Perception Exercise 46 Continue as before. Professor of Educational Psychology. become to and they restless. by G. The University of Chicago. Chicago. T.

us say. Traxler. by article in the Arthur E. The following in Reading/' an is excerpted from "Measurement and Improvement Baltimore Bulletin of Education. executive director of the Educational Records Bureau. a broad span not only necessitates Present methods of recognition slow reading by the end of teaching reading attempt to produce as of but emphasizes the sixth grade wide a span of the elementary attention to the form of words of recognition school. Perception Exercise 47 Continue as before. A narrow span to understand meanings. for successful sixth-grade reading Since environments adjustment ability 344 let . becomes a permanent Good to develop equal readers have attained ability characteristic. and pronounce words objectively of recognition but often failed and are well known. Reprinted with permission. It would seem correct differ to say a great deal. other readers a rapid acquisition The curves growth of let their reading habits for this factor crystallize at a point have been plotted where a narrow span meaning of being thereby blocked. that an individual has a reading disability whenever he is to read well to not able enough meet the a reading level that would represent in another We environment know that this is true in connection with a disability in vocational adjustment one environment where an individual might be with. New York. requirements entirely satisfactory of his environment. as possible.

4. posthumous 8. austere 6. Compose. be able on a successful law requirements to adjust of a skilled trade. histrionic 9. —unspoken. born. esoteric 4. author. severe in e— or almost -color or indelicate —occurring. obsequious 11. in tests. convivial 3. affected — biting (in speech. solicitous 14. posthumous 12. esoteric 8. tacit tenuous urbane vacuous 15. 1. take the following in partially or totally unfamiliar. histrionic 5. convivial 7. derivation. the after etc. published. translucent 3. not expressed in words b—known only to a few c—excessively polite d— severely simple. sarcastic. death of creator. After studying your notes. writing. 2. Pair words and austere 2. mordant 6. vitriolic your dictionary those words with which you are your notebook or on your scratch pad. use. mordant Look up 10. father. Test Your Learning I. its festive. 5. obsequious 7. for each word.) . com- light i j caustic. tacit 10. 345 etc. risque 13.. fond of eating and drinking in g— pany h— admitting —pertaining to acting. and related forms. an illustrative phrase or sentence. information as to meaning. translucent definitions.could never do while he might the reading necessary to carry to the reading practice. a self-discipline off-color off f etc. very well VOCABULARY STUDY VH Words for Today 1. pronunciation. risque 9.

YES. i. no informed people have vacuous minds? yes. Are parents often solicitous of their children's welfare? yes. Do Do 6. no Is a tenuous relationship clear and obvious? yes. poverty sometimes the cause of austere living? Do 7. 2— g. II. j. yes. or vulgar expressions? 5. —no. 10—h. 8 . 4—no. 4— 5— 6—c. 1 — —no. puritanical people often tell risque jokes? YES. Is 4. 7- -no. 10 —no. YES. 7— 8—e. NO no NO NO NO NO Key: I. 9 — 1—d. YES. 6— 5 yes. 2 yes. 10. 9. YES. no Do urbane people express themselves coarsely and use uncouth II.Check yes or no to each question. kind people generally use vitriolic language? intelligent. 3. yes. 3—b. 3—no. 1. 346 —no. Are antisocial people usually convivial? Are servants often required to act obsequiously? Is esoteric knowledge widely disseminated? 8. 9— a. no gentle. 2. yes. f.

" • Traveling widely Chapter 11 offers you a list in order to of livery books in 25 different fields of nonfiction. wellrounded reader. and a number of challenging magazines to guide your future reading. 347 . as we near the end of the course. we discuss the importance of: • Reading • Resisting the critically. and asks you to follow a long-range plan that will help you become an alert." form "a background for opinion and a touchstone for judgment. "mesmerism which among books is resident in print. half a hundred novels.CHAPTER 11 HOW TO READ WITH A QUESTIONING MIND Preview Now.

he gets you to accept and even to share — — momentarily his philosophy of life. cigarette. that their conflicts are real and important. consciously or otherwise. This is how you should react. or. book. automobile. his reader.• SESSION 27 THE IMPORTANCE OF SKEPTICISM — Whatever you read a book. This is how to solve a problem. or. Every author. cereal. or. Even a novelist or short-story writer attempts. no matter what his medium of communication. and that their behavior makes sense within the framework of time and place that he sets up. "This is what I think. aims to convince you. tries to get a message across to you. a poem. his attitude to people and the point of view from which he looks at the world. a short story. a news item. an editorial. And in every case the writer uses all his skill and liquor 348 . or. an article. the transportation you should use. or comment. to persuade you that his characters could conceivably exist. This is how I feel. This is how I interpret a situation. or you should buy. or. even though he is writing fiction. in endless. then. If he succeeds. In a broad sense. a column of opinion. criticism. even a road sign tries to tell you something. This is how to do the job. special pleader. that what he has to say is true and should be accepted as truth. soap. This is the furniture. the vacation you should take. almost every writer is saying to you. or. clothing. and so on and on. or the charity you should contribute to". This is how I react to what has happened. he is a at least and events. or. the play or motion picture you should see. perfume. And. tries to make you believe. directly or by implication. or. These are the conclusions I draw from the (selected) facts. infinite variety. of course. it is almost impossible to pick up a magazine or newspaper today without being bombarded by special pleading. As you turn the pages.

LeShan ("Teen-agers"). deserving of beexercises also ask for example. wants you to believe that most communities are handling the traffic problem all wrong. or how accurate. Diehl ("Common Cold"). If you come right down to it. draw on other to persuade most. and so on. is not. manifestly. certain I appeal to reason or emotion.. a chemical formula. lief. that most advertised remedies are valueless. Mr. Fredericks ( "Diet" ) that some methods of dieting are dangerous. only a mathematical equation. as the author. or is not. no matter how skillful. you must be able to go beyond mere understanding. Most of your work in this program has been devoted to developing greater skill and efficiency in understanding what a page of print has to say. Mr. Mrs. whether the interpretations are trustworthy. and I I authorities in the field. if I bend I say. experienced. a page in the telephone directory. and believe not all. whether the author is unbiased. enough. and that a better solution is being tried by Chicago. whether the conclusions of a piece of writing are valid and soundly reasoned. all for the purpose of eliciting as strong a positive response And what in. and alert to be able to decide. how clear. etc. Even this book every effort to is a special pleader. and therefore whether the final meaning is. knowledgeable. by every means at my command.knowledge to convince you of the truth and validity of what he is saying. you must also be sufficiently skeptical to be in the habit of questioning. Mr. I. and make you believe. things and do them in certain ways constantly. as reading you to believe. Dr. whether the selection of facts or so-called facts is honest. I present evidence. — threaten. To be a mature and intelligent reader. you to do I cajole. and sufficiently informed. RatclifT ("Young Doctors"). Maisel ("Traffic Court Justice"). whether the publication in which it appears is known to be fair in its search for truth. that the attitude of older doctors is a stumbling block to better medical care. The person who reads intelligently 349 approaches all material with a . I strive promise. or something equally neutral. that there is an effective way to handle adolescents. can be considered as totally free of every vestige of attempt by an author to gain the reader's acceptance and/or belief. San Francisco. White Plains. from you as of the selections that I can possibly we have used get. others safe and successful. But understanding. selection after selection.

often receive our respectful attention accurately. restrict your reading to just one daily newspaper. we would brush away like a buzzing fly. the more tolerant he will be of material about which he possesses insufficient background. In one of the best books in its field. that neglects the skeptical approach is no education at all. so. and an occasional novel. of course. 1955. Sometimes I think the best we can get from a formal education is the inflexible habit of examining every new fact and every new conclusion drawn from fact. however conducted. the worth-whileness. Donald Adams wrote in The New York Times Book Review: All our lives most of us. you must have tentative opinions of your own on a subject. To gain the broad and rich background of which Miss Hester speaks you cannot. An education. but anyone who knows how to read can acquire as much of the world's knowledge as he is willing to absorb. he does not accept statements and conclusions simply because they appear in print. approach material critically can best be developed through wide reading. To judge. Teaching Every Child to Read* Kathleen B. merely because they have achieved the spurious dignity of print.questioning. As J. have to guard and fight against that strange mesmerism which is resident in print. Statements that have the peculiar sanction of type. Reprinted by permission. and which. And if the wisdom of the world is in books. the accuracy of what is read. he tests the truth of writing against his own knowledge and experience of reality. Harper and Brothers. the relevancy. Few people can be directly experienced in more than a very limited number of areas. too. mind. even a skeptical. you must have a touchstone for judgment. warily from top to toe. He will criticize in light of what he knows about the subject. the more able he be and will to judge the reasonableness. It is of apprais- evident that the broader background of the reader. To be skeptical of opinions expressed in writing. 350 . and perhaps most of all those in whom the habit of reading is ingrained. opinions based either on personal experience or on knowledge. Hester ability to makes somewhat the same point: The type of reading required for critical evaluation is a complex form of comprehension in which the reader develops the habit ing the material against certain and richer the criteria. He reads critically as well as he evaluates what the author says. if orally made. is a vast amount The of nonsense. a few light magazines.

S. test whatever an author is saying against what you know. the Reporter." much of it probably sincere. to be able to hear not only opposing sides but shades of opinion in between —to sharpen your all critical faculties. or can — mind to what the conservative press has to say. Newsweek. insist on all the facts. U. open your and social thinking? If a plexion is available in your town. Do you tend to accept most advertising with implicit faith? Read Consumers Reports or Consumers Research Bulletin for a few months if you want to adopt a less credulous attitude. And when you read. that you will find in many books. But to get a more or less liberal slant on changing events and to develop a broader base on which to form your opinions. We are privileged. fears. and dislikes. vary your reading occasionally with such magazines as the Saturday Review. Go out of your way to hear. News and World Report? Fine. to develop habits of reacting skeptically to what you read. keep an open mind. read newspapers with differing political and social viewpoints.How much long have you been reading a single newspaper. that some of your attitudes come from not having heard both sides of the story. likes. try changing for a period you may discover that some of your beliefs are prejudiced. Or. in the United States. Do you keep up with the outside world by reading the more or less conservative periodicals such as Time. if much of your viewpoint is liberal. don't succumb to the "mesmerism which is resident in Be alert to detect the "vast amount of nonsense. demand evidence. Read opinion. take advantage of this privilege. vice versa. Read books in fields with which you are at present unacquainted. magazines. Harpers. read widely. against what you have read in other sources. Do not accept passively or blindly. read as great a variety of magazines as you can lay your hands on. and of an influence does this periodical exercise on your how political paper of a different political or social combe bought by mail. the other side of the story. Above all." 351 . that is opposed to your own instinctive prejudices. and to understand. To broaden and enrich your background of knowledge. but nonsense nonetheless. Life. and newspapers. the Atlantic Monthly. print. lots of it. But read.

