You are on page 1of 223

ASE

General Static Analysis of Finite Element


Structures
SOFiSTiK 2016

ASE
General Static Analysis of Finite Element Structures
ASE Manual, Version 2016-0
Software Version SOFiSTiK 2016
c 2015 by SOFiSTiK AG, Oberschleissheim, Germany.
Copyright

SOFiSTiK AG
HQ Oberschleissheim
Bruckmannring 38
85764 Oberschleissheim
Germany

Office Nuremberg
Burgschmietstr. 40
90419 Nuremberg
Germany

T +49 (0)89 315878-0


F +49 (0)89 315878-23

T +49 (0)911 39901-0


F +49(0)911 397904
info@sofistik.de
www.sofistik.de

This manual is protected by copyright laws. No part of it may be translated, copied or


reproduced, in any form or by any means, without written permission from SOFiSTiK AG.
SOFiSTiK reserves the right to modify or to release new editions of this manual.
The manual and the program have been thoroughly checked for errors. However, SOFiSTiK
does not claim that either one is completely error free. Errors and omissions are corrected as
soon as they are detected.
The user of the program is solely responsible for the applications. We strongly encourage the
user to test the correctness of all calculations at least by random sampling.

Front Cover
Project: MILANEO, Stuttgart, Germany | Client: Bayerische Hausbau and ECE | Architect: RKW Rhode Kellermann Wawrowsky
| Structural Engineering for Bayerische Hausbau: Boll und Partner | Photo: Dirk Mnzner

Contents | ASE

Contents

Contents
1

Task Description

Theoretical Principles
2.1
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2
Implemented Elements - licence level . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3
Beam Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.1
Geometric nonlinear Theory 2nd and 3rd Order .
2.3.2
Coordinate System of Forces, Center of Gravity .
2.3.3
Warping torsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.4
SOFiSTiK - T-Beam Philosophy . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4
Pile Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.1
Winkler Coefficient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.2
Numerical Solution and Accuracy . . . . . . . . . .
2.5
Truss and Cable Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6
Spring Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7
Boundary Elements BOUN and FLEX . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8
Shell Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8.1
Plate Structural Behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8.2
Membrane Structural Behaviour . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8.3
Elastic Foundation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8.4
Rotations around the Shell Normal . . . . . . . . .
2.8.5
Twisted Shell Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8.6
Eccentrically Connected Shell Elements . . . . . .
2.8.7
Tendons in QUAD Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8.8
Non-conforming Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.9
Volume Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.10 Primary Load Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.11 Non-linear Analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.12 Non-linear Analysis of Plates and Shells . . . . . . . . . . .
2.12.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.12.2 Input of the Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.12.3 Analysis Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.12.4 Rounding off over Punching Points . . . . . . . . .

SOFiSTiK 2016

i
1-1
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

2-1
2-1
2-2
2-3
2-3
2-4
2-4
2-6
2-12
2-12
2-13
2-14
2-14
2-15
2-16
2-18
2-21
2-22
2-24
2-24
2-24
2-25
2-25
2-26
2-27
2-28
2-29
2-29
2-30
2-37
2-51

ASE | Contents

2.13

2.14
2.15
2.16
2.17
2.18

2.12.5 Output of the Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


2.12.6 Miscellaneous Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Membrane Structures: Formfinding and Static Analysis
2.13.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.13.2 The Membrane Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.13.3 Formfinding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.13.4 Static Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.13.5 Unstable Membrane Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.13.6 Calculations of Cable Meshes . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.13.7 Check List - Notes - Problem Solutions . . . . .
2.13.8 Overview about the Used Examples . . . . . . .
2.13.9 Necessary Program Versions . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dynamic Modal Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Buckling Eigenvalues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Masses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Damping Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modal Damping and Modal Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

2-51
2-53
2-55
2-55
2-56
2-64
2-76
2-80
2-82
2-84
2-86
2-86
2-87
2-87
2-88
2-88
2-88

Literature

2-89

3-1
3-1
3-2
3-5
3-18
3-21
3-24
3-33
3-37
3-38
3-41
3-43
3-46
3-52
3-55
3-56
3-57
3-59
3-60
3-61
3-63
3-65
3-67

ii

Input Description
3.1
Input Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2
Input Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3
CTRL Control of the Calculation . . . . . . .
3.3.1
SOLV Equation solver . . . . . . . . .
3.3.2
CORE Parallel computation control
3.4
SYST Global Control Parameters . . . . . .
3.5
STEP Time Step Method Dynamics . . . .
3.6
HIST Storage STEP-LCST . . . . . . . . . .
3.7
ULTI Limit Load Iteration . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.8
PLOT Plot of a Limit Load Iteration . . . . .
3.9
CREP Creep and Shrinkage . . . . . . . . .
3.10 GRP Group Selection Elements . . . . . . .
3.11 GRP2 Expanded Group Selection . . . . .
3.12 ELEM Single Element Settings . . . . . . . .
3.13 LEN0 Unstressed Length . . . . . . . . . . .
3.14 HIGH Membrane High Points . . . . . . . . .
3.15 PSEL Selection of Piles . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.16 TBEA Reduction of the Width for T-Beams
3.17 REIQ Reinforcement in QUAD Elements .
3.18 STEX External Stiffness . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.19 OBLI Inclination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.20 SLIP SLIP Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

SOFiSTiK 2016

Contents | ASE

3.21
3.22
3.23
3.24
3.25
3.26
3.27
3.28
3.29
3.30
3.31
3.32
3.33
3.34
3.35
3.36
3.37
4

VOLU Air Volume Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


MOVS Moving Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LAUN Incremental Launching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SFIX Fixing Stiffness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LC Load Case and Masses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TEMP Temperature from HYDRA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LAG Loads from Support Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PEXT Prestress of External Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LCC Copy of Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EIGE Eigenvalues and -vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MASS Lumped Masses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
V0 Initial Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REIN Specification for Determining Reinforcement . . . .
DESI Reinforced Concrete Design, Bending, Axial Force
NSTR Non-linear Stress and Strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Non-linear Material Analysis in ASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ECHO Output Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Output Description
4.1
Check List of the Generated Structure . . . . . .
4.2
Check List of the Non-linear Parameters . . . .
4.3
Check List of the Analysis Control Parameters
4.4
Check Lists of the Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5
Process of the Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6
Eigenvalues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.7
Element Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.8
Non-linear Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.9
Nodal Results and Support Reactions . . . . . .
4.10 Internal Forces and Moments at Nodes . . . . .
4.11 Error Estimates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.12 Distributed Support Reactions . . . . . . . . . . .
4.13 Strain Energy of Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.14 Wind Load Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

SOFiSTiK 2016

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

3-68
3-70
3-72
3-74
3-75
3-78
3-80
3-82
3-84
3-86
3-89
3-91
3-92
3-97
3-103
3-105
3-109
4-1
4-1
4-1
4-1
4-2
4-2
4-3
4-4
4-7
4-8
4-9
4-11
4-12
4-13
4-13

iii

ASE | Contents

iv

SOFiSTiK 2016

Task Description | ASE

Task Description

ASE calculates the static and dynamic effects of general loading on any type of
structure. To start the calculations the user divides the structure to be analyzed
into an assembly of individual elements interconnected at nodes (Finite Element Method). Possible types of elements are : haunched beams, springs, cables, truss elements, plane triangular or quadrilateral shell elements and threedimensional continuum elements.
The program handles structures with rigid or elastic types of support. An elastic
support can be applied to an area, a line or at nodal points. Rigid elements or
skew supports can be taken into account.
ASE calculates the effects of nodal, line and block loads. The loads can be
defined independently from the selected element mesh. The generation of loads
from stresses of a primary load case allows the consideration of construction
stages, redistribution and creep effects.
Non-linear calculations enables the user to take the failure of particular elements
into account, such as: cables in compression, uplifting of supported plates, yielding, friction or crack effects for spring and foundation elements. Non-linear materials are available for three-dimensional and shell elements. Geometrical nonlinear computations allow the investigation of 2nd and 3rd order theory effects by
cable, beam, shell and volume structures.
In case of beam structures, the program can calculate warping torsion with up
to 7 degrees of freedom per node.
The user of ASE should therefore gather experience from simple examples before tackling more complicated structures. A check of the results through approximate engineering calculations is imperative.
The basic version of ASE performs the linear analyses of beams, cables,
trusses, plane and volume structures. Plain strain and rotational systems can
be analyzed with TALPA.

SOFiSTiK 2016

1-1

ASE | Task Description

Extended versions of ASE offer calculations of:

Influence surfaces

Non-linear analyses

Pile elements with linear/parabolic soil coefficient distribution

Creep and shrinkage

Forces from construction stages

Modal analysis, Time step method

Material non-linearities

Geometrical non-linearities

Membrane elements

Evaluation of collapse load

Non-linear dynamics

1-2

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

2
2.1

Theoretical Principles
General

A continuum or a plane structure can be interpreted as a statically or geometrically infinitely indeterminate structure. If an analytical solution is unknown, every
numerically approximate method is based on converting this infinite system into
a finite one, in other words to discretizing it.
The advantage of the finite elements lies in their universal applicability to any
geometrical shape and almost to any loading. This is achieved by a modular
principle. Single elements which describe parts of the structure in a computer
oriented manner are assembled into a complete structure.
The continuous structure is represented thus by a large but finite number of
elements. A discrete solution consisting of n unknowns is calculated instead
of the continuous solution. In general, the approximate solution may represent
the exact solution better with the use of more elements. The single elements
of an area can be of arbitrarily small dimensions in comparison to the dimensions of the overall structure without giving rise to any incompatibilities with the
presented theory. The refinement of the subdivision is, however, subjected to
certain limitations due to numerical reasons.
The Finite Element Method (FEM) employed in ASE is a displacement method,
meaning that the unknowns are deformation values at several selected points,
the so-called nodes. Displacements can be obtained with an element-wise interpolation of the nodal values. The calculation of the mechanical behaviour is
based generally on an energy principle (minimisation of the deformation work).
The result is a so-called stiffness matrix. This matrix specifies the reaction forces
at the nodes of an element when these nodes are subjected to known displacements.
The global force equilibrium is generated then for each node in order to determine the unknowns. A force in the same direction which is a function of this
or another displacement corresponds to each displacement. This leads to a
system of equations with n unknowns, where n can become very large. Numerically beneficial banded matrices result, however, due to the local character of
the element-wise interpolation.
The complete method is divided into four main parts:
1.

Determination of the element stiffness matrices.

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-1

ASE | Theoretical Principles

2.

Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and solution of the resulting equation
system

3.

Application of loads and determination of the corresponding displacements.

4.

Determination of the element stresses and support reactions due to the


computed displacements.

The second step is that with most CPU time. It may use up to 90 percent of the
total CPU time. However, it has to occur only once for a static system.
The stresses jumps from element to element. The size of the jump is thus a
direct measure of the quality of the FE analysis.

2.2

Implemented Elements - licence level

The elements shown in the following table are available in ASE. A non-linear
analysis can occur also for some types of elements. A detailed list of the implemented nonlinear effects is written in section 3.36.
Program ASE runs with licences to ASE, SEPP and PFAHL. Depending on the
licence not all elements can be used - see following table. Nonlinear analsis also
require a higher licence level.
Non-linear

Geometrical

Material

Non-linearity

SPRI

yes

yes

TRUS

yes+tension failure

yes

Element

CABL

yes+compression failure yes + cable sag

BEAM

yes

yes

PILE1

elastic bedding only

yes

QUAD2

yes

yes

BRIC12

yes

yes

BOUN

FLEX12

yes

Halfspace2

not available on licence SEPP

2-2

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

not available on licence PFAHL

2.3

Beam Elements

The beam element in ASE is an arbitrary haunched beam element including


shear deformations and hinge effects. It can be defined also eccentrically to the
node connecting line. For haunched cross sections in bridge analysis all nodes
can be defined on the top face of the superstructure.
2.3.1

Geometric nonlinear Theory 2nd and 3rd Order

The following figures shall clarify the essential characteristics between


SOFiSTiK theory 2nd and 3rd order (TH2 and TH3).
Pz
P

d TH2

TH3

Figure 2.1: Column geometric nonlinear theory 2nd and 3rd order

In the column example in figure 2.1 the effect of theory TH2 causes a stiffness
reduction in the column due to the compression normal force (geometric stiffness). This creates an additional deflection dux in x direction (no duz!). The
beam can get longer than in the original shape. The bottom bending moment
increases due to the displacement of the vertical load Pz. This type of analysis
is also known as pi-delta method.
In the complete geometric nonlinear analysis TH3 the column head follows the
physically correct path. Equilibrium is iterated on the real deformed shape.
In figure 2.2 a horizontally fixed bending girder is loaded vertically. In TH2 the
girder just deflects vertical without a normal force N.
In the TH3 analysis the vertical displacement causes a lengthing of the beam.
The created normal force N carries a part of the load and reduces the vertical
deformation.

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-3

ASE | Theoretical Principles

TH2 : N = 0

TH3 : N

Figure 2.2: girder geometric nonlinear theory 2nd and 3rd order

Examples see SYST


2.3.2

Coordinate System of Forces, Center of Gravity

In TH2 the forces are related to the original coordinate system. So the shear
forces are transversal forces. In the column example in figure 2.1 N stays vertical
and VZ stays horizontal.
In TH3 the forces are always related to the deformed beam coordinate system.
The beam forces N, MY and MZ are related to the center of gravity of the actual
active partial section (not to node connecting line). MT, VY and VZ are related
to the center of shear.
Dead load is applied in the center of mass since version 2016. So an excentric
dead load (refered to the center of stiffness) is taken into account.
2.3.3

Warping torsion

Warping torsion can be used for straight beam structures with CTRL WARP 1.
Warping effects can also appear without warping support. In the following picture to example ase11_girder_overturning.dat in loadcase 11 a single moment MT=1 kNm (2*0.50 kNm) is applied in midspan of a single girder
90 % of it work via warping torsion as force pairs in the flanges - see MTs = 0.45
kNm. 10 % go directly into the section via Saint Venant shear - see MTp = 0.05
kNm. Warping parts (ASE output):
The total torsional moment Mt has 3 parts (MT= MTp +MTs +MTn):
MTp - primary torsional moment from Saint Venant shear stresses
MTs - secondary tors. moment (flange shear from warping longitudinal stresses)
MTn - theory 2. order torsional moment from twisted normal stresses
Mb warping moment (from warping longitudinal stresses - creates MTs at other
beam sections)
You can imagine the behavior as follows: the flange forces in midspan deflect

2-4

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

the flanges opposite and transport a part of the loading via longitudinal stresses
to the support.
The longitudinal warping stress due to Mb in midspan create a flange shear
force at the supports. The corresponding torsional momennt MTs at the support
is about 0.05 kNm. At the support itself, the longitudinal warping stresses are
zero (free end) - see Mb = 0 kNm. The effects are as follows:

MT

MTp

Mb
MTs

Figure 2.3: Warping torsion

The warping effects are also explained in warping_mtp_mts_mtn.dat. There the


interaction of MTs and Mb for a MT load on a cantilever is interpretet as follows:

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-5

ASE | Theoretical Principles

Please notice that at the cantlever end (beam 10 x= 0.4) already a part of the
load MT= 10 kNm is carried by warping although there are no longitudinal
warping stresses at that location (free end)!

You can imagine this in the following way:


The top flange longitudinal warping stresses at beam 1 x=0 want to pull
pack the top flange at the cantilever. The bottom flange longitudinal warping
stresses want to pull pack the bottom flange as well.

This pair of forces (flange shear from warping longitudinal stresses) carries
a part of the MT loading.

So the longitudinal warping stresses at the beginning of the beam create a


MTs at the end - and oposite.

An MTs at a beam section x1 creates longitudinal warping stresses at another beam section x2.

2.3.4

SOFiSTiK - T-Beam Philosophy

Automatic addition of the T-beam parts for FE plates with beams


Example see ase3_t_beam_test.dat
Usage in bridge construction see also tbeam_philosophy_e.pdf

Figure 2.4: T-Beam Philosophy

Attention: This model can not be used for influence line evaluation with ELLA
because ELLA does not add the slab parts to the beam!
A 2D slab analysis is usually sufficient and desirable for beams and continuous
beams with effective cross section widths in a slab. Only in a 2D slab analysis
normal forces are not determined in the slab or in the beam! The advantage
is that the slab can be simply designed (without normal forces) particularly for
the shear checks. In addition the determined beam moments can be designed
directly with the right T-beam cross section.
Procedure: The user or the graphical input program positions a centric defined
2-6

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

beam in the node plane (with the T-beam cross section see picture on the right).
The QUAD elements are also defined centric. As the beam is positioned in
the centre of gravity (a little bit below the slab center), the upper edge of the
T-beam looks a little bit out of the slab - this is also visible in WinGRAF. The
ANIMATOR displaces the cross section a little bit downwards, so that the upper
edges beam+slab appear at the same position for a better visualization. So in
the standard case the beam section is defined with the corresponding effective
slab width. Looking from the side (see picture left below) you see that cross
section parts and slab overlap and concrete areas are defined twice. These
double parts are now corrected in the T-Beam philosophy:
Therefore in the stiffness analysis the slab part (I-slab = bVh3/12 with b=effective
width = width of the cross section) is substracted automatically from the stiffness
of the beam I-Tbeam. An equivalent (reduced) beam is used:
Iequivalent beam = ITbeam Islab
In the same way the deadload of the equivalent beam is modified to avoid double
dead load.
Then the program at first determines a bending moment of this equivalent beam
in a FE analysis. The internal forces parts of the slab (M-slab = m-slab V b) are
added automatically immediately. Thus the complete T-beam internal forces are
available for the following beam design:
MTbeam = Mequivalent beam + Mslab
The bending moments My and the shear forces Vz are added as default, for
shells also the normal forces N. The torsional moment Mt is not added as default.
Output:

The parts of the slab are already included in the printout of the beam forces.

A statistic of the slab parts follows. The maximum slab parts are compared
with the maximum beam internal forces:
Statistic Beam - Additional Forces from a Slab
Loadcase 2
The printed beam-forces include max. additional forces of a slab:
max. beam-force without slab-addition
max. slab-addition
cno bm
Vz
My
Vz
My
[m]
[kN]
[kNm]
[kN]
[kNm]
1 2.20 max 48.60 243.78
43.63
5.95
min -48.60
0.00
-43.63
0.00

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-7

ASE | Theoretical Principles

For safety the internal forces are not reduced in the FE plate elements, although
it would be possible about the amount of the increase of the beam internal
forces. So this method can be uneconomical for smaller beam heights.
Beams which are connected with kinematic constraints at the slab are also processed, if the beams are positioned in the slab plane.
Defaults for the addition of the plate internal forces to the beam internal forces:
For slab structures:

The single beam must have a cross section with a defined width at the start
and the end. A defined width can be generated from a T-beam (e.g. record
SREC in AQUA) and from general cross sections (e.g. AQUA record SECT
and following). The maximum width of the cross section is used in each case
(independent of the position of the plate, above or below). A cross section
which is input without dimensions however with stiffnesses (e.g. with record
SVAL) does not known any defined width. A plate part can therefore not be
added for these beams!

The single beam is connected generally directly with the nodes of the plate.

After an automatic mesh generation or a free mesh definition the straight


beam which is positioned in the plate plane can be combined also with the
FE mesh via kinematic constraints.

The beam reads the plate thickness and the modulus of elasticity from these
plate nodes. Different plate thicknesses are possible at the beam start and
end.

Additionally for three-dimensional slab structures (ASE):


The feature can be used also for three-dimensional slabs however with following
restrictions:

The beams must be positioned in the same plane as the plate. The plate
parts are not added for beams which are connected eccentrically.

Special features with the input:

The beam cross section must represent the effective cross section, therefore
the web and the effective plate. If a concrete slab on a steel girder should
be considered as a composite construction, the steel girder must be defined
with the effective concrete plate as cross section! The determined internal
forces and moments refer then to this composite cross section.

The effective width (cross section width) should be chosen a little bit smaller

2-8

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

than to large especially over the columns, because for the plate moment to
be added only the moment near the node at which the beam and the plate
are combined is used (see CTRL PLAB V2). This plate moment is processed
then unchangeable acting about the whole width. The internal forces and
moments are therefore not exactly integrated about the effective width!

The plate stiffness I-plate (without the part of Steiner) is diverted from the
total cross section stiffness I-cross. If the subtrahend I-plate is bigger than
0.8I-cross, a warning is printed and the minimum stiffness of 0.2I-cross is
used.

For three-dimensional systems the subtrahend is maximal 0.9A-cross for the


area A-plate. At least 0.1A-cross are available then for the fictitious beam in
the FE system.

Special features with the output:

The attenuated stiffnesses are printed with ECHO PLAB FULL. If a


cross section is available at beams with different plate thicknesses (e.g.
haunches), the attenuated stiffness is printed for the minimal and maximal
plate thickness.

The plate parts are already available in the printed beam internal forces and
moments and can be designed directly.
beam at FE node

beam which is connect ed


wit h kinemat ic const r aint s

CTRL PL AB 0
added plat e par t s

Figure 2.5: Beam internal forces

For comparison a load case can be calculated once without input of CTRL PLAB
and the second time with CTRL PLAB 0 and another load case number. The
beam internal forces and moments of both calculations can be represented then
with the same scale in a picture.
(More precise) calculation possibilities:

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-9

ASE | Theoretical Principles

Also with the above describes method, the normal forces occur in the compression zone (plate) first during the design of the T-beam. Normal forces are not
considered during the calculation of the FE system. The effective width has to
be estimated manually and defined. In reality the normal forces act from the
supports into the plate. For a more precise calculation three possibilities are described here. For all three variants the effective width is realized automatically
via the normal force calculation and has not to be input:
1.

The web part which is positioned below the plate can be defined as a beam
which lies eccentrically below the plate. Then two nodes lying upon each
other are however necessary for the system input. This complicates the
input. Problems occur also for the design, because the sum of the internal
forces from web+plate including the parts of Steiner are necessary for a
design of the total T-beam. The method is therefore only reasonable for
composite slabs with eccentrically defined steel beams (see ASE example
5.3).

kinemat ic const r aint

Figure 2.6: Eccentrical defined steel beam

2.

The web can be also generated with shell elements. The same problems
for the design result as for the eccentrical beam. In addition it should be
noted that the area in the intersection point plate-web is not defined twice:

Figure 2.7: Shell elements

3.

2-10

The SOFiSTiK offers the eccentrical plate elements as a real alternative.


The system is generated here with different thick plate elements. The plate
elements get a larger thickness in the area of the beams. A simply de-

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

fined node plane which lies at the upper edge of the plate is here necessary in the input. All elements can be defined eccentrically below the node
plane. Thereby all elements have the same upper edge, the thicker beam
elements stand only below out. Normal forces which are considered for
the design are produced due to the eccentrical position of the elements.
Thereby the usual plate design is done simultaneously the beam design - a
special beam design is therefore not necessary. The FE analysis uses here
automatically the real effective width via the simultaneous analysis of the
normal force distribution. This method is therefore applicable not only for
the analysis of building slabs but also for analysis of concrete bridges. Each
elements is processed for themselves alone during design and not the total
T-beam cross section! This method is however only correct for beams with
moderate thickness. The design can be uneconomical for larger beams
(web height larger than 2.5plate thickness), but it is in each case at the
sure side. The simple method with fictitious beams lying in the plate is
more practical for larger web heights.
See also tbeam_philosophy_e.pdf

eccent icit y
plane of t he
node point s

under side of t he
QUAD element s

cent r oid line of QUAD


lying below t he node plane

Figure 2.8: Eccentrical plate element

For all analysis methods the resultant internal forces and moments can be determined with the program SIR (Sectional Results). Afterwards a design as beam
cross section is possible, also for system 2 from folded structure elements. This
is especially necessary in bridge design for checks of the ultimate limit state and
for checks for safety against cracking.
Attention: This model can not be used for influence line evaluation with ELLA
because ELLA does not add the slab parts to the beam!
Literature:
K ATZ [10]

K ATZ

SOFiSTiK 2016

AND

S TIEDA [11], W UNDERLICH

ET AL .

[18], B ELLMANN [2],

2-11

ASE | Theoretical Principles

2.4

Pile Elements

A single pile is idealized through a straight, elastically supported beam with


shear deformations and 2nd order theory. It is numerically integrated with the
complete system of 12 differential equations. Pile elements get a minimal constraint of the rotational spring in order to prevent instabilities.
Example see single_pile.dat
These equations are integrated numerically with the Runge-Kutta method.
PLC analysis for piles:
In this way also system with pile elements can be used including creep in CSM.
Shrinkage will never be taken into account for piles, creep acts for the pile and
the bedding! If GRP PHIF is input this value is taken for both the pile and the
bedding.
The pile element is not contained in the basic licence of ASE.
2.4.1

Winkler Coefficient

The definition of the bedding constants requires a good engineering understanding of the problem. For their definition it is most important to take into account
that the Winkler coefficient is not a simple material property but depends on the
system dimensions and the loading. The Winkler coefficient defines the stress
caused by a given deformation whereas the influence of adjacent points (shear
deformations) is not taken into account. The dimension of a bedding is therefore
given as kN/ m3 . A displacement causes a stress (kN/ m2 ).
However, the pile bedding is defined in kN/ m2 since the pile width has to be
integrated into this value. In this case, a displacement causes a load (kN/ m).
Since the pile width influences also the Winkler coefficient, the pile dimensions
are dropped possibly from the equation and the pile Winkler coefficient can be
estimated also from the elastic modulus of the soil and a form factor.
For circular pile cross sections and a Poissons ratio of 0.4 a form factor of 1.12
can be derived. For a Poissons ratio of 0.0 the form factor would be 1.57. In
EBK 82 of the Road Traffic Department in Rheinland-Pfalz the extreme values
of the form factor are scheduled to be 0.5 and 2.0.
Simplifying to DIN 4014 a foundation modulus ks = Es / D (at D > 1.0m D = 1.0m
may be used) can be determined. For the input, the user has to multiply this
value with D because SOFiSTiK requires a beam bedding input k = D ks as

2-12

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

line-shaped foundation per m pile length.


2.4.2

Numerical Solution and Accuracy

In general, the set of differential equations can not be solved directly. Therefore,
for each pile, these equations are integrated numerically by the Runge-Kutta
method. The step width is controlled automatically to maintain a relative accuracy of 0.01 percent. The setting of higher error limits results in a reduction of the
CPU time. The setting of smaller error limits is reasonable up to a certain value,
which depends on the machine accuracy of the computer used. The reduction
of the error limit below a certain value is not reasonable because the computational error increases again due to the rounding errors in the high number of the
necessary additions.
In the case of an unbedded beam the step width can be set very large. By
contrast, for large Winkler coefficients the numerical calculation becomes more
difficult. As a criterion the characteristic length is used, defined as:
L=

p
4

4 E/ K

(2.1)

This value is an estimation of the distance between the zero points of the solution function. For reasons with reference to the numerical integration, the characteristic length should not become less than 1/5 up to 1/10 of the element
length. If this condition is not satisfied, great accuracy problems may occur
resulting in differential forces in the nodes which are pointed out in an error
message.
These problems can be overcome by subdividing a pile into more subelements.
In the case that a pile is subdivided into more elements, the placing of the nodes
at points of changing soil parameters (layers) is to be preferred over an uniform
subdivision.
Pile elements get a minimal constraint of the rotational spring in order to prevent
instabilities.
If otherwise nothing was specified, a linear analysis is performed. Non-linear
effects are:

Different bedding in various transverse directions (F1 - term of the series


sequence)

Limitation of the maximum bedding stresses

Second order theory

For these cases an iterative calculation has to be carried out.

