IJES
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Maharaja Surajmal Institute of Technology, New Delhi, India
2
Department of Electrical Engineering, Delhi Technological, University, New Delhi, India
3
Department of Electrical Engineering, Deenbandhu Chhotu, Ram University of Science & Technology, Haryana, India
y_arya40@yahoo.com
I.
INTRODUCTION
Largescale power systems are normally composed of
control areas or regions representing coherent groups of
generators. Various areas are interconnected through tielines.
Tielines are utilized for contractual energy exchange and
provide interarea support in case of abnormal conditions.
Real and reactive power generations must change accordingly
to match the load perturbations. Load frequency control is
essential for successful operation of power systems to
maintain frequency within the limited band [1]. To accomplish
this, it becomes necessary to automatically regulate the
operations of main steam valves or hydro gates in accordance
with a suitable control strategy, which in turn controls the real
power output of electric generators. The controlling of the
output of electric generators in this way is termed as automatic
generation control (AGC) [2]. Automatic generation control is
the regulation of power output of controllable generators
within a prescribed area in response to change in system
frequency, tieline loading, or a relation of these to each other,
so as to maintain the schedule system frequency and establish
interchange with other areas within predetermined limits.
AGC can be subdivided into primary and secondary control
modes. The overall performance of AGC in any power system
depends on the proper design of both primary and secondary
control loops. Secondary controllers are designed to regulate
the area control errors to zero effectively [2]. So the overall
performance of AGC in any power system depends on the
proper design of both primary control loop (selection of R)
and secondary control loops (selection of gain for
supplementary controller). A control strategy is needed that
not only maintains constancy of frequency and desired tiepower flow, but also achieves zero steady state error and
inadvertent interchange. Among the various types of load
frequency controllers, the most widely employed are integral
(I), proportional plus integral (PI) and proportional plus
integral plus derivative (PID) controllers. The use of modern
optimal control theory can improve the dynamic performance
of these controllers [3]. Over the past decade many control
IJES
K ps1
K ps1
1
individual block in terms of state variables.
=
x1 x1 +
x2 x13
Tps1
x1 = f1
Pg 1 =
Pt1
x2 =
x3 = YE1
x4 = f 2
Pg 2 =
Pt 2
x5 =
x6 = YE 2
x7 = f 3
Pg 3 =
Pt 3
x8 =
x9 = YE 3
x10 = f 4
Pg 4 =
Pt 4
x11 =
x12 = YE 4
x13 =
Ptie , 12 or Ptie ,
x16 =
Ptie , 34 or Ptie ,
21
a31 K ps1
Tps1
x17 =
Ptie , 32 or Ptie ,
23
x15 =
Ptie , 41 or Ptie , 14
x18 =
Ptie , 42 or Ptie ,
24
x14 +
Tps1
a41 K ps1
Tps1
x15 
K ps1
w1
Tps1
Similarly,
1
1
=
x2 x2 +
x3
Tt1