for mental stimulation. you do very little additional reading. If a long since the you have worked hard and formal schooling is first faithfully. for enriching your background of knowledge. They are reluctant to try anything maturer understanding. nor for information only. The country. If. It is the only which causes the trouble. Learning to read. and for a broader outlook and a ence. Or only one magazine for which they have developed a liking. has need of all that it can get of vigor and idealism and ideas. Or they read only books in their professional or business field. or once their training. completed. after you finish this book. Or only inspirational books. The editors were addressing the new graduates of the nation's colleges in the year 1935. or if you read only material that offers no challenge to your comprehension. You read also for intellectual growth. Too many adults.WHAT TO READ You have come way day you started your you have not only developed considerable skill as a reader. It needs a youth full of generous enthu* Reprinted with permission. a fresh tide of energy is about to be let loose upon the country. But what it needs not at all is half-baked theorists and ill-buttressed opinions. your training will be of little use to you. become so restricted in their choice of reading that they shy away from any new type of reading experi- beyond the level of a detective story or light novel. as you know. but what they had to say is as pertinent and as true today as it was then:* At this moment. when the universities are again sending forth their eager thousands into a world distraught by gigantic problems. heaven knows. You do not read for entertainment only. 352 . you have also begun to build habits that will help you increase your skill every time you tackle a page of print. Or only their one favorite newspaper every morning. never-ending process. Let me quote from an editorial printed over twenty years ago in the Saturday Review (it was then called the Saturday Review of Literature ) to impress upon you the importance of reading as an influence on intellectual growth. once they reach a certain age. as if no other kind of book ever published could possibly interest them. for increased wisdom. is a continuous.

remarks. "cashes the blank check of native versatility. a challenging and broadening experience. weening in For the i f s self-reliance. books that will make the world and people more understandable to you. as is its prerogative. a man who reads well is the man who thinks well. versatile in its interests but not overyouth that spurns. hooks you can really sink your that is not the whole of the truth to teeth into." said Carlyle. as you will see. and out of his fullness he draws that example and precept which stand him in good stead when confronted with the problems which beset a chaotic universe. "The true University of these days is a Collection of Books." as Mr. and while I have certainly not included all the cate353 .siasm and ranging curiosity. books that will help you explore new areas of knowledge and experience. It is but the veneer of education. "Learning. It demands young men and young women who do not believe that education ends with college." But reading makes him a full man. It needs a youth that is versatile in the sense that it has aptitude for new tasks. divided these books into a number of general categories. but that has sufficient balance not to cry anathema on all that is because part of it is bad. who has He may be a Lincoln who derives wisdom from a few books or a Roosevelt ranges from Icelandic sagas to "Penrod. each will be an exciting adventure in learning. Every one of them is eminently readable. If it is enough of it for every graduate hug to his bosom. is nothing. who Mursell. Below you will find a wide choice of books of just such a type. Mere reading. a background for opinion and a touchstone for judgment. to gain "a background for opinion and a touchstone for judgment"? The answer is a simple one: Read books in fields you have little or no acquaintance with. But wise reading is a help to action. writing of it in a current periodical. but who carry away from the university an abiding delight in books as the source of entertainment and invigoration and guidance. but reinforced by knowledge it becomes motive power. James L. I have." And learning is a process not to be concluded with the formal teaching of college days or to be enriched only by the active experience of later years. of course. American versatility is too frequently dilettantism. but whose versatility smacks nothing of superficiality. but to be broadened and deepened by persistent and judicious reading. books that will open for you new horizons of learning. those mistakes of the past which the present has thrown into focus. What kind of books should you read to continue your intellectual growth.

Mankind So Far. RECOMMENDED NONFICTION ANTHROPOLOGY 1. Yankee from Olympus. Ceram 6. Astronomy for Everyman. The Arts. nor all I have suggested enough titles to get you well started on a comprehensive. The Study of Man. by C. BIOGRAPHY AND AUTOBIOGRAPHY I. by Pierre La Mure (Toulouse-Lautrec) 18. nevertheless especially appealing.) The Peahody Sisters of Salem. by Albert Guerard 13. W. Glance through the list now. and Fossils. by Sheldon Cheney 11. Testimony of the Spade. and Scholars. ASTRONOMY 14. Philip MacMahon IV. ARCHAEOLOGY 5. Bowen The Legend 23. by Ruth Benedict 3. The Meaning of Art. Drinker 22. by William Howells H. interested. by Geoffrey Bibby 7. Captain Sam of Henry Ford. Art Through the Ages. Patterns of Culture. The Life of Mahatma Gandhi. edited by Frederick Pottle 20. Male and Female. by A. Gods. A World History of Art. by A. by Catherine Drinker Bowen (Oliver Wendell Holmes) 21. Graves. The Art of Enjoying Art. (The starred titles are autobiographical. Philip MacMahon 12. *BosweWs London Journal. by Ralph Linton 4. or can the important books in any particular category. by Irving Stone (Vincent Van Gogh) 17. by Catherine 15. by Helen Gardner 10. checking off the fields you think you may enjoy exploring and a few books in each category that sound gories in be. by Margaret Mead 2. long-range reading program. Lust for Life. by Lloyd Lewis 354 . Man. by Ruth Moore nx ART 8.which you may now become. John Adams and the American Revolution. Time. Moulin Rouge. by Keith Sward Grant. by Hendrik Willem Van Loon 9. edited by Martin Davidson V. by Louise Hall Tharp 16. Art for Art's Sake. by Louis Fischer 19.

Devils. by Edgar Johnson 34. by Fairfield Osborn Road to Survival. Straus Vm. Heilbroner 56. Teacher in America. and and Doctors. ECONOMICS 55. by Gilbert Highet 50. The Art of Teaching. Getting and Spending. by William Vogt The Limits of the Earth. The Worldly Philosophers. Spectorsky 53. Somerset Maugham * 29. Coon 355 45. *Midchannel. by Robert L. by C. * Star-Gazer. Microbe Hunters. The World of Fiction. Haggard History. etc. Book of Prefaces. by Jacques Barzun 54. Hunger Fighters. *An American Doctors Odyssey. by John Keats 51. Drugs. 46. Berrill 59. by Burton Crane XI. VI. by Hans Zinnser VO. The Crack in the Picture Window. Whyte 52. The Human Body. by N. J. CHEMISTRY 44. The Exurbanites. The Classical Tradition. by Leo Huberman 57. Our Plundered Planet. by Ludwig Lewisohn 32. L. . by Gilbert Highet 49. by Bellamy Partridge 30. *The Summing Up. The Cry and the Covenant. *A Child of the Century. by Paul de Kruif 36. * Black Boy. by ix. The Story of Man. by Fairfield Osborn Why Not Survive?. by Charles Wilson X. Rats. by Zsolt Harsanyi 28. *The Story of 38. by Michael W. Seeing Things. Country Lawyer. EVOLUTION 58. by Victor Heiser 31. by Axel Munthe 27. A Teacher Is a Person. by William S. Mencken by John Mason Brown 47. A by H. Man and the Chemical Elements. Man's Worldly Goods. 41. by Logan Clendening 25. J. Man's Emerging Mind. by Ben Hecht 33. by W. by Bernard De Voto 48. The Organization Man. by Paul de Kruif 37. 42.24. by Morton Thompson (Semelweiss) by John Gunther San Michele. S. by Carle ton S. CONSERVATION 40. by Howard W. Charles Dickens. Newton Friend criticism. 26. Lice. Roosevelt in Retrospect. 43. 39. by Richard Wright BIOLOGY AND MEDICAL SCIENCE 35.

65. by Claude G. by Frederick Lewis Allen 73. The Stream by Wallace Brockway and Herbert Weinstock by Richard Anthony Leonard 89. The Gift of Tongues. Fantastic Interim. Secret History of the American Revolution. by Rachel Carson 95. by Frederick Bodmer 83. The Tragic Era. Bowers 77. Three. by Ruth Moore 61. The Lure of Music. by Carl Van Doren LANGUAGE 78. GENETICS and the Races of Man. 72. HISTORY by Kenneth Ingram The Aspirin Age. by Deems Taylor 90. The Edge of the Sea. Men 88. Evenings with Music. by Denning Miller 86. The American Mind. Newman 64. The Loom of Language. by Frederick Lewis Allen 74. by James Truslow Adams 71. Eleanor of Aquitaine and the Four Kings. Since Yesterday. by Konrad Bercovici 75. by Irving Stone 76. L. Boyd The New You and Heredity. Years of Crisis. Infinity. by Syd Skolsky 93. What to Listen for in Music. Schlesinger. by Henry Morton Robinson 70. Music Comes to America. OCEANOGRAPHY 94. by Thomas Pyles 82. by David Ewen XVIH. The World of Mathematics. Music to My Ears. One. XTV. XV. edited by James R. The Crusades. The Great Illusion. xvn. Jr. Genetics 62. by Arthur M.60. by Henry Steele Commager 67. Mencken 81. by Aaron Copland 91. The Sea Around Us. by Margaret Schlauch 80. Popular Mathematics. The Story of Language. music 87. of Music. The Earth We Live On. by Mario Pei 79. by William C. They Also Ran. . The Meaning of Evolution. by Rachel Carson 356 of Music. Simpson xn. Epic of America. by Olin Downes 92. Two. by Amram Scheinfeld GEOLOGY 63. xni. by Herbert Asbury 68. by Amy Kelly 69. by H. by George Gamow 85. by George G. The American Language. by Charlton Laird MATHEMATICS 84. The Age of Jackson. Words and Ways of American English. The Miracle of Language. edited by Isabel Leighton 66. XVI. Only Yesterday.

Cohen 121. by Stuart Chase 357 127. A Guide to the Religions of America. Arthur Thomson 123. 100. Spurgeon English and 103. The Human Mind. SEMANTICS Language in Thought and Action. by A. The Nature of the Physical World. The Story of Philosophy. by Will Durant Unpopular Essays. XXI. 120. by C. edited by Leo C. Man Against Himself. Cleckley 110. by Waldemar Kaempffert 126. by Crane Brinton XX. by Stuart Chase 129. 98. by Sir J. Menninger 108. by George Gamow PSYCHOLOGY. 102. A Primer of XXH. The Three Faces of Eve. by Flanders Dunbar 114. by Lincoln Barnett The Birth and Death of the Sun. 101. by Karl A. XXIII. by the editors of Life SCIENCE A Treasury of Science. 97. Brill 113. 99. 104. 117. by O. Riddles of Science. Eddington 125. by Lancelot Hogben 124. by Bertrand Russell Speaking of Man. Science. H. Cleckley 111. by Harry A. Exploring Your Mind. by Clara Thomp- son and Patrick Mullahy by Albert Edward Wiggam by Lucy Freeman Freudian Psychology.XIX. edited by Harlow Shapley 122. AND PSYCHOANALYSIS 105. by Philip Eisenberg 106. by Robert Lindner 112. by Eric Berne 107. Servant of Man. by Bertrand Russell The Mature Mind. The Mind in Action. Explorations in Science. Menninger 109. by Abraham Myerson Man Against Myth. by Karl A. Fight Against Fears. Pearson 115. Hall 116. Overstreet History of Western Philosophy. Thigpen and Hervey M. Hayakawa 128. The Mask of Sanity. Mind and Body. The Fifty -Minute Hour. S. Emotional Problems of Living. . J. Rosten The World's Great Religions. by Sir Arthur S. RELIGION 119. A. XXIV. Why We Act as We Do. G. PHYSICS The Universe and Dr. by Hervey M. PHILOSOPHY 96. Einstein. by Bernard I. I. by S. Science for the Citizen. Psychoanalysis: Evolution and Development. by Corbett H. 118. by Barrows Dunham Ideas and Men. The Tyranny of Words. PSYCHIATRY. Lectures on Psychoanalytic Psychiatry. The Power of Words.