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-13

ASE | Theoretical Principles

The program uses the Quasi-Newton method with constant stiffness matrix. To
obtain a better convergence the single increments are modified according to the
Crisfield method.
Literature: K ATZ [9]

2.5

Truss and Cable Elements

Truss and cable elements can transfer only axial forces. In the case of non-linear
analysis the cable elements can not sustain compressive forces.
Example see ase5_cable_trestle.dat
An internal cable sag is considered for geometrically non-linear analysis. In this
case the transverse loading of the cable is calculated for the cable geometry
(extensible plane prestressed cable). Without using internal cable sag a cable
can be subdivided into shorter individual cables. The resulting cable chains can
be analysed in a stable way with a prestress. For the control of the internal cable
sag please look at CTRL CABL too.

2.6

Spring Elements

Spring elements idealize structural parts by means of a simplified forcedisplacement relationship. This is usually a linear equation which is based on
the spring constant:
P=C

(2.2)

A spring is defined with a direction (dX, dY, dZ) and three spring constants.
The here implemented element allows the following non-linear effects which are
of course only usefully during a non-linear analysis:

prestress (linear effect)

failure
yield
friction with cohesion
slip

spring nonlinear work laws, please refer to section 3.36


springs with a reference area AR and a nonlinear material work law

2-14

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

Figure 2.9: Spring force-displacement diagrams

A prestress displaces the corresponding effects and produces always a loading


which acts on the structure. A prestress should not be defined in the system
generation because it acts in all loadcases. It is better to use the prestress in
ASE...PREX. A prestressed spring gets a relaxation in the absence of external
loading or constraints. The non-linear effects are considered both for rotational
and displacement springs. Friction can be defined with a lateral spring. The
force component perpendicular to the spring effect direction results from the
product of the displacement component in the lateral direction multiplied by the
lateral spring constant. The maximum value of this force, however, is equal to
the force in the primary direction multiplied by the friction coefficient plus the
cohesion. If the primary spring fails, the lateral spring gets eliminated too.
Spring loads are not included. A bearing lifting can be modelled in ASE with the
group prestress GRP PREX also for coupling springs.
Springs with a work law (see SOFIMSHA SARB) work with hysteresis by shifting the zeropoint of the work law curve after plastification. Examples see
a1_spring_overview.dat
e.g. spring_law_3_pkin_curve.dat

2.7

Boundary Elements BOUN and FLEX

The elastic boundary conditions do not represent actual elements. They describe the additional stiffnesses of the structure. Results are not saved in the
case of FLEX. The effect of the elements appears directly in the form of support
reactions at the corresponding nodes. For BOUN additional distributed boundary forces are stored for graphical output.
Distributed support reactions are determined for boundary elements with number (compare program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHC). If two boundaries are defined
at an edge, the distributed support reactions are calculated once only and they
are output for the boundary with the smaller boundary number. Single supports

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-15

ASE | Theoretical Principles

can not be considered by boundary elements.


A boundary element interpolates linearly the displacements between two nodes.
The resultant distribution of the stiffness matrix at the two nodes is
CR + 3 CL

CR + CL

CR + CL

CL + 3 CR

(2.3)

with:
CR = CA L/ 12
CL = CB L/ 12

CA,CB

spring constants at beginning/end

distance of nodes.

2.8

Shell Elements

The shell element implemented in program ASE is a surface element. The individual elements are plane and they lie in each case in a plane whose normal
is generated through the vector product ((X3-X1)(X2-X4)) of the diagonals. The
deviation of the elements plane from the nodes is taken into consideration by
means of additional eccentricities. The local coordinate system is oriented in
such a way that the z axis is given with the normal to the elements plane and
the local x axis can be selected freely. The default orientation is parallel to the
global XY plane with an angle smaller-equal than 90 degrees to the global X axis.
If the observer looks into the positive direction of the z axis (thus from above ),
then he watches the nodes numbered counter-clockwise. If the elements plane
coincides with the global XY plane, the local and the global coordinate systems
are then identical.

Figure 2.10: Local coordinate system

The element is implemented as a triangular as well as a quadrilateral element.

2-16

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

The triangular element is considerably worse than the quadrilateral element and
it should be used only, if no other choice of mesh partitioning can be found.
Generally it should not to be used in the vicinity of supports.

Figure 2.11: Internal forces and moments

Because the normal element remains plane, the bending and the membrane
structural behaviour of the individual element are decoupled. The element properties can be defined thus separately for the both components. Additionally the
consideration of the components of an elastic support and a numerically conditional stiffness for the rotations around the shell normal occurs still.
For a twisted element the membrane and plate parts are generated by decoupling. Then they are coupled with each other via the twist of the element. Thus
the element is able to represent curved shells very exactly. This was demonstrated with corresponding benchmarks.
The consideration of each structural behaviour can be specified in the program
SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHC for each particular element. The defaulted values are:
SYST FRAM

membrane structural behaviour only

SYST GIRD

plate structural behaviour only

SYST SPAC

additionally rotations around the normal

The elements defined in SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHC without load bearing behaviour are not considered for the structure. They can be referenced, however,
in the case of load cases with free loads. In this way, a load area which consists
of QUAD elements can be used for block loading of girders or three-dimensional
elements.
The ASE element is defined as a general quadrilateral. The accuracy of the
solution, however, depends on the geometry of the element, thus not all conceivable element shapes are permitted.
The optimum element is the square or the equilateral triangle. Rectangles and
parallelograms are the second-best shape and the general quadrilateral the
SOFiSTiK 2016

2-17

ASE | Theoretical Principles

third-best. General quadrilaterals with re-entrant corners are not allowed in the
element formulation.
A rectangle with a large side ratio a/b has difficulties in the representation of
the twisting moments and also for the bending near a corner. A ratio of 1:5 is
still tolerated in the program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHC and it should be exceeded
only in exceptions. The size ratio of two adjacent elements should not be smaller
than approx. 1:5. However, this value is relatively uncritical.
The ratio thickness to element dimension is uncritical, because a shear correction factor is applied. It should be clear to the user, however, that the shear
deformations in the case of thick plates result in deviations from the Kirchhoffs
theory. The ratio of the thicknesses of two adjacent elements should not be
smaller than 1:10 due to its cubic effect.
2.8.1

Plate Structural Behaviour

The ASE element for the plate structural behaviour is based on Mindlins plate
theory, as described in the implementations of H UGHES AND T EZDUYAR [8],
T ESSLER AND H UGHES [16] and C RISFIELD [4], with an extension of a nonconforming formulation.
The cross sections remain plane also according to Mindlins theory, however,
they are not perpendicular anymore to the neutral axis. The same shape functions as for the displacements are used for the additional shear rotations. The
total rotation is then the sum of the shear deformation and the bending rotation.

+ S

(2.4)

with:

deflection

total rotation

shear rotation

derivative w.r.t. x (similarly for y)

For the curvature and the shear angle we then have:


k =

2-18

(2.5)

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

ky =

ky =

(2.6)

S =

Sy = y

(2.7)

(2.8)

(2.9)

A general orthotropic accretion which includes the thicknesses as well as the


elastic moduli is formulated for the internal forces and moments:
m = B k By ky

(2.10)

my = By ky By k

(2.11)

my = Bd ky

(2.12)

= S S

(2.13)

y = Sy Sy

(2.14)

and

with the stiffnesses


B =

By =

E t3
12 (1
Ey ty3
12 (1

SOFiSTiK 2016

)
2

S =

)
2

Sy =

5
6

5
6

G t

(2.15)

G ty

(2.16)

2-19

ASE | Theoretical Principles

transverse bending stiffness


By =

3
E ty

12 (1 2

(2.17)

torsional stiffness
Bd =

G td3

(2.18)

12

with
E , Ey

elastic moduli

shear modulus

Poissons ratio

t , ty , ty , td plate thicknesses

In the isotropic case one must set t = ty = ty = td = t and E = Ey = E.


The orthotropic elastic moduli and thicknesses are rotated through the input of
an orthotropy angle OAL in the record MAT!
a) For orthotropic material (e.g. mathematical cross section of prestressed concrete or wood) it can be set:
By = Bd =

(2.19)

B By

To reach this the mathematical thickness for ty and td must be input in addition to the orthotropic input of E and Ey .
ty = td = t

(2.20)

By/ B

with B > By and ty = t .


b) For corrugated steel can be applied (Timoshenko)

z = sin

B =

2-20

E t3

12 (1 2 )

=1+

2

(2.21)

(2.22)

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

0.81
E t 2

By = 1
2

2
1 + 2.5 2

(2.23)

By 0

(2.24)

Bd =

E t3

2 12 (1 2 )

(2.25)

c) For web plates (y-axis in longitudinal direction) one can set:

ty = t 1 +

b to3

1/ 3

t3

(2.26)

ty = t

(2.27)

Bd = Bd (t ) + C/ (2 )

(2.28)

where:
C

torsional stiffness of the web,

, b

spacing and width of the web,

t , to

thickness of the plate and web.

Examples for orthotropic cases can be found e.g. in the book by T IMOSHENKO
AND W OINOWSKY-K RIEGER [17].
2.8.2

Membrane Structural Behaviour

The element formulation of the membrane stress state occurs either via a classical isoparametric formulation or probably via a similarly classical non-conforming
formulation written by Wilson and Taylor.
The thicknesses as well as the elastic moduli in different directions are taken
into consideration. The poisson ratio corresponding to Ex is used. For
anisotropic poissons ratio see chapter membrane structures and example
membrane_poisson_ratio.dat
n = S Sy y

SOFiSTiK 2016

(2.29)

2-21

ASE | Theoretical Principles

nyy = Sy y Sy

(2.30)

ny = G ty y

(2.31)

with the stiffnesses:


S =

Sy =

E t
1 2
Ey ty
1 2

Sy =

2.8.3

E ty
1 2

(2.32)

(2.33)

(2.34)

Elastic Foundation

The QUAD element can be expanded with stiffness components in order to describe an elastically supported area. Only appropriate inputs can activate this
foundation component.
The foundation can be defined both perpendicularly and tangentially to the area.
The non-linear effects like failure, yielding and friction may be specified.
An elastic foundation is an engineering trick used for the approximate modelling
of subsiding structures. The method is known from foundation engineering, however, it can be used also for the description of support conditions in structural
engineering.
The foundation coefficient indicates the stress resulting at a point which is subjected to a certain displacement. It is not a material constant, it is calculated
later with a settlement analysis. In principle, its value always consists of an
elastic modulus together with a geometrical dimension. The displacements of
adjacent points are independent of each other, since shear deformations are not
taken into consideration with this method.
A more exact analysis of foundations according to the stiffness modulus method
is possible with the program HASE.
The easiest case is a single compressible layer of uniform thickness h. The

2-22

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

calculation of the Winkler coefficient is achieved by applying a constant stress


and by computing the resultant displacement. In the case of hindered lateral
strain the result is
C=

(1 )

h (1 + ) (1 2)

Es
h

(2.35)

In analog mode one can obtain Winkler coefficients for multi-layered systems.
These coefficients are more acceptable as the layer becomes thinner in comparison to its deformation. If, however, the layer is relatively thick in comparison
to the loaded area, or if it is infinitely thick, the Winkler coefficient has to be estimated in a settlement analysis at the point of interest. The horizontal foundation
has usually the same order of magnitude.
Column heads are defined sometimes with elastic foundations, especially in the
case of masonry. By defining the Winkler coefficient one must keep in mind, that
a two-dimensional foundation develops a certain rotational spring effect which
is more important to the loading of a plate than the perpendicular displacement
spring.
A column of the height h which is supported articulated at its foot has a rotational
stiffness equal to
C =

3 E
h

(2.36)

This stiffness should correspond to a rotational spring foundation with


C = C

(2.37)

From that follows


C=

3E
h

(2.38)

The corresponding value for a column fixed at its foot is 4 E/ h.


Therefore it is correct to define a foundation three till four times higher, instead
of the Winkler coefficient E/h, in order to describe the rotational foundation properly. If, however, the plate is supported articulated on the column, this type
of foundation should not be used in any case because of its clamping effect
against rotation. In this case it is recommended to use a single point support of
a node and distribute the load by means of rigid or elastic elements (kinematic
constraints).
The foundation can be considered optionally as a single springs at the element

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-23

ASE | Theoretical Principles

nodes or as distributed foundation with a matrix. The use of single springs is


advised in the case of very stiff foundations and severe load concentrations.
The selection occurs with the input CTRL BTYP.
CTRL BTYP > 0 consistent foundation matrix (default)
CTRL BTYP < 0 single springs
Support reactions which result from a QUAD foundation are printed and stored
as nodal support reactions. Thus a graphical check of the support reactions is
facilitated.
2.8.4

Rotations around the Shell Normal

The rotational degree of freedom around the shell normal is not contained in
both load bearing behaviours. In order to prevent numerical difficulties for threedimensional structures, the Inplane-rotation of the nodes is coupled via a weak
torsional spring at the displacements of the corner nodes in an intern way.
2.8.5

Twisted Shell Elements

If not all four nodes of an element lie in a plane (e.g. in the case of a hypershell),
then the program defines an eccentric kinematic constraint of the corner nodes
at a plane element in a median plane in an intern way. Three-dimensional curved
structures may be analysed in this way with sufficient accuracy.
In the case of twisted shell elements as well as geometrically non-linear analyses (twisted elements are generated automatically with the latter), internal
springs are used now instead of the rotational stiffnesses mentioned in the previous paragraph. These springs convert the moment loading of a node around
the shell normal to axial forces in the shell. The shear stiffness of the elements
is modified slightly with this method, however, this is the only way to achieve
moment equilibrium at the nodes of three-dimensional curved structures.
2.8.6

Eccentrically Connected Shell Elements

In the case of T-beams, it is an advantage to lay all nodes in the plane of the
top surface of the plate and to connect the elements with different thicknesses
eccentrically to this plane. Then the T-beam effect is realized correctly.
The position of the elements is input in the program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHC
(e.g. QUAD ... POSI=BELO).
Additional explanations can be found in the school example Prestressed

2-24

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

Skewed T-beam Bridge.


2.8.7

Tendons in QUAD Elements

Prestressed cables defined with the program TENDON have the same element
number as the QUAD element that contains them. They are characterised additionally with a cable number and with construction stage numbers for installation,
grouting and a possible removal. They possess their own stiffness and are processed independently from the QUAD elements. Thus not only the deflecting
loads are applied to the structure, but also stress changes in the tendon are
calculated. The input occurs by the means of GRP CS.
Prestressing cables in the QUAD elements can be used only in a geometrically
linear analysis.
2.8.8

Non-conforming Formulation

The regular 4-node element is characterised through a bilinear accretion of the


displacements and rotations. This accretion describes a uniform variation of the
shear force and of the bending moment via a transformation. This element is
called conforming, because the displacements and the rotations between elements do not have any jumps. The results at the gravity centre of the element
represent the actual internal force variation fairly well, whilst the results at the
corners are relatively useless, especially the ones at the edges or at the corners
of a region.
Taylor and Wilson came up with the idea to describe more stress states through
additional functions that value is zero at all nodes. As a rule, these functions
lead to a substantial improvement of the results, however, they violate the continuity of displacements between elements. Thus they are called non-conforming
elements.
Two element variations are available in the program ASE. The selection of the
variations occurs via the CTRL option QTYP.
QTYP 0

regular conforming element according to H UGHES


[8] or Zienkiewicz

QTYP 1

non-conforming element with six functions based on H UGHES


T EZDUYAR [8] or Wilson (default value)

AND

T EZDUYAR
AND

Elements of type 0 can describe only uniform moments and membrane forces
inside them. Elements of type 1 can describe a linear moment variation, if they
are rectangular, whereas a general quadrilateral element can only do that approximately. Membrane forces can vary linearly.

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-25

ASE | Theoretical Principles

A corresponding non-conforming triangular element does not exist. Therefore


the use of these elements in combination with triangles should be avoided, if
possible.
More explanations of the element properties can be found in the manual of the
program TALPA.

2.9

Volume Elements

The volume element (BRIC) represents an elastic body and it is defined by


means of 8 nodes. Even uniform bending states of a structure can be realized
exactly via non-conforming accretions using hexaeders.
Tetraeder should not be used as the used linear shape functions can not represent a uniform bending states!
Please use WINTUBE for a graphical input or extrude Quad areas to a hexaedral
mesh - see example SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHC e.g. hex_handle.dat
But also with pure SOFIMSHA simple structures can be created using hexaeder,
e.g. bric_bucl.dat or more sofisticated water.dat
Orthotropic material properties can be defined with the help of a meridian and a
descend angle.
The following options are available in extensions:

Yield criteria for plastic analyses including analytical primary stress states

Import of temperature fields from program HYDRA (they can be applied to


the structure as loading)

Material laws of AQUA-NMAT are implemented especially for tunnel analysis,


e.g.:

Mise-Drucker-Prager (also for steel)

Mohr Coulomb

Lade (for concrete)

Materials CONC and STEE are only computed linear in volume elements! For a
nonlinear analysis with concrete or steel see:
Concrete: bric_concrete.dat
Steel: bric_steel_van_mise.dat

2-26

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

2.10

Primary Load Cases

For the analysis of construction stages or for the definition of load steps in geometrical non-linear analyses it is possible to use a previous load case. The
parameters of the primary stress state are defined group-wise for this purpose.
A detailed description of the method is also given in the TALPA manual.
Construction stages can be considered with different accuracies. The easiest
way, of course, is to analyse the construction stages with the respective structural system independently on each other and then proceed with the superposition and the design of the structure. The different statical systems can be
selected through the assignment of the elements in groups.
ASE has, however, also a very efficient possibility to use stresses and deformations of a primary load case which allow the complete consideration of effects
from creep or system change. See also module CSM Construction stage manager.
During application the user must keep in mind that each stress state in a single
element corresponds to an external loading of the element and is in equilibrium
with that loading.
ASE calculates now equivalent forces from the internal forces or stresses of the
elements and can apply them as loading (GRP...FACL). These forces create
a deformation state which counteracts the internal forces and makes them to
zero when the statical system is not changed. If a system change has taken
place in the meanwhile or if these loads have been applied with different factors,
corresponding inherent stress states result.
Following principal cases have to be distinguished:
1.

If the old loading is activated together with the primary state with a factor
GRP...FACL=1.0, new loads do not result. The stresses remain the same,
the deformations are zero. According to SYST...PLC the total deformations
or at SYST...PLC=0 only the addition deformations are output.

2.

If only the primary state is applied as loading with a factor GRP ... FACL=0,
the resultant loading is the primary load case with inverted sign. This gives
rise to unloading deformations that generate a stress state which becomes
zero together with the primary stress state in the case of free deformability.
This FACL=0 method should only be used in special cases. FACL=1 is the
usual default.

A graphical explanation to this can also be found in figure 2.19 :taking over the
primary load case

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-27

ASE | Theoretical Principles

If some elements are removed from the system of the primary stress state along
with their corresponding loads, the initial equilibrium is disturbed and forces arise
at the boundary nodes of the removed parts. The remaining elements expand
to the direction of the removed parts. If the primary state is generated analytically, the removed parts do not have to be defined once, because all necessary
information can be extracted from the remaining elements.
Using ECHO LOAD EXTR one can obtain an output of the internally generated
loading at every node. This option should be used generally during analyses
with primary states, because it is the best means for tracking down errors in the
description of the states. The really applied nodal loads (nodal load vectors) can
be represented with the program WinGRAF.
Further instructions can be found in the description of the record GRP in the
TALPA manual or in the examples.
See also figure 2.19 :taking over the primary load case

2.11

Non-linear Analyses

Non-linear effects can be analysed only with iterations. This is done in ASE
usually with a modified Newton method with constant stiffness matrix. The advantages of the method are that the stiffness matrix does not need to be decomposed more than once and that the system matrix remains always positive
definite. The speed of the method is increased through an accelerating algorithm written by Crisfield. This method notices the residual forces developing
during the iterations and calculates the coefficients e and f for the displacement
increments of the current and the previous step. A damping of the method can
be specified in the case of critical systems (SYST...FMAX<1.0).
For a geometric nonlinear analsis a Line Search technique with an update of
stiffness is used - see CTRL ITER.
Examples see -> Summary of example overviews
Following non-linear effects are implemented currently: please also refer to
NSTR in section 3.36:

Spring elements (failure, yield, slip, friction, work laws)

QUAD foundation elements (failure, yield, slip, friction)

Cable elements ( compression failure, material work laws)

Truss elements (tension failure, material work laws)

Nonlinear bedding for PILE elements

2-28

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

Nonlinear beam elements

Non-linear material laws for QUAD and BRIC elements

Geometrically non-linear analyses for all elements, cable sag, membranes

Tendons defined in the QUAD elements with the program TENDON can be used
only in geometrically linear analysis.
For TRUS, SPRI, CABL, BEAM, QUAD and BRIC in a geometrically non-linear
analysis the initial stress matrix is added to the stresses of the primary stress
state (for TRUS, SPRI and CABL without reference to a primary stress state, the
prestress from the program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHC is used for this purpose see CTRL CABL). Thereby the iterations are markedly more stable when referring to a primary load case and the ultimate load can be calculated more precisely. A stability failure is recognized also in this way, even in the cases without
unplanned initial deformation (an unstable system is reported, if the stresses of
the primary state exceed the buckling load, i.e. the total stiffness matrix is negative). Since it is reported here, that the PLC was actually unstable, this feature
is only meaningful in the case of small load steps.
A module for the ultimate load calculation ULTI increases or decreases the load
step-by-step until it reaches a still sustained loading.
Initial deformations of the structure can be read as results of already analysed load cases with the record SYST...PLC...FACV. With GRP...FACL=0 and
FACP=0 the initial deformation is applied without stresses. This can also be
done more clearly with OBLI (the OBLI oblique position or predeformation can
also be mixed with a primary stress state SYST PLC). In the stored results, the
initial deformation is added to the incremental displacements of the actual loadcase. With CTRL DIFF the increment can be stored separately. Deformations
from a modal analysis (bucling eigenvalue) can be used as initial deformation via
scaling with FACV or OBLI see ase9_quad_euler_beam.dat task (ULTI iteration
... with predeformation)
Non-linear analyses are not possible with the basic version.

2.12

Non-linear Analysis of Plates and Shells

2.12.1

Overview

The Layer-Model allows the layering of the material properties in a QUAD-shell


element. The model can be implemented for laminated glass, laminated wood
plates or other composite plates. The layer technique can be also implemented
for the non-linear calculation of elements consisting of a homogeneous mate-

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-29

ASE | Theoretical Principles

rial. In this case it is used to establish the positions of the individual layers. This
method is especially suited for the non-linear calculation of plates and shells
consisting of steel and reinforced concrete. Up to now the non-linear construction material models, steel and concrete, have been implemented for the shellelements.
Example

Input file

Concrete

a1_introduction_example.dat

Steel

ase12_buckling_slab.dat

Ulimate load - verification

nonlinear_quad_concrete_beam.dat

pdf for that

nonlinear_quad_concrete_beam.pdf

Arch pure concrete

arch_bridge.dat

Steel_fibre_concrete

steel_fibre_concrete.dat

Sector tank

concrete_tank_cracked.dat

Fire design

quads_on_fire_1.dat

pdf for that

quads_on_fire_1_english.pdf

-> Example overviews

-> Summary of example overviews

The relaxation in individual layers, due to former plastification, is considered by


consistently saving the results in all the layers of the elements (hysteresis effect
for the bending of plates). This could create residual stresses over the crosssectional height, even after total relaxation.
By means of the concrete law one can even consider creep and shrinkage effects for a cracked shell-element (The redistribution of stress, from concrete to
the reinforced steel, due to creep and shrinkage).
Several other advantages of the layer technique become apparent during the
visualisation of the results. Besides the output of the numerical results in the
different layers of the element one also has the option to graphically view the
stresses over the element thickness in the program called ANIMATOR (choose
a loadcase and double klick an element).
2.12.2

Input of the Materials

The calculation program ASE can evaluate an analysis for either the workingor the failure-stress level. It is advisable to use the option ECHO MAT YES in
ASE, which checks the material values. The really used stress-strain curves of
the material are plotted then and the significant values are printed.
Examples for a free work law input:

2-30

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

Work law input

Input file

Spring work law

a1_spring_overview.dat

.z.B. kinematic hardening

spring_law_3_pkin.dat

Concrete work law

steel_fibre_concrete.dat

Steel work law

ase12_buckling_slab.dat

Layer Sperrholzplatte

ase.dat/english/special/timber_quad_layer.dat

Layer Hohlkrperbeton

bubble_deck.dat

-> Example overviews

-> Summary of example overviews

Preset Stress-Strain Curves in AQUA


Without any different defaults for the material parameters one gets from AQUA
with following input:
ECHO MAT FULL
$ for output of the stress-strain curves $
NORM DIN 1045-1 $ acc. to DIN 1045-1 $
$----------------Concrete:----------------------------------$
CONC 1 TYPE C 25 $ standard C25/30 $
STEE 2 BST 500SA $ reinforcement $

the stress-strain curves which are represented below for the desired concrete.
Here are according to chapter 9.1.5 of DIN 1045-1 (02.07):
sig-u (red)

Stress-strain-curve for the cross section design (parabolarectangle-diagram) according to equation (65) and (66) [ 4]
.

sig-r (blue)

Stress-strain-curve for non-linear methods of the determination of internal forces and moments according to equation
(62) with fc = fcR [ 4] .

sig-m (green) Stress-strain-curve for non-linear methods of deformation


analysis according to equation (62) with fc = fcm [ 4] .