Tt1
x3 = 
43
x14 =
Ptie , 31 or Ptie , 13
Tps1
(1)
(2)
1
1
x1 x3
R1Tsg 1
Tsg 1
a
a
1
x13  31 x14  41 x15
Tsg1
Tsg1
Tsg 1
(3)
w1 =
Pd 1
w2 =
Pd 2
w3 =
Pd 3
w4 =
Pd 4
K ps 2
a12 K ps 2
a32 K ps 2
1
x4 +
x5 +
x13 +
x17
Tps 2
Tps 2
Tps 2
Tps 2
x4=
a42 K ps 2
x18 
K ps 2
Tps 2
Tps 2
1
1
=
x5 x5 +
x6
Tt 2
Tt 2
x6 = 
(5)
1
1
x4 x6
R2Tsg 2
Tsg 2
(6)
Tps 3
x16 
K ps 3
Tps 3
x17 
K ps 3
Tps 3
w3
(7)
(8)
1
1
1
x14 +
x16 +
x17
Tsg 3
Tsg 3
Tsg 3
K ps 3
K ps 3
1
x7 +
x8 x14
Tps 3
Tps 3
Tps 3
K ps 3
=
x10 
a
a12
a
x13  32 x17  42 x18
Tsg 2
Tsg 2
Tsg 2
=
x7 
(4)
w2
1
1
x8 +
x9
Tt 3
Tt 3
1
1
x9 = x7 x9
R3Tsg 3
Tsg 3
=
x8 
K ps 4
K ps 4
1
x10 +
x11 x15
Tps 4
Tps 4
Tps 4
a34 K ps 4
Tps 4
=
x11 
(9)
x16 
K ps 4
Tps 4
x18 
K ps 4
Tps 4
w4
1
1
x11 +
x12
Tt 4
Tt 4
(10)
(11)
x12 = 
IJES
(18)
=
x18 2 T42 x4 + 2 T42 x10
These eighteen equations can be organized in the following
vector matrix form:
(12)
a
1
1
x15  34 x16 +
x18
Tsg 4
Tsg 4
Tsg 4
(14)
=
x Ax + Fw
Where, A is system matrix and F is disturbance distribution
matrix,
T
x = [ x1 . . . x18 ] = state vector and
(15)
Pd = w =
(16)
(13)
=
x14 2 T31 x1 + 2 T31 x7
=
x15
2 T32 x4 + 2 T32 x7
1
Tps1
1
R1Tsg 1
A= 0
2 T
12
2 T31
2 T
41
0
0
K ps1
(17)
K ps1
0 0
Tps1
0 0 
0 0
xT = [ x1
0
1
0
0
1
Tsg 1
1
Tt1
1
Tt1
1
Tsg 1
1
Tps 2
K ps 2
Tps 2
a12 K ps 2
a41
Tsg 1
0
0
a31
Tsg 1
1
Tt 2
a12
Tsg 2
Tps 2
1
Tt 2
1
R2Tsg 2
1
Tsg 2
1
Tps 3
K ps 3
1
Tt 3
1
Tt 3
1
R3Tsg 3
1
Tsg 3
1
Tsg 3
1
Tps 4
K ps 4
1
Tt4
1
Tt4
1
R4Tsg 4
1
Tsg 4
1
Tsg 4
a
 34
Tsg 4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Tps 3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2 T12
0
0
0
2 T32
2 T42
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2 T31
0
2 T34
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
K ps 2
Tps 2
0
0
0
0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0 
0
0
0
0
2 T32
0
0 0
K ps 3
Tps 3
0
0 0 
K ps 4
Tps 4
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Tps 4
0
0
2 T41
2 T34
0
2 T42
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
x18 ]
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Tps 3
a32
Tsg 2
 K ps 3
 K ps 3
Tps 3
Tps 3
1
Tsg 3
1
Tsg 3
 K ps 4
a34 K ps 4
Tps 4
Tps 4
0
0
0
0
 K ps 3
a
 42
Tsg 2
 K ps 4
Tps 4
Tsg 4
0
0
0
0
0
0
=
y Cx + Dw
0
0
0
0
1
0
C=
0
Tps1
0 0
a41 K ps1
Tps1
a31 K ps1
Tps1
FT =
 K ps1
Tps1
T
w2 w3 w4 ] =disturbance vector.
[ w1
=
x6 
1
1
1
x1 x3 +
u1
R1Tsg 1
Tsg 1
Tsg 1
(19)
1
1
1
x4 x6 +
u2
R2Tsg 2
Tsg 2
Tsg 2
(20)
1
1
1
x7 x9 +
u3
R3Tsg 3
Tsg 3
Tsg 3
(21)
1
1
1
x10 x12 +
u4
R4Tsg 4
Tsg 4
Tsg 4
(22)
=
x9
=
x12 
x
=
b1 x1 + x13  a31 x14  a41 x15
19
IJES
D=0 and C & x are given as:
(23)
1
0
0
C=
0
0
(24)
(25)
(26)
x22 =
b4 x10 + x15  a34 x16 + x18
These twenty two equations can also be organized in the
matrix form as follows:
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
xT = [ x1
0
0
0
0
x2
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
x3 . . . x21
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
x22 ]
x = Ax + Bu + Fw
Where,
B is the input matrix and u is control vector.