Any bookstore can determine for you whether the book you want is available for purchase. for a catalogue. these books will provide you with its equivalent. you will want to keep abreast of what's new in the world. Lynd 133. But do not completely restrict yourself either to the suggested categories or to the recommended individual titles. but if you spend the next year or two reading most of them you will be taking a long step forward in becoming an informed. People in Quandaries. and once you develop a broad range of interests you will want to keep up with the latest thinking and discoveries in many areas of life. Inc. if you are a college graduate. all in New York City.. 575 Madison Ave.130. this writing. by Gunnar Myrdal and others 134. though most of them are as of not be so when you read this. SOCIOLOGY and Helen M.. Middletoum.. if you have no bookstore in your town write to Doubleday Bookshops. Brentands. Fifth Avenue at 18th Street. Inc. The two periodicals that will be most helpful to you in this respect tion 358 .. by Robert S. those in print nue. and Helen M. Palo Alto. Whyte 131. An American Dilemma. 42nd Street and Park Ave- Not all of these books are in print. by Wendell Johnson XXV. But any well-stocked public library will have most of them. 586 Fifth Ave.. If you have not had a liberal college education. well-rounded reader. Street Corner Society. Barnes and Noble can often supply used copies of books that are no longer in print. many new and excellent books will be published in a wide variety of fields. and a surprisingly large number are in inexpensive paperback editions. If you live anywhere in or near New York City you will find an amazingly large collection of paperback books at Liggett 's Drug Store. 2233 El Camino Real. by Robert S. near 8th Street The list of valuable and stimulating books catalogued in this secmakes no pretense at completeness. 132. To determine whether a book is available in a paper-covered edition. Inc. 11 University Place. California. write to The Paper Editions Book Club. or Barnes and Noble. or at the National today Book may Stores. Lynd Middletown in Transition. by William F. Between the time this is written and the time you read it. they will continue and extend your education.

also. New York.are the Saturday Feview and The New York Times Book Review. S. Good Reading. and I should like. Inc. Forester Hold Autumn in Your Hand. Stribling Captain Horatio Hornhlower. by O. Taste in novels is a highly personal thing. 9. You want good novels in your plans mentioned will keep you informed on the best in current and recent fiction. of World at fifty cents. And Harpers. 2. The Book Find Club. The New Yorker. at $1. into the classics semiclassics of world literature. 6. write to Ave. S. by Norman Douglas The Store. or The Literary Guild. by Knut Hamsun Giants in the Earth. 4. by W. Rolvaag 359 Success. by Feodor Dostoevski South Wind. as complete a selection of these as you will find any- where. by C. published by The New American Library Literature. Any to neglect of the sources previously RECOMMENDED NOVELS 1. 501 Madison Ave. 7. In addition to keeping up with the present. by George Sessions Perry Hunger. Time. an indispensable guide to the best of both current and older is books. of course. such as The Book-of-the-Month Club. and Newsweek contain excellent book review sections. offer you expert guidance in selecting from among the best of current publications. including inexpensive paper-bound reprints. the Atlantic Monthly... 5. by Lion Feuchtwanger Of Human Bondage. for future reading. both of which can be obtained by mail. In its 284 pages you will find suggestions and recommendations for a whole in lifetime of reading. New York 22. and is available most stationery stores or direct from the publisher. 8. . to offer a number of recommendations of my own. 457 Madison York.65 each. For a catalogue. New Random House. by T. 3. Somerset Maugham Crime and Punishment.. but I think you will find most of the suggestions below exciting experiences you will be glad not to have missed. will not. you will want to dip occasionally into the vital writing of the past. The Modern Library and publishes. Book clubs too. New York 22. as well as great convenience in purchasing your books by mail. E.

by John P. You may perhaps wish to season your reading with an occasional mystery or detective story. Blood upon the Snow. 30. 24. 31. by James Jones The Postman Always Rings Twice. 16. 22. or 1984. by Jerome Weidman From Here to Eternity.. by Raymond Chandler 38. Marquand Home Before Dark. by James M. by Arthur Gordon 34. 29. by Maritta M. The Beloved Country. by Samuel A. by Margaret Mitchell Tales of the South Pacific. 26. 28. The following. are among the best of their type. 32. by Alan Paton Whistle Stop. Taylor 39. by Herman Wouk Mottke the Thief. Before the Fact. 41. Appointment m Samarra. or A Rage to Live. Reprisal. by John O'Hara I Can Get It For You Wholesale. by James Michener Mine Own Executioner. 19. Ptdham. by Gerald Kersh Butterfield 8. 27. 21. or The Glass Key. Small. Arrival 11. 25. 18. by Charles Jackson The Grapes of Wrath. Wolf The Lost Weekend. by Nigel Balchin Animal Farm. by Pearl Buck Top of the World. 12. by Meyer Levin The Caine Mutiny. 20. Esq. . 17. by George Orwell 35. by Betty Smith The Fountainhead. by Budd Schulberg Two Adolescents. by Ayn Rand Gone With the Wind. by Eric Ambler 36. by John Steinbeck The Good Earth. 33. 14. The Maltese Falcon 37. or The Thousand Deaths of Mr. 13. by Hans Ruesch Night and the City. by Hilda Lawrence 360 40. by Dashiell Hammett Lovely or Lady in the Lake. by Sholem Asch The Disenchanted.10. Verdict of Twelve. by Alberto Moravia Cry. 23. 15. Song of the Flea. Farewell My by Francis lies by Raymond Postgate 42. Background to Danger or Journey into Fear. I think. by Eileen Bassing Compulsion. by Arthur Koestler H. and Departure. Cain A Tree Grows in Brooklyn. The Man with My Face. or A Way Through the Woods.M.

and is far from intended to provide only a point of departure. When this happens. all. will vastly increase — ously. by Frank Gilbreth and Ernestine Gilbreth Carey The Egg and 1. after all. And to enjoy. are the reasons for reading novels moved. to experience vicarione is superbly enjoyable. but every many are deeply moving. and gobble up.Or. This list. or 43. 49. 50. by Rosemary Taylor Room for One More. Try any. 44. by Anna Perrott Rose Auntie Mame. to develop a mature understanding. a sample of the kind of pleasure and excitement is you can get from reading. by Betty MacDonald My Sister Eileen. necessarily. to be these. year. by Patrick Dennis Not all of the foregoing are "great" novels. you will find authors to whom you make such an immediate and strong attachment that you will search out. you may thoroughly enjoy humorous biographical or autobiographical novels. you will discover the type of book that can delight and stimulate you. everything they have written. by Louise Randall Pierson Cheaper by the Dozen. at least one book a week. quite a few your understanding of people. Soon you will learn to make your own choices among both novels and nonfiction. complete. and you will wonder how you ever survived on a slim diet of half a dozen or so books a year. MAKE A LONG-RANGE READING PROGRAM Now is make some definite plans for wide and conmany types of books as you can become inDecide on a minimum program of fifty books in the next the time to tinuous reading of as terested in. too. 48. finally. 47. a jumping-off place. like the previous list of nonfiction titles. and some of them will provide you with the richest kind of emotional experience. by George and Helen Papashvily Chicken Every Sunday. 46. you will have no problem making time for reading. by Ruth McKenney Anything Can Happen. you will . of these: Roughly Speaking. Once you have 361 started. 45.

that you can probably double or triple it without really trying. and get an over-all view of the subject matter of the book If you decide to start with a work of fiction. Vary your diet with occasional magazines of the more challenging types. your local bookstore. or. You have already checked off a number of nonfiction titles in fields that appeal to you. and exactly when you're going to get started. Make a date with one of the books on your list. keep reading complete at least one book a week. and make yourself a little list of the books you intend to read in the next few months. Get the books you want. indeed. With the training you have had. and keep your date keep it as faithfully as if you had purchased tickets to the theater or to a — concert. if you wish to start working on paper-covered reprints. as soon as you've finished whatever book you're working on. bear in mind that only a very long novel should require more than one or two evenings of continuous reading. I have found that most adults restrict their reading unnecessarily. If you have been laboring under the delusion that you aren't the type of person who can do much leisure reading. you are prepared to cover a comparatively short novel in a few hours if you push yourself a bit. or an inability to relate to. skim when you wish to. but. or they 362 — — . Read rapidly. let me disabuse you. skip chapters or parts that are repetitive or that do not interest you. Take your list to the public library. However you start. the wrong kind of temperament. If you decide to start with a book of laughably easy to reach. what holds them back is that they don't know what to read. And. as a matter of fact. Then decide which of the books you're going to start your reading program with. into your home and onto your living room or bedside table. any stationery or drug store. and do get to. or enjoy. They claim a lack of time. preferably two or three. now pick some titles from among the recommended novels. page 339. that this goal You will be surprised what psychological motivation there is in having physical possession of the books you plan to read. books. follow the procedure outlined in the Fourth Challenge to Your Reading Habits. to avoid losing momentum. always have a few unread books around the house books you plan to get to. or reasonable substitutes for them.

even ten. The and more satisfyingly than perhaps success of your own any other activity. expose each number for a fraction of a second. 920315 938201 <— 363 832203 +- . the pleasure and stimulation you derive will provide all the motivation you'll need. future reading program will depend on your discovering. and keep to it. more easily. at a rate of no less than one a week. self. on going out and getting those books. <- 732957 113382 <- 820331 827013 t_ 820178 920311 «-_ 130495 730293 <-. either from the list I have provided or from any of the other sources I have indicated. Once you get started.haven't yet discovered the kind of reading they can thoroughly enthey just don't keep enough good books at hand to get into joy. Reproduce each number check your 738203 Do not say the digits to your- in the blank to the right and then result. what kind of book you personally will find enjoyable and rewarding. If effect. getting a visual impression. or the habit of spending their leisure time in the pleasant and stimulat- ing relaxation that continuous reading provides more cheaply. • SESSION 28 PERCEPTION TRAINING XI Perception Exercise 48 Using the Flashmeter card. and on actually reading them. you will find that the you put this plan into amount and range of your reading over the next twelve months may well dwarf your accomplishments of the last five. years. starting either immediately or as soon as you can after you finish your training with this book.