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-31

ASE | Theoretical Principles

Figure 2.12: AQUA plot of the standard stress-strain curves for concrete C 25/30
according to DIN 1045-1 (07.02)

In analog mode one gets the stress-strain curves for the reinforcement according
to chapter 9.2.3 and 9.2.4 of DIN 1045-1 (07.02):

Figure 2.13: AQUA plot of the standard stress-strain curves for reinforcement
500S(A) according to DIN 1045-1 (07.02)

ASE uses the stress-strain curves from AQUA. In this way also arbitrary stressstrain curves which are defined manually can be considered.
Following requirements are to be considered for the input of the stress-strain
curve type in order to select the correct curve during calculation in ASE with
record NSTR. The stress-strain curve for concrete as well as for steel is defined
with the item KSV in record NSTR and without the input for KSB. If a stress-

2-32

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

strain curve is defined for KSV and for KSB, KSV sets the curve for concrete
and KSB for the reinforcement. In this way arbitrary combinations are possible.
Types and designations of the stress-strain curves in AQUA and ASE
Designation of the
stress-strain curve

Type in AQUA record


SSLA

sig-u (red): design

ULTI

Selection in ASE NSTR


without/with safety
coefficient
UL / ULD

sig-r (blue): non-linear


internal forces and
moments
sig-m (green): non-linear
deformations

CALC

CAL / CALD

SERV

SL / SLD

Following AQUA input defines a new serviceability stress-strain curve for concrete as well as for reinforcement with the safety 1.3:
$-- Input of an example stress-strain curve for serviceability limit
state: $
SSLA SERV 1.3 $ first SSLA record defines the type of the stressstrain curve $
$ The value after type of the stress-strain curve sets the
corresponding $
$ safety coefficient $
SSLA
EPS
SIG
TYPE
0.30
0.0
$ tensile zone $
0.09
2.1
0
0
$-------------$
-1.1
-17.8
spl
-2.0
-24.0
spl
-3.5
-23.0
$ compression zone $
-4.5
0
$---------------- reinforcement: --------------------------------$
STEE 2 BST 500SA
$-- Input of an example stress-strain curve for serviceability limit
state: - $
SSLA SERV 1.3 $ first SSLA record defines the type of the stressstrain curve $
$ The value after type of the stress-strain curve sets the
corresponding $
$ safety coefficient $
SSLA
EPS
SIG
TYPE=POL
-50
-525
$ compression zone $
-25
-525

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-33

ASE | Theoretical Principles

-2.3
0
2.3
25
50

-500
0
500
525
525

$-------------$
$ tensile zone $

The stress-strain curves which are input in this way can be seen and checked
as modified serviceability stress-strain curve (sig-m / green) in the AQUA output
of the material values and in the plot of the stress-strain curves:

Figure 2.14: AQUA plot with manually defined stress-strain curve sig-m (green) for
concrete

Temporary Material Control Parameters in ASE


In ASE record CTRL item CONC there are extended input possibilities for the
material law for non-linear reinforced concrete. On the one hand the control
parameters can be input here for consideration of the multiaxial stress state. On
the other hand a temporary modification of the in AQUA defined material values
FCT and FCTK, which is only valid in the current ASE calculation, can be done
here also.
Selection of a Stress-Strain Curve for an ASE Calculation
The selection of a preset or manually defined stress-strain curve is done with an
input in the ASE record NSTR (items KSV and /or KSB). Possible temporarily
different inputs for the concrete tensile strengths and the consideration of the
multiaxial stress state can be done with record CTRL CONC.

2-34

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

Check of the Material Values in ASE


In order to increase the transparency of the calculation the material values and
further definitions for the non-linear material law which is in each case used
in the calculation are also output in ASE. For this purpose it is necessary to
set ECHO MAT YES. Then it follows here a definition of the analysis method
for consideration of the crack widths and the tension stiffening as well as the
output of all relevant parameters. In addition a presentation of the actually used
stress-strain curves of the materials as well as a detailed plot of the concrete
stress-strain curve in tensile zone are printed in the URSULA output.

Figure 2.15: Plot of the used concrete stress-strain curve in ASE

Figure 2.16: Detailed plot of the tensile zone of the concrete stress-strain curve in
ASE

For laminated timber or laminated glass calculations a QUAD element can be


defined about the height also with variable material composition. The materials
for the individual layers are saved at first in AQUA how usual in separate

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-35

ASE | Theoretical Principles

material numbers. Then MLAY is used to define a composite material, which is


input according to the layer arrangement. First the layer-thicknesses t0, t1, t2, t3
and t4 are defined, which are then followed by the respective material numbers:
Layer t0
6 mm thick out of material 11,
Layer t1

3 mm thick out of material 12 etc... :

PROG AQUA
MATE 11 E
60e3
MUE 0.2
MATE 12 E
0.8e3
MUE 0.3
$ glass-plastic-glass $
MLAY NO 1 T0 0.006 11 $$
T1 0.003 12 $$
T2 0.003 12 $$
T3 0.003 12 $$
T4 0.006 11
END

$ glass $
$ plastic $

Figure 2.17: Heterogeneous Layers

The intermediate layers t2+t3 were defined only for a more clear output! The
layer material No. 1 can be used only for QUAD elements.
Example MLAY input see bubble_deck.dat
or for a timber slab: timber_quad_layer.dat
Note: The analysis is according to plate theory, i.e. assuming that the crosssection does not have planar deformation! The displacement of the plates between each other is not taken into account. For this one would have to couple
the plates with springs!
This model is not suited for the analysis of local failure at the coupling points
of laminated glass plates, because for such an analysis the planar deformation
of the cross-sections is very important. At these points one could evaluate a
spatial stress-state, which can only be depicted by volume elements.
Any arbitrary material can be used basically also orthotropic as layer for nonlinear analyses.

2-36

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

Figure 2.18: Laminated plate

At the moment only layers from the material concrete or steel are processed
non-linearly. The loading and unloading curve is generated independent on each
other (hysteresis).
2.12.3

Analysis Basics

Linear Analysis
Bending
The total moment of inertia of a layered element is made up by the sum of each
layers moment of inertia and the Steiner-part of the individual layers. Here an
eccentricity of the centroids position could be created due to stiffer layers on one
side of the element, e.g. sandwich-element with different top-layer thicknesses.
The eccentricity is established automatically and is considered for simple plate
bending, it also leads the correct length deformation of the elements. This effect also becomes apparent for an eccentric connection with a homogeneous
element.
The input of orthotropic materials is not allowed, due to the occurrence of various
eccentricities in various directions. This is blocked by the program and leads to
an error message.
Linear normal-stresses in the layers are generated by the strains in the layers.
They are calculated as usual by the stress-strain matrix D of the material in a
layer:
= D

(2.39)

where the matrix D can also be orthotropic.


The linear total stress is made up of all the stress components including the
allowed factors out of the ASE-GRP input:
= FACP FCREEP2 ,PLC +
+ FACS FCREEP1 D ( + ,LOAD ) + (2.40)

with:
SOFiSTiK 2016

2-37

ASE | Theoretical Principles

,PLC

Primary stress (initial stress)

FACP

Factor of the primary stress record ASE-GRP

FACS

Factor of the stiffness record ASE-GRP

FCREEP1

Stiffness reduction creep and shrinkage without PLC


FCREEP1 = 1 / (1+PHI) with PHI from record ASE-GRP

FCREEP2

Reduction of the primary stress through creep and shrinkage,


by taking over the primary load case with ro and dphi from
record GRP
FCREEP2 = 1 - dphi/(1 + rodphi))
(dphi = creep increment of a creep step component)

,LOAD

Load expansion (temperature or expansion load)

Pre-stress (record GRP-PREX)

The GRP factor FACL is generally multiplied to the primary load-case as a value
of 1.0. It generates the expansion loads from the primary stresses ,PLC . If the
stresses of the PLC together with the loads of the PLC are multiplied with the
factors FACL=1.0 and FACP=1.0, then the system will remain in equilibrium and
no additional expansions or displacements are created. The FACL expansion
loads are then in equilibrium with the external loads:

Figure 2.19: Load equilibrium when taking over the primary load case without any
new loads

The nodal load resulting from FACL and the element stress is generated because the element wants expand due to the primary compressive stress.
The internal forces and moments are calculated by integrating the stresses in
the layers, over the element thickness of each layer.

2-38

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

Shear
Initially the shear stiffnesses of the individual layers are summed up for the stiffness determination.
The following equation is used to calculate the shear stress from the shear force
q.
=

q S
b

(2.41)

For homogenous material definitions, in the linear domain, this would result in a
parable-shaped shear stress distribution over the height of the element, with the
maximum value of m = 1.5 q/ h. For sandwich elements, with thick (strong)
top-layers, it would mean that a nearly constant shear stress is present in the
middle of the element; given by m = 1.0 q/ h (h=element thickness).
Non-linear Analysis STEEL
Example see ase12_buckling_slab.dat
For a non-linear analysis, the calculation of the new linear stresses is initially
made by assuming a linear material behaviour for every layer xi. The following
applies when proceeding with the primary load case:
= ,PLC + D d

(2.42)

= ,PLF + d

(2.43)

and

(simplified)
The total stress is therefore not just put together by the total strain multiplied
with the stiffness, instead it might be that the non-linear eigen-stresses of the
individual layers of ,PLC have to be considered. For the consistent treatment
of the problem, including the correct generation of the loading- and unloading
curves of the layer model, it is of importance that not only the internal forces and
moments are stored in the database, but also all the stress in all the layers and
all the Gauss-points. This information is needed for the next load case as ,PLC .
From these initial linear stresses a new linear comparison stress is calculated:
For QUAD elements the following applies:
=

2 + 3 2 + 3 2
2 + y2 y + 3y

(2.44)

where y = disc shear and , y = plate shear perpendicular to the plate.

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-39

ASE | Theoretical Principles

If the so calculated linear comparison stress , is above the allowed stress


(by considering the hardening, which is calculated by summing up the plastic
strains, by entering a trilinear stress-strain curve); then first of all the linear component is established (Break-through point through the plastic area). Then the
remaining strain increment d with the elastoplastic material matrix D-P is applied incrementally, with the consideration of possible hardening. The non-linear
relaxation lies on the surface of the plastic area. The number of plastic increments of the strain increment can be changed in the input CTRL MSTE. The
non-linear material behaviour is according to the elasto-plastic plastic-law, described in TALPA, which is according to van MISE and includes hardening. For
more information on this topic you are referred to Z IENKIEWICZ [21].
The following diagram results from uniaxial stress:

Figure 2.20: Uniaxial stress

In the case of combined stress, which is made up of normal stress (N/ A M/ )


and shear force stress, it is assumed that on reaching the elasticity limit (plastic area) the shear stress (from the shear force) remains constant and can not
be increased any further through hardening. The thus established shear force
stress is then basically substituted as a constant component into the calculation
of the comparison stress. It has started to plasticising. This would then lead
to the following: e.g. in plate bending; the shear stresses in the plastified plate
edge would not increase anymore, however in the middle of the plate they would
still get bigger, this in turn would cause a deviation from the parable-shaped
shear stress distribution over the plate thickness, which would in turn cause a
concentration of the shear stresses in the middle of the plate.

2-40

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

Non-linear Analysis CONCRETE


Examples see ase.dat\...\nonlinear_quad\ a1_introduction_example.dat The
following literature was consulted on the concrete material law: S TEMPNIEWSKI
AND E IBL [14], F EENSTRA AND D E B ORST [6], S CHIESSEL [12]
Following current assessments and explanations are mentioned here additionally: XX [20], Z ILCH AND R OGGE [22], B ELLMANN AND R TZER [3], XX
[19], S CHNEIDER [13]
The material behaviour of reinforced concrete can be described by the following
properties:

Non-linear stress-strain curve in tension and compressive zone

Contribution of the concrete between cracks (tension stiffening)

Non-linear material behaviour of the steel inserts

Simplified check of the plates shear stress

ASE performs a nonlinear analysis with a given reinforcement. An increase


of reinforcement can be controlled via REIQ-CHKS.

Usual procedure:
The element is subdivided into NLAY layers. The stresses sigma-x, sigma-y
and tau-xy and the principal stresses sigma-I and sigma-II are calculated for
every layers boundary. For each principal stress direction a stress-strain curve
is generated, which results from the principal stress relation in the respective
direction. The thus established non-linear stresses are then integrated over all
the layers to find the internal forces. After this all the forces of the reinforcement
including the tension-stiffening-effect are added. Finally an independent check
is made for the plates shear stresses.
The following is a list of the concrete parameters taken from record CONC:
CONC-FC

= calculation value of the concrete stiffness

CONC-FCT

= average tension stiffness for tension stiffening

CONC-FCTK

= lower fractile of the tension stiffness for bare concrete

CONC-GC

= GC compression fracture energy

CONC-GF

= GF tension fracture energy

CONC-MUEC = friction value in the crack splice


Further inputs in ASE:

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-41

ASE | Theoretical Principles

LC - BET2

= load duration coefficient (beta2)

CTRL - NLAY = number of layers to be calculated >=6,


default = 10
Analysis on Serviceability Stress Level
Using the 1.0-times serviceability loads the maximum desired stress is input for
this serviceability state at the material. The deformation and crack width to be
expected is in this case mostly interesting. The input of the concrete tensile
strength of the (pure) concrete layer is particularly important. This value is input
in AQUA in CONC...FCTK and it can be modified subsequently temporarily in
ASE with CTRL CONC V3+V4. The serviceability stress-strain curve without any
additional material safeties is requested then in ASE (NSTR KSV SL = default).
The selection of a realistic concrete tensile strength fctk (pure strength without
reinforcement) is here very important. If fctk or CTRL CONC V4 is not input, the
plate remains in uncracked state I. It can be therefore reasonable to decrease
the value e.g. onto 60 % in order to consider a crack predamage from construction stage (hydration heat). On the other hand realistic deflections are resulted
often only with a high initial value for fctk.
Analysis with gamma-times Loads
If using gamma-times loads the corresponding material stress-strain curve has
to be selected in record NSTR in ASE. There are two possibilities that are also
well shown in the beam example aseaqb_1_column_cracked.dat :

Analysis according to "non-linear method": Here an averaged material safety


of 1.3 is used. The material strengths are modified for this purpose. They
are available AQUA and can be requested in ASE with NSTR KSV CALD.

Analysis in ultimate limit state NSTR KSV ULD

In both cases the pure concrete alone must include any tensile strengths. CTRL
CONC V4 0.0 or 0.01 must be input!
The increase of the steel stress due to the concrete action between the cracks
may be brought into approach (default for fct or CTRL CONC V3).
A non-linear analysis for the ultimate limit state is particularly necessary for additional effects from second-order theory. Such an analysis with temporarily
switched-off tensile strength of the pure concrete causes however often big deformations and bad convergences.
A reasonable procedure is therefore often also a determination of the internal

2-42

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

forces and moments with average values of the material strengths (analysis
in serviceability limit state) and a definitive design of the redistributed internal
forces and moments with an average load safety coefficient (e.g. 1.45)
Futher explanations see example a2_nonlinear_slab.dat
Non-linear Stress-Strain Curve in the Compressive Zone
The maximum concrete compression strength beta-ic, found in the compressive
zone, is reduced from the principal stress relation. Beta-ic can either be read
from the Kupfer curve, or it can be calculated by the respective equations [ 1] ,
pg. 260.

Figure 2.21: Biaxial failure curve according to Kupfer-Hilsdorf-Ruesch

With this maximum value beta-ic an uniaxial stress-strain line can be generated
according to the concrete stress-strain curve for every of both principal stress
directions.
An increase value higher than 1.0 is only allowed for calculations in serviceability limit state. For calculations with gamma-times loads (ultimate limit state)
this increase is deactivated in the default, because it is mostly desired that the
maximum stress increases about the basic value of the concrete compressive
strength beta-ic - see CTRL CONC V2.
A reduction of the permissible compressive stresses due to lateral tension (and
lateral cracks) is taken into account and can be adapted with CTRL CONC V6.
SOFiSTiK 2016

2-43

ASE | Theoretical Principles

The maximum reduction is reached with a transverse tension stress of fctk (or
at least -0.05*fcm) and remains on this level also on higher tensile strains.
In case the maximum concrete compression strength is modified, the work law
must be adapted. To keep the start E modulus as well as the strain for max.
strength, the worklay is compressed from 0.0-1.0 permille strain and lengthened
in 1.5-2.5 permille.
Tensile zone
In the tensile zone of concrete, the maximum value beta-z, is always taken as
the lower fractile of the concrete stiffness fctk. The length of the descending
curve results from the tension crack energy GF of the processing zone. Typical
values lie between 0.10 and 0.25 Nmm/mm2 . The program restricts the length
of the descending curve to 5epslin - see CTRL CONC VAL.
If a stress-strain curve for concrete is already defined in the tensile zone
in AQUA, then this one is used instead of the here described programinternal curve! Thus it is possible to calculated steel fibre concrete ->
steel_fibre_concrete.dat

Figure 2.22: Uniaxial stress-strain curve for the tensile zone

The element is seen as cracked as soon as the tensile-strain crosses the linear
limit value of epslin. Any further strain is stored as plastic tensile-strain and is
taken into account for reloading after an element has been unloaded (hysteresis). Due to the possibility of excessive tensile stiffness perpendicular to the
first crack, the program has to store two plastic tensile-strains at each point (first
crack and second crack).
It could be that a crack has already emerged when a primary load case is taken
over. In this case the fixed crack direction of the primary load case is used for the
calculation of the stresses. For this calculation the strains in the direction of the
crack and perpendicular to it are used. When a possible shear stress is present
2-44

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

at the crack it is lowered by a simple friction consideration (Crack-toothing input


with AQUA-CONC-MUEC). This would prevent the occurrence of a second crack
perpendicular to the first crack. For biaxial coated material, without the primary
load case, two cracks are always perpendicular to each other.
In case the primary load case was cracked and the tensile strain goes back to
0 again, ASE does not only goes back to the (0,0) stress point but takes into
account a remaining strain of the crack zone. So a cracked girder remains a
little bit curved after unloading.
This is done by going back not to (0,0) but to a so called compression zero point.
In ASE this point lies at 80% of eps-z (eps-z = strain reaching tensile strength).
From there (0.8*eps-z,0) again compression can develop.
Reinforcement
The program takes the defined reinforcement as the default reinforcement. The
non-linear analysis is then performed for the default reinforcement. An automatic
increase in lacking structural safety does not take place! It is therefore the users
responsibility to check the certainty of the convergence of the analysis! Possible
residual forces of the non-linear iteration have to be checked. Since these residual forces are stored as support forces they can be checked with the program
WinGRAF, this is done by generating a plot of the support forces. During a plate
analysis residual forces are also generated in the plates plane (normal forces),
this is because the program needs to find equilibrium of the normal stresses.
The reinforcement parameters and a given minimum reinforcement is taken
from BEMESS-PARA or from the corresponding SSD design parameter dialog. REIQ is used to import a reinforcement from a previously generated BEMESS-analysis. The recommended method is used in the example
a2_nonlinear_slab.dat . An analysis can also be made with non-reinforced
concrete, when no reinforcement is defined. Further information on the program
ASE can be found in the chapter Definition of Reinforcement as well as the
latest TEDDY-Help .
The consideration of the tension stiffening is done generally with a modification
of the steel stress-strain curve described in [ 2] page 269. Since ASE 11.76-21
the consideration in serviceability limit state (NSTR SL/SLD) occurs according
to the method of SchieSSl (DAfStB Heft 400) or EC 2, because more realistic
deformation values result here. For the ultimate limit state and the non-linear
determination of the internal forces and moments (NSTR UL/ULD or CAL/CALD)
the consideration of the tension stiffening is done according to the simplified
method of the modified steel strains according to DAfStB Heft 525. For a better
clarity the in each case used method in ASE is output again at the non-linear
properties of the plane elements.

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-45

ASE | Theoretical Principles

Please note, that the serviceability analysis (NSTR KSV SL) should be done
usually according to Heft 400 also for DIN 1045-1 and respectively acc. EN
1992-1-1, because it leads to a better agreement with the test result according
our experiences.

Figure 2.23: Simplified method of the tensile stiffening acc. to Heft 525 (Bild H
8-4)

As the pure concrete layers also work in tension, the following working method
is used:

In a first step the strains in the steel layers in reinforcement direction are
determined. These strains are equal to the mean steel strains sm according
to S CHIESSEL [12].

Using the tensile working law the two majoring strains I and II are determined
based on the actual tensile strength amd the process zone length LZ (see
below):
I:

average strain when cracking starts

II: average strain for finished crack development = at the end of the decreasing part of the tensile work law

The streel stress is now calculated as follows:

In interval 0-I the steel stress is linear, concrete works linear.

In interval I-II the additional strain due to tension stiffening is interpolated


linear. Concrete descends linear.

2-46

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

After II the full effect of tension stiffening is applied, concrete stress is


0. Reaching the steel yielding point a trilinear part follows,e.g. the steel
working law is used.

The process zone length LZ is calculated as follows:


example EC=27700 GF=0.3 fctk=3.71:
Process zone length LZ = GF*EC/FCTK/FCTK = 0.3*27.7/3.71/3.71 = 0.605
m
In SOFiSTiK this length is limited to 0.400 m, because otherwise an FCTK
of e.g. 0.5 N/mm2 would result in a very long and unrealistic length. In
TFinite Elemente im Stahlbeton - Betonkalender 1993/I StempniewskiT a
value between 200-600 mm is recommended.

With this process zone length LZ and GF a crack opening delta= 2 * GF /


FCTK can be calculated. With eps=delta/LZ the length of the descending
part will be DEPSX= 0.404 promille (relative to LZ). This value is then limited
to 5*length of the increasing part = 5*0.134 - not controlling here. This strain
DEPSX is used in ASE for the plot of the stress strain curve U that means
for an element with the element gauss point size LZ.

In the real analysis now this strain DEPSX= 0.404 promille is scaled to the
actual element gauss point size.
e.g.
element area = 0.05m*0.05m = 0.0025m2 = per gauss
point 0.000625m2 -> element gauss point size L_Gauss = squareroot(0.000625m2) = 0.025m.

For an actual element with L_Gauss > LZ, DEPSX_GAUSS is calculated


to DEPSX_GAUSS = DEPSX*LZ/L_Gauss (descending part is shortened).

For an actual element with L_Gauss < LZ, DEPSX_GAUSS = DEPSX.


That means that the descending part will not be elongated!

So for an element size of 0.05m*0.05m a descending part of


DEPSX_GAUSS = DEPSX = 0.404 promille is taken into account.

For the new design codes (and without the input of CTRL CONC V5 400) the
crack width is then calculated according to DIN 1045.1 11.2.4 or according
to the Eurocode equation.
The average force of the steel insert is calculated by multiplying the steel
stress for the crack cross section in the cracked condition (state II) s with
the reinforced concrete area. This value is added to the concretes internal
forces and moments.
The crack widths are first calculated in the direction of the reinforcement!
If the crack direction is not perpendicular to the reinforcement, the crack

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-47

ASE | Theoretical Principles

distance and the crack width are modified according to EN 1992-I-I 7.3.4(4).
For non-reinforced elements it is only possible to calculate one crack direction, but the crack width can not be established. The the average strain is
plotted as crack width.
For steel fibre concrete without additional reinforcement the crack distance
es fixed to 140 mm. For steel fibre concrete with real reinforcement a correction factor 1-alfaf is taken into account (DAfStb-Richtlinie for steel fibre
concrete, DIN EN 1992-1-1, new text (R.6)P and (R.7)P).
The coefficient describing the connection properties is to be defined in AQUASTEE. The factor for the influence of the load period is input in ASE-LC.
For ultimate limit state the calculation is done according to Heft 525, if DIN 10451, DIN FB 102 or EN 1992-1-1 is set.
Shear force
The shear stresses for the concrete law are not calculated for each layer, as is
the case for the plastic yield criteria of STEEL, instead a simple shear limitation
of the shear force is set with an assumed shear stress in the cracked condition
(state II) of
= q/ z = q/ (0.8 h)

(2.45)

where h represents average of all the reinforcement layers.


If the linear calculated shear stress rises over the input value 02 , then the
shear force is reduced accordingly and the element undergoes plastic shear
deformation. The value 02 is input with ASE-CTRL FRIC in N/mm2 and the
default value is set to 2.4 N/mm2 . With TAU2...V2 a descending part with a final
strength can be defined.
The shear limitation is only calculated for the centre of gravity. Then it is proportionally assigned to all the Gauss points.
If a BEMESS calculation with punching occurs before the non-linear ASE calculation, then a check of the shear stresses in ASE is not done in the areas of the
punching point. In fine meshes around a punching node also the support force
is distributed to round up the bending (peak smoothing see following chapter
and CTRL BETO V7).
If this is not the case or if the permissible shear stress is exceeded at other singular points, an undesirable shear plasticity can be switched off with an increase
of CTRL TAU2 onto e.g. 9.9 N/mm2 if required. Then a shear or punching check

2-48

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

has to be done however separately.


Procedure of a Reinforced Concrete Plate Analysis
Usually the system is to be defined as a three-dimensional system, this is because the crack opening will cause horizontal node displacements, even in the
plate analysis. For the special case of a reinforced-concrete plate analysis the
system can also be entered as a girder grid SYST ROST - the program will then
automatically introduce a horizontal statically determinate support.
The first step would involve a linear analysis of the individual load cases, a superposition of the load cases and a reinforced concrete design calculation of the
linear internal forces and moments. BEMESS will store the required reinforcement dimensions under the design case number 1 (see BEMESS-CTRL-LCR).
Subsequently a state load case has to be put together for the non-linear analysis.
For the calculation of long-term deformations the load case components consist
of self weight and a portion of the imposed load. A linear analysis of this load
case is made, which is needed as a comparative reference later on. Now the
non-linear analysis of this load case, under a different load case number and
with a predefined reinforcement, is calculated (design parameter from BEMESSPARA and input for ASE-REIQ).
The convergence of this non-linear analysis needs to be checked. The program
finds a stable solution for the case where the energy remains the same (Energy
convergence). Varying residual forces might occur due to inadequate convergence in the normal force directions. These are generally not of importance, but
should be checked with WinGRAF...nodes...residual forces.
The first load case of the non-linear analysis is usually calculated by excluding
creep and shrinkage. Subsequently another non-linear calculation is made, including creep and shrinkage, under a different load case number. This is done
so that the different effects can be compared and evaluated. It is also advisable
to generate several calculations where the concrete stiffness FCTK is altered,
due to the fact that this parameter has a significant impact on the entire analysis.
The entire analysis should then be verified with the following load case results:

linear analysis of the state load case

non-linear analysis without creep and shrinkage

non-linear analysis with creep and shrinkage

Definition of the Reinforcement

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-49

ASE | Theoretical Principles

The input REIQ...LCR...FACT is used to take over the reinforcement from the design load case LCR, generated in BEMESS, with a factor FACT. But the amount
of reinforcement is limited by a minimum and maximum value, defined in the
design parameters in BEMESS-PARA or the SSD design parameter dialogue
box.
A minimum reinforcement is applied also without a REIQ input.
The new reinforcement is saved under the design load case LCRS (default
LCRS=99) and can or should be visualized and checked with WinGRAF.
The following rules apply for the concrete cover, the steel bar diameters and
the reinforcement directions:
Concrete cover: Distance to the centroid of the reinforcement:
Is taken over from the design parameters (BEMESS-PARA or SSD)
or:
from a SOFiPLUS definition from the database
or used as a default of 60 mm
Steel bar diameter: Same procedure as the centroid distance
default 10 mm
Reinforcement directions:
They are:
taken over at first from the design parameters
(BEMESS-PARA or SSD)
possible overwrote with a SOFiPLUS definition.
For the case where BEMESS results are taken over and
no
directions have been defined by SOFiPLUS:
Then the directions of BEMESS are used
Otherwise:
The reinforcement direction from SOFiPLUS is used. The
smallest angle deviation is added to already defined
directions, for reinforcements from BEMESS.
0 and 90 degree steel is assumed for the case where
nothing has been defined.