Further considering the following,
0
0
0
0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0
0
0
0
(27)
V.
(31)
=
J ( xT Qx + wT Rw)dt
(28)
=
x Ax + Fw
0
Where, the system matrix A can be formulated, as given on
In order to design linear quadratic regulator the method of
next page.
Lagrange multipliers, results in the following matrix Riccati
Considering f 1, f 2, f 3 and f 4 (i.e. change in frequency)
equation
and Ptie, 12, P tie, 41 (change in tie line power) as system
(32)
PA + AT P + Q  PFR 1 F T P =
0
output variables, the output matrix can be given as:
(29)
=
y Cx + Dw
u3 = ki 3 x21 = ki 3 ACE3 dt = PC 3 ( s )
1
Tps1
R1Tsg1
A= 0
2 T
12
2 T31
2 T
41
0
0
b1
0
0
0
K ps1
Tps1

1
Tt1
0
0
0
0
K ps1
a31 K ps1
a41 K ps1
Tps1
Tps1
Tps1
1
Tt1
1
Tsg1
1
Tps 2
K ps 2
1
R2Tsg 2
1
Tt 2
1
Tt 2
1
Tsg 2
0
K ps 3
Tps 2
1
Tps 3
a12 K ps 2
Tps 2
0
a32 K ps 2
a42 K ps 2
Tps 2
Tps 2
K ps 3
ki1
Tsg1
k
 i2
Tsg 2
1
Tsg 3
1
Tps 4
K ps 4
K ps 4
a34 K ps 4
Tps 4
Tps 4
1
R3Tsg 3
Tps 4
Tps 3
Tps 3
0
K ps 3
0
K ps 3
1
Tt 3
1
Tt 3
Tps 3

Tps 3
K ps 4
Tps 4
ki 3
Tsg 3
0
1
Tt 4
1
R4Tsg 4
0
0
0
2 T41
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2 T34
0
2 T42
0
0
0
b4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
a12
0
0
0
0
0
a31
0
1
0
0
0
0
a41
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
a34
0
0
0
0
a32
1
0
0
0
0
0
a42
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2 T12
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2 T32
2 T42
0
b2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2 T31
0
2 T34
2 T32
0
0
0
b3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
Tt 4
1
Tsg 4
ki 4
Tsg 4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
IJES
w =  R F Px
(34)
1
[( ACE1 ) 2 + ( ACE2 ) 2 + ( ACE3 ) 2 + ( ACE4 ) 2 +
2 0
(35)
+ w3 2 + w4 2 )]dt
1
J
=
(36)
x = Af x
The Matlab control system toolbox function [K,P] =
lqr2(A,F,Q,R) is used for the solution of matrix Riccati
equation.
The Performance Index selected for fourarea power system is
of the following form:
b12
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Q=
0
b1
b a
1 31
b1a41
0
0
0
0
0
0
(37)
a32 x17  a42 x18 ) 2 + (b3 x7 + x16 + x14 + x17 ) 2 + (b4 x10
a34 x16 + x18 + x15 ) 2 + ( x19 2 + x20 2 + x212 + x22 2 )
+ k ( w12 + w2 2 + w3 2 + w4 2 )]dt
(38)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
b1
0
b1a31
0
b1a41
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
b2 2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
b2 a12
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
b2 a32
0
0
b2 a42
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
b3 2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
b3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
b3
0
0
0
b3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
b4 2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
b4
0
0
b4 a34
0
0
0
0
0
b4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
b2 a12
0
0
0
b2 a32
b2 a42
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
b3
0
b3
b3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
b4
b4 a34
0
b4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1 + a12 2
a31
a41
0
a12 a32
a12 a42
0
0
0
0
a31
1 + a312
a31a41
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
a41
a31a41
1 + a412
a34
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
a34
1 + a34 2
1
a34
0
0
0
0
a12 a32
1
0
1
1 + a32 2
a32 a42
0
0
0
0
a12 a42
0
1
a34
a32 a42
1 + a42 2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
simout 1
To Workspace 1
Scope 1
simout 2
To Workspace 2
Del Pd 1 = 0.01
Scope 2
simout 3
Del Pd 2 = 0
Scope 3
x' = Ax+Bu
y = Cx+Du
To Workspace 3
Demux
simout 4
Del Pd 3 = 0
To Workspace 4
Scope 4
State Space
simout 5
Del Pd 4 = 0
Sum
To Workspace
Scope 5
Feedback Gain
using LQR Design .
simout 5
Scope 6
Demux
To Workspace5
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
VI.