882013 4— 003911 ^_ 473627 <— 938273 *— 938001 <^- 627397 4— 003110 *— 736229 *— 135468 *— 829031 4— 837465 *— 213574 *— 829304 4— 746583 *— 921687 *-« 930211 4— 029384 <— 985621 *— 452793 *— 928374 <— 632183 *— 327392 <— 726354 *— 329857 <— 382991 *— 049586 *— 937168 <— 335283 *- 029374 4— 671954 4— 350294 <— 968702 *— 534126 726389 <— 143762 <— 875262 736220 *— 726253 <— NUMBER CORRECT OUT *— OF Perception Exercise 4 9 Continue as before. 369134 <- 518932 126947 965248 826913 319637 <=— 843561 4— 359472 4— 649619 *— 427396 4— 169468 *— 824193 *— 914284 4— 695631 *- 425695 <— 635129 563192 4— 365967 364 .

Penna. but is if reading to serve a purpose . by J.129378 4— 332013 201138 927384 <— 823402 293312 941027 *— 231112 302116 413920 *— 820163 293113 800213 203382 *— *— 476592 046281 <r- 702911 203319 030920 *— 837201 233190 490193 028375 839221 382913 909293 266372 382938 360182 627655 <— 742093 <— 203188 CT OUT OF 50: Perception Exercise 50 Sweep down each column. of course. as fast as It is a truism to state that if to reading is be productive. 365 with the type and purpose. that reading must be critical. and be more aware of the ideas than of inner speech. University of Delaware. Reprinted by permission. Conrad Seegers. President of Muhlenberg College. The degree to which must be it critical varies. making only one Go fixation to the line adequate comprehension permits. The material below is extracted from an address delivered at the Thirty-Fourth Annual Education Conference. Allentown.

he has consulted of that expression. Books are written list. But and the typical o of "musts" would rank this textbook approach. critical reading. make people conflicting views • the In college. or whose name . particularly begins only after varying motives. Especially are they prone to accept what has been written by a writer who occupies an important position. understand whether he presents with varying purposes in high school. we sources of information that mastery of mechanics and consequently and the elementary school. One difficulty all subject. has been achieved. the sheer mechanics my in to accept something simply because it has been written. which by no means ends with We critical reading.Some books the reader must react what he to are written purely for transmitting reads. not by accident qualifications reading for understanding. it is that should ask the author has. In other words we if should ask the writer has a right to say what he I said. and that reaction is part and parcel of what we call That In reading such a book we what of reading is not enough. We we may not believe that we read. bearing upon the in should whether which may which evidence for statements which he makes. should investigate complete reading in heads it the extent to which he has recognized the most complete sense first. the elementary school. That in itself a major problem. Mastery of is is list in critical reading information. believe 366 teachers is the fact that people exist should ask all have met are too prone in that field.

against other statements by a printed statement to able do these things requires reading of a high order. for the purpose. statement different authors. propaganda. But we can start with that persuasiveness. and the one's the understanding that 367 ability to own use experience in appraising what he has read. Hester. skill . may be important. could be taught to read and less likely should attempt to achieve. pub- to Read. same book.some weight carries Perhaps if pupils to Of course. it may not be relevant a statement of fact and a statement of opinion. The following material is extracted from Teaching Every Child by Kathleen B. the difference between although a statement is a true statement. Perception Exercise 51 Continue as before. Reprinted with permission. Critical reading the ability to check includes the validity of a ability to determine the relevancy of material to a given topic. To be of checking statement in the not always the competence of the the ability to detect the understanding that. Copyright 1955 by Harper and Brothers. the ability to check author. to evidence for reading alone with more attention we would be critical succumb to specious argument. lishers. Professor of Education at Michigan State Normal College. depends upon more and substantiation than the written word its will not supply of the results all we in these days. the ability to detect a bias of the author. the ability to use the ability to check the copyright date the validity of a as a means the validity of the against other statements material.

Reading course. surprised Phrases flash by. but the Sims do lead However. published by The Julian Press. He There word without a nagging they will not be able to recall much stimulus. The reader who reads are used in they have missed "word-by-word" the Improvement-of- nothing. go back without conscious and make sure by which phrases are flashed 368 awareness in sequence on a morie sereeo. by Beulah Kanter Ephron. until they to retain be evaluated Perception Exercise 52 Continue as before. The students groam it has been absorbed. . when they the students feeling to make on are tested their retention that something an important of the article. most of never to return. It is chiefly to look that they are capable because of the long and thoroughly of observing word-by-word reading that the Harvard Films* * no magic in a mechanical cannot omit a single is A tachistoscopic device at every to a great deal word. Inc. The following material is extracted from Emotional Difficulties in Reading. to discover that and he retraces his steps to pick up the missing word. They have not had time They learn. Reprinted with permission. time and value to every word. important observation they are pleasantly has been missed. about themselves. and they are certain gives equal stress. therefore.It requires the ability the ideas read through further reading can and through experience. of the material.

000 text the producers of fixed. it's souls. That become the to it most should stake in a television parlor is sure they are not. to the material Tliey learn that is sufficient. and that lingering re-reading unnecessary. The following material is from a television column by Harriet Van Home which appeared in the March 13. But the pro- ducers of these Roman have con- circuses fessed that they are it's their trolled. is Perception Exercise 53 We turn again. down each column Fixating at the broad arrow. a says the Bible. Ratings have declined "Be not greedy to add money to money.staggering a It's of money of us. am do their ducers of the 864." $256. should be ad- 000. as far as pos- only one fixation to the line.000. making. I immortal I to profit of mean shows are mean pursue And The sum faintly corrupt. the preacher. speed as you can without sible. 1957 issue of the New oiid-Telegram and The Sun. the first I beg packaging com- Why word mind did the pro- that is comes to desperation. game not only vulgar.of the act a quick exposure of observation. saith to suddenly Question quadruple the grand prize? Well.000 QUIZ NOW by Harriet INF1ATED Van Home $256.000 Question had been inflated to $256." in recent months.000 I I may be out of step with the good. golden times sense but I something unhealthy in an- night's last nouncement that the $64. on on . now. ministered by a trust. loss of as rapidly comprehension. not controlled by a TV might grams with — word "con- submit. I don't to say that the profit. Reprinted with permission. sum reasonably all give-away 369 It's pro- And look at the size of the winner's that jackpot other show that other network. Copyright 1957 by the New York York World-Telegram and The Sun. to exercises in training your peripheral vi- sion. W $64. pany.

they are achievement of or there lawsuits. came show. with- out in the streets. unsorted lo! philan- called who shows are primarily drunk with the quiz come and get the bulldozer or the nice brown horse that was kicking thropist surely be their greed. $64. an old craze bus. If will is their povthen the destruction of the greedy will . • SESSION VOCABULARY STUDY Words 1. In- their prizes for freak- there was evitably.I the I brings to It all mad last mind railway station. Contestants who'd hoped for a machine washing were stunned to receive an abandoned were like junk shops. bucolic 5. fantasy of quick. The giant jackpot radio show vanished for the same also reason the vanished. for VIII Today ambiguous autonomous 3. that killed radio. People too big. 2. persons in —and besiege sands of odd. set in. as a rule. fertilizer. I suppose a goodly segment of the country will leave off delving and spinning for the memorizing of vicious to en- fact books. contentious 6. creative you won everything catalog. wisdom dure. crieth . fractious 370 29 . had to not mention to lifetime supplies of cement. memory. "Yankee Doodle" and be at home calling the and the when Bert Army to please some other frain of Parks or Boy Scouts Salvation the Sears-Roebuck the porch stayed prizes the outset within reasonable. dinosaur And he van- ished because he was too They may have heads Most of them are awarded in. Television the destruction of the poor be teeming with people who know everything while erty. gave away its Madness announcer. or Anguished housewives began hairpins. in a fit of whimsy. the or Then the day when an innocent contestant won an old war surAnother plus B-29. That was the supercolossal You merely know the re- giveway. At the riches. easy not. feats of ish And now prizes the that have gotten completely out of hand. boredom and distaste. and too stupid talent. . crammed with thou- But facts. Inevitably. dormant 4.000 limit.

false mercurial temper is often fickle and changeable. especially e— figuratively senseless — moved. polyglot 7. then take the following test. 10—d. Check true inactive. 3— 4— 5— 6—c. 8—b. false. Write the letter of the proper definition before the number of each word in column 1. occult 12. 3. 2. supercilious secret. true. mean- pronunciation. 1—a. false happy and well-behaved. risible 15. Test Your Learning I. impassive g—not h— self-governing. 2 j. prolific 8. 4 — 371 — true. 7— e. 9—g. true. 1. supercilious 9. 5 false. WORDS ambiguous autonomous dormant 4. independent —mysterious. known only to the — asleep a in fertile. false true. inane 10.7. Contentious people rarely argue. and writing a brief illustrative phrase or sentence for each word. and usage in your notebook. stolid unctuous the usual dictionary study on those words that are not com- pletely familiar to you. II. risible 9. related forms. Review your notes. derivation. 3 i. mercurial 11. f silly. prolific 14. occult 6. inane 1. — false. —able to be understood two or more ways b— laughable. A 2. Fractious children are 4. A person 5. i initiated j II. . true. Unctuous people are generally brutally frank. contemptuous producing much. 3. shepherd's of life can properly be called bucolic. stolid DEFINITIONS 2. FALSE false Key: I. as if or false for each of the following statements. polyglot 8. 1 — — true. 1. recording the essential information on ing. 5. Do 13. inclined to laugh c—speaking many languages d— haughty. 2—h. TRUE. easily 10. f.

More Vv 7 Today ords for 12. dexterity 5. lechery 14. 1 — true. f. skill in lust . pronunciation. true. affluence 6. liefs. 10—e. active indulgence c—mental composure. —manual or mental of a high order b—lewdness. . Propinquity refers to great distances. 2. 8—d. 8. i class j Check true II. Test Your Learning I. WORDS affluence 2. A 2. sagacity 1. tradition. i. notebook. TRUE. . diffidence mendacity 15. 1. or false for each of the following statements. . the usual dictionary study on those words that are not com- on meanand usage in your pletely familiar to you. . f ill mendacity . false false true. 11. derivation. and writing a brief illustrative phrase or sentence for each word. etc.10. sometimes a product of age and education. 3 — false. 9—b. equanimity hypochondria iconoclasm 4. retribution 5. 5— 6—c. Persons to whose names obloquy nuance a fine or subtle shade of meaning. . — 2 false. 1— 2— 3—h. recording the essential information ing. 7—g. then take the following test. nuance obloquy 13. Review your notes. 1. 1. Write the letter of the proper definition before the number of each word in column 1. 4—a. 9. II. j. false 4. propinquity 3. DEFINITIONS 2. . . calmness of mind or temper d— contempt for cherished bee—untruthfulness —great wealth health g—delusions of h—excessive or blatant patriotism —lack of self-confidence. chauvinism 4. 4 — 372 — true. argot 3. related forms. . is is true. 3. diffidence 6. false Key: I. chauvinism 8. dexterity 9. 5 true. lechery 7. argot 7. timidity —special language of a group or a equanimity hypochondria iconoclasm . Do 10. One who 5. true. Sagacity wronged often seeks is is retribution. false attached are generally well respected.