2-50

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

2.12.4

Rounding off over Punching Points

Enhanced computation on singular support points in the material non-linear concrete analysis (SYST NMAT YES):
Following problem exists: Such singular supports caused singular forces that
could not be carried in the concrete non-linear material model, especially in
combination with singular rotational constraints.
At punching nodes from BEMESS now a first singular support or connection
force (and bending moment) will be distributed on neighbouring nodes inside the
column perimeter to simulate a constant distributed support pressure. Thus the
feature only works after a BEMESS ultimate design with PUNC YES or PUNC
CHEK! The support force of the centre is distributed via an internal coupling ring
around the centre node and elastic springs to further nodes inside the column
area.
The processing is documented in the statistic print out "rounding singular punching nodes". It can be switched off with CTRL CONC V7 0. It only works on
BEMESS punching nodes but also if they come from beam connections in a 3D
analysis. It also converts singular connection bending moments in a triangular
connection pressure. The effect can be studied well by comparing a run with
CTRL CONC V7 0 and a run with CTRL CONC V7 1.
Especially at fine discretized punching points a rotational constraints will be analyzed more realistic (stronger). On such points the singular support moment
caused a strong singular curvature in the fine mesh and thus a lower constraint.
In a material linear analysis this feature is switched off by default, but can be
enforced with CTRL CONC V7 1.
2.12.5

Output of the Results

Graphical Representation
The graphical output of the results over the thickness of the QUAD elements is
another side effect of the consistent saving of the results in all the layers. The
ANIMATOR can be used for the visualization of the results (choose a loadcase
and double klick an element). The following picture shows the stresses in a
single QUAD element. The element is a sandwich element, where the soft inner
layer is covered by two harder top-layers.

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-51

ASE | Theoretical Principles

Figure 2.24: Element info

The next picture shows the non-linear stresses in a concrete arched shell. Here
the cracks can be seen in the tensile zone. The thin lines are the stresses in the
reinforcement layers. The significant numerical values, e.g. the maximum steel
stress, are output in addition in the dialogue box.
Example tunnel shell quads_on_fire_2.dat

Figure 2.25: Visualization of the non-linear results

The visualization of the non-linear results from the steel and concrete law is still
possible with WinGRAF, e.g. the visualization of the crack distribution at the
underside of a plate, like in example of the reinforced concrete slab in cracked
condition.
Numerical output of the Results
The entire non-linear results, like the crack widths or stresses in the cracked
condition (state II), can only be released numerically in the ASE calculation. For
2-52

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

this the ECHO FORC record is used.


Statistics of Non-linear Effects
The available non-linear effects are logged at the end of a non-linear calculation
in ASE in STATISTIC NONLINEAR EFFEKTS
2.12.6

Miscellaneous Information

Iteration Control - Improvement of the Convergence


Concrete Law
Usually a tolerance of 0.002 is sufficient for the concrete law (record SYST
...TOL). This tolerance is also needed for the energy convergence. With negative TOL -1.50 a fixed absolute tolerance of 1.5 kN can be defined, if necessary
not before 40% of the iterations: TOL4 -1.50
The convergence problems in non-linear calculations, which consider the
concrete law, could initially be solved by increasing the number of iterations
(SYST...ITER). If after, for example, 50 iteration the energy still increases, the
load can not be taken up anymore, this is because:
a lack of reinforcement (tensile forces can not be compensated
anymore)
the plate is to thin (compression failure)
the elements next to the singularity are to small (shear problem)

All these three problems lead to a point where the load can not be compensated
anymore, due to an increase in strain. So the product of loadstrain = energy will
increase constantly.
This can only be resolved by altering the system:
increase reinforcement
adjust the dimensions
decrease the load (try a lower load step)
If the program does not reach a residual force equilibrium, even if the energy
converges (the energy seems to remain close to the limiting value), then
generally it could be attributed to the following reason: The program does not
reach equilibrium in the normal direction of the plate - small changes in the
strain plane generate large normal forces. Although this phenomena is usually

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-53

ASE | Theoretical Principles

insignificant for plate calculations and only has a local influence on the result.
This becomes apparent when a check is performed on the residual forces
(WinGRAF...nodes...residual forces).
Often a damping of the iteration is successful with SYST...FMAX 0.90 (FMAX
smaller than 1.0 or FMAX 1.10).
If no convergence is found, the intermediate results of the iterations are saved
with the load case numbers from 90001. They can be checked in the ANIMATOR
with displacements and in WinGRAF with residual forces in order to find out the
cause of the lacked convergence. With ECHO RESI 7 this can be enforced also
for a convergent run.
Often the convergence can be improved by the lowering of the concrete tension
stiffness e.g. to 0.5 N/mm2 . This is because the negative stiffness, on the decreasing curve of the concrete stress-strain curve, is not that big and it can be
equilibrated by the positive stiffness of the reinforcement including the tension
stiffening. On the other hand it is possible that a bigger concrete tension stiffness could instantaneously release a large amount of concrete failure energy.
This energy would then spread like a chain reaction through the system and convergence would be prevented. An increase in the minimum reinforcement would
also improve the convergence, because the reinforcement would counteract the
negative stiffness of the decreasing stress-strain curve.
Steel Law
Steel plates or shells do not encounter instantaneous tension failure, as is the
case for the concrete law. Besides being able to increase the number of iterations (SYST...ITER), one also has the possibility to generate a trilinear instead of
a bilinear stress-strain curve, which has its advantages. The tangential stiffness
in a bilinear curve is equal to zero, i.e. a strain correction of the program would
not alter the stress. Another advantage is the slowly increasing curve, which is
favourable for the Newton-Raphson-method.
In addition the steel law allows a step-wise increase of the load, as described in
chapter "bearing load iteration".
Tangential Stiffness
For non-linear material calculations one always works with linear initial stiffness
and compensation of the unabsorbed residual forces. An experimental material
stiffness was implemented for improving the convergence of the iterations, but it
did not achieve the desired effect and was thus deactivated.
Non-linear material calculations, according to the first-order theory, utilize the

2-54

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

Crisfield standard (CTRL ITER 0) in the iteration control. The line-search with
the geometric-tangential stiffness matrix is only utilized in case of second-order
theory are crack springs (CTRL ITER 3). The material matrix is always substituted with the linear initial stiffness and is not tangentially updated.
You can always try both variants CTRL ITER 0 or CTRL ITER 3 but please start
with the default (no input to CTRL ITER).
Bearing Load Iteration
In a lot of cases it is of interest to establish the maximum bearing load of a
given system. To do this the bearing load iteration is applied. Here the load is
increased step-wise until the point of failure is reached. The point of failure is
interpreted as a lack in energy convergence, i.e. the system starts to fail if the
energy is steadily increased during a bearing load iteration. A simple bearing
load iteration can be found in example ase9_quad_euler_beam.dat , for cracked
concrete also in the verification examples nonlinear_quad_concrete_beam.dat
( nonlinear_quad_concrete_beam.pdf)
For non-linear material calculations it often happens that this automatic method
does not reach adequate equilibrium, due to a lack in normal force convergence,
even if the bearing load has not been reached yet. This can be overcome by entering a negative input for STEP under the record ULTI. Now the load is continuously increased, even if no convergence is reached after every individual load
step. The user has to be assessed then the systems bearing capacity according
to the energy convergence, the remaining residual forces and the load deflection curve. Alternatively the procedure could gain stability through the dynamic
calculation.

2.13

Membrane Structures: Formfinding and Static Analysis

2.13.1

Overview

Membrane structures are characterized by transferring of loads only with normal


forces. Bending moments and shear forces are not available. The analysis
with real membrane elements is more comfortable and more exactly unlike the
simplified processing with a truss model, because the geometry and the stress
state can be generated any exactly. An orientation of the truss elements in
defined directions is not necessary.
The first task is the formfinding during the analysis of membrane structures. A
corresponding form is searched for a desired stress state in the membrane. A
soap skin is only result here for the isotropic prestress. Forms which are different
to the soap skin need a normal force distribution which modifies itself about the
structure.

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-55

ASE | Theoretical Principles

If the membrane form is found, real load cases can be calculated with this new
form as initial system. The membrane must be omitted here for compression.
Further textile properties are realized mostly by a simplified linear- elastic orthotropic material law.
Edge stiffenings with edge cables, inside cables or compression arches have to
be considered in real structures.
2.13.2

The Membrane Element

The membrane element implemented in ASE can be used only for calculations
with large deformations with SYST ... PROB TH3. It is activated with the material input AQUA NMAT MEMB or with an input in SOFiMSHA...QUAD...NRA=2
(QUAD only with membrane action). The program configuration levels ASE1-3
are necessary for the material non-linear element and ASE4 for compression
failure.
Properties
The membrane element described here is implemented in the FE program ASE
of the SOFiSTiK AG. It has following properties:

The membrane element processes only membrane internal forces and moments (NX, NY, NXY).

It bears arbitrary large strains and rotations.

It bears large twists and transmits the membrane forces from the twist into
the right direction (here forces are available perpendicular to the thought
element centre area).

It is possible to use three-noded or four-noded elements for it.

A prestress can be defined (also orthotropic).

Stress modifications can be suppressed for the formfinding.

It failures for compression (adjustable).

Orthotropic material properties can be considered (linear-elastic


approximation).
For anisotropic poissons ratio see example
membrane_poisson_ratio.dat

2-56

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

Figure 2.26: Nodal forces at twisted membrane element

The stiffness of the membrane element consists of the normal strain stiffness
in the element plane and of a initial stress stiffness from the prestress of the
element.
K

K0 + Ks

(2.46)

Input of the Membrane element


Membrane elements are input like normal shell elements as element type QUAD.
If the element formulation NRA=2 (see SOFiMSHA-QUAD) is set immediately,
the element is marked as membrane. Otherwise a normal QUAD element can
be defined as membrane with a non-linear material input AQUA NMAT
Non-linear properties can be activated in AQUA with AQUA NMAT MEMB P1
P2.
P1

Yield strength for tension


maximum tensile strength in kN/m in warp and fill direction,
practical e.g. for geo-textiles
The input P1=0.0 is taken as no input.
The old input P1=1.0 is not considered
(P1 was used formerly with another meaning.)

P2

Factor for compression survey


P2=1.0 The membrane can sustain the compression.
P2=0.0 The membrane cannot sustain the compression.
(only reasonable after formfinding)
P2=0.1 Intermediate values are possible, the elastic
modulus is reduced correspondingly for the
compression strains.

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-57

ASE | Theoretical Principles

Nonlinear warp-fill material law


In ASE a "Nonlinear yarn-parallel warp-fill behaviour" is implement according
to: Dr. Cdric Galliot + Dr. Rolf Luchsinger A simple non-linear material model
for PVC-coated polyester fabrics Tensinews Newsletter Nr. 18 April 2010
The definition of additional parameters AQUA NMAT MEMB P3+P4 activates
this law. The nonlinear behavior is expressed as a stress-strain relation. This
means that for a given stress sigma-w, sigma-f (w=warp direction, f=fill direction)
it gives a corresponding nonlinear strain eps-w, eps-f. The values of the stressstrain matrix depend on the ratio of sigma-w to sigma-f using the factors und
:
= q

2 + 2

= q

2 + 2

(2.47)

Stress-strain relation:

1
( )
E

E ( )

E ( )
1
E ( )

(2.48)

with the stress-ratio depending warp and fill stiffness:


E ( ) = E

E ( ) = E


1
p
+ E1:1
2


1
p
+ E1:1
2

(2.49)

(2.50)

Special Features for the System Input


The system should be already defined, if possible, three-dimensionally with
boundary arches. The boundary cables can be introduced then with full stiffness in the first formfinding step, because they have already the right length.
The three-dimensional input has also the advantage, that the span cables and
columns can be already input in the three-dimensional system. Then the still
inaccurate form of the membrane is smoothed via shrinkage of the membrane
- see formfinding.
Only for systems with high reference point it is reasonable to input the system
at first two-dimensionally, because the input is significantly simpler here. The

2-58

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

membrane can be hoisted then at marked points via nodal point displacements.
Mesh selection
Automatically generated meshes are unproblematic for systems without high
reference points. They should be avoided at high reference points. At high
reference points a radially and tangentially oriented mesh is numerically more
stable and optically more beautiful due to the often orthotropic prestress.
Mesh macros
Pregenerated macros can be used for high reference points. Macros which are
read in such a way are optimized for the registration of the stress conditions at
the high reference points and delivers a good geometry for high reference points
(The distance of the inner elements is selected deliberately near in the initial
system, because they are stretched due to the hoisting during formfinding).
The macros are placed in the plan, adjusted to the size (stretched) and the
remaining membrane area is closed with a normal element mesh.
Boundary cables
Boundary cables should be always defined with the desired final curvature at
an arch during input in the plan - see chapter Free Cable Edges defined in the
Initial System with Radius.
Mixed systems
If the membrane should be calculated together with other structural members (walls, pylons, girders), the input is mostly urgently necessary with threedimensional initial system.
Prestress and Formfinding
As in outline mentioned in chapter Overview, the prestress is decisive for the
formfinding. Different membrane forms can be generated with different prestressing states.
This phenomenon becomes especially clear for boundary cables: If a boundary
cable is more prestressed for a given membrane prestress, a larger cable radius
will result and thus a smaller pass of the boundary cable:
At high reference points a too large prestress ties up the neck:
The user has to be known the desired form at the beginning. The pass of the
boundary cable should be used already during the system input. The input FE

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-59

ASE | Theoretical Principles

Figure 2.27: A boundary cable left with small, right with large prestress

Figure 2.28: Left a too small, right a too large prestress

mesh should include therefore the boundary cable curvature.


Soap skin
In a soap skin an isotropic prestress is available in all points of the membrane.
This prestress is determined about the surface tension of the liquid for the genuine soap skin.
The strain stiffness disappears here in the mathematical model. The equilibrium
results only from the three-dimensional equilibrium of the isotropic stresses. The
stiffness of the membrane results to:
K

= K

(2.51)

The stiffness keeps the membrane in its form perpendicularly to the membrane
area. Thought points are freely movable in the plane of the membrane area. For
the genuine soap skin the phenomenon is visible at the blurring of the points
(bubbles) on the skin surface.
The in all directions constant prestress is input in ASE with the record GRP ...
PREX,PREY (acts on all element types, also on cables, beams ...).
Constant orthotropic prestress
The direction of effective span is often dominating in one direction for rectangular
membrane areas. Then it is desired to set a larger prestress in this direction than
perpendicularly to it. Nevertheless the prestress is of the same size in all points,
if also orthotropically.

2-60

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

Figure 2.29: Orthotropic prestress - in longitudinal direction larger than in transverse direction

The orthotropic constant prestress is input in ASE either with the record GRP
... PREX,PREY in local element direction or with the record HIGH with a high
reference point distance > 999 m in global direction.
Orthotropic high reference point prestress
If genuine high reference points are available for membranes, the orthotropic
prestress is often desired with a fixed ratio of tangential/radial prestress in order
to avoid a large tying up of the membrane at the high reference point. A radial
stress which increases to the high reference point is necessary for that.
A such axisymmetric stress state of the high reference point is generated with
HIGH. The ratio of the tangential to the radial prestress is input with the item
PTPR. In dependence on PTPR the stress increases much or not so much to
the high reference point.
Example of a high refence point at X = 5.0 m, Y = 0.0 m:
HIGH X 5.0 Y 0.0 PR1 20 PTPR 0.4 produces:
sig-r in distance of 1m
= 20.00 kN/m
sig-t in distance of 1m

8.00 kN/m (0.4*20)

and due to equilibrium reasons in distance of e.g. 10 m:


sig-r in distance of 10m
= PR1*1/r*e(PTPR*ln(r))

sig-t in distance of 10m

20*1/10*exp(0.4*ln(10))

5.02 kN/m

2.01 kN/m (0.4*5.02)

see example file: high_point.dat


input: HIGH XM YM ZM NX NY NZ PR1 PTPR NOG

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-61

ASE | Theoretical Principles

As a default an input for a high reference point has an effect for all QUAD elements, also for elements which are not a membrane. For mixed systems the
prestress is allocated therefore with NOG to the corresponding group. It is also
possible to input some high reference points per group. The program generates
then the average value from the inputs in each element in dependence on the
distance to the different high reference points. In the following example there
are four high points and one low point in a membrane area. The tangential part
PTPR may not be too large for the high reference points, because the membrane constricts itself and tears off. The factor PTPR is input therefore different
for the five high reference points in this example.

Figure 2.30: Orthotropic high reference point prestress with some high reference
points ( membran5.dat)

If the distance is larger than 1000 m, the constant prestress is assumed with a
stress in direction to the high reference point always of PR1 and a stress perpendicularly to it always of PTPRPR1 and therefore without radial reduction.
The advantage of this input is the simple definition of skewed prestress independently on the direction of the local element coordinate systems! The stress
in the QUAD elements results from the global directions!
Elastic skin
A membrane can be defined from the beginning with the real stiffness and can
be hoisted from the plane initial system at the high reference points or at the
boundary cables. It results then large stresses in direction to the high reference
points in dependence on the material properties. They can be scaled, however,
by using this state with the group factors FACL+FACS. The use of a elastic skin
formfinding is described in chapter Unstable Membrane Forms.
Input of the Prestress for Different Groups
Definition in different groups

2-62

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

For membrane analyses the system has to be got already in the first step an
information about a prestress in the elements, because otherwise the system
is unstable - the stiffness is zero perpendicularly to the membrane without prestress! A load prestress is still not considered for the system stiffness. The
prestress has to be input therefore with GRP or HIGH.
The different elements of the structure like:

membrane areas
boundary cables
structural cables
pylones and other beams
massive support elements (concrete walls ...)

are defined in different groups and can get thus different prestresses from GRP
and HIGH.
If different radii in boundary cables should be kept exactly (formfinding also for
boundary cables), then also the boundary cables should be defined in different groups. If the boundary radii were already input graphically (is absolutely
recommended), it is possible to refrain the exact input of the boundary cable
prestress, because the boundary cable force results from the radius and the
membrane prestress during the formfinding.
Criteria for the Input of the Prestress
Free cable edges (free membrane edges reinforced with cables) should be input
already as arch with the desired curvature radius in the initial system. The radius
is preset in any case by the architect. If the boundary cable is defined as line in
the initial system and the final edge circle should be determined by the program,
then impermissible element angles are often available due to the distorsions.
The iterations are much faster and clearer, if the edge arch has approximately
the final position already in the initial system.
The prestress which should be input for the boundary cable results to:
cable force = membrane force radius P = n r
It is to be noted, that physical impermissible inputs do not arise. Unconsistent
inputs can arise especially at the connection points of cables. In the following
example an equilibrium is possible without an angle of the cable forces, because
P1 > P2+P3+P4.

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-63

ASE | Theoretical Principles

cable 2

cable 1

cable 3

Figure 2.31: Illogical preset cable prestress can not be right

2.13.3

Formfinding

System Definition - Two Options


The initial structure can be defined with two options for the formfinding:

Definition of a three-dimensional initial system with at first plane partial areas: The boundary points of the structure are input three-dimensionally. The
remaining areas are defined e.g. as folded structure. The program takes
over the formfinding of the inner area.

Definition of a plane initial system: The structure is input two-dimensionally.


At arbitrary points the structure is hoisted then at support nodes.

Three-dimensional Initial System


Three-dimensional initial system without cable edges
Example angle, example file simple_angle.dat.
A system is defined three-dimensionally from two planes (folded structure). All
boundary points are supported, the lower edge is free.

Figure 2.32: Three-dimensional initial system - angle

2-64

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

The membrane prestress is defined isotropic with GRP ... SIGX SIGY in kN/m
during the formfinding step. Because the strains should not lead to stress modifications due to the formfinding, the element stiffness is set almost to 0: GRP
FACS=1E-10. The QUAD elements with the material number 1 are defined as
membrane elements ( AQUA NMAT 1 MEMB). ASE input:
PROG ASE
HEAD Formfinding for Three-dimensional Initial Systems
SYST PROB TH3 $ for geomatrical non-linear iterations $
GRP 0 FACS 1E-10 PREX 10 PREY 10 $ prestress definition 10 kN/m $
LC 1 TITL Formfinding
$ formfinding without further load $
END

A load case with real 1.0-times stiffness should be follow after each formfinding load case for the check of the formfinding in order to guarantee that possible
constraints do not lead to impermissible differences during formfinding (see constraints during formfinding CTRL FIXZ 1).
PROG ASE
HEAD Compensation of Possible Residual Forces
SYST PROB TH3 PLC 1
$ uses the primary load case 1 $
GRP 0 FACS 1 $ elemets with full stiffness, stresses $
LC 2
$ are used from load case 1 (see record GRP) $
END

The iterations are necessary due to the effects from third-order theory. The
vertical force parts (sinus() 6= ) change due to the large displacements. In
addition the element geometries change also in part considerably. The first ASE
calculations ends successfully after 9 iterations:
Iteration 1 Residual 1.889
Update nonlinear stiffness
Iteration 2 Residual 0.239
Iteration 3 Residual 0.222
Update nonlinear stiffness
Iteration 4 Residual 0.134
Iteration 5 Residual 0.017
Iteration 6 Residual 0.008
Update nonlinear stiffness
Iteration 7 Residual 0.003

energy 22.6089 Step 1-1 f= 1.000


energy 30.7733 Step 2-1 f= 1.487
energy 32.4090 Step 3-1 f= 1.814
energy 32.7557 Step 4-1 f= 1.838
energy 32.6185 Step 4-2 f= 0.604
energy 32.6450 Step 5-1 f= 0.607
energy 32.6701 Step 6-1 f= 1.178

The convergence has to be checked by the user. Indeed the programs prints a
warning in the case of inadequate convergence, but it saves the results nevertheless.
The result of the formfinding of load case 1 is shown in the following picture. The

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-65

ASE | Theoretical Principles

load case 2 does not deliver any modifications. The check of the formfinding
does not show disturbances.

Figure 2.33: Result of the formfinding -three-dimensional initial system angle

For orthotropic prestress other forms which are all free form areas result in dependence on the prestress condition:

Figure 2.34: V-long/V-lat=1:5 V-long/V-lat=1:2 orthotropic prestress -threedimensional initial system angle-

Corresponding input files:


PROG ASE
HEAD Angle with Orthotropic Prestress
SYST PROB TH3
GRP
0
FACS 1E-10
HIGH 9999 0 PR1 10 PTPR 0.2
$ PR1 = prestress radial in a distance of 1m from high reference
point $
$ PTPR = prestress ration tangential/radial $
LC 1 TITL Formfinding
END

Free Cable Edges defined in the Initial System with Radius


Example stand roofing, example file roof.dat
2-66

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

If possible, a cable radius should be considered already during the graphical


input. That means the cable should be input in an arch (see chapter Boundary
cables).
Following system was generated three-dimensionally as folded structure with
plane partial meshes during a graphical input. The cable edges are displaced
only horizontally in the plane at a circle:

Figure 2.35: Stand roofing - initial system plane left and angular picture right

Group classification:
group 1:

membrane

expected membrane force X-Y=10-5 kN/m

group 2:

edge cable left

expected radius = 16 m

group 3:

edge cable right

expected radius = 46 m

Here the cable radius is preset instead of the cable force. The membrane prestress should have 10 kN/m in x direction, however, only 5 kN/m in y direction!
Thus a first estimated cable force of P = n r with a membrane force n=10 kN/m
perpendicular to the cable results (group 2: N = 16m 10 kN/m = 160 kN).
Because the cable radius is not to be modified significantly, the cable elements
are considered with their normal stiffness (GRP ... FACS 1.0) during the calculation. A cable force modification is possible thereby. Here it is important, that
the radius of the input is kept approximately in the final result (specification of
the architect).
Otherwise the membrane should be kept the stress. The membrane stiffness is
set therefore as usual with GRP ... FACS 1E-10:
PROG
HEAD
CTRL
SYST
GRP
GRP

ASE
Formfinding
CABL 0
$ without inner cable sag of the single cable $
PROB TH3
1
FACS 1E-10 PREX 10 PREY 5 $ membrane 10 KN/m - 5 KN/m2 $
2
FACS 1
PREX 160
$ cable N= p*r = 10*16 = 160KN $

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-67

ASE | Theoretical Principles

GRP
3
FACS 1
PREX 460
$ cable N= p*r = 10*46 = 460KN $
LC 1 DLZ 1 TITL Formfinding with DL
END

The dead load is used simultaneously. The form is searched therefore for the
loading prestress + dead load. Only the elimination of possible constraint forces
is done again in a following calculation in load case 2:
PROG ASE
HEAD Compensation of Possible Residual Forces with FACS=1.0
SYST PROB TH3 PLC 1
$ uses primary load case 1 $
GRP - FACS 1 $ elements now with full stiffness, stresses $
LC 2 DLZ 1 TITL end of formfinding FACS=1.0
END

Because the displacement picture is not different for load case1 and 2, only the
final result of load case 2 is shown here:

Figure 2.36: Found form with prestress + dead load

Free cable edges defined straightly in initial system


Example angle, example file simple_angle2.dat.
Such a process should be avoided, because the QUAD elements are deformed
possibly impermissible during the deformation of the boundary cable. This distortion and rotation of the QUAD elements is very unfavourable for orthotropic
prestress, because the local coordinate system of the elements and the direction
of the orthotropic prestress are turned.
Following example should demonstrate nevertheless the possibility of the
formfinding for cable edges which are input straightly. The first example
simple_angle.dat is so modified, that a upper boundary is defined as free edge
(without support conditions) and a boundary cable is generated at the boundary

2-68

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

nodes. The membrane is defined in group 0 and the cable in group 1.


The iteration is very fast for the system and the result is reasonable, because
boundary cable curvature does not distort the QUAD elements. The cable radius
is resulted always according to following formula:
cable force = membrane force radius P = n r
or r = P / n = 8 kN / 2 kN/m = 4 m

Figure 2.37: Free cable edge - result of the formfinding

Plane Initial System


Plane initial system without high reference point
Example file innenhof.dat
Without additional elements like columns it is possible to define systems in plane
and to hoist at corners. Only corner nodes in the plane, boundary cables with
desired edge radii as well as meshes which are hooked in are generated here.
The system is simple hoisted then at the corner nodes about the support displacements. The membrane becomes mostly a soap skin prestress which is
input with GRP ... PREX,PREY. The boundary cables have mostly a fixed radius. The first estimation of the prestress of the boundary edges results from
the membrane force multiplied by this radius.