IJES
Delta f 1 (pu)
0.01
0
0.01
0.02
10
15
20
Time, s
25
30
35
40
10
15
20
Time, s
25
30
35
40
10
15
20
Time, s
25
30
35
40
3
Delta f 2 (pu)
x 10
0
5
10
0
3
Delta f 3 (pu)
x 10
0
5
10
(a)
3
x 10
Delta f 4 (pu)
5
0
5
10
10
15
20
Time, s
25
30
35
40
10
15
20
Time, s
25
30
35
40
10
15
20
Time, s
25
30
35
40
3
x 10
2
0
2
4
0
3
x 10
4
2
0
2
(b)
Fig. 4 Deviation in frequencies of (a) area 1, 2 and 3 (b) area 4, deviation in tie line power, P tie , 12 and Ptie , 41 for 1% change in load (P d1 =0.01 pu).
3
x 10
4
2
0
2
Delta f 1 (pu)
5% band
4
Tb = 25.4803 (s)
6
Peak Overshoots = 0.00779 (pu)
8
10
12
14
16
0
Peak Overshoots =
0.0159 (pu)
10
20
Time, s
15
25
30
35
40
Fig. 5 The frequency deviation of the first area in larger scale indicating peak overshoot and settling time for integral and optimal Integral controller for 1%
change in load (Pd1=0.01 pu).
IJES
3.53
0.0202
6.81
8.0
0.0149
0.028
25.4803
0.0159
IAE
=
 f
(39)
 dt
IAE for f1
0.004663
Integral Controller
0.06361
Uncontrolled System
0.4757
NOTATIONS
th
fi
nominal system frequency of i area, HZ
th
fi incremental frequency deviation of i area, HZ pu
th
Tsgi speed governor time constant of i area, sec.
th
Ri
speed governor regulation of the of i area, HZ/puMW
th
Tti
turbine time constant of i area, sec.
Q
positive semidefinite symmetric state cost weighting
matrix
R
positive definite symmetric control cost weighting
matrix
k
optimal feedback gain matrix
th
Kpsi gain of power system (generator load) of i area,
HZ/puMW
th
Tpsi power system time constant of i area, sec.
th
Pgi incremental generator power output change of i area,
puMW
th
Pti incremental turbine power output change of i area,
puMW
th
Pci incremental speed changer setting change of i area,
puMW
th
YEi incremental steam valve setting change of i area,
puMW
th
Kii gain of integral controller of i area
th
bi
frequency bias of i area, puMW/HZ
th
ACE i area control error of i area, puMW
th
ui
control input of i area
th
Pdi incremental load demand change of i area, puMW
th
wi
disturbance vector of i area, puMW
Ptie, ij incremental tie line power change of ith and jth area,
puMW
aij
area size ratio coefficient
Tij
tie line synchronizing power coefficient (pu) between
area i and area j
i & j subscript referred to area i & j. (i, j =1, 2, 3 & 4)
REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
The System data used in the study is given as: Pri= 2000
MW, Prj= 2000 MW, Tsgi = 0.08 sec., Tpsi = 20 sec., Tti = 0.03
sec., Ri = 2.4 HZpu/MW, Tij = 0.08674, aij = 1, Kii = 0.671, Kpsi
= 120 HZpu/MW, bi= 0.425 puMW/HZ, P d1=0.01 puMW, i,
j= 1, 2, 3, & 4
[7]
[9]
[10]
[11]
[12]
IJES
[13]
[14]
[15]
[16]