• Continue to aim for a quick and accurate grasp of main ideas by responding aggressively to the structure of writing. as the course comes to a close.CHAPTER 12 FINAL TRAINING IN RAPID COMPREHENSION Preview In this chapter. you: • Tackle a final round of three long and fairly complex timed selections. and that you can go on by yourself making still further gains. 373 . Evaluate your total progress to date by making a fourth chart and graph of your present reading speed. for learning to read is a continuous. • Chapter 12 reminds you. neverending process. that this need not be the end of your training.

and the character of the material make this approach desirable and useful. Ready for your final test? print. if your training has been at all successful. observe all the rules that have constantly been emphasized and re-emphasized throughout your training: push yourself a bit so that you have a feeling of comprehending rapidly. but of course not in your outside reading ) to measure the speed of your performance. In short. During this time you have gradually increased your speed of comprehension. In reading the long and fairly difficult selections in this chapter. your understanding. you have developed greater competence in attacking a page of you have begun to form habits of cruising through material with sharper awareness not only of total meaning but also of the pattern in which this meaning is presented. sense the broad outlines of structure. Now you will have your last chance (in this book.* SESSION 30 FINAL PRACTICE TESTS IN FASTER READING You are now coming tice in the to the end of weeks or months of hard prac- techniques of rapid and efficient reading. and keep a record of your statistics on the new chart and graph on page 395. find and follow the main ideas without losing time on unimportant details. Time your reading of each piece. you have become a better and much faster reader than you were when you started your work. and skim or skip without guilt if your mood. 374 .

which next difference with physical persuasion. flatly. . Distributors contend this picture. politicians. the first erwood's noth- is idea different from his and "Berlin tried to settle that it won the New award argument by compulsion has been line-for-line human familiar wielded club The activity. From man had an neighbor's. and all sorts in special of censorial pleaders. and others. Zunser 375 is in and outside the frame- the motion picture editor of Cue. a Stories. ex-patriate-filled Paris of eous wrath and roared "Scandal- the 1920's. dis- place In in right- illusioned.Selection 20 YOU CANT SAY THAT! by Jesse Zunser John van Druten's play "I Am a Camera. that served so well for ous!" at an innocuous little fourminute film clip that pictured a gentleman imprinting a prim little gerald. Latest inciter. finally: "You un- as can't the artists. state. Scott FitzDos Passos. The movie's tors producers." dealing unfolds the frenetic story of it say that!" Sally Bowles. have clashed with the Association's Motion Picture Production Code on the propriety and acceptability of II incessant urge to compel cinematic conformity is the movie From Cue." week at the Little Carnegie. stories by Hemingway. Mrs. John kiss upon a years later kissing lady's cheek. With Julie Harris starred. and in uninhibited treatment of sex and among scissors are separated in history only "life by with unwed pregnancy and abortion Both equivocally and time. Reprinted by and with the Catholic Legion of Decency which is certain to condemn it. 1896 clergymen reared up Berlin in 1931. opens time a cave Critics Circle is an almost reproduction of the a candid." based on Christopher IshStart timing-* Censorship ing new. or victim. sophisticated and play: and the censoring York 1952. a British girl living Almost from the day movies first have been an easy target for do-gooders. Distribu- Corporation of America. Mr. of man's made from — that sex permission. propagandists. Grundys. clergymen. amoral behavior flickered across the screen they pictured is against and turmoil Her rather discussed and the background of the Nazi-dominated — German capital in a time and much like the distraught. Fifty-nine it's still going on —the and the wrath.

and a part of is boarding-school teacher from saying." And al- though New York passed a scene where a man carries a girl into a bedroom. indicating that the woman had been in bed shortly before. it balked when he shut the door. "When asking Distributors will they grow up?" —and others— feel that movies will never grow up until they face the facts of life and recognize that no area of is human cinematic dramatization. and this is simply not so." Elizabeth views of censors I title for their drama about Queen of England. Nobody. night "My at bed every girls are in nine o'clock. ever sleeps in them. they believe. indecent and obscene to woman- — hood as well as all right-thinking men. U. opposition to the film has developed to the use in of words like "virgin. people years is threatened to clip which discussion. first quite simply. And Warner Bros." These are no new it bogeys in the movies. edge of at the the movies must reach it if it." It was "too suggestive. why hast Thou forsaken me!" She explained that this "implied God would forsake any one. in "Apartment for Peggy. New York censors also cut a view of an indented pillow "showing hairpins on it. ever to of Aside from the amoral behavior its heroine Sally. "bastard" too a legitimate subject for dramatic adult and convenlife. purports to picture For In the movie lexicon. The word "pregnancy" has been verboten in films for years. passed this theatre is Books point years ago. as though it were a dirty word." "chaste" and "pregnant." They completed the job by cutting "all sounds of a yawn. by beds. Pennsylvania "I'm it pregnant." And one producer had to "cut out all full-length pregnant women. Maryland's lady censor deleted Joan of Arc's anguished cry at the stake." Sometimes the omniscient censors presume to speak for God." The lady forgot these were Jesus' words. "O Lord. In Ohio they stopped a Censors are shocked and they are of our behavior tion patterns as such is — have com- plained that movies are infantile." until they were persuaded that it was a fact rather than fiction. The time I can recall hearing it spoken in a movie was in 1948. Compulsory censorship is the favorite last word of politicians. too." when Jeanne Crain told her husband. the become a mature and significant art and communication medium. from Shakespeare's (and Laurence Olivier's) "Henry V. more recently had a hard time winning permission to use "The life. it Virgin Queen" as a forthcoming activity outside the province of intelligent a dirty word." In was a long-time Censor Board rule that "women informing men about pregnancies are out because it is offensive. As recently as 1934 Tammany Hall tried to pass legislation forbidding movies "that tend to undermine confidence in officials and their conduct in of- 376 .

are ex- tremely shy. It come to a point tuality. Chicago's policeman censor systematically eliminated all — "The teletype flashed: were seen in Kansas City. At Legion insistence after the film's release." And Jersey City Kansas banned a movie in which a not as a Cardinal.The reference to gangsters ever com- Things to Come" because God was not mentioned in it. Church groups rooted in the belief that it would condemned H. Catholic pressure banned "Martin Luther" in most of Canada and many other countries. revise Spain's church-dominated censor banned "Gentleman's Agreement" because "It a Christian And is is poison [to say that] not superior to a Jew. who The opposition to censorship is was not a Jew). They risk the loss not only of patronage of millions of Catholics who have taken the Legion pledge." officials. Wells' "Shape of be a dangerous opening wedge for 377 tion of . of course. Most big movie companies have contracts with producers guaranteeing that film product delivered will receive at least a Legion "B" rating. "I'd like to Goldwyn remake a movie of 'Beverly of Graustark' if I could only be sure some mythical king- dom wouldn't Many have has even complain!" Samuel that It censoring the unseen tried to get into the are as good as got so hard to please every- marked. vilian politician. patriotic." In this ing from there (including a movie film the wily Richelieu about mobster Al Capone). political. lieves he specially qualified to is — and edit movies not only for himself and his group. advise. Jersey City cut a film in which a plane pilot remarked. 20th Century-Fox inserted a fast flash showing a photo of Miss Monroe clad in a proper bathing suit. Thus the censors reached beyond the picture and censored the audi- bills the originals/' body was pictured — is) for personal. pride- Producers and exhibitors frankly propagandis- fear to run counter to Legion de- ts. Some municipalities. but also "punishment" in the form of picketing and/or boy- censoring act ful. is where now an In "Seven Year Itch" ac- Tom Ewell peeks into a photographic magazine and sees (what the audi- ence. too. Almost everybody be- cal reasons. social. moral. prince of the Church. G. to be the judges." Jewish organizations tried to ban "Oliver Twist" because the villainous Fa gin was a Jew (no men- cott of their theatres for periods of from one week to a year. Ill murderer Bill Sykes." last criminals One public-spirited scissorman clipped a sequence in which a counterfeiter "My boasted. but as an unscrupulous ci- fice. but for the public as well. "We're approaching I can smell it. racial or theologi- mands. and tinkered with history in "The Three Musketeers. ence never sees but is led to believe a nude photo of Marilyn Monroe.

. RECORD HERE THE TIME REQUIRED but is far healthier. not only restrictive and therefore. 15 sec. 20 sec. Movies new is will never — just it existed in the time of the cave man... 15 sec. and unnecessary.P. unhealthy. dangerous. Producers believe present that laws are adequate to punish ob- And scenity in motion pictures.. 30 sec. min. min. 45 sec. they believe. 348 min. that than a psychiatrist can ever get off a couch.M. The censorial the destruction of that it political too is and ideas. min. —but unnecessary. to the movies. mosphere dangerous is Anti-censors feel that an "adult" approach arts. min.. 4. one symptom of a desire to force others and attitudes. is own accord. the taste and decency of the public. 10 sec.P.. Film censorship is absurd. Compute Your Rate (Approximate number TIME 2 2 2 2 2 min. 45 sec. 30 sec. And step from short a clerical censorship to regimentation of independent all thinking into a fixed pattern of conformity. of words: 1475) TIME W. min. seriously under-estimates the intelligence. evils Test Your Comprehension Which one of the following statements best summarizes the total and final meaning of this selection? 1. min. Producers and exhibitors fear the power of censorship groups. pre-censorship if its That freedom of freedom. . is Progress flourishes only in an at- is. min..M. 738 684 656 633 590 536 3 3 3 3 4 4 378 W. own best guardian against <—End timing license. as to other not only more intelligent.. would soon die of their by its very nature. grow up until producers are willing to accept the idea that no area of human activity is outside the province of cinematic dramatization. 2 min. Censorship and is not film censorship to accept one's ideas 3. As to dirt the feeling — that such pictures. 492 456 422 392 min. unheralded and unadvertised by the censoring opposition. SEC. 2. 15 sec. min. and that a continued and conspiratorial policy of "hush-hush" leads more to ON THIS SELECTION: MIN.