Figure 2.38: Patio - left plane initial system - right result of the formfinding

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-69

ASE | Theoretical Principles

Plane initial system with high reference point


The plane system input is very advantageous for systems with high reference
points. The high reference points are hoisted using the support displacements
and remain in this position for further calculations. Following input generates
the formfinding for a small tangential prestress (HIGH - ratio tangential/radial
prestress = PTPR=0.1):
example file high_point.dat
PROG ASE
HEAD Input of highe reference point
SYST PROB TH3
GRP
0
FACS 1E-10 $ membrane $
HIGH 0 0 PR1 10 PTPR 0.1
LC 1 DLZ 1 TITL Formfinding
LCC ... copy nodal displacement from SOFILOAD - see input file ase.
dat..membranes \sofExampleFile{ase}[english/membranes]{high\_point.
dat}[]
END
HEAD Compensation with FACS=1.0
SYST PROB TH3 PLF 1
GRP
FACS 1.0 $ membrane $
LC 2 DLZ 1 TITL Compensation with FACS=1.0
END

Figure 2.39: Angular picture: plane initial system - result of the formfinding principle membrane force

The formfinding which begins with a plane initial mesh is to be seen also very
well for another example with four high points and one low point. The system is
here also generated very fast in the plane by copying the high reference point
macro (example file membran5.dat).
Mesh Control
It exists the danger in the formfinding step, that the nodal points become blurred
in the membrane plane. In order to avoid that, intern disc stiffnesses are generated with the so-called mesh control during formfinding.
2-70

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

If this automatic mesh control does not function, further variants can be activated
with the manual control CTRL ... FIXZ:

Figure 2.40: Possible displacements of membrane nodes - constraints are generated perpendicularly to the drawn vectors at FIXZ=2

The automatic fixation of the nodes in the membrane plane is only used for the
formfinding QUAD elements. A formfinding is assumed, if the stiffness factor
of all QUAD elements which adjoin to a node is smaller than 0.5 (e.g. GRP ...
FACS=1.E-10). If other static elements (e.g. QUAD) exists with full stiffness or
bending beams are available at a node, then no fixation is done at this node.
After end of the formfinding (e.g. for calculation of wind load cases) the membrane is used with full stiffness GRP ... FACS=1.0 and no fixation of the nodes
is done in the membrane plane.
Possible variants:
CTRL FIXZ=1

automatic mesh control


= default

CTRL FIXZ=2

fixes the nodes in the membrane plane for


all iteration steps

CTRL FIXZ=3

fixes generally all nodes in global X-Y

CTRL FIXZ=4

fixes the local z coordinate in the first iteration step


the transverse direction in further steps

CTRL FIXZ=5

fixes the local z coordinate in all iteration steps

CTRL FIXZ=4

can be used for the formfinding of boundary

or 5

cable radii

Saving of the Found Form


If the formfinding is completed, it is basically possible to put always on the
found form with SYST PLC for further calculations. A result representation with
SOFiSTiK 2016

2-71

ASE | Theoretical Principles

WinGRAF is actually always desired at the formfinding system. In addition it is


desired, that the ANIMATOR lets swing e.g. the deformations from wind in relation to the formfinding system. Without further control, however, the ANIMATOR
would swing between the input system and the system deformed by the wind.
In addition a new selection of the local coordinate system of the membrane elements is sometimes reasonable, if e.g. a fibre direction of the cloth should be
defined from the high reference point.
A function SYST ... STOR is therefore available in ASE. With this function the
coordinates and the local coordinate systems of the elements can be generated newly by using the deformations of a load case PLC. Displacements of the
load cases which put on that are only output as difference displacements to this
updated system.
Following literals are indicated in this case for STOR:
STOR YES
The position of the new local coordinate system of the QUAD elements
results from the strains of the primary load case PLC.
STOR NEW, XX, YY, ZZ, NEGX, NEGY, NEGZ
The local coordinate systems are calculated newly from the new
coordinates.
see manual SOFiMSHA record QUAD - KR
Example simple_angle.dat
The local coordinate systems and the stresses of the load case 2 are printed as
follows in the initial system:

Figure 2.41: Coordinate system and representation of the internal forces and moments at the initial system

After the update of the geometry with:


PROG ASE
HEAD
SYST PLC 2 STOR YES
END

2-72

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

the same representation is printed considerably more beautifully. The undeformed (!) structure of the updated system is represented now:

Figure 2.42: Representation of the coordinate system and the internal forces and
moments at the updated system

With STOR YES the internal forces and moments of the primary load case can
be used and represented furthermore, because the internal forces and moments
refer to the new coordinate system.
With STOR NEW,XX ... NEGZ the internal forces and moments do not match
the new coordinate system and they are deleted during an ASE calculation with
SYST ... STOR NEW...NEGZ.
The displacements of the primary load case are deleted in any case, because
they are included now in the geometry - in the new coordinates.
The current database can be saved with SYST ... STOR before an update, e.g.
with
+sys copy $(project).cdb sichxyz.cdb.
Formfinding with Loading
The dead load of the construction was input during formfinding already in the
example of the stand roofing. The found form lies then a little deeper as the
pure membrane form without dead load. The effect does not strike for a small
dead load. Also the boundary cable is very light.
It is also possible to search deliberately a form with consideration of an outside
loading, e.g. with constant internal pressure.
An internal pressure of 2 kN/m2 is used during the formfinding in the example
simple_angle.dat. The membrane prestress is selected with 2 kN/m2 . The
formfinding is done now in several steps in order to consider the new orientation
of the load area- see following chapter.
PROG ASE
HEAD New formfinding with additional internal pressure2 KN/m2
SYST PROB TH3

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-73

ASE | Theoretical Principles

GRP 0 FCKS 1E-10 PREX 2 PREY 2 $ membrane 2 KN/m $


LC 11 TITL Formfinding internal pressure 1
LCC ... loads see .dat inputfile
END
PROG ASE
HEAD Update formfinding internal pressure
SYST PROB TH3 PLC 11
GRP 0 FACS 1E-10 $ once more formfinding without stress increase $
$ due to strain of the loading ! $
LC 12 TITL Update formfinding internal pressure
LCC ... loads see .dat inputfile
END
PROG ASE
HEAD Compensation with FACS=1.0
SYST PROB TH3 PLC 12 ITER 90 NMAT YES
GRP
FACS 1.0
LC 13 TITL Compensation with FACS=1.0
LCC ... loads see .dat inputfile
END

The membrane eigenstiffness is switched off again in the formfinding load cases
11+12 in order to prevent stress modifications in the membrane force due to
strains. The load case 12 shows following deformation picture:

Figure 2.43: Example angle with internal pressure

2-74

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

Figure 2.44: load case 11 load case 12 Angle with internal pressure

Because the local coordinate systems are directed inwards, the internal pressure was input negatively.
The lower picture shows the formfinding of a compressed air tennis hall beginning with a plane mesh. The calculation as ideal soap skin results here in a
curios corner generation. Real tennis halls leave mostly the ideal soap skin form
for the benefit of a better space utilization in the corner with the disadvantage of
an orthotrop stress distribution with disturbance areas in the corner.

Figure 2.45: Tennis hall: pumping up of a soap skin with plane initial system tennis.dat

A further example for formfinding with internal pressure is to be found in


six_corners.dat:

Figure 2.46: Hexagon:


six_corners.dat

SOFiSTiK 2016

pumping up of a spherical shell (increase 1.0) -

2-75

ASE | Theoretical Principles

Load Direction and Load Area


A setting up onto the load case 11 with the same load is urgently necessary in
load case 12 for the last example, because the conversion of the load into nodal
loads can be done only on basis of the element geometry of the primary load
case. On the one hand the used nodal load is to small in load case 11 - the
elements become larger due to the pumping up. On the other hand the load
direction of the nodal loads is not correct, because the local z axis is twisted.
A new setting up onto the load case 11 is urgently necessary in load case 12
with a new calculation of the nodal loads using the coordinates of the load case
11, if loaded systems have large deformations! This is done, however, fully
automatically, if the load case 11 is used in the further calculation with SYST ...
PLC 11!
Furthermore a compensation in xyz is necessary in load case 12 also due to
the large curvatures. It can be recognized at the obvious horizontal expanding
of the bubble.
For all element loading it is generally valid: The load is converted into nodal
loads at the system of the primary load case. Deformations of the current calculated load case do not twist the load anymore. It has to be calculated therefore
always with small load steps and with a new setting up onto a primary load case
also for a girder which is designed for buckling, if e.g. the load should be twisted
to the local z axis of the beam in conformity with the beam rotations!
Formfinding for Compression Arch Shells
The form which is found with the soap skin and e.g. using negative dead load
can be used also as initial system for a compression shell. In this case the element thicknesses and the material parameters can be redefined after formfinding and the membrane elements can be converted into normal shell elements
which can carry then the positive dead load and the real loads with compressive
forces, bending moments and shear forces. In SOFiMSHA the definition NRA=2
may not be input. The switching over from the membrane to the concrete is done
with a first AQUA calculation withAQUA MAT + NMAT MEMB for the formfinding.
Then the material CONC is redefined with a following AQUA calculation.
2.13.4

Static Analysis

In general the formfinding is only a first step during the calculation of membrane
structures. The loading wind and snow which is essentially for the design of
the building structure must be carried by the system which is determined during
formfinding. The snow load can be defined mostly very simple. The wind load,

2-76

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

however, depends on the height, position and direction of the single element.
Generation of the Wind Load
If the possibilities for the input of the wind load are not sufficient in
SOFiMSHA, the wind load can be defined also as block load: example
membrane_compression.dat . With a little more expenditure the wind load can
be input also as a function of the height in dependence on the position with angle
functions.
The output of all elements including the definition of the element centre of gravity
as well as the printout of the local z axis (normal) can be done in ASE with
ECHO ELEM 4. If the list is read into a table calculation program, it can be fast
converted into a load input by using of formulas. Then each element get its own
local loading. A system has not to be calculated using ECHO ELEM 4 in an
ASE calculation - CTRL SOLV 0 can be input here. The output values refer to
the system which was displaced possibly with the primary load case SYST ...
PLC. Following input generates the subsequent output:
PROG ASE
HEAD Element centre of gravitiy and normal vector for wind loading
ECHO FULL NO
ECHO ELEM 4
CTRL SOLV 0
SYST PLC 12
LC 13 DLZ 1
END
S H E L L E L E M E N T S
EL-No
XM(m)
YM(m)
ZM(m)
1 -22.267
6.178
-.398
2 -21.832
8.165
-.326
3 -20.999
3.618
-.633
4 -19.828
1.022
-.817
5 -20.687
8.110
-.628
6 -20.635
5.709
-.978
7 -20.237
7.585
-.902
element centre of gravity

nx
ny
nz
.342 .082 .936
.222 -.264 .939
.381 .105 .919
.412 .123 .903
.251 -.283 .926
.364 .069 .929
.249 -.264 .932
normal vector

Wind pressure till compression failure


The tensile stresses due to the prestress can not be sufficient for large wind
forces in the reality. Further compressive strains lead to folds in the membrane.
They have, however, no influence on the structural behaviour for these special
cases. The system is mostly stable also with folds. The program ASE can
realized the load transfer which exists here with switching off of the compressive
SOFiSTiK 2016

2-77

ASE | Theoretical Principles

stresses.
A wind pressure from below which uses the prestress in transverse direction up
is used in the example stand roofing ( roof.dat). It would produce therefore
folds in reality. At first the system is updated in the calculation by setting up onto
formfinding load case 2:
PROG
HEAD
HEAD
SYST
END

ASE
System update for calculation of new displacements
from formfinding state LC 2
PLC 2 STOR YES

Figure 2.47: Updated system - coordinate systems

Figure 2.48: Side view

All elements with the stiffness factor 1.0 have to be input now for the following
wind loading, because strains should generate now stress modifications in the
system.
In the following picture the stress in the centre are actually only uniaxial for full
wind. The stress is omitted biaxially even in four elements:

2-78

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

Figure 2.49: Membrane forces wind from below - - rigth: in initial system

Textile Material Laws


Essential membrane properties can be described with an orthotrop but otherwise linear-elastic material according to an article in Bauingenieur 70, 1995 on
page 271 by R. Mnsch and H. W. Reinhardt. Such a material can be defined
at SOFiSTiK with the record AQUA MAT . It means here:
AQUA MAT

elastic modulus in x direction

EY

elastic modulus in y direction

MUE

Poissons ratio related to E

shear modulus

The material law reads then:

1
=

y 1 2
y

Ey

G (1 2 )

(2.52)

A textile material can be input therefore with different elastic modules in


warp and fill direction. Only a Poissons ratio which relates to E is possible due to the necessary symmetry condition in the material law see
membrane_poisson_ratio.dat
The warp direction of the elements should lie in the local x direction of the elements. This direction has to be defined during the (graphical) input of the
elements. In special cases it is also possible to input the angle in the material
law with the angle of anisotropy OAL.
The failure of the membrane elements for compression is activated with ASE
input SYST ... NMAT YES.
Withj AQUA NMAT ...

SOFiSTiK 2016

MEMB P3 P4 a nonlinear material law can be se-

2-79

ASE | Theoretical Principles

lected - see nonlinear_warp_fill_behaviour.dat


Examples for material input see atrium.dat
Relaxation and Cutting Pattern
The membrane can be cut, detensioned and developed in the plane after
formfinding with the program TEXTILE. Further information see manual for TEXTILE.
2.13.5

Unstable Membrane Forms

The tangential prestress can not be chosen in an any large way already in the
simple example membhoch.dat. If the tangential prestress is input in record
HIGH about the factor 0.3, ASE prints a divergence. An ANIMATOR picture of
the load case which is nevertheless saved shows following picture:

Figure 2.50: Initial system tent roof - generated in plane - bottle_nec.dat

Corresponding input - bottle_nec.dat:


PROG ASE
HEAD Bottleneck
HEAD ASE prints divergence - nevertheless look at load case 1 with
ANIMATOR
SYST PROB TH3
GRP
0
FACS 1E-10
HIGH 0 0 PR1 10 PTPR 1.0 $ soap skin - not possible! $
LC 1 DLZ 1 TITL Bottleneck
LCC ... loads see .dat inputfile $ lifting node 481 to 6 m $
END

Obviously the large tangential stress cords up the bottleneck (PTPR=0.25) so


strong, that the membrane or soap skin cracks.

2-80

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

The phenomenon keeps on being examined at following example. A membrane


structure is generated again in the plane. The high reference points are not
discretized here - a upper rigid ring which can be displaced constantly upwards
about a support spring is accepted. An isotropic prestress = formfinding of a
soap skin is defined. The stiffness factor with 0.01 is input, however, to large for
the generation of the desired phenomenon of the bottleneck.
Example tent roof, example file tent.dat .

Figure 2.51: Initial system tent roof - generated in the plane

The formfinding with 4 m ring lifting has a still stable form:

Figure 2.52: Initial system three-dim. representation Membrane hoisted 4 m

Due to a further lifting the neck cords up always more during the xyz compensation calculation. By looking at the picture for 4 m lifting the closing forces of
the defined membrane prestress in ring direction can be already seen at the
bottleneck. The calculation for 7 m lifting is only convergent, if the elements
get a residual stiffness with FACS 0.005. The following pictures do not show
any correct membrane stress state, but they point out at an unstable formfinding
process:

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-81

ASE | Theoretical Principles

Figure 2.53: Membran 7 m hochgezogen Weiteriteriert 7 m

This effect can be shown at a soap skin which should be hoisted with a small
ring. After a critical height the soap skin constricts itself and is detached suddenly.
Following process is trusted by the human eye: The stress modification due to
strains are not suppressed anymore but they are allowed. The stress in the
ring area increases due to the lifting of the inner rings. The usual picture of a
deformed soap skin (or of tights which are tensed over the initial mesh) results
thereby.

Figure 2.54: Elastic mesh 1 m till 6 m hoisted

2.13.6

Calculations of Cable Meshes

With the same methods formfindings can be done also for cable meshes. Discrete cable elements are defined here instead of the membrane. As for the
membrane the cable elements can be used either as elements with constant
prestress and known length or as elements with full strain stiffness and planned
initial length. Latter one is mostly desired for the simpler filling measuring of sin2-82

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

gle cables with the same length. But it leads to distortions in the grid in the plane
projection of the displaced mesh. The lower picture shows the concept design
of a footbridge which is supported on a cable mesh - it is a research paper for
the bridging of the railway station place in Braunschweig.
At first the system is patitioned in an element grid in the plane with cables of
the same length. The boundary arches are connected at first at an approximate form. In the following formfinding steps in which the corner points of the
mesh are compulsory displaced into the desired vertical position the boundary
cables were defined at first as very elastic. That means they might change their
length arbitrarily, while the inner cables were defined with normal strain stiffness,
because they should not change their position. The four cables which are generated around the inner deep points as well as single cables in the nearness are
an exception. They have to be defined also partially elastically in order to get a
sufficient lowering of the deep points and thus a double curvature of the cable
mesh. These during formfinding more elastic inner cables have to be produced
and installed therefore with a larger length. Foremost the double curvature of
a membrane or of a mesh creates, however, the possibility to carry outer loads
without larger deformations. The stability becomes thereby clearly better also
for the dynamic vibration inclination.
The point-wise loading due to the footbridge which is not shown here leads to a
further local subsidence of the cable mesh. This is, however, favourably for the
stability.
The compliance with a structure clearance for the lower street (shown in the side
view) which is necessary also during load action was decisive for the concept
design.

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-83

ASE | Theoretical Principles

Figure 2.55: Cable mesh with the necessary structure clearance

2.13.7

Check List - Notes - Problem Solutions

System input:

If possible, the system should be already defined three-dimensionally with


boundary arches (set local coordinate system for the arches). The boundary
cables can be used then with the full stiffness in the first formfinding step,
because they have already the correct length. The three-dimensional input
has the advantage that the span cables and the columns can be already defined in the three-dimensional system. Then the still inaccurate form should
be smoothed by shrinkage of the membrane - see -> Formfinding.

Without staying construction it is also possible to input the system in plane.


Foremost then the system is hoisted by using the support displacements.
In this way corrections of the height position are possible. The input of the
boundary arches is indeed simpler. Because the cable length of a boundary
arch becomes clearly longer during lifting, the first step has to be done with
elastic cables (FACS 0.001).

Definition of the boundary arches with the approximate curvature radius during input

Usage of macros which are like a spider net for modelling of the high reference points

Input of a central support node at the high reference points and connection
of the surrounding membrane nodes at the structural points

2-84

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

The first calculation with SOFiPLUS is also reasonable with a triangular


mesh (mesh generation - triangles)

Formfinding:

Estimation of the planned prestress of the elements (N=pr) and definition


about GRP and HIGH

Input of these elements which should keep their stress in the formfinding
with GRP ... FACS 1E-10 - The strains does not generate then additional
stresses.

Calculation of the cables without inner cable sag (CTRL CABL 0)

Termination of the formfinding always with a following load case with full
stiffness GRP ... FACS=1.0, setting up onto the last load case as primary
load case

Setting up onto a primary load case:

Input of it in SYST ... PLC

A prestress may not be input at GRP ..., because it would be added to the
primary stresses. Exception: The primary stresses are not used with GRP
... FACL=0.

GRP ... FACL=1 (default) adopts the primary stresses. So that they are
in equilibrium with the applied loads, the external loads like dead load, internal pressure or wind load have to be used again and again. Exception:
Constraint loads like support displacements, temperature or prestress loads,
because they are not external loads.

Static loading:

For problems with the convergence the loading (wind) should be used with
a small factor and then further increase of the load after setting up onto this
convergent state as primary state.

Problems during iterations:

A stable system is reported, then calculate only one iteration step with CTRL
... ITER 1 and check the displacements with the ANIMATOR (first step force
density method)

Do not input the factor GRP ... FACS for the cables too small (better
FACS=0.01) or calculate it with CTRL ITER 3 V2 1

If the cables are set with full stiffness in the first formfinding but the membrane elastically , iteration problems may be available - then use the cable

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-85

ASE | Theoretical Principles

stiffness with FACS 0.01. It is better set the boundary curvatures with preset
cable prestresses.
For insistent problems, mail the input file to the SOFiSTiK support.
2.13.8

Overview about the Used Examples

-> Example overviews

Example

-> Summary of example overviews

Special feature

Introduction examples: - see ...\ase.dat\english\membranes


atrium.dat

simple plane example with boundary cables

tennis.dat

plane initial system - formfinding with internal pressure - air


hall
formfinding three-dimensional initial system (angle), update
with new local coordinates, internal pressure
simple example with high point comparison of different PTPR
ratios
three-dimensional initial system (folded structure) boundary
cables, failure for large wind pressure from below

simple_angle.dat
high_point.dat
roof.dat
Further examples:

same example as membhoch.dat with unstable bottleneck


result
membrane_compression.dat
same example as membhoch.dat with compression failure for
strong wind
membran5.dat
plane initial system with 4 high points and a deep point
bottle_nec.dat

plane initial system - formfinding with constant internal


pressure
tent.dat
plane initial system and two high points defined as rings,
unstable formfinding, soap skin, comparison with rubber
simple_angle2.dat formfinding with at first straight boundary cable, comparison
four-node and three-node elements
air_volume_tennis.dat
Air hall with active aur volume VOLU
six_corners.dat

2.13.9

Necessary Program Versions

For the membrane analysis the extensions ASE1 and ASE3 are necessary additionally to the ASE basic packet, for non-linear material analysis (compression

2-86

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | ASE

failure) also ASE4.

2.14

Dynamic Modal Analysis

For dynamic eigenvalues there are two main analysis methods available:
1. Direkt method according to Lanczos
2. Simultaneous inverse vector iteration
The method according to Lanczos is usually always the quickest one. Especially
in the case of many eigenvalues (more than 10) it is the only practical method.
The number of the required eigenvalues depends in turn on the expected excitation frequencies. The simultaneous inverse vector iteration should be used, if
the interest is limited to a few eigenvalues only or if a check of the number of
eigenvalues below a certain frequency is required (Sturm sequence).
The modal shapes are saved like regular load cases. They can be further processed as desired, and then they can be used chiefly with the program DYNA
for a dynamic analysis.
For the simultaneous vector iteration the higher eigenvalues converge much
more worse than the lower. Therefore it is reasonable, if enough memory is
available, to iterate a few more vectors than one needs. The method is, however, inappropriate for a large number of eigenvalues.
The number of iterations is predetermined by the program. If the convergence is
slow, one should switch generally to the Lanczos method instead of increasing
the number of iterations. The iteration is interrupted, if the number of the maximum iterations is reached or if the maximum eigenvalue has changed only by
the factor less than 0.00001 opposite to the previous iteration.
For the method according to Lanczos the number of the Lanczos vectors should
be selected usually twice so large as the number of the desired eigenvalues. An
iteration is not necessary in this case.
Example see ase4_eigenfrequencies.dat

2.15

Buckling Eigenvalues

For buckling eigenvalues only the default method with EIGE ... BUCL should be
used:
The Pardiso Solver CTRL SOLV 4 should not be used here as he has problems
with determinants going to 0.0. The default solver CTRL SOLV 3 is better for
buckling eigenvalues.

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-87

ASE | Theoretical Principles

If too many or only negative eigenvalues aer found you can choose
an automatic eigenvalue shift with EIGE...LMIN AUTO. Example see
buckling_eigenvalue_shift.dat
Simple slab buckling see ase12_buckling_slab.dat

2.16

Masses

For dynamis eigenvalues only for beams consistent mass matrix are used - vgl.
CTRL MCON. All other elements use a diagonal mass matrix (lumped mass
matrix). See also program DYNA.
In a time step analysis all elements use a diagonal mass matrix .
The mass center is printed in the output. The complete calculated mass vector
including the dead weight can be output with ECHO LOAD EXTR.
A conversion of loads to masses can occur with the record MASS LC.
Example see ase4_eigenfrequencies.dat
In earthquake analysis: a1_dynamic_overview.dat

2.17

Damping Elements

Damping values e.g.


method.

in spring elements are considered for the time-step

Example see spring_with_damping.dat


exponential: springdampexpo.dat

2.18

Modal Damping and Modal Loads

The modal damping dj is defined as a product of the modal shape i multiplied by


the damping matrix multiplied by the modal shape j. This matrix is not generally
diagonal. However, ASE calculates only the diagonal terms of this matrix and
saves them as modal damping values. Different damping of the individual modal
shapes can be calculated easily in this way by specifying different damping for
particular element groups.
For evaluation of modal load, SOFILOAD can multiply a loadvector of an ASE
loadcase e.g. 3 with an eigenform e.g. lc 1004 (SOFILOAD: LC 3 rest ; EVAL
RU no 1004).

2-88

SOFiSTiK 2016

Literature | ASE

Literature
[1] K.J. Bathe and E.N. Dvorkin. A Four-Node Plate Bending Element
Based on Mindlin/Reissner Plate Theory and a Mixed Interpolation.
Int.Journal.f.Numerical Meth. Engineering Vol.21 367-383, 1985.
[2] J. Bellmann.
Vorgespannte schiefwinklige Plattenbalkenbrcke.
SOFiSTiK Seminar, 1994.

7.

[3] J. Bellmann and J. Rtzer. Beispiele zur Bemessung nach DIN 1045-1,
Mllbunkerwand. DBV: Band2: Ingenieurbau Beispiel 15, 2003.
[4] M.A. Crisfield. A Quadratic Mindlin Element Using Shear Constraints. Computers & Structures, Vol. 18, 833-852, 1984.
[5] Timothy A. Davis. Ldl: a consise sparse cholesky factorization package.
http://www.cise.ufl.edu/research/sparse/ldl, 2003-2012.
[6] P.H. Feenstra and R. De Borst. Aspects of robust computational modeling
for plain and reinforced concrete. Heron Volume 38 No.4, 1993.
[7] T.J.R. Hughes and E. Hinton. Finite Elements for Plate and Shell Structures.
Pineridge Press International, Swansea, 1986.
[8] T.J.R. Hughes and T.E. Tezduyar. Finite Elements Based Upon Mindlin
Plate Theory With Particular Reference to the Four-Node Bilinear Isoparametric Element. Journal of Applied Mechanics, 48/3, 1981.
[9] C. Katz. Berechnung von allgemeinen Pfahlwerken. Bauingenieur 61 563568, 1986.
[10] C. Katz. Neues zu Plattenbalken. 7. SOFiSTiK Seminar, 1994.
[11] C. Katz and J. Stieda. Praktische FE-Berechnungen mit Plattenbalken.
Bauinformatik 1, 1992.
[12] P. Schiessel. Grundlagen der Neuregelung zur Beschrnkung der Rissbreite. Heft 400 DAfStb, 1994.
[13] W. Schneider. Zustand II Berechnungen in der Praxis (Beitrag). SOFiSTiK
Seminar Leipzig, 2003.
[14] Stempniewski and Eibl. Finite Elemente im Stahlbeton. Betonkalender
1993-Teil 1 S. 249., 1993.
[15] R.L. Taylor, P.J. Beresford, and E.L. Wilson. A Non-Conforming Element for
Stress Analysis. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Vol. 10:1211-1219, 1976.

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-89

ASE | Literature

[16] A. Tessler and T.J.R. Hughes. An improved Treatment of Transverse Shear


in the Mindlin-Type Four-Node Quadrilateral Element. Computer Methods
in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 39, 1983.
[17] Timoshenko and Woinowsky-Krieger.
MacGraw-Hill, New-York, 1959.

Theory of Plates and Shells.

[18] W. Wunderlich, G. Kiener, and W. Ostermann. Modellierung und Berechnung von Deckenplatten mit Unterzgen. Bauingenieur, 1994.
[19] xx. mit Berichtigung 1, Juli 2002 z.B. in [2]. DIN 1045-1 Ausgabe Juli 2001,
2002.
[20] xx. Erluterungen zu DIN 1045-1. Heft 525 DAfStb September, 2003.
[21] O.C. Zienkiewicz. Methode der finiten Elemente, 2.Auflage. Hanser Verlag
Mnchen, 1984.
[22] K. Zilch and A. Rogge. Bemessung von Stahlbeton- und Spannbetonbauteilen im Brcken- und Hochbau. Betonkalender 2, 2004.

2-90

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

3
3.1

Input Description
Input Language

The input is made in the CADINP language (see general manual SOFiSTiK:
Basics).
Three categories of units are distinguished:
mm

Fixed unit. Input is always required in the specified unit.

[mm]

Explicit unit. Input defaults to the specified unit. Alternatively, an


explicit assignment of a related unit is possible (eg. 2.5[m] ).