P. according to Mr. (Statement 1 on the comprehension test is the correct choice. 45 sec. 15 sec. the smiling fellow in the office who "forgot" to pay back the loan he had promised so faithfully to do watch out for them! as — Mirror. that ahead From rude of you the New Yonk man who shoved to grab the subway seat. 30 5 min. specific expressed in the of the largest part. 379 . and unnecessary. in tone. last five all is taken up with de- contributing to the conclusions that are paragraphs.. TIME W. regimentation of thinking.. 328 312 295 5 min. 45 sec.. absurd. Copyright 1956. 30 sec.) Selection 21 BEWARE THE PSYCHOS by Fred Dickenson That pretty girl who you the wrong pack of Start timing-* just sold cigarets.TIME W." stifling of progress. unhealthy. 5 min. Zunser. I: new and is noth- which. Section III: Conclusions: the opposition to censorship is based on danger of destruction of new ideas. Inc. King Features Syndicate. reprinted with permission.P. 4 min. sets the stage for both the coming ex- amples and the conclusions. and tailed. containing examples of successful and unsuccessful attempts at motion picture censorship. paragraphs. 280 268 256 sec. etc.M.. evils resulting from ''hushhush. film censorship is In short.M.. and foreshadowed by the tone two. the tone and style clearly showing the author's position and feeling. dangerous. of this article examples. 4 min. Section ing which points out that censorship Introduction. 5 min.P.) (Record this statistic Discussion of the Selection The body.M. YOUR RATE ON SELECTION 20: W. first Let's look at the material together. present laws against obscenity sufficient. introductory. Section II: Body of the article. on the chart and graph on page 395.

10. sit beside you in the gay glitter of the theatre and in the calm sanctity of the church.D. and Lloyd W. They're at the wheel of the car bearing down on you. 4. often seems rather bright. several of the warning signs you. they pack a double peril. Shallow. 11. form the characteryou to that a person is a points which can alert the possibility psychopath. effect weird cos- tumes or think they are Napoleon. Lack of feeling for the rights 9. —you can't de- pend on him. Drs. Lack of realization that there something wrong with him. M. always somebody else's fault. Are they insane? Not in a legal sense. Because to the casual eye they can appear as normal as the sturdiest. Antisocial behavior. Matthews and Rowland 5. When their unstable world collapses.2. he has done something wrong. Poor judgment and failure to learn from experience. 8. Since the disorder shows up in 8. Louisiana State University Rowland. They are: the surface on 1. grief and even death await the unwary who are drawn too deeplv into their erratic orbit." To guide National officers in this Association work. They're psychopathic personali- and they're as dangerous as a package of dynamite with fuse attached and ready to go. 7. may bv a trained observer. who become involved unwittingly of others. "The Mask of Sanity.. Crediting Hervey Cleckly's book. 6. the Louisiana director Association for of Mental Health. 5. Matthews. into bizarre song.. 7. Untruthfulness ity. 3. sort of nervousness of the commonly seen in a neurotic patient. charm. signals. disgrace.D. head of the Department of Psychiatry and NeuSchool of Medicine. Nor do they exhibit any of the common symptoms we have ties come to associate with "crazy" peoThey do not babble or burst ple. Unreliability 4." as their source. after rology. The for Mental Health has issued a manual called "How to Recognize and Handle Abnormal People. terms of how personally. They walk the streets by the millions. in a person in modified istic daily with psychopathic personalities. is Their tips also form a valuable 380 12. Scandal. Police officers one or degrees. down with them reach. It is Callousness and lack of abil- . Ph. Lack of any feeling of shame. Lack of symptoms one would observe in a person who is mentally ilL Lack 3." by Robert A. 2. has — and only thinks things insincer- affect no capacity in him to really love another person. Selfishness 6. they pull anyone witiiin guide for the average person may with a psychopathic personality unless he can spot and interpret flying danger It can be many forms and be seen come into contact list who are born "trouble makers.

It almost seems that he feels a need to be punished because he lacks a conone another. does not 17. Threats when of suicide in superficial. Matthews and Rowland. the doctors say. What makes a psychopath them and not against them seems these persons whom an English to aid about half of the patients. Failure to follow a life plan. a new personality. science that will punish him. The psychopath (unlike the held responsible by society for his behavior and is punished for his misdemeanors and is He feels some wrong seize his so regardless of consequences. ity to 13. and the cycle proceeds relentlessly until a delinquent or a criminal is created. 12. to provide a pattern for harmoniously or team with others. Sometimes the psychopath does well in a wartime army way be- where there were no sturdy parents category. state that the psychiatric concensus out. they can hardly have much they add." 16. 9. Feeling insecure. Invariably. wanted them all sorts and the of lives of others. often is easy to see with such character vagrants and try lives persons periences. "Sometimes they come from wealthy homes which are long on comfort but short on love. and with medical help the patients try to understand "therapeutic act immediately upon from custody. find a most persons with that how and they may eventually 10. Pun- ishment usually follows. is traits schemes to make money. in a for various character disorders are be- ing treated in what is called a community. 11. —seldom earned Sex — life physician long ago called "moral imbeciles" because they are often with drink trouble 15. impulses. The feeling that people are for 13. this or faith in their future. drift into "Many drug addicts are psycho- paths and a large proportion of our The psychopathic but wrong. "It 14. promiscuous. "They do foolhardy things that endanger their own today character defects get that 16. Foolish behavior or even without 14. even hated as a child." 18. and does pital today. Since punishment seem to help. Matthews and Rowland intelligent right or it." say Drs. but have no sense of wrong? Drs. unwanted. truly insane) nobody 15. angry at the world and gets even by doing things which are punishment does no good but makes the person worse. or loved them. 381 release ." "As came from broken homes criminal population belongs in this is a troublemaker in a peacetime military unit when he cannot way cause of unfortunate childhood ex- become crime. "He makes solemn promises to turn over a Many homes is crimes. can anything else be them? In a London hoshundred persons with done leaf only to repeat he must pleasure at the moment. to get rid of his hostile children." A sincere attempt fs made to understand the psychopath.

are constantly venge all The chance in 1934 it was one in 20. murder? dwarf the 750.000 persons now under the care of mental hospitals in this number to the point of numbers Of the country. Meanwhile. can begin.000 or 3 percent goes toward conquering the more than 100 different kinds of mental deliberate mischief.000. In the presence of a fullblown character disorder. doctor. start unfounded and malicious gossip. in- recognizable forms of mental illness volutional melancholia. Of the $180. rela- few come from the ranks of doctors say. his 382 RECORD HERE THE TIME REQUIRED ON THIS SELECTION: MIN. with the vast getting injured. however. Giv- ing children genuine love to pre- new vent creation of cases the is duty and responsibility of every parent. the 22. The fact that medical science public untold millions for the up- cannot yet straighten the character kinks of so many psychopathic per- various other institutions. heart disease and diseases combined. schizophrenia. 20. Why the treatment chopathic personality merely goes way does not work with the other 50 percent is still a mystery.000 spent each whereas psychopathic per- and your being hospitalized for a severe mental illness today is one in 10. only about $6. tively etc. 24. say officials of the Mental Health Association. jails. Thus. toll and costing the 23. get the afflicted person to see a sonalities are there? taking a frightful in blighted lives. Then. But all too often.000. a judge will rec- sonalities ommend best the average citizen can do psychiatric habitual thief and cross the bridge care for an a person will be on is guard among them. or take physical re- grapple. ^-End timing between the two A drug addict may wind up in a hospital and do the same thing. manic depression. They must wait more recognized mental disorders such as 26. of psychopathic personaliabout us who are not being treated and for whose problem virtually no research is being carties ried on. How many reformatories The enormity of the problem can be highlighted by the fact that already there are more people hospitalized in this country for recognized mental illness than for polio. the psygroups. the 21. Occasionally. are brought under control. until the the truly Herculean task of salvaging psychopathic per- the psychopathic personality.. repeatedly walk out on jobs. community must still somehow. SEC. 19. the layman's wisest course to protect himself and society is to try to his weird keep of cancer. skip out on debts. wreak disorders.doctors report. sonalities layman is added warning to the to avoid their clutches. suffering latter. . of — 25. How many peo- ple steal. Their other year on all medical research.

and is fully developed and often repeated throughout the selection.. 30 TIME W. min. 3 min. 383 is — .. 5 min.. 2. Dickenson follows in developing his central theme. 40 sec. sec. 405 380 360 340 320 305 275 255 235 220 W. final of the following statements best meaning summarizes the total of this selection? Psychopathic personalities are not insane. 45 sec. 6 min. 4. 5 min.Test Your Comprehension Which one and 1. min.P.P. min.P... 20 sec. Let us examine together the pattern Mr. min.. and unusu- ally calm. 30 sec 7 min. Paragraphs 1-2: Expression of central theme. 30 sec 6 min. 45 sec. 3 min.. 15 sec. 30 sec. min. 45 sec 4 4 4 4 min. Psychopathic personalities are charming. Be on guard against psychopathic personalities —they are dan- gerous. Paragraphs 3-5: Explanation of the danger. 3 min. This point mentioned in the title. is expressed clearly in paragraphs 1 and 2. Paragraphs 6-12: Description of the psychopathic personality. 15 sec. Dickenson is saying one main thing to his readers.. 3. Punishment does not cure the psychopathic personality. YOUR RATE ON SELECTION 21: on the chart and graph on page 395. Compute Your Rate {Approximate number TIME 2 2 2 2 min..) this statistic Discussion of the Selection Mr.M. 30 sec. min. 2 min. He is saying.M.. in brief: Watch out for psychopathic personalities they're dangerous. 15 of words: 1520) sec.. intelligent. 3 min. 2 min. in the legal sense of the word... (Record 760 700 675 660 610 570 550 505 470 435 W. 10 sec.M.. 2 min.