[mm] 1011

Implicit unit. Implicit units are categorised semantically and denoted


by a corresponding identity number (shown in green). Valid categories referring to the unit length are, for example, geodetic
elevation, section length and thickness. The default unit for each
category is defined by the currently active (design code specific)
unit set. This input default can be overridden as described above.
The specified unit in square brackets corresponds to the default for
unit set 5 (Eurocodes, NORM UNIT 5).

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-1

ASE | Input Description

3.2

Input Records

The statical system is input with a graphic input program or with the program
SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHC. Material values can be modified, however, in ASE.
The input is divided into blocks which are terminated with an END record. A
particular system or load case can be analysed within each block. The program
ends, if an empty block (END/END) is found.
The following records are defined:
Record

Items

CTRL

OPT

VAL

SYST

TYPE

PROB

ITER

TOL

FMAX

FMIN

EMIN

PLC

FACV

NMAT

STOR

CHAM

DT

INT

ALF

DEL

THE

LCST

FAK1

FAKE

DFAK

PRO

DL

PRIM

STEP

EMAX

SELE
ULTI

STEP
DMIN

PLOT

LC

TO

NNO

DIRE

TYPE

CREP

NCRE

RO

RH

TEMP

BEAM

GRP

NO

VAL

FACS

PLC

GAM

SIGN

SIGH

FACL

FACD

FACP

FACT

HW

GAMA

RADA

RADB

MODD

CS

PREX

PREY

PHI

EPS

RELZ

PHIF

PHIS

T1

HING

FACB

CSDL

MNO

NO

STEA

QUEA

QUEX

QUEY

ALP0

ULUS

QEMX

EXPO

GEOM

ELEM

ETYP

NO

FACS

FACL

LEN0

ETYP

NO

L0

TYPE

LC

GRP

HIGH

XM

YM

ZM

NX

NY

NZ

PTPR

NOG

*PSEL

FROM

TO

INC

REDP

REDA

REDT

TBEA

NC

REIQ

LCB

FACT

LCRS

CHKS

STEX

NAME

GRP2

PR1

Table continued on next page.

3-2

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

Record

Items

OBLI

SX

SY

SZ

LC

FACV

VMAX

DIRE

MNO

V0

P0

PLC

STOR
SLIP

NOSL

NOG

NOEL

VOLU

NO

GRP

POSI

DV

DT

MASS

MOVS

NO

TYPE

FROM

TO

INC

L0

LAUN

GRP

DX

DY

DZ

XM

YM

SFIX

LC

PLC

LC

NO

FACT

DLX

DLY

DLZ

BET2

TITL

TYPE

GAMU

GAMF

PSI0

PSI1

PSI2

PS1S

CRI1

CRI2

CRI3

NO

T1

T2

NOG

FACT

EMOD

RELA

TEMP

EXPO
LAG

LCNO

FACT

TYPE

TOL

PROJ

PEXT

NOG

NOEL

P0

SIDE

BETA

MUE

SS

LCC

NO

FACT

NOG

NFRO

NTO

NINC

ULTI

PLC
EIGE

NEIG

ETYP

NITE

MITE

LMIN

SAVE

LC

MASS

NO

MX

MY

MZ

MXX

MYY

MZZ

V0

NO

VX

VY

VZ

REIN

MOD

RMOD

LCR

ZGRP

SFAC

P6

P7

P8

P9

P10

P11

P12

TITL

STAT

KSV

KSB

AM1

AM2

AM3

AM4

AMAX

SC1

SC2

SS1

SS2

C1

C2

S1

S2

Z1

Z2

SMOD

TSV

MSCD

KTAU

TTOL

TANA

TANB

SCL

KMOD

KSV

KSB

KMIN

KMAX

ALPH

FMAX

CRAC

CW

BB

HMIN

HMAX

CW-

CHKC

CHKT

CHKS

FAT

SIGS

TANS

TANC

DUMP

OPT

VAL

DESI

NSTR

ECHO

The record PSEL is only available in the ASE version which was expanded by
the pile element.

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-3

ASE | Input Description

The records HEAD, END and PAGE are described in the general manual
SOFiSTiK: Basics.

3-4

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

3.3

CTRL Control of the Calculation

See also: ECHO, SYST, GRP, ULTI

CTRL

Item

Description

Unit

Default

OPT

Control option

LT

SOLV

Solver options for ASE

CORE Parallel computing control


ITER

Iteration method

QTYP

Formulation of QUAD+TENDON
elements
AFIX
Handling of movable degrees of
freedom
MSTE Number of the Runge-Kutta
steps
CABL Cable handling for geometrically
non-linear calculation
NLAY Parameters for QUAD layers
FRIC
PLAB

Maximum allowable shear stress


for QUAD concrete rule
T-beam components

FORM Yield process cross section reduction


FIXZ

Global and local xy constraint,


Formfinding for membrane structures
WARP Warping torsion
STII

Non-linear beam stiffness

UNRE BEAM prestress from the program TENDON


SFIX
Linearization of beam calculation
according to OeNORM B4702
INPL
Inplane stiffnesses
CONC Concrete in cracked condition
Table continued on next page.

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-5

ASE | Input Description

Item

Description

Unit

Default

STEA

Formfinding
cable-stayed
bridges: normal force stiffness
component of beams
QUEA Formfinding
cable-stayed
bridges: normal force stiffness
component of QUAD elements
DIFF
Saving of the difference internal
forces between a load case and
the primary load case
BRIC Control of BRIC elements
CANT

Primary displacements

SOFT

Replacement of rigid supports


in dead load direction with soft
spring supports
SPRI Consideration of the eccentricity
of springs
MCON Activation of a consistant mass
matrix
GIT
Reduction of non-linear torsional
stiffness
WARN to switch off specific error messages
GRAN Activation of the old GRAN material model for BRIC non-linear
material with GRAN 0
AXIA, EIGE, AMAX, AGEN, ETOL, IMAX,
SVRF, VRED, SMOO, VM, PIIA, INTE,
USEP, VERT, COUN, ELIM, NLIM, ED:
See manual for the program AQB
VAL

Value of the option

V2

possible 2nd value of the option

V3

possible 3rd value of the option

3-6

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

ITER

Iteration method for the elimination of residual forces


VAL 0

Crisfield method

VAL 1

Linesearch method

VAL +2

An update of the tangential stiffness occurs, if required.

VAL 3

1+2
Default:
- for PROB NONL: VAL 0 = Crisfield method
- for PROB NONL and non-linear springs:
VAL 3
- for PROB TH3:
VAL 3 = Linesearch with tang. stiffness

V2 1

for every step stiffness update

V2 x

interval stiffness update is extended to x steps


Default: dependent on the system size
With an input for V2 failure mechanisms can be calculated
well for second-order and third-order theory. ASE shows a
better iteration in possible failure mode shapes with following input (possible also without PLC):
CTRL ITER 2 V2 1 $ new total stiffness after every
step $
SYST PROB TH3 ITER -30 PLC 15 $ -30 : simple
residual force iteration $

Then the iteration load cases 9001-9030 determine the


failure mechanism.
V3 x

Update of the AQB stiffness in every xth step with CTRL


ITER 3 V3 x
Default: 4-8 depending on the number of iterations

V4 x

Smooth change of updated stiffness in the first x iterations.


On TH2, TH3 or WARP sometimes an unrealistic normal
force in the first iterations leads to negative stiffness.
Default: no smoothing - full updated stiffness also in first
iteration

V5 x

bits for variations of Chrisfield acceleration


+1 also accelerate going downhill
+2 high acceleration also in high iterations
Default: 0 - Standard Chrisfield

V6 0

no damping of updated spring stiffness in iterations

V6 1

damping method 1

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-7

ASE | Input Description

V6 2

damping method 2 (incremental launching)


Default: V6 2

QTYP

Formulation of QUAD elements and tendons


The various additional options of the QUAD elements are defined as
the sum of the following values:
VAL 0

standard element

VAL 1

non-conforming formulation

VAL +10 use of rotational masses (dynamic only)


Default: 1
If Tendon parts are not assigned to a quad element in TENDON,
it must be defined how these parts shall be treated - as a hole
or external tendon. You should also check if it is better to use
real cable elements for such extern QUAD tendons (see PEXT and
extern_prestress_cables.dat) :
V2 0

These parts are interpreted as hole without force

V2 1

These parts are treated as external tendons with acting


force (are not taken into account in SIR cuts)<

Default: not set - with version 2016: 1

Figure 3.1: Tendon going through a hole with QTYP V2 1

AFIX

Control of the handling of the movable degrees of freedom


Recognizable undefined degrees of freedom (e.g. node rotations of
a truss) are assigned a priori a small stiffness. Loads which act on
such degrees of freedom cause very large displacements.
Instability check: If the solver detects an instability, 6 single load

3-8

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

cases are calculated automatically for the graphical checks under the
consideration of dynamic auxiliary stiffnesses. Furthermore the first
three eigenvalues are calculated with the same auxiliary stiffness. An
input unequal to 1 for CTRL AFIX turns off this instability check.
0

Degrees of freedom which are movable exactly get announced by an error message. The calculation is interrupted.

Degrees of freedom which are movable within the numeric


accuracy get announced by an error message. The calculation is interrupted. The instability check is realized.

Degrees of freedom which are movable exactly are not


used and get a warning. The calculation is continued.

Degrees of freedom which are movable within the numeric


accuracy are not used and get a warning. The calculation
is continued.

as 0, however, recognizable undefined degrees of freedom


get a rigid support.

as 1, however, recognizable undefined degrees of freedom


get a rigid support.

as 2, however, recognizable undefined degrees of freedom


get a rigid support.

as 3, however, recognizable undefined degrees of freedom


get a rigid support.

Default: 1
MSTE

Maximum number of Runge-Kutta steps fory non-linear material


MSTE acts only for the yield criteria for BRIC elements.
Default: 4
Explanations can be found in the TALPA manual. In many examples
the program converges better with MSTE= -110.

CABL

Cable handling
0

No consideration of the internal cable sag

Consideration of the internal cable sag


The consideration is not done for cables with FACS not
equal 1.0 (formfinding).

Calculation of cables with FACS not equal 1.0 (formfinding)


with inner cable deflection

Default: 2

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-9

ASE | Input Description

PLAB

T-beam philosophy
The plate components are deducted automatically during the stiffness
calculation for beams inside plates with cross section widths defined
in the program AQUA. The dead load is adjusted to avoid double dead
load. The components of the plate internal forces are added then to
the results of the beam internal forces for a subsequent dimensioning.
Restrictions:

Processing only for cross sections with defined cross section outline (SREC,SECT...) which were defined with the program AQUA.
Also composite sections are allowed. The acting width is taken
from the concrete parts only.

Beams which are connected to the plate via kinematic constraints


are processed too, however, only if they lie in the plane of the plate
(program MONET: BEAM-abs+coup).

Details:

During the calculation of plate components the plate internal


forces at the beam nodes are multiplied by the cross section width.
Therefore, the beam width should not be chosen too large above
columns.

If some QUAD groups meet at a node, the average value of the


plate internal forces is used.

Control:
+1

moments My are added

+2

shear forces Vz are added too

+4

axial forces N are added too

+8

torsional moments MT are added too

Default: 7 = My + Vz + N
The processing is cancelled with CTRL PLAB 0
V2: With Ctrl PLAB V2 1 also the next quad node rigth and left
is used to evaluate the added quad forces (to take into account the
quad force distribution more acccurate). With Ctrl PLAB V2 0 only
the central node is used.
Default: 1
Output:

3-10

The plate components are included always in the output of the

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

beam internal forces and moments. Therefore the printout does


not occur before the plate node results!

A statistic of the plate components follows after the beam internal forces and moments. The maximum plate components are
compared with the maximum beam internal forces.

Control of the statistic with the input ECHO PLAB 0-1-2.


Attention: This model can not be used for influence line evaluation
with ELLA because ELLA does not add the slab parts to the beam!
Examples see also Theoretical Principles.
NLAY

Number of layers for QUAD layers


Fire analysis implemented for QUAD shell elements.
With
SOFILOAD now nonlinear temperature gradients can be defined via
QUAD...TYPE=T...Z0 and plottet in the ANIMATOR element info after the analysis. Then ASE can use non-linear temperature curves
(AQUA ARBL...TEMP) in the QUAD layers. An input of CTRL NLAY
V2 V3 V4 is necessary and allows addional settings:
VAL

Number of layers

V2 +1

fine layers on positive local z axis

V2 +2

higher layer refinement on +z

V2 +3

extreme refinement on +z

V2 -1 bis -3 : refinement on negative local z axis


Default: 0 = constant division
V3

start temperature in the quad layers


Default: 20 degree celsius
The non-linear temperature strain behaviour is taken into
account and plotted in the URSULA output.

V4 1

Take alfa-t value from material input (CONC-ALFA) and not


from work law SSLA-EPST.
Default: V4=0.

V5 1

Concrete uses the maximum temperature found up to now


in a layer and does not cure on falling temperature.
Default: V5=1.

V9

With V9 a temperature for the plot of the work law can be


input, e.g. V9 600.,
+10000 e.g. 10100=every 100 degree.

Example see quads_on_fire_1.dat


FRIC

Maximum allowable shear stress for the QUAD concrete rule

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-11

ASE | Input Description

For point supported slabs the allowable shear stress is exceeded often in support-near elements. It results in shear plastification. For
this shear plastification the punching information of BEMESS is taken
into account in a non-linear slab analysis. At punching node, the
shear plasticity check will be switched off inside an radius of columnedge+hm. Thus an increase of FRIC to for example 9.9 N/mm2 for
elimination of these sometimes unwanted shear plastification effects
is only necessary in special cases.
Default: 2.40 [ N/mm2 ]
V2

final stress.
With CTRL FRIC 3.00 V2 1.40 a descending final max.
allowable shear stress (here 1.40 N/mm2) can be defined.
The stiffness in the descending part is equal to the increasing one.

FORM

Yield process
Control of the thickness reduction for large deformations
1

volume-constant behaviour (ideal plastic)

elastic behaviour using the Poissons ratio

effective for QUAD, TRUS and CABL elements


Default: 0
FIXZ

Global or local xy constraint


Formfinding membrane structures:
For membrane elements and FACS < 0.5 a formfinding is calculated.
All inner membrane nodes in the membrane plane are fixed then:
1

fixes all internal membrane nodes in the membrane plane


from the second iteration step

fixed the nodes in the membrane plane in all iteration steps

fixes generally all nodes in global XY = formfinding in


global Z can be used also for a cable nets

fixes the local z coordinate in the first iteration step, in further steps the transverse direction (as for FIXZ 2)

fixes the local z coordinate in all iteration steps

no such effects

After a formfinding calculation an additional calculation should occur


with a stiffness factor multiplied by 1.0 in order to balance possible
residual forces in the membrane plane. CTRL FIXZ 4 or 5 can be
used for the formfinding of the radii of edge cables.

3-12

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

Default: 1
WARP

Warping torsion
1

activates the warping torsion with formulation of a seventh


degree of freedom per node.

Default: 0
STII

Linear beam stiffness factor in a nonlinear analysis


T-beams (beams) are calculated linear in a normal non-linear slab
calculation with SYST NMAT YES (without NSTR S1). In this case
an overall reduction of the beam stiffness is done. The input CTRL
STII 0.4 for example processes concrete beams with 40 % stiffness.
A normal force stiffness is not used then. For slab calculations (program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHC ... SYST GIRD) according to cracked
condition STII is preset with 0.25 (0.75*1/(1+phi) with phi=2.0).. The
default is 1.0 for all other calculations. Steel beams or beams with
other material than concrete are not influenced.
Using nonlinear T-beams in combination with a quad slab is problematic due to the change of centre of stiffness in cracked beams
and the elongation of beams due to crack opening. In such a case
it is better to use only excentric quad elements as shown in example
csm32_slab_design.dat

UNRE

For the use of the BEAM prestress from the program TENDON following inputs are possible:
1

Only the static determinate part of prestress is stored. The


curvature loads are not used.

-1

Only the static indeterminate part is calculated and stored.

The static indeterminate part is calculated and stored together with the static determinate part. The beam internal
forces and moments includes both parts (= default).

example see bridge_design_manual_aqb.dat


INPL

Inplane stiffnesses: Connecting beams to quads


The decisive connection nodes for the beam and disk elements are
searched for the transfer of the moments around the local z axis.
The stiffnesses of the bordering QUAD elements are increased by
an inplane moment spring. Thus a pile can transmit moments around
both beam axis to the wall disks. The appropriate node numbers are
printed. The method can be switched off with CTRL INPL 0. With
CTLR INPL value it can be factorized, e.g. CTLR INPL 0.001.

CONC

Concrete in cracked condition

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-13

ASE | Input Description

For QUAD elements:


The length of the decreasing part of the concrete stress-strain curve
in the tensile zone is defined with CTRL CONC VAL:
VAL 0.2 defines this length to 0.2 per mille
VAL 0

The length is determined from the tensilefailure energy.


This energy is not limited with 5eps1 as in the default
(without an input for CTRL CONC).

CTRL CONC V2: the increase of the maximum concrete compressive


stress for uniaxial compression according to Kupfer/Rsch is deactivated as a precaution for calculations according to ultimate limit state:
V2 0

no limitation, increase permissible, default for NSTR KSV


SL, SLD

V2 1

maximum concrete compressive stress = 1.0 value from


uniaxial AQUA stress-strain curve, default for NSTR UL,
ULD, CAL, CALD

V3

temporarily sets the concrete strength fct for the QUAD


concrete material law
W3 = tensile strength for tension stiffening

V4

temporarily sets the concrete strength fctk for the QUAD


material law [ N/mm2]
W4 = tensile strength for pure concrete layers
Should be reduced for ULS analysis.

The method of tension stiffening is controlled with CONC V5:


V5 525 plates in cracked condition exactly according to Heft 525
DAfStb (Eurocode)
V5 400 plates in cracked condition exactly according to Heft 400
DAfStb (old EC2)
without input: for SL,SLD: Heft 400 with modifications for realistic deflection, for UL,ULD: Heft 525

3-14

V6

Reduction of concrete compression strength due to transverse tension


Input per cent e.g. :
CTRL CONC V6 85 = max. reduction 85%
CTRL CONC V6 100 = no reduction
default V6=75 (refer to BEMESS CTRL TENS)
The input Bit 1 and Bit 2 of version 2014 is no longer supported (the default of version 2014 works on these issues)

V7

Computation on singular support points in the material

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

nonlinear concrete analysis (SYST NMAT YES):


Problem: such singular supports caused singular forces
that could not be carried in the concrete nonlinear material
model, especially in combination with singular rotational
constraints.
At punching nodes from BEMESS now a first singular
support or connection force (and bending moment) will
be distributed on neighbouring nodes inside the column
perimeter to simulate a constant distributed support pressure. Thus the feature only works after a BEMESS ultmate design with PUNC YES or PUNC CHEK! The support force of the center is distributed via an internal coupling ring around the center node and elastic springs to
further nodes inside the column area.
The processing is documented in the statistik print out
"rounding singular punching nodes". It can be switched off
with CTRL CONC V7 0. It only works on BEMESS punching nodes but also if they come from beam connections in a
3D analysis. It also converts singular connection bending
moments in a triangular connection pressure. The effect
can be studied well by comparing a run with CTRL CONC
V7 0 and a run with CTRL CONC V7 1. Especially at fine
discretized punching points a rotational constraints will be
analyzed more realistic (stronger). On such points the singular support moment caused a strong singular curvature
in the fine mesh and thus a lower constraint.
In a material linear analysis this feature is switched off by
default but can be enforced with CTRL CONC V7 1.
BRIC yield criteria for non-linear concrete application:
A decreasing tensile strength curve can be chosen with the additional
input CTRL CONC EPSY. Here EPSY is interpreted as uniaxial strain
length of the decreasing part of the stress strain-curve in per mille
(e.g. CTRL CONC 0.1). The input is possible for the BRIC yield criteria MOHR, LADE and GUDEHUS. Without the input of CTRL CONC
the tensile strength is treated as a constant yielding value. A special
case is LADE - here the length of the decreasing tensile strength can
be input in AQUA NMAT LADE with P6 and then an additional input
with ASE CTRL CONC is not allowed. For ASE we recommend to
input the length of the decreasing part for LADE in AQUA. Example
see bric_concrete.dat
STEA

With CTRL STEA the normal force stiffness component of beams

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-15

ASE | Input Description

can be increased.
The bending stiffness remains unchangeable.
STEA can also use groupwise in GRP2 Example see
suspension_bridge_formfinding.dat
QUEA

With CTRL QUEA the EA part of the QUAD elements can be


modified. QUEA can also use groupwise in GRP2 Example see
steel_composite_orto.dat

DIFF

With CTRL DIFF the difference internal forces (and displacements)


between a load case and the primary load case are saved (nodal displacement differences = difference to SYST PLC load case!). With
that for instance the difference results (e.g. the part from creep and
shrinkage) are immediately available for a superposition in the program AQB. Only a multiple of thousand is allowed. Usage see program CSM Construction Stage Manager.
With V2 the secondary effect of prestress is treated via CSM.

BRIC

Control for BRIC elements


1

use normal BRIC element

use BRIC element with hyperplastic rubber material Total


Lagrangian

+16

CTRL BRIC 17 = use BRIC elements geometric linear

Default: BRIC 1
CANT

3-16

If new groups and new nodes are activated for instance in cantilevering construction, a primary displacement has to be determined for
these new nodes, although they were not still available in the primary
load case SYST PLC. Using complex FE cantilever parts, the parts
sometimes distorted too much. Thus the new member is attached
as a whole (block) freely of stress. This can be controlled with CTRL
CANT. Usage see program CSM Construction Stage Manager.
0

no action

only consideration of displacements

consideration of displacements and rotations = tangential


cantilevering construction

adaption of a new segment in its shop shape (only if using


CSM), example: csm7_cant_3.dat

+4

retention of the XY position

11,12

In analog mode to 1 and 2 with the feature:


It adds a new part not as a block but each node separate.
This allows much better to add an in situ slab on an already
deformed grid of beam elements.

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

Default: CANT 0 = no action


SOFT

Replacement of rigid supports in dead load direction with soft spring


supports, also for linear analysis If in a graphical input a rigid line support was defined for simplification purposes, this rigid support can be
changed subsequently into a soft edge support. The support width
is considered here. However, single supports get a factor which is
increased with the spring value multiplied with 5, therefore 5support
areaSOFT. The value SOFT is here the bedding value in kN/m3 . Values which are smaller than 1000 are not possible. CTRL SOFT can
be input also simultaneously for a non-linear analysis with corners
which are displaced upwards (see SYST PROB LIFT).
Default: 5E7

SPRI

Spring options:
+1 and +8: Consideration of the eccentricity of springs.
Coupling spring elements can account for the real distance of the
nodes with an implicit KP kinematic constraint. A transverse spring
force will transfer a moment to the nodes. Without +1 and +8 the
transverse force is transported without a moment - which is mechanically not correct.
+4: direction change of coupling springs.
0

= without +1 or +8: do NOT apply excentricity of springs


from real distance
=without +4: couplings springs bahave like a truss and can
change the force direction

+1

apply excentricity in any case

+8

automatic decision:
For BRIC and inplane-QUAD connections the eccentricity
is not applied, because in that cases a smeared friction
is assumed and QUADs and BRICs cannot transfer such
bending moments. The eccentricity effect is also not applied for truss and cable connections without beam connections.

+4

coupling springs in geometric nonlinear analysis:


With +4 a coupling spring will always keep its direction and not work like a truss. +4 is the perfect default for
transvers free bridge bearings. If the direction of a coupling
spring does not fit to the direction of the nodal connection
vector, the spring will always keep its direction! Normally
a direction fixed spring should be defined with nodes with

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-17

ASE | Input Description

the same coordinate ( distance 0).


Option V2: With CTRL SPRI V2=2 the shift of the zeropoint of the
work law curve after plastification (=hysteresis) can be switched off.
This is senseful for work law curves that shall simulate a gap. V2 not
equal 2 = with hysteresis.
Default: CTRL SPRI 8+4 V2 0
MCON

Activation of a constant mass matrix


For eigenvalue analysis with solver LANC, SIMU and RAYL a consistant mass matrix is activated with default CTRL MCON 2 (implemented for beam elements only). MCON 3 includes warping effects.
Further comments can be found in the DYNA manual.

GIT

Additional reduction of non-linear torsional stiffness for lateral buckling analysis (NSTR S1)
see example: aseaqb_4_lateral_buckl_prestress.dat

3.3.1

SOLV Equation solver

SOLV

Description

VAL

Selection of equation solver


1
Direct Skyline Solver
(Gauss/ Cholesky)
2
Iterative Sparse Solver
3
Direct Sparse LDL Solver
4
Direct Parallel Sparse Solver
(PARDISO)

Unit

Default

For solving the equation systems of the Finite-Element problem, SOFiSTiK provides a number of solvers. Which solver is used best depends highly on the type
of the system and requires knowledge of relevant system parameters. Following
types are available:

Direct Skyline Solver (Gauss/Cholesky)


This is the classical solver of the FE-Method. The current implementation
works best on a skyline oriented matrix. The storage needed depends on
the internal optimization of the node numbers and may become quite large
for 3D structures.

Iterative Solver (Conjugate Gradients)


One advantage of the iterative solver lies in its reduced requirements for

3-18

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

storage, but it may also provide reduced computing time compared to the
previous two types especially in case of large volume structures.

Direct Sparse Solver


These types of solvers correspond to state of technology. A quite efficient
version based on the work of DAVIS [5] is available as well as a direct parallel
solver PARDISO.

The advantage of the direct solvers is especially given in case of multiple right
hand sides, as the effort for solving them is very small compared to the triangulization of the equation system. Thus they are the first choice for any dynamic
analysis or in case of many load cases.
In order to minimize computational effort, the solvers need an optimized sequence of equation numbers. This optimization step is usually performed during
system generation. The programs SOFIMSHA/C by default always create a sequence which is suitable for the direct sparse solver (3). The solvers (1) or (2)
however require a skyline oriented numbering which may be obtained using the
option (CTRL OPTI 1) or (CTRL OPTI 2) during system generation. The correct
setting will be checked and a warning will be issued in case a correct numbering
is not available.
The iterative (CTRL SOLV 2) and the parallel sparse solver (CTRL SOLV 4) can
be run in parallel providing an additional reduction in computing time. A parallelization basically requires a license of type HISOLV. More information about
parallelization can be found in subsection 3.3.2 describing the input parameter
(CTRL CORE).
The equation solvers are selected using the parameter (CTRL SOLV). The first
value defines the type of the solver, followed by optional additional parameters.
Direct Skyline Solver (Gauss/ Cholesky)
SOLV
VAL

Description

Direct Skyline Solver (Gauss/


Cholesky)

Unit

Default

No additional parameters are required. However it is mandatory to optimize the


equation numbers in SOFIMSHA/C using (CTRL OPTI 1) or (CTRL OPTI 2) in
order to minimize computation time as well as storage requirements.
Iterative equation solver

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-19

ASE | Input Description

SOLV
VAL

Description

Iterative equation solver

Unit

Default

V2

Maximum number of iterations

V3

Tolerance in numeric digits (5 to 15)

V4

Type of preconditioning:
0
Diagonal Scaling (not recommended)
1
Incomplete Cholesky
2
Incomplete Inverse

V5

Threshold value of preconditioning

V6

Maximum bandwidth in preconditioning

The iterative solver uses a conjugate gradient method in combination with preconditioning. For the preconditioning, following variants are supported:

Diagonal scaling (V4=0)


Although this is the fastest method with the least memory requirements, it
will need a considerable high amount of iterations and is therefore not recommended in most cases.