Then he goes on. and is virtually no research on their illness. N. Y. This is the danger they present 2. 3. 3." estimates that in about 80% of accidents. 5. Mt. and defects in cars condi- do cause Reports. So be on your guard! Correct choice on the comprehension test is statement 2. he says.. The National Safety Council. there Their numbers are vast. published by Consumers Union. for psychopathic personalities they're dangerous. the important single factor is most the driver himself. Mr. while pointing out that most accidents result from a combination of From Consumer HAPPEN? and that "few accidents are carefully enough to determine exactly what their undercauses. point by point: 1. Bad weather. Paragraphs 17-19: Treatment and prevention of the psychopathic show people are not against him (works for 50 per — personality cent of those treated ) give love to children. etc. Vernon. investigated lying causes were. we will have to learn far more than we now know about why such accidents happen. get the afflicted person . Paragraphs 20-26: Further description of the psychopathic perconality. statistics as to his prevalence. This is 4. most of them are not treated. 2. — idea. supporting the author's theme that the best thing we can do at present is be on our guard against him. to see a doctor. but treatment is effective in only half the cases. Reprinted with permission. Dickenson uses every detail in his piece to bolster his main Watch out. poor road tions. Selection 22 WHY DO ACCIDENTS Start timing-* Before we can de- velop a really effective program to prevent auto accidents. This is how to recognize them. to treat them. This is what causes how their affliction. 384 .Paragraphs 13-16: Causes of the psychopathic personality (lack hence angry at the world ) of love in childhood.

he is caution. Press. that no when and considerate Even though we may be periods. why do is people drive too drive after drinking. or longer finding answers to this McFarland and trouble with the im- or unfriendly acts they get behind the wheel? 5. take risks in passing. discovered such we circumstances favor an accident emotional so- otherwise be driving during one of and if external episodes then an accident of or balance. hensively described by Dr. 4. "If his personal marked by life then sight. question. of faulty judgments and attitudes. puts it: "Just as almost all of us will respond with a neurosis or other nervous disorder 385 . in general. tolerance. generally but. Tillman in cle Psychiatry. disregard- companions/' ing stop lights or signs. The pertinent this statement ing is. careless. Further study of personality and emotions in relation to driving probably would contribute much to the understanding and ibility. these Ross associates at to off traits as impulsiveness. if not most. his is there are certain moments. according to the Safety Council. in the lives of been pulsive. driving while under aggressiveness. fore- will drive in the same way. may prove it enough provocative and controls of safeguards. when we become has characteristics part of human exemplary persons most of the time. search other terms in sounder 6. this research wayward suggests. accidents. As Dr. such circumstances ap- speaking. pulsive. or. are the result of impulses and motivations. emotional suggest- hap- — 8. made toward will is likely to oc- of the cur. Edward University of Illinois. question fast. and over a long commit illegal. If Harvard's School of Public Health have probed the personality and accident-prone drivers and of us all temporarily im- aggressive. he will have a higher the influence of alcohol. or other- 7. pear to be of minor significance compared with the mental and condition physical And the of driver. of Although fault may be found with the quality of this reauthority. emotionally pen instability. recent research indicates that the driver's physical condition less and is of importance than his personality his emotional state. excitability. be- foresighted. wise violating the law. "A man he lives. Several studies compre- called first at all times. then his his personal life is be characterized by prevention of accidents. considerations for others." say and Hobbs in an artithe American Journal of drives as Drs.some accidents. A beginning small accident rate than his more stable The ant. Many. of poorly controlled aggressiveness and competitiveness. cautious. lead to to efforts. ag- and intolerance gressiveness. dangerous. period of time. lack of a proper sense of social responsibility. toler- of others. If devoid of these desirable characteristics. driving Nearly two-thirds of the drivers involved in fatal accidents in 1954 were speeding.

" much alcohol or other may have this effect. The National Safety Council says that temporarily our current civilization can become accident prone. worry. 12. so occur frequently in work. and of behavior way conscious mental activities by of aptitude. Some will increase our understanding of 11. While. and fast-startble of ing and quick-passing ability. 10." Ex- in cessive fatigue. too Such drugs less — all While the study 9. admittedly. preoccupation. since even a per- chological factors in auto accidents son color-blind to red and green fragile statistical frame- can readily learn to distinguish be- rests on a 386 . has been stressing for years the scant relationship between a driver's visual fitness. [and! savage that . Leon Brody. or recovery. accident causes. and that they wait for opportunities to display their activity. the same is true of the evi- dence on physical defects of drivers responsible for auto accidents. Freud said. and his safety record. impulses of mankind have not vanished in any individual. contributing factor in the accident. of neurotics. irritability. ." or shift night a sufficiently strong or repeated certain most average people under combinations of circum- stances that stress. Color-blindness tests are of little importance. and "accommodate. To be more meaningful. sleep- condition that could have been a lessness. fear. . ability to from a glare far focus to a near focus (such as on a speedometer) and back. Dr. as measured by a conventional driver's license test. although in a repressed state in the unconscious. and psychosois matic medicine has taught us that even major "physical" disorders often have important emotional components. . but continue their existence. the automobile apparently peripheral vision. test of visual acuity is a Such a test is of value impairment of ability objects. dark adaptation. and it undoubt- in detecting to see far edly deprives the near-blind of the freedom of killing themselves and others on the road. primitive . the evidence for the great importance of psy- on the sides while looking straight ahead. intelligence. our knowledge will standard device in almost all states for helping to determine the fitness be incomplete without more formation and its about the in- unconscious influence on drivers. However. and psy- chologic tests and by clinical scrutiny of life histories and attitudes accidents had a physical statistics mean veiy we know what little un- meant by a "physical condition". More than 40 years ago." For many of drivers. of New York University. or ability to see provides some of the most objects irresisti- — such opportunities especially with the current glorification of the high-speed car with its formidable horsepower. "Psychoanalysis has concluded from a study of dreams and mental slips of normal people as well as from symptoms the . tests of driver vision should include people. "only one out of 14 drivers involved fatal headache.

heart disease. Other organic ailments — a hearing who keeps —has one driver with normal his radio on full driver or less physical sense blast on guard warn him of danger. insure safety in driving. 15. statistical evidence of a connection between such disorders and a high rate of lacking. is emotional stresses associated with contemporary auto driving are not likely to be beneficial for a person with coronary artery disease high blood pressure. Obviously. Driving skill driving fitness. alcohol. this tive very fact to may act as an incen- that are subject several hours more cautious driving on 387 to fatigue after at the wheel. but. there in all is a gradual decline but what visual functions. according study of this problem made by to a study 1941. 17. 16. effect this decline has dent rates is 13. Brody in drivers repeatedy in- volved in accidents are skilled driv- determined by controlled as ers. though. a deaf from this condition. there are no arteries of the neck. can cause impairment of 14. tween hearing defects and auto consciousness in a driver suffering accidents.tween red and green lights. but it does call for skill and mental concentration. physicians should warn their patients with such disorders of the potential danger to themselves and others in driving. driving Some tests. —may example for more prone to while driving than healthy persons. At the same time. rate. Certainly. both of which involve faculties pressure. Safe driving does not require be disabling symptoms hard muscular effort. Probably most older drivers compensate for it by more conservative driving behavior of "healthy" drivers. Dark adaptation and glare recovery are particularly important in view of At any their part. carbon A of vitamin or oxygen. "Carotid sinus syncope" practices. of certain nerve tissue in the carotid Hearing acuteness also declines with age. statistics to suggest a connection be- is a disorder caused by oversensitivity could A tight collar produce faintor even loss of conceivably dizziness. ness. No one or knows how many heart attacks in innocent pedestrians and drivers have been caused by the foolish on auto-acciunknown. Although people with an or- more ganic disease or disability — epi- is more needed. or high blood 18. Many Dr. lepsy. Visual . might well follow and other states the lead of New York in requiring a doctor's certification of the fitness of persons with mental and certain physical disorders to receive a li- cense to drive. After age 45 or 50. the fact that the fatal-accident rate auto accidents per mile of travel is three times as high during the night as during the the Dark adaptation is impaired by monoxide and lack day. by itself does not to —such uncontrolled as also kidney and neurological disorders trouble. of these may get into trouble because they are convinced that they can safely take risks than less-skilled drivers. again. Undoubtedly. — diabetes.

and 1% a car idling in a closed with seriously or so at the chief ago. in heavy traffic. they can cause physical hours. and aggressive parts may impair judgment. quilizers. Dr. but taken at the wrong time or in uncontrolled enough to ziness. Carbon monoxide also is one of the important toxic ingredients of tobacco smoke. your car. Widely used 22. The stimulants and Benzedrine. drugs as Such bar- phenobarbital. other toxic about a hundred million cause dis- that of these drugs biturate monoxide effects some were brought out at the last highway safety research conference sponsored by the National Academy of Science and the tion. help to wheeL This can also relieve road monotony and 21. effi- Not long garage can produce enough of the gas in a few minutes to render the — driving weakness. meals. There that there is no substitute for rest 388 Dexedrine. sedatives.may be of considerable importance as an accident factor. predicting that such tests would pinpoint carbon monoxide as the cause of some unexplained fatal acci- otherwise dents. when taken by order of a physician. 19. Tests of passenger cars on the road have shown that carbon monoxide concentrations within the car can reach dangerous levels. cause headaches. are valu- of air. and smoking can combine to inter- fere ciency. and mental symptoms that 20. The rises to per disabling effects of parts National Research Council in 1954. urged that the carbon monoxide concentration in the blood of any driver involved in an accident be measured. The exhaust gas from auto en- gines contains carbon monoxide in percentages ranging from about to 7%. The gas can come from leaks in the car's own exhaust system such as blown-out gaskets. prevent the driver's falling asleep the at the —two frequently wheel causes auto of cited Heavy accidents. symptoms in many per- sons after an exposure of several amounts. and holes in mufflers and exhaust pipes and. amphetasmokes 20 to 30 cigarettes a day mine drugs are frequently mishas from 4% to 8% of his hemoused by drivers who do not realize globin blocked by this gas. faintness. should be avoided by drivers. and Seconal. and atten- heavy. and a person who inter- fere with driving ability. diz- able for relieving nervous tension and and promoting sleep. loose manifold and exhaust pipe antihistamine drugs (such as ACTH turbing driving side skill. Even ordinary doses of sedatives or stimulant drugs can evoke hostile practices. Frank Dutra. which dispose to sleepiness and fatigue. Nembutal. — similar . atmosphere deadly. It fatigue also good driving practice to take a rest or brief exercise after two hours is is little doubt that the carbon monoxide from other cars. from the exhaust of other cars. 2-3. In streets where traffic is connections. the concentration of carbon — tran- hormones and cortisone) and stimulants. medical examiner for Cincinnati.

and reserpine. grippe. ings a as driver threats to his safety and the other on the road. Since some antihistamine drugs are freely available without a doctor's prescription. it would be wise for each of us to assume that other behave discourteously.and adequate sleep to assure effec- exercise of their faculties. en- rigorously. ment drugs of timing. impaired reflex and re- and disturbance of coordination and judgment any of which obviously would be danger- action time. aggressively. can have increases neither mental nor physi- these misused. illegally. psychologic. take them coughs. From safety. but a depressant of the nervous system. In small and alcohol may improve mood and sociability. amounts. but. many people indiscriminately for and other acute respiratory infections. 27. In the whole array of drugs capable of seriously interfering with driving and judgment. and psychoably analytic research to the auto-acci- dent problem. periments have shown that alcohol now frequently prescribed for common nervous disorders. although the individual caf- estimates his coffee. Abuse of the newer tranquikzing drugs. or stupidly 389 —and to try to maintain a . it be impractical to obviously would make such an examination a routine part of driver's-license tests. While Colorado has made a good start in this latter di- rection by requiring a psychiatric examination for persistent violators of driving laws. — ous in a driver. is the outstanding cul- the viewpoint of auto the most important aspect of alcohol is its effect on the central nervous system. colds. Thorazine. such as Miltown. Among the more important possible side effects of these drugs are dizzifor ness. man can persons. as many people believe. It is not a stimulant. tive may If sharing the characteristic actions of the general anesthetics. coordination. feine cola in has a drinks. as Drs. He can make cars and roads force traffic laws more safer. actual mild stimulant action which may improve driving ness." To 26. Until we find a way to screen out potentially dangerous drivers or to get more people to practice com- mon sense and consideration for others on the road. The equally harmful effects. (Dramamine example) are taken to control motion sickness. apply psychiatric. and. can impair muscular coor- use his intelligence to overcome his dination and timing. improve driving education. tea cause excitement. 25. difficulty in focusing the eyes. peutics": "Carefully controlled ex- Noludar. alert- but in excess or in sensitive own performance measurements show to it be as in- ferior. Pharmacological Basis of Thera- cal ability. and greatly improved. and impair- irritability. alcohol skill undoubtedly prit. Other drugs antihistamine and Boramine. prob- most important. physical and emotional shortcom- 24. drivers will carelessly. sleepiness. in reality. Goodman and Gilman say in "The judgment. a certain extent. encourage training of visual and other skills useful in driving.

min. 10 min.. i. min. but the mental and physical condition of the driver and final is often a contributing factor. Most important most automobile accidents is the mental and physical condition and his personality type and emotional state. 3. — Only those people who are physically and mentally fit possessed good vision and hearing.P. 30 sec 9 min. <—End timing sec. min. 3 min. 30 sec. driver himself. If we ever hope to prevent or reduce automobile accidents. and considerate lives 4. divides neatly into three parts.P.. 30 TTME W.. 30 7 min.) this statistic Discussion of the Selection This record here the time required on this selection: min. 15 sec 4 4 4 4 of words: 2400) sec. 5 min.M 400 370 345 320 300 280 270 240 W. 8 min. min. Most accidents are caused by bad weather.M YOUR R \TE ox selection 22: on the chart and graph on page 395.. Human beings must learn to be more cautious. 2. Let us look at the material together.. 45 sec. of in when they drive if we are going to reduce the toll of taken by automobile accidents. well-balanced personality and who are really skillful at the wheel. single cause of his Compute Your Rate (Approximate number time 740 685 640 600 565 535 510 480 440 3 min.. 6 min. we must set up machinery to investigate the exact causes of accidents. 390 . free of organic disease. a model of clear organization. 7 min. 8 min. 30 sec.M. (Record 6 min. tolerant. margin adequate to compen- sate for such behavior.. Test Your Comprehension Which one of the following statements best summarizes the total meaning of this selection? 1. 30 sec. 5. sec. and car defects.P.. 15 sec. 3 min.. 5 min. poor road conditions. should be — licensed to drive. W.e. 45 sec...

and car defects cause some accidents. 12: us construct a final chart that will depict your total prog- throughout your training. Paragraphs 22-25: The wide use of drugs.P. statement 5. W. The causes have been stated and ex- — plained.M. alcohol.PART 1 STATEMENT OF CENTRAL THEME Paragraphs IS: Direct answer to the question in the title and a statement of the central theme most important single cause of most accidents is the driver himself. hearing.M.M. .M. and record the result here: AVERAGE RATE IN CHAPTER Now let ress W.P. Paragraphs 19-21: Carbon monoxide as a deterrent to driving efficiency and a reducer of physical fitness. SELECTION 21 (PSYCHOS) W. Fill in the lines below by referring to the indicated pages.P. All right. A CHART OF YOUR TOTAL PROGRESS 1.P. PART 3 RECAPITULATION Paragraphs 26-27: How to reduce accidents a kind of recapitulation of the central theme.P. as a cause of reducing mental and physical fitness and efficiency. sedatives. PART 2 DEVELOPMENT OF CENTRAL THEME Paragraphs 4r-9: How the personality and the emotional state of the driver cause accidents. the from the chart for this chapter. Now copy. disabilities.M. according to estimates of the National Safety Council. statistics on your W.M. etc. CHAPTER 2 (SEE PAGE 392) AVERAGE RATE. : W. Bad weather. divide by 3 to find your average rate in this : : \ Add chapter. especially his personality type and emotional state. fatigue. INITIAL RATE (SEE PAGE 11): 2. rates causes. road conditions. CHAPTER 7 (SEE PAGE 393): 391 3.. selection 20 (censorship) W. but the important thing is the mental and physical condition of the driver. Paragraphs 10-18: Physical condition of the driver as a cause of accidents — vision. as usual. SELECTION 22 (ACCIDENTS) these figures. etc.P. AVERAGE RATE. and obviously the best solution is to Correct choice on the comprehension test remove the is That does it.M.P. W. disease.

2: -^J^Lw.M. ! .P.M. to /o two decimal places.P. ! .W.M.P.P. .W. AVERAGE GAIN: (SUBTRACT LINE 1 FROM 5) 7. . and carry 4.M. 5. 3: WXP.P.M.M.W.M.M. CHAPTER 12 (SEE PAGE 395) 6. 700 650 600 550 500 450 400 350 15 300 250 I 200 150 100 B SELECTIONS 302 .W.P.W.M.P. PERCENTAGE GAIN: (Divide the figure in line 6 by that in line 1.W. 1: -% IMPROVEMENT GRAPH-PHASE I W.M. W.P.) IMPROVEMENT CHART— PHASE 1 (Chapters 1-2) SELECTION SELECTION SELECTION 1: W .P. .P.P.M. SELECTION 4 SELECTION 5 SELECTION 6 AVERAGE RATE SELECTIONS 3-6: PERCENTAGE GAIN OVER SELECTION . CHAPTER 10 (SEE PAGE 394) AVERAGE RATE. .AVERAGE RATE.W.M.


I: -% IMPROVEMENT GRAPH-PHASE W. SF.F. 900 850 800 750 700 650 600 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 A B 16 18 17 SELECTIONS 394 19 3 .T.fcf. 17r w.W. fKI.P.ECTTCN 19.CTTOM 18: W.p. W P \A.P. _W.M.M.M.KfrrTOM lfi: WP. fr.m.P.P.IMPROVEMENT CHART— PHASE 3 (Chapter 10) jrcr.M.T P-rrrrnNr AVERAGE RATE SELECTIONS 16-19: AVERAGE GAIN OVER SELECTION 1: PERCENTAGE GAIN OVER SELECTION .


If you read twenty-four hours a day. if you form the habit of reading if you make reading of magazines. never-ending process. or going to the movies. you will scarcely make a dent in the volume of ma- in the past. from 25 to 100 per cent or more. that is. But put your training to use. go on by yourself for. you'll have a wonderful time. of course. But change you will effect in your own intellectual equipment. in your alertness to what is going on in the world! Or I can give you a far more potent and convincing reason youll enjoy it. of whatever nature. for the rest of your life. this provided you with a good initial push. or visiting your friends. — Now you can. Reading. With the increased skill and speed you now possess. What you have learned. you can do almost twice the reading you used to do in any given period of time. should represent for you no more than a broad base. learning to read terial that is available for reading — I grant that. have worked hard for weeks or months. — or sleeping.LAST WORDS—A PLAN FOR THE FUTURE is not necessarily the end of your even though you have faithfully covered every page in the book. a fast start. make no dent in the available reading material. seven days a week. published faster than you or anyone else can ever hope to read them. — I have suggested let no week go by which you haven't read at least one book. and what you have accomplished so far. as I have said is a continuous. and excellent momentum. and have noted a comfortable increase in your general reading speed of anywhere I should like to suggest that this training. This was basic training. in what a your store of knowledge and ideas. and books of nonfiction as much a regular part of your life as eating. and should. And if you can manage to make it two or three books some weeks. Set yourself the kind of goal in so much the better. or watching television. You can do this. Books and magazines are. To say nothing of the vast output of the past with which you might want to catch up. novels. you will disYou will 396 . a strong foundation on which to continue building.

(A few of my unusual students have reached ten. Made Easy. by S.cover (you have probably already the great and made this discovery). Use those techniques to acquire the remaining words on the list that are wholly or partially unfamiliar —go through methodically. will invalidate your score. also. in your everyday reading. Continue. by Maxwell Nurnberg and Rhodes How to Double Your Vocabulary. Stephenson Smith New Way to Vocabulary Tower and Culture. And. 6. ) Have someone prepare several hundred numbers containing seven and eight digits. How W. listed alphabetically: 1. by Johnson O'Connor 2. human living. During your training program you have studied somewhat over 150 words ( these are the starred entries in the list on pages 138-142). by Wilfred Funk (Also avail- T. and you have learned some valuable techniques in doing research with a dictionary. practice on these at the rate of fifty to one hundred at a time. is one of satisfying pleasures of Continue building your reading vocabulary. Word Power More Powerful Vocabulary. by Wilfred Funk Also available in a 25^ paper-covered edition. 5. get yourself a good vocabulary-building manual. (You cannot type these numbers yourself. for your resulting familiarity with effort them. Thirty Days to a and Norman Lewis 7. to Build a Better Vocabulary. the kind of practice that will further increase your digit recognition-span.) continue. typed out with four spaces between the lines. using the Flashmeter card. your practice in occa- sional or partial skimming. and the army training program has records of occasional athletes who have gone as high as fifteen. Continue sharpening your comprehension skill by keeping alert to the broad structure of whatever 397 . 3. slight as And it may be. rately perceiving added up You have mastered the technique to six digits in of accu- split-second fixations —with you can eventually conquer numbers of seven and eight digits. cover- ing ten to twenty at a time. by Wilfred Funk Six Weeks to Words of Power. as additional help. able in a 35c* paper-covered edition. English Vocabulary Builder. or even in total skimming if the material and the circumstances warrant it. by Norman Lewis ( Also available in ( a 35f paper-covered edition. Here are a number of the top-notch aids in the field. 4.

and satisfaction you have received from your formal training program have been in direct proportion to the amount of time and creative effort that you have invested in your work. in your own words. that you are reacting critically to what he says. You may be surprised and gratified discover that you can increase your present speed by as much 10 or 20 per cent within the next six months if you keep up your test yourself periodically. ter in a of to as training. that you are thinking along with the author. . The dividends of increased speed. by finding and following central themes. as far as possible. only one fixation to the line. the gist of what you have just read. All these suggestions. understanding. Continue your investment and the that dividends will continue to build up. Continue training your peripheral vision by every now and then sweeping down a narrow newspaper column as fast as comprehension permits and making. Continue pushing yourself quickly through material. And Take a magazine article or a chapbook and time your reading. Count or estimate the number words. Read with the feeling that you are comprehending fast. and by occasionally writing out. as your own you realize. and compute your read. only ask you to continue on the kind of practice this book has provided.