Incomplete Cholesky (V4=1)


This type of preconditioning performs a partial triangulization of the input
matrix. Compared to a full triangulization with the Cholesky method, the
Incomplete Cholesky saves time by ignoring the so called Fill-In during decomposition.

Incomplete Inverse (V4=2)


This type of preconditioning is generally inferior to the Cholesky method.
This applies to the convergence-rate as well as the time required for computing the inverses. It shows however better performance in case of more
densely populated matrices (Recommended threshold V5: 0.01).

For any kind of preconditioning the number of matrix entries taken into account
during preconditioning can be reduced either by giving a relative threshold value
at V5 or via a maximum bandwidth size at V6. The optimum choice depends on
the type of the structure and may only be found by some tests.
Hint
The correctness of the solution of the iterative solver depends primarily on

3-20

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

the tolerance threshold. Therefore, changing the default setting V3 is not


recommended. In any case the analyst should carry out a proper assessment of the computation results.

Direct Sparse LDL Solver (Default)


SOLV
VAL

Description

Direct Sparse LDL Solver

Unit

Default

Additional parameters are not required. The mesh generators SOFiMSHA/C


generate by default an equation numbering required for this type of solver which
minimizes the so-called Fill In of the matrix.
PARDISO - direct parallel sparse solver
SOLV
WERT

Description

Direct parallel sparse solver

Unit

Default

This solver PARDISO uses processor optimized high performance libraries from
the Intel Math Kernel Library MKL. It usually provides the least computing times.
It does not require an a priori optimization of the equation numbers during system generation. Hence, the equation optimization in SOFiMSHA/C could also
be deactivated using (CTRL OPTI 0) in order to save memory during system
generation. On the other hand however, this solver does not allow reusing the
factorized stiffness matrix in other programs. Thus, a usage in combination with
the program ELLA is not possible.
Further options
CTRL SOLV 0 suppresses the solution of the system. This is a useful feature to
check the effective system loads.
STEU SOLV 999 prevents a rebuild of the stiffness matrix within a load case
loop in each step.
3.3.2

CORE Parallel computation control

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-21

ASE | Input Description

CORE

Description

VAL

Number of used threads

Unit

Default

SOFiSTiK supports parallel computing for selected equation solvers. Additionally, some programs offer parallel element processing capabilities independent
of the chosen equation solver (CTRL SOLV).
Activation of parallel computing
By default parallel computing is triggered automatically where it is feasible.
Parallel computing requires corresponding harware and operation system support. In addition, availability of an adequate SOFiSTiK license is obligatory.
Hint
Parallel computing requires availability of a HISOLV license (ISOL granule).

Number of available threads for parallel computing


If parallel computing is active, the number of adopted threads is determined as
follows (listed with increasing priority):
a) The software retrieves the information about the number of available physical
processor cores on the system. This number defines the default number of
threads that are used when a parallel computation is activated.
b) This default can be modified via the environment variable
SOF_NUM_THREADS, which is also available as sofistik.def parameter.
c) Finally, an explicit statement CTRL CORE NN (or as relative input CTRL
CORE NN[%]) temporarily assigns the number of available threads for the
respective run.
Hint
Neither option b) nor option c) state an explicit parallel computation request. The decision if a parallel computation is triggered, depends on the
actual analysis option (parallel processing must be supported for the specific task) and the availability of an adequate license. Parallel computing
can be suppressed by explitly setting the number of available threads to 1

3-22

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

(or 0).

Parallel options for equation solvers


License
Solver

CTRL SOLV

Serial

Parallel

Skyline Gauss/ Cholesky

n.a.

Iterativ

Sparse LDL (default)

Sparse Parallel (Pardiso)

SOFiSTiK 2016

HISOLV HISOLV

n.a.

HISOLV HISOLV

3-23

ASE | Input Description

3.4

SYST Global Control Parameters

See also: CTRL, GRP, ULTI

SYST

Item

Description

Unit

Default

TYPE

Control option

LT

LT

LINE

ITER

Analysis of plates with corners


which are displaced upwards
Number of iterations

90

TOL

Iteration tolerance

0.001

* This input is not analyzed, the value is


taken over from generation program.
PAIN and AXIA only run with TALPA.
PROB

Type of the analysis


LINE

Linear analysis

NONL Non-linear analysis


TH2
TH3
TH3b

Analysis according to second order theory


Analysis according to thirdorder
theory
Limited TH3

LIFT

The tolerance refers to the maximum load


of analysis.
value multiplied with maximum nodal
load generates the tolerance limit
for residual forces
-value Absolute tolerance limit
TOL4

tolerance after 40 % iterations

TOL8

tolerance after 80 % iterations

FMAX

Max. f value Crisfield method

4.00

> 0.1 or negative

FMIN

Min. f value Crisfield method > 0.1

0.25

EMAX

Max. e value Crisfield method 0.0

0.60

EMIN

Mini. e value Crisfield method 0.1

-0.40

PLC

Primary load case of the system

Table continued on next page.

3-24

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

Item

Description

FACV

Factor for displacements of PLC

Unit

Default

LT

NO

LT

NO

Default 1.0
for buckling eigenvalue analysis:
for geometric nonlinear PLC: 1.0
otherwise for buckling: 0.0
VMAX

Factor for imperfection

NMAT

Yield criteria for QUAD and BRIC elements


YES

Yield criteria are used.

NO

Yield criteria are not used.

STOR

Geometry update

CHAM

Magnification calculation in connection with


program CSM
no magnification
1.0

magnification calculation

Non-linear analyses are not possible with the basic version of program.
Further explanations to PROB:
LINE

linear analysis

NONL non-linear analysis


non-linear springs
tension cut off for QUAD elements
non-linear pile bedding
non-linear halfspace contact
material non-linearities:
- stress-strain curves for springs, beams, cables and trusses (requires the record NSTR)
- concrete and steel rule for QUAD elements (SYST NMAT YES
is additionally necessary)
- yield criteria for BRIC volume elements (SYST NMAT YES is
additionally necessary)
TH2

= NONL + analysis according to the second-order theory for calculation of columns and frames according to the second-order theory
(pi-delta)
Beam elements are calculated with TH2 with a iteration method in

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-25

ASE | Input Description

analog mode to STAR2 (the normal ASE iteration method with residual forces is used for TH3 or CTRL ITER 3)
TH3

= NONL + geometrically non-linear analysis contains TH2 and additionally the effects of the geometrical system modification, e.g.
snape through, length modification for big deformations, behaviour
after buckling
On TH2-TH3 Difference see Theoretical Background - Beam Element

TH3b

= NONL + TH2 + effects of the geometrical system modification


only for cables, trusses and springs (CTRL SPRI) with kinematic
constraint. Beams and QUAD elements are used only according to
the second-order theory.

LIFT

Analysis of plates with corners which are displaced upwards A nonlinear analysis is started, at which also fixed supports and elastic
edges can be displaced upwards due to tension; see CTRL SOFT

Examples:
SYST PROB LINE:

Input file

ASE introduction

ase1_overview.dat

BEMESS slab design

bemess6_design.dat

CSM prestressed bridge

csm31_design.dat

SYST PROB NONL:

Input file

Spring work law

a1_spring_overview.dat

Beam Ship impact plastic

ase_nstr_pld_pile_crash.dat

Quad concrete cracked

a1_introduction_example.dat

Bric tunneling

ase14_tunnel_3d.dat

SYST PROB TH2:

Input file

Beam overturning

ase11_girder_overturning.dat

Beam column cracked

aseaqb_1_column_cracked.dat

SYST PROB TH3:

Input file

Overview examples geo-nonl

ase_geo_nonl_overview.dat

Suspension bridge

suspension_bridge_formfinding.dat

Cable sag

ase5_cable_trestle.dat

Quad geometric nonlinear

ase9_quad_euler_beam.dat

Quad shell buckling

ase13_shell_buckling.dat
Table continued on next page.

3-26

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

SYST PROB LINE:

Input file

Quad web buckling

webblecbuckling.dat

Quad membranes

tennis.dat

Bric buckling

bric_beul.dat

Summary of all example overviews:


Example overview

see

Work laws

-> Work law input

Copy loads

-> LCC

Mass conversion

-> MASS

Creep and shrinkage

-> KRIE

Nonlinear effects

-> SYST PROB ...

Quad nonlinear

-> NMAT YES

Membranes

-> MEMB

Ultimate load iteration

-> TRAG

Incremental launching

-> TAKT

Contact Moving Springs

-> MOVS

Dynamic time steps

-> STEP

Halfspace analysis

-> HASE

Plot - diagrams

-> PLOT

An overview over all examples can be found in TEDDY menue file - examples in
folder ASE-english. Then look further e.g. to folder nonlinear_quad. Or you go
over the SOFiSTiK installation folder to
c:/program...sofistik/2014/ANALYSIS_30/ase.dat/english/nonlinear_quad
Further input remarks:
The value of PLC defines a global primary load case. This is used subsequently
as default for the primary load case of all group inputs. Furthermore the displacements of the primary load case are added then and only then to the displacements of the current load case, if the PLC has been defined in the SYST
input. In the case of geometrical non-linear analysis the stiffness is calculated
for the deformed structure.
To use the geometric stiffness of a primary load case in a linear analysis please
refer to SFIX.

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-27

ASE | Input Description

A predeformation with PLC and FACV effects the internal forces moments
only for PROB TH3, see Chapter 2: Non-linear Analyses and Chapter
5: example Buckling Mode Shapes in Supercritical Region. The application of a non-stressed predeformation is explained in the school example
ase9_quad_euler_beam.dat.
The stresses of the primary load case are used with GRP FACL=FACP=1. If the
loads of the primary load case are applied simultaneously, then the system is
in equilibrium and no additional displacements arise (if no changes are made in
the system).
If a primary load case with TH3 is defined for an eigenvalue determination, one
obtains the eigenfrequencies of the system under the stresses of the primary
load case (accompanying eigenvalue analysis).
With GRP FACL=FACP=0 the deformation of a load case can be defined here
as non-stressed scaled predeformation (see Chapter 5: example Buckling Mode
Shapes in Supercritical Region).
The inputs ITER to EMIN are evaluated only for non-linear analysis. Such an
analysis is allowed only for a single load case.
Buckling eigenvalues on a deformed structure can be requested with explicit
SYST...FACV 1.0.
Explanations to the non-linear iteration method:
Residual forces
New displacements and thus stresses are determined after every iteration step. It is checked, whether plasticising, cracks or
any other non-linear effects have occurred at any elements. The
plasticized elements generate different nodal loads compared to
those of the linear analysis. These nodal loads which were generated by the elements are not anymore in equilibrium with the
external nodal loads (after the first iteration step). The remaining
residual forces are applied as additional loading during the next
iteration step. Additional deformations and a new stress state
which in general is closer to equilibrium result. The maximum
residual force is printed for every iteration. If all residual forces
should be output, this can be controlled with the option ECHO
RESI.
Graphical control of the residual forces

3-28

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

If an iteration ends with residual forces, a picture of the residual


forces can be requested in the program WING with NODE SV.
Since unbalanced residual forces are stored as supported reactions, the problem zone can be localized with that. Here the real
support areas should not be printed. Often, it is advisable to fade
out the real support areas with BOX and to draw only the interior
of the structure.
Tolerance limit of the iteration
The tolerance limit can be defined with the record SYST. Here
the reference value is the largest nodal value which is available
in the system. E.g. for a maximum nodal load of 200 kN the
tolerance limit for the residual forces is = 200 0.001 = 0.2 kN
(for TOL=0.001). In this case all loads of the system are used
including the inherent stress nodal loads of the elements.
The tolerance for non-linear analysis can be input also absolutely
with SYST PROB NONL TOL -value.
Example: With the input SYST PROB NONL TOL -0.5 the iteration is interrupted, if the maximum residual force is smaller than
the value 0.5 kN.
In addition the convergence of the energy norm is checked. If
the energy (printed after the residual) still increases this is a sign
for still increasing deformations. Then ASE does not stop the
iteration in case of fulfilled residual tolerance until also the energy
norm is sufficiently convergent.
Iteration method
The default method for problems according to the second-order
theory is the Linesearch method with the update of the tangential stiffness (see record CTRL). The load increment is reduced
here internally according to the available residual forces. If an
iteration step proceeds into the right direction, i.e. in the direction of an energy minimum, then a new tangential stiffness which
enhances the further iterations behaviour is generated, if necessary. Cracked elements are considered here also with a reduced
stiffness. The Crisfield method is the default (CTRL ITER 0) for
non-linear calculations according to the first-order theory. For
convergence problems the user should attempt also the in each
case other method (CTRL ITER 0 or CTRL ITER 1).
Variation of iteration factors

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-29

ASE | Input Description

For convergence difficulties an improvement of the convergence


behaviour can be achieved often via reduction of the maximum f
value, e.g. FMAX 1.5. If the system still not converges, FMAX
can be reduced until 0.7. However, many iteration steps are
needed then.
The Crisfield method which is implemented for the improvement
of the convergence modifies the displacement increments of the
current and of the last iteration step with the two factors f and
e. f values which become alternately larger and smaller than 1.0
are an indication of serious problems. The method can be influenced in such cases by specifying maximum and minimum values of factors. A negative value for ITER switches off this method
completely. By contrast, it may occur for tensile failure of stiff elements that the residual forces change very slowly. Here it is useful to select large values for e and f (e.g. EMIN = -9999., EMAX =
9999. , FMAX = 1000.). Generally applicable recommendations
can not be given here. It has been observed, however, that the
limit values of e should be defined essentially more generously,
even if FMAX has to be limited.
The values FMAX to EMIN are increasingly limited during the
iteration process. Thereby the convergence is improved for many
iterations.
The FMAX value is decreased automatically during the iteration
process with the input of a negative value for FMAX.
Failed foundation and tensile springs
For analyses without consideration of tensile support reactions (non-linear foundation or springs) the basic foundation values should not be defined too large,
because the program reduces gradually these values until the foundation fails.
For too large initial values for the foundation the iteration converges extremely
slowly.
For tensile failure in large regions the residual forces of the non-linear analysis
can not be redistributed anymore. The iteration becomes divergent. Additional
elements with a small stiffness parallel to the failing ones may be helpful here.
Imperfection
The imperfection can be scaled automatically with the item VMAX. The inputs
-1, -2, -3 for SYST ... FACV control then the direction of the scaling, if desired.
SYST PLC 101 FACV - VMAX 0.05 defines the imperfection of the primary load
case 101 with a three-dimensional deformation of 5 cm.

3-30

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

SYST PLC 101 FACV -1 VMAX 0.5 defines the primary load case 101 with a
maximum imperfection u-X of |5 cm|. All other deformations are scaled with the
same factor.
SYST PLC 101 FACV -1 VMAX -0.05 as before, however, the imperfection figure
is defined with a negative sign.
Failure Mode Shapes
With a special control it is possible to get a more precise iteration process for
the failure mode shapes in ASE. An analysis according to the second-order and
third-order theory does not converge in many cases and it is unknown which failure mechanism will occur. At first a smaller stable load step should be calculated
in advance. Then the following input should be startet:
PROG ASE
HEAD delivers the failure in the iterations load cases 9001-9009.
$ Method: $
$ - new total stiffness after every step, $
$ - then continuation of the calculation without manipulation of the
residual $
$ force $
CTRL ITER 2 W2 1
$ new total stiffness after every step $
SYST PROB TH3 ITER -30 PLC 15 $ !!minus!! -30 $
LC 201 FACT ...
$ Factor, that will cause failure $

In the same way dynamic eigen mode shapes with the last stable load case may
give an information about failure problems, because the critical natural vibration
shapes in the natural frequency are clearly smaller with increasing load. See
example ase9_quad_euler_beam.dat
Geometry-Update
With SYST STOR the system which was displaced with the displacements of the
load case PLC can be stored with the updated nodal coordinates. A calculation
does not occur then.
SYST STOR=YES: The new local coordinate systems of the QUAD elements
are twisted by the rotations of the load case PLC. They, however, keep the direction defined in the input. Beam lengths are nor updated for loading .
SYST STOR=NEW: The local coordinate systems of the QUAD elements are
defined again, despite their definition in the input. Beam lengths are updated for
loading .
SYST STOR=XX,YY,ZZ and NEGX,NEGY,NEGZ: The direction of the local x
axis is preset for the new installation of the coordinate system of the elements,

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-31

ASE | Input Description

cf. program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHC. Beam lengths are updated for loading.


STOR=NEW to STOR=NEGZ acts only to QUAD elements. The local coordinate
systems of beams are twisted generally with the PLC displacements.
Caution:
All results of the nodal displacements are extinguished during the geometry update. Therefore the data base must be saved absolutely before! With the input
STOR=NEW to STOR=NEGZ all other results are extinguished too, because the
local directions are twisted. With the input STOR=YES it is possible to use the
old stresses via the record GRP, if no beam elements are available.
With SYST STOR UZ only the z displacements are corrected. For the x or y
displacements are also possible STOR UX and STOR UY.

3-32

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

3.5

STEP Time Step Method Dynamics

See also: SYST, GRP

Item

Description

STEP
Unit

Default

Number of time steps

DT

Time step

INT

Output interval all INT steps (not implemented yet)


Parameter of the integration method

/ LT

0.40

0.55

1.

/ LT

BET
DEL
THE

(alpha method with THE input)

LCST

Storage load case number


CONT = append on PLC sequence

SELE

Selection of results to be stored

LCSM

Storage number of min.-max values of all


time steps
time step division

-2

old input - please use BET as first parameter

DIV
ALF

The analysis of a time step of duration NVDT with direct (Newmark-Wilson) integration is requested with STEP. The defaults for BET, DEL, THE correspond to
a Newmark method with numerical damping of higher frequencies for nonlinear
analysis.
Following input is possible:
BET 0.25 0.50 1.00

$ Original Newmark without numerical damping

BET 1/6 1/2 1.40

$ Original Wilson with large damping in higher


modes

BET 0.4 0.55 1.00

$ good numerical damping of high frequencies

THE 0.70

$ alpha method acc. Hilber-Hughes-Taylor with


THE= 1-|alpha|(without BET+DEL input ! ) e.g.
alpha -0.3 -> STEP 50 dt 0.05 THE 0.7

For nonlinear dynamics we recommend: THE 0.70 or BET 0.4 0.55 1.00

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-33

ASE | Input Description

Examples to STEP

Input file

Introduction

a1_a1_dynamic_overview.dat

BEAM Ship impact plastic

ase_nstr_pld_pile_crash.dat

Quad swinging cracked

step_nonl_concrete_girder.dat

Glass window impact TH3

pendulum_impact_test.dat

SEIL Impact

cable_dynamics.dat

Intelligent load

step_intelligent_load.dat

Bettung abhebend

step_intelligent_load_nonl.dat

Contact car collision

movs_car_collision.dat

Beulen dyn. relaxation

dynamic_relaxation_buckling.dat

Membran dyn. relaxation

dynamic_relaxation_air_cushion.dat

-> Example overviews

-> Summary of example overviews

Damping parameters are to be input with record GRP.


Loadfunctions:
In ASE usually nonlinear dynamic is calculated. Therefore the complete stress
state including dead load must be genereated. To the permanent part (dead
load) the variable part of the loading (earthquake, impuls, initial velocity) must
be added. It is best to combine the loading directly in ASE, e.g.:
SYST PLC 1 $ static state
STEP N 100 DT 0.01 LCST 1001
LC 2 DLZ 1
LCC 801 $ permanten additional dead load without load function
LCC 901 $ variable load with load function from SOFILOAD
see step_sofiload_ase.dat
When the variable load starts, the static state already exists. If you first analyze
the steady state in a separate loadcase without time dynamic (e.g. loadcase 1)
you can then continue with the time dynamic analysis using the steady state as
a primary loadcase - see SYST PLC 1 above. If you would activate the dead
load in the time step analysis for the first time, the system would accelerate from
the unstressed start state and then swing arround the steady state. This would
be the case if you would suddenly remove the formwork from a concrete girder,
see step_nonl_concrete_girder.dat Saving of the results

3-34

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

In order to avoid large databases for the time step method the calculation can
occur only with two load cases which vary in each case. This works automatically using STEP N>1 and LCST. The results which are important for the
user can then be stored in separate storage load cases with STEP LCST ...
SELE ... (bit pattern). For N>1 LFST is increased in each step (see example
a2_introduction_earthquake.dat). With STEP 0 LCST ... this feature can also
be used for normal loadcases. Following inputs are possible:
STEP 1 LCST ... SELE +1

= displacements

STEP 1 LCST ... SELE +2

= support reactions

STEP 1 LCST ... SELE +4

= velocities

STEP 1 LCST ... SELE +8

= accelerations

STEP 1 LCST ... SELE +16

= beam internal forces and moments

STEP 1 LCST ... SELE +32

= nonlinear beam results

STEP 1 LCST ... SELE +64

= spring results

STEP 1 LCST ... SELE +128

= truss+cable+boundary results

STEP 1 LCST ... SELE +256

= QUAD results

STEP 1 LCST ... SELE +512

= QUAD results in nodes

STEP 1 LCST ... SELE +1024

= non-linear QUAD results

STEP 1 LCST ... SELE +2048

= foundation results

STEP 1 LCST ... SELE +4096

= BRIC results

STEP 1 LCST ... SELE +8192

= BRIC results in nodes

STEP 1 LCST ... SELE +16384

= loads

default: no generation of a separate storage load case


Beispiel

a2_introduction_earthquake.dat

Further examples for the dynamic calculations with ASE can be found in the
example folder ase.dat\english\dynamics.
With STEP...DIV a time step division can be controlled, if the nonlinear Iteration
does not achieve a necessary equilibrium:
DIV=0 -

no time step division

DIV=1-9

divide time step max. DIV times, create internal time step
division but loadcase output for the requested time steps

DIV=11-19

adapt time step but store each time step. The resulting load-

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-35

ASE | Input Description

case seqence then has variable delta-t.


Feature not active now - reserved for new time function input LCC...FUNC
Default DIV=-2
For negative DIV, the analysis continues in the shortest time step division also if
no sufficient equilibrium is reached. For DIV>0 the progranm stops.
At the end of the ASE run, a summary of the calculated time steps is printed.

3-36

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

3.6

HIST Storage STEP-LCST

See also: STEP, GRP

HIST

Item

Description

Unit

Default

TYPE

Elementtype

LT

NODE BOUN BEAM TRUS CABL SPRI


QUAD BRIC TEND:
FROM

Elementnumber

TO
INC

Selection of elements to be stored via STEP-LCST:


With HIST now nodes and elements can be selected for storage STEP-LCSTSELE to keep the database small:
If no HIST command is defined for a certain elementtype, all elemente of this
type are stored. For example:
STEP ... LCST 1001 SELE 1+2+4+8+16+256+1024
HIST NODE from 701 to 750
HIST QUAD 318,319

stores nodal results for nodes 701-750, all beam results and und Quad results
for elements 318+319.

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-37

ASE | Input Description

3.7

ULTI Limit Load Iteration

See also: CTRL, SYST, GRP, PLOT

Item

Description

STEP
FAK1

ULTI
Unit

Default

Number of limit load iterations

Start factor of 1st load case

(overwrites the factor in record LC - FACT!)


FAKE

End factor or accuracy (-0.005 = 0.5%)

-0.005

DFAK

First step of the load factor

PRO

Progression of the load factor

DL

The factor acts on the dead weight too

LT

YES

PRIM

(only if a dead weight has been activated


with GRP - FACD or LC - DLZ)
NO
Dead weight retains the initially
input factor
Automatic introduction of a primary load
case
NO
A new load step is not added automatically to the latest LC
Minimum step width of the load factor

LT

YES

-0.001

DMIN

negative: as a factor on the actual load factor


EPSC

Strain limit concrete

-3.5

EPSS

Strain limit steel

25.0

The limit load iteration begins with the factor given for FAK1. Any factor which
was input in the record LC FACT is not considered in this case and it is ineffective. If the first calculation ends with a convergent iteration (notice the iteration
parameters ITER and TOL in the SYST record), a new load case is generated
with a load case number increased by 1 and the load factor is increased by
DFAK.
Examples to ULTI:

3-38

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

Ultimate load iteration

Input file

Stability quad column

ase9_quad_euler_beam.dat

Slab buckling

ase12_buckling_slab.dat

Shell buckling

ase13_shell_buckling.dat

Concrete girder ULTI

nonlinear_quad_concrete_beam.dat

Push Over Beam+Quad

push_over_quad_beam_frame.dat

Push Over Quad Frame

push_over_quad_deformation_controlled.dat

-> Example overviews

-> Summary of example overviews

If a primary load case has been defined in SYST PLC or GRP PLC the first
calculation makes already use of this given primary load case.
If a load should not be increased during the limit load iteration, this can be requested via the function Copy Loads with ULTI=NO in the record LCC.
With PRIM YES the new load case makes use of the stable first load case. With
PRIM NO the analysis starts as in the first load case (PLC according to SYST
PLC or GRP PLC).
If the second load case ends with convergence too, the last step of the load
factor (DFAK) is multiplied by the progression PRO and used as new step. The
third load case obtains then the load factor FAK1 + DFAK + DFAKPRO and so
on.
The default values FAK1=1, DFAK=1 and PRO=2 result in the following load
steps:
Load case 1

Factor 1.00

Load case 2

Factor 2.00

Load case 3

Factor 4.00

Load case 4

Factor 8.00

Load case 5

Factor 16.00

Load deformation curves can be calculated with FAK1=1, DFAK=1 and PRO=1
(can be represented graphically, see example ase9_quad_euler_beam.dat):
Load case 1

Factor 1.00

Load case 2

Factor 2.00

Load case 3

Factor 3.00

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-39

ASE | Input Description

Load case 4

Factor 4.00

Load case 5

Factor 5.00

If an iteration is divergent, i.e. equilibrium could not be reached, the last load
step increment is halved. With the default DMIN -0.001 the load step increment
will not be taken smaller than 0.001 times the actual load factor. But this only
occurs if also FACE is reduced because otherwise the iteration will stop due
to FACE. With higher DMIN local stability problems may be eliminated. The
user has to convince himself of the accuracy of the final solution because also
non-convergent results may be saved! If strain or stress limits are reached, a
negative DMIN will not be taken into account any longer.
The limit load iteration ends, if FAKE or the maximum number STEP are
reached. For negative FAKE also if the accuracy is reached. Input -0.02 =
2% (when the two last factors differ less than 2%).
A load step is also set to not convergent if a strain or utilisation reaches a limit.
With ULTI EPSC and EPSS strain limits can be set (default -3.5 per mille for concrete, 25 per mille for steel). With GRP2 ULUS you can also define a maximum
stress utilisation.
If a new stable primary load case is used, the program generates always the
new tangential geometry stiffness matrix.

3-40

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

3.8

PLOT Plot of a Limit Load Iteration

See also: ULTI

PLOT

Item

Description

Unit

Default

LC

First load case number

TO

Last load case number

NNO

Node number

DIRE

Direction

TYPE

Plot type

LT4

NO

FACT

load-displacement plot

FACR

but factor to the right

TIME

displacement plot on time axis

LCNO displacement plot on load case


number
EX
sig-eps
hysterese
plot
ase.dat\dynamics\
step_nonl_concrete_girder.dat
EX
sig-eps
Hysterese
Plot
ase.dat\dynamics\
step_nonl_betonbalken.dat
Element number
for spring and quad results

XI

QUAD-layer depth
(nur bei RICH= SX, SY, SXY,
TAUX, TAUY, SS1 oder SS2)

NULL

connection to the (0,0) nullpoint


0=no, 1=yes

A plot of a limit load iteration can be generated with an input for PLOT. If no
input for TO is done, than the last load case number of a sequence is used automatically. Without input for NNO the node number with the largest displacement
is selected then automatically and without input for DIRE the direction with the
largest displacement.
Following directions can be input for DIRE:

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-41

ASE | Input Description

UX,UY,UZ

(or X,Y,Z) displacement

PHIX,PHIY,PHIZ

rotation

VX,VY,VZ,

nodal velocity

VPHX,VPHY,VPHZ

rotation

AX,AY,AZ

nodal acceleration

APHX,APHY,APHZ

rotation

PX,PY,PZ

support reaction

MX,MY,MZ

support moment

N,M,PT,V

spring normal force, moment, PT, displacement for element NO

NV

springforce-springdisplacement diagram

SX,SY,SXY,TAUX,TAUY

QUAD layer stress for element NO

SS1,SS2

QUAD layer reinforcement stress

The definition for PLOT can be done also in a separate ASE input, e.g.
PROG ASE
HEAD
PLOT 101 NNO 200 DIRE Y
END

Examples to PLOT:
Task

Input file

Load deformation curve

ase9_quad_euler_beam.dat

Quad layer stress

step_nonl_concrete_girder.dat

Spring force hysterese

spring_law_3_pkin_curve.dat

Plots with prog results:

ase1_overview.dat

Beam-MY curve

ase_nstr_pld_pile_crash.dat

Cross section stresses

aseaqb_1_column_cracked.dat

in bridge design

csm31_design.dat

-> Example overviews

-> Summary of example overviews

3-42

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

3.9

CREP Creep and Shrinkage

See also: CTRL, SYST, GRP

Item

Description

NCRE

CREP
Unit

Default

Number of creep steps (1-99)

RO

Relaxation coefficient according to Trost

Effective duration of period

dys

0.0

RH

Relative humidity or maturity

40

TEMP

Temperature of concrete or time factor

deg

20

BEAM

Control for take-over of the creep calculation for bending beams via creep curvatures
from the program AQB or for the calculation
in ASE
AQB
Take over from AQB

ASE

LT

ASE
RCRE

Calculation in ASE

partial creep factors


CSM

taken from CSM

Additional inputs are necessary in the record GRP ... PHI EPS RELZ PHIF:
PHI

Total creep factor of NCRE creep steps

EPS

Total shrinkage coefficient of NCRE creep steps (negative)

RELZ

Relaxation of the prestressing steel (is applied only in the


first creep step fully)

PHIF

Total creep step for springs + foundation

Creep and shrinkage with construction stages or in bridge design should be


done with module CSM (see examples below).
Using pure ASE there are two different
1st Plate calculation according to cracked condition

creep

calculations:

For plates in cracked condition a simplified consideration of creep and shrinkage


effects was implemented in a step. With an input of CREP 1 and GRP PHI EPS
creep and shrinkage are calculated as follows in a load case step without input
of a primary load case:
- The elastic modulus of concrete is reduced to E=E0/(1+PHI).

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-43

ASE | Input Description

- The concrete is given a pre-strain of EPS.


Because the shrinkage shortening acts only on the compression side at a
cracked cross section, shrinkage causes an enlargement of the bending also
at plates. At the cracked tensile side shrinkage acts only on the cracked width.
The creep and shrinkage values affect all elements with material concrete, PHIF
affects springs, edges and QUAD foundations, also with a reduction of the stiffness of 1/(1+PHIF).
2nd More complex calculation with use of a primary load case (is used by CSM)
At that the total creep is dismantled in NCRE creep intervals which are calculated in NCRE load cases. The load cases generated automatically by the first
LC load case number ascendingly.
The stresses of a primary load case which are accepted as constant during a
creep step (or of the last creep step) are converted into strains. These strains
are multiplied by the (with the modified relaxation coefficient RO) partial creep
coefficient DPHI and used as a load for alle concrete elements . Middle stresses
which generates creep are not determined.
Abrupt constraint is applied for creep of the stresses from PLC (reduction of a
constraint internal force):
ZK = Z0 ( 1 - d/(1 + ROd))

see STAR2 manual

ZKF = Z( 1 - df/(1 + ROd))

(springs + foundation)

For shrinkage a gradual constraint is assumed:


ZS = Z ( 1 /(1 + ROd))

(shrinkage)

with d=PHI/NCRE
Computation:
The program uses the stresses of the primary load case as stresses producing
creep. It applies the primary load case in an internal way with FACL=FACP=ZK
for the corresponding elements. For tendons the PLC is scheduled only in the
first creep step with the factor (1-relz), in all further creep steps with the factor
1.0.
At shrinkage the partial shrinkage coefficient which was reduced according to
Trost is used: load-strain = dZKF = ZKF/NCRE
The program allows in the case of calculations with primary load case only creep
values with dphi < 0.4. If the stresses producing creep are hardly reduced by
creep and shrinkage, RO has to be defined in a correspondingly small way or

3-44

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

more creep steps have to be input. For a prestress from the program TENDON
only RO=0 is possible generally in order to avoid an unintentional reduction of
the creep effect for the statically determinate part of the prestress - possible
increase of NCRE. Values in the region of 0.8 are reasonable for creep of a
constraint condition, for example from construction stage. For values which are
smaller than d=0.2 the importance of RO comes in the background.
Creep and shrinkage are effective for all concrete elements of type BEAM,
TRUS, CABL, QUAD + BRIC. PHIF acts on spring and boundary elements and
on pile- and quad bedding. Thereby the QUAD foundation can get another creep
coefficient (settlement) independently of the QUAD element. RELZ acts only on
tendons of the plate prestress.
With CREP BEAM it can be controlled, whether the creep calculation for bending
beams via creep curvatures is taken over from AQB (CREP BEAM=AQB) or
whether it should be determined in ASE (CREP BEAM=ASE = default). Caution:
Prestressed beams have to be calculated with AQB! Please refer to program
CSM.
The program extension ASE1 is necessary for creep calculations.
Examples to CREP

Input file

Technique by hand

ase7_creep_two_span_girder.dat

Creep on cracked quad

a1_introduction_example.dat

Long term slab deflection

a2_nonlinear_slab.dat

Intruduction CSM

csm1_4span_centering.dat

Twospan creep example

csm2_simplecreep.dat

Prestressed bridge

csm31_design.dat

-> Example overviews

-> Summary of example overviews

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-45

ASE | Input Description

3.10

GRP Group Selection Elements

See also: SYST, PSEL, LC, GRP2

Item

Description

NO

Group number

GRP
Unit

Default

LT

FULL

kN/ m3

default GRP - = all groups


(please use GRP - instead of old GRP all)
VAL

Selection
OFF

The group is not used

YES

The group is used

FULL

Use of group + result output

LIN

YES, but material linear

LINE

FACS
PLC

FULL, but material linear (TH2,


TH3 not affected)
Factor for group stiffness / see also GRP2
STEA-QUEA
Number of the primary load case
Default as in SYST

GAM

Parameter of an additional

analytical primary state

K
SIGN

-z = GAM (Z-H) + SIGN

kN/ m2

SIGH

-x = -y = K -z + SIGH

kN/ m2

FACL

Factor of loads from primary stress PLC

FACD

Factor of dead weight in defined dead


weight direction (SYST GDIR from
SOFIMSHA, SOFIMSHC)
Factor of stress from primary load case PLC

FACL

99999.

kN/m3

-10

FACP
(FACT
HW

Temperature replaced by the record TEMP


from HYDRA)
Ordinate of the ground water level

GAMA

Weight under water

Table continued on next page.

3-46

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

Item

Description

Unit

Default

RADA

MODD

Raleigh damping factor for mass proportional damping


Raleigh damping factor for stiffness proportional damping
Modal damping factor

1/ sec

0.

sec

0.

CS

Construction stage for tendons

PREX

Element prestress in local x direction

kN, m

PREY

QUAD prestress in local y direction

kN, m

PHI

Creep coefficient (see record CREP)

EPS

Shrinkage coefficient

RELZ

Relaxation of prestressing steel

PHI

dys

ACTI

FACS

RADB

AUTO automatic determination


input 0.03 means loss of 3%
PHIF

Creep coefficient for springs and foundation


Creep coefficient for elements which do not
consist of concrete (composite structures)

PHIS
T1

HING

Stiffness development of elements with concrete according to the modified concrete


age T1
Beam pin-joint temporarily for precast
bridges
ACTI
pin-joint
FIX

FACB
CSDL
MNO

fixed connection

example: Single Span Girder with Auxiliary


Support
Factor for bedding properties of the QUAD
elements
Dead load of a later construction stage
Material number of PHI and EPS if in a
group different materials occur CSM

The record GRP defines the participating elements as well as the stress state
which is available at the beginning of the analysis. At first the defaults for all
groups are defined with GRP ALL or GRP - , e.g. GRP -FULL. The following
input for a group overwrites then this default, e.g. GRP 5 NO.
SOFiSTiK 2016

3-47

ASE | Input Description

An input to GRP usually enforces a newbuilding of stiffness file $d1. It will also
be unusable for further load cases. The storage of this stiffness file is possible
with the record CTRL.
The group number of each element is obtained by dividing the element number
by the group divisor GDIV (see SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHC manual SYST..GDIV).
The defaulted group selection is that one of the last analysis call or input block.
Without any inputs all elements are used. With an input only the specified groups
are activated.
If the subdivision of the elements occurs in groups, it should be kept in mind that
the specification of the analytical primary state may require in certain cases a
finer subdivision than the one assumed initially by the user.
GRP input without any group number set only the given parameters for the previous defined groups. Example:
GRP 1,2
GRP CS 5 $ without group number $

Only the groups 1 and 2 are activated with CS 5.


A stiffness reduction may be defined with FACS for beams with calculation according to 2nd /3rd order theory (1/m -multiple).
The values GAM-SIGH, FACT, HW and GAMA are only applicable to volume
elements (BRIC), i.e. only then an analytical primary stress state is reasonable.
By contrast, all control parameters of a primary state from a previous analysis
have effect to all elements.
The processing of a temperature field from the program HYDRA was expanded
essentially with the record TEMP. The input GRP FACT is not anymore permissible.
The primary state is necessary for non-linear analysis and in addition it facilitates
the determination of loads due to changes of the static system. The analytical
component is defined with the load SIGN which is effective in a height H and
an increase GAM. The horizontal component is obtained by means of the lateral
pressure coefficient and the vertical stress. The item GAM has usually the same
values as the items GAM/GAMA of the material record, however, it is independent of them.

3-48

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

Figure 3.2: Analytical stress states

The loading components from the stresses of the primary state are multiplied by
FACL to the load case which is to be calculated. FACD defines a dead weight
loading with the values GAM/GAMA of the material record in dead weight direction. This loading is usually in equilibrium with the primary state. The loads from
FACL and FACD act in all load cases of the input block.
If the old loads of the primary load case ( PLC) are applied simultaneously to
a system with the loads from the primary stresses with FACL=1, these both
loading cancel themselves. New deformations do not result. Therefore the loads
from the primary stresses oppose the old loads.
The item HW specifies the phreatic level in the corresponding group. Continuum elements (BRIC) located below HW are analysed under buoyancy. The
default setting fo HW is "infinitely deep". Depending on the direction of gravity
the phreatic level is set to 99999m, in this case.
The analysis of the tendons is controlled by CS similar to the program AQBS.
Depending on the value of CS the empty duct or the duct with the tendon or of
the grouted duct are used. If CS is not input, tendons are used with CS 998
(=bonded, if not ICS1=999 in TENDON for unbonded tendons). More explanations see prestressed_slab.dat
Prestress of elements via record GRP: GRP - PREX PREY
In the program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHC a prestress which is considered during
the calculation of stiffness can be input only at TRUS-CABL-SPRI.
With GRP ... PREX PREY a real prestress can be defined in addition to TRUSCABL-SPRI also for QUAD and BEAM elements. This acts, first of all, as a
normal prestressed load. However, it is considered also with the factor CTRL
PRES for the initial stiffness. In this way membrane and cable structures can be
calculated more simply according to the third-order theory. A membrane high

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-49

ASE | Input Description

point should be input via the record HIGH.


The value from GRP ... PREX PREY is interpreted in kN/m for QUAD, and in kN
for BEAM, TRUS, CABL and SPRI.
The GRP prestress acts also for linear calculation. A stabilization for the error estimate can be achieved in this way at displaced systems. In addition the
prestress is considered also for an eigenvalue determination!
Differences of the input of a truss or cable prestress in the program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHC for the GRP prestress:
-

PRE acts in all load cases as long as a primary load case (PLC) is not used.

GRP-PREX acts only in ASE calculations in which it is input, however, in the


record GRP in addition to a prestress of a primary load case.

Creep for composite systems concrete + steel


A separate item PHIS can be input in the record GRP for elements which do not
consist of concrete. Elements of concrete are processed with GRP ... PHI,EPS.
Springs, boundary elements and elastic foundations are processed with GRP ...
PHIF without shrinkage. Elements whose cross section material is not concrete
are processed with GRP ... PHIS. Shrinkage of these elements is considered
with the value EPSPHIS/PHI.
For BEAM composite cross sections and BEAM prestressed concrete cross sections creep and shrinkage have to be processed with the program AQB.
The prestressing steel relaxation of the QUAD tendons is determined automatically with the input RELZ AUTO in combination with the time duration input T
in record CREP. The material values STEE ... REL1+REL2 from the program
AQUA are used..
Stiffness development of elements with concrete
For input of the temperature adjusted concrete age T1 in GRP...T1, the development of stiffness of concrete elements is taken into account. The program
CSM (version 11.57) automatically adjusts T1 in dependence on the given temperature. The development is plotted for the first concrete material (for ECHO
MAT FULL for all concrete materials and also for calculations with primary load
case).
Function for prefabricated bridges

3-50

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

Temporary BEAM pin-joints can be fixed with GRP HING FIX. Thus a construction stage can be calculated with pin-joint and a final stage without pin-joint. The
results can be superpositioned and designed. All pin-joints are active with the
default GRP HING ACTI.
Example see ase6_two_span_girder_construction_stages.dat
Later construction stages
With GRP CSDL the dead load of a later construction stage can be activated
already for composite beam cross sections with activated stiffness of the cross
section construction stage CS (green concrete dead load).
Example see csm3_composite_beam.dat

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-51

ASE | Input Description

3.11

GRP2 Expanded Group Selection

See also: GRP, TEMP

Item

Description

NO

GRP2
Unit

Default

Group number

STEA

Formfinding cable-stayed bridges:

QUEA

normal force stiffness component of


beams
Orthotropic slabs:

QUEX

normal force stiffness component of


QUAD elements
Orthotropic slabs:

QUEY

reduction of the QUAD axial force stiffness only in local x


Orthotropic slabs:

0.001

1/2

0.55

ALP0

ULUS
QEMX
QEMY
EXPO

GEOM

BWES

STEA

3-52

reduction of the QUAD axial force stiffness only in local y


Lower threshold for stiffness development
for BRIC elements HYDRA temperature
field
Limitation of QUAD stress (utilisation) in ultimate limit analysis
Reduction of the elastic modulus of QUAD
elements in local x direction
Not implemented - use QEMX - see below
Exponent for the elastic modulus according
to "Braunschweiger Stoffmodell" separated
according to groups
Group-wise control of the geometric stiffness from primary load case for buckling
eigenvalues
value value in the formula according to
Wesche

With STEA the normal force stiffness component of beams can be


increased. The bending stiffness remains unchangeable. Example
see suspension_bridge_formfinding.dat

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

QUEA

With QUEA the EA part of the QUAD elements can be modified.


Example see steel_composite_orto.dat

QUEX

With QUEX it is possible to reduce the QUAD axial force stiffness only
in local x direction for orthotropic slabs.

QUEY

With QUEY it is possible to reduce the QUAD axial force stiffness only
in local y direction for orthotropic slabs.

ALP0

With ALP0 varying material stiffness due to different hydration degrees can be taken into account in an stress analysis of a HYDRA
temperature field. The lower threshold for stiffness development can
be input here (default 0.001).
With TEMP EMOD OFF this stiffness modification can be switched
off. Example see ripe_creep_comparision.dat

ULUS

Limitation of QUAD stress in ultimate limit analysis


With GRP2 ULUS (ultimate limit iteration - capacity usage) the load
will not be enlarged, if the maximum van Mise stress in a layer element (non-linear concrete, steel of MLAY-material) reaches the value
ULUS*strength. For concrete, strength is fc in AQUA, for steel fy. See
also ULTI EPSC.

QEMX

with QEMX the elastic modulus of QUAD elements can be modified in local x direction, e.g. GRP2 - QEMX 0.001. Example see
steel_composite_orto.dat

QEMY

Not implemented. To achieve e.g. 30% reduction in y direction in


group 5, you can use GRUP 5 FACS 0.70 ; GRP2 QEMX 1/0.70 (->
E-X 100%, E-Y 70%). Alternatively rotate local coordinate system.

EXPO

BRIC hydration:
The exponent for the BRIC hydration E-modulus can now be input for
each group. The default is the value of TEMP EXPO.

GEOM

Group-wise control of the geometric stiffness from primary load case


for buckling eigenvalues
To avoid negative eigenvalues, now in each group the geometric stiffness from the primary loadase can be switched variabel:
Input GRP2 GEOM:
0

dont scale geometric stiffness in buckling eigenvalues

normal geometric stiffness in buckling eigenvalues

as 1, but dont scale geometric stiffness for membrane elements

as 1, but dont scale geom. stiffness for membranes and

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-53

ASE | Input Description

cables
-1

dont use geometric stiffness at all (also in static analysis


and natural frequencies)

dont scale means, that the geometric stiffness is added to the linear
stiffnesss matrix, deleted in the total geometric stiffnesss matrix and
thus is not scaled with the buckling factor.
Default: GRP2 - GEOM 2
BWES

value value according to Wesche in the formula

/ z teBWES 28BWES

aw/z = value can be defined in record TEMP EMOD


default: 0.55 (Technische Empfehlung Bautechnick BAW / Wesche)
te = effective concrete age resulting from the HYDRA analysis
Thus the elastic modulus that is used is determined as follows:
E

3-54

1/ 3

E28

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

3.12

ELEM Single Element Settings

ELEM
Item

Description

Unit

Default

ETYP

Elementtype - possible input:

LT

BEAM

BEAM TRUS CABL SPRI QUAD BRIC


NO

Elementnumber

FACS

stifness factor
Overwrites GPR-FAFC.
FACS=0 deactivates one single element
(collaps analysis).
as GRP FACL

N/ mm2

FACL

for element damage, both FACS and FACL


should be reduced!
FCTK

Tension strength - ONLY for cracked concrete quads (SYST NMAT YES) (has no effect, if stress strain law is also defined in tension).
See example tunnel_shell.dat

Input for collaps analysis: in big sytems it is often necessary to check the behaviour under failure of one single element. With ELEM ETYP NO FACS one
single element can be switched off or weakened. Usually also the element force
of the PLC must be reduced usually also FACL has to be reduced!

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-55

ASE | Input Description

3.13

LEN0 Unstressed Length

LEN0
Item

Description

ETYP

Element type
TRUS

Truss elements

CABL

Cable elements

Unit

Default

CABL

NO

Element number (GRP see below)

L0

Unstressed length

TYPE

Input of system length

LT

TOTA

LC

Input of total cable installation


length
DELT Input of difference L0 to the system length in the undeformed
system
LCL0 Input of difference L0 to unstressed length of loadcase LC
Loadcase for TYPE-LCL0

GRP

instead of NO: all elements of group GRP

TOTA

Example: cable_unstressed_length.dat
LEN0 CABL 501 L0 67.000 TYPE TOTA $ install cable with length 67.000m$
LEN0 CABL 502 L0 -0.100 TYPE DELT $ 100 mm shorter than system length$
LEN0 CABL GRP 50 L0 0 TYPE LCL0 LF 7 $ with unstressed length of LC 7$

If a cable is activated in a CS for the first time and a LEN0 input is found for it, the
cable is installed stressfree with this length, independant of deformations in the
primary loadcase PLC! Internally it gets an additional prestress that shortens it
so that the desired length appears.
Without LEN0 (normal behaviour) a cable is installed in that way that on the
PLC deformations it has force 0 (without prestress and load on internal cable
sagging).

3-56

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

3.14

HIGH Membrane High Points

See also: GRP

Item

Description

XM

Coordinates of the high point

HIGH
Unit

Default

m/ LT

m/

Alternatively Literal NNO


YM is taken as the node number of
the high point
YM
ZM

(ZM is not used yet)

NX

Normal vector of the high point axis

NY

Default: Z axis

kN/ m

NZ
PR1
PTPR

Radial stress in 1 m distance to the high


point or to the direction XM, YM, ZM
Ratio of tangential to radial prestress

NOG

Group for which this prestress is valid


Default: all groups

If genuine high points at membranes are available, an orthotropic prestress with


a fixed ratio of the tangential/radial prestress is wanted also mostly. A radial
stress which increases itself to the high point is necessary here. This axisymmetric high point-stress state is generated with the record HIGH. Here PR1 defines the radial stress in 1 m distance to the high point. PTPR defines the ratio
of the tangential to the radial prestress.
Examples see Theoretical principles.
Example of a high point at X = 5.0 m, Y = 0.0 m:
HIGH 5 0 PR1 20 PTPR 0.4

shows:
-R in 1m distance = 20.00 kN/m

corresponding- -T = 8.00 kN/m (0.4*20)


and from causes of the equilibrium for example in 10 m distance:

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-57

ASE | Input Description

-R= PR11/re (PTPRln(r))= 201/10exp(0.4ln(10))= 5.02 kN/m

corresponding- -T = 2.01 kN/m (0.45.02)


If the distance is larger than 1000 m, a constant prestress is assumed. The
stress in direction to the high point is then always PR1, the stress orthogonal
to this direction is PTPRPR1, therefore without radial reduction as described
above. The advantage is in the simple input of skew prestress independently of
the direction of the local element coordinate systems! The stress in the QUAD
elements results from the global directions!

3-58

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

3.15

PSEL Selection of Piles

See also: GRP, ECHO

Item

Description

FROM

PSEL
Unit

Default

Lower pile number

TO

Upper pile number

FROM

INC

Increment

REDP

Reduction factor for pile stiffness

1.0

REDA

Reduction factor for axial foundations

1.0

REDT

Reduction factor for lateral foundation

1.0

PSEL can be used to deactivate certain piles or for the reduction of their bedding
due to shadowing inside of a pile group. The reduction factors are determined
according to code specifications or experiments.
If otherwise nothing is specified, all piles are used. Piles which are not used
have to be specified with REDP=0. PSEL inputs are saved permanently. They
are valid for every pile during any subsequent inputs so long as they are not
redefined.
Any input of PSEL causes the recalculation of the system matrix.
The record PSEL is only available in the ASE version which was expanded with
the pile element.

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-59

ASE | Input Description

3.16

TBEA Reduction of the Width for T-Beams

TBEA
Item

Description

Unit

Default

NC

Cross section number

Reduced cross section width

For bridge superstructures thin cantilevers get small bending moments or shear
forces in longitudinal direction. The multiplication of the internal forces and moments of the FE nodes with the whole plate is then too unfavourable. The cross
section width per cross section NC can be reduced now with the record TBEA
for the consideration of the haunched cover plate.
Attention: This model can not be used for influence line evaluation with ELLA
because ELLA does not add the slab parts to the beam!
Example see tbeam_philosophy_4.dat ( tbeam_philosophy_e.pdf ) and:
steel_composite_tbeam.dat (compare steel_composite_real.dat)

3-60

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

3.17

REIQ Reinforcement in QUAD Elements

See also: SYST, GRP

Item

Description

LCR

Design case number from the program BEMESS (number of a reinforcement distribution)
Multiplication factor

FACT
LCRS
CHKS

REIQ
Unit

Default

1.0

Stored number of the reinforcement distri


99
bution
steel stress from where an increase of rein- [N/ mm2] 1092 forcement shall occur

ASE performs a nonlinear analysis of plates and shells according to cracked


condition with a given reinforcement. An increase of reinforcement can be controlled via REIQ-CHKS.
For the given reinforcement in any case the minimum reinforcement from BEMESS PARA or the design parameter dialog is used. The reinforcement direction, concrete cover, bar diameter and other data are also taken from there.
With REIQ a reinforcement of a design case LCR can be used from the design
(BEMESS). Nodal reinforcements are applied in all adjacent elements to get
enough reinforcement in the gauss points = shift of reinforcement. Element
reinforcement is applied as well.
The superposition of the minimum reinforcement with a design-reinforcement
from BEMESS is stored as now really used reinforcement distribution LCRS for
graphical checks. If the reinforcement is increases due to CHKS, the increased
reinforcement is stored.
Example see a2_nonlinear_slab.dat
CHKS: due to redistribution of forces in the nonlinear analysis often higher forces
occur in previous lower forced regions. This can cause very high steel stress and
crack width due to the low reinforcement of the linear design in these regions.
With input of a limit for the steel stress CHKS ASE then increases the reinforcement during the nonlinear iterations to keep the steel stresses below CHKS. If
ASE increases a reinforcement due to CHKS, ASE ends with an error message
and the advise to check the new necessary total reinforcement id design case

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-61

ASE | Input Description

LCRS (an error message is done to clearly point out this issue).
Please also notice that even in pure slabs horizontal deflections and normal
forces occur due to the crack opening in a nonlinear analysis. Such (excentric)
compression normal stressses can carry a part of the load and reduced the pure
bending moments.
For beam elements input for reinforcement cases are possible in BEW.
For the reinforcements directions the following rules are valid:
- At first they are used from BEMESS PARA or the design parameter dialog
- BEMESS or SOFICAD-B reinforcement is taken into account with the smallest angle deviation to already existing directions.
- If nothing is defined, reinforcement bars are used with an angle of 0 and 90
degree.

3-62

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

3.18

STEX External Stiffness

See also: GRP, SYST

Item

Description

NAME

Name of the external stiffness file

OPT

ITER: treat halfspace stiffness iteratively


(without full conditioned stiffness matrix)

STEX
Unit

Default

LT24

A complete external stiffness can be added with STEX. External stiffnesses are
generated currently only by the program HASE for the halfspace (stiffness coefficient method).
The project name is the default for NAME. The mere input of STEX (without
name) suffices usually.
With STEX OPT ITER the halfspace stiffness can be used iteratively. Then only
the diagonal therms are used and the off diagonal therms are treated iteratively
(residual force iteration). For big systems this is also senseful for linear calculations because full conditioned stiffness matrix is often too big for the solver or
the calculation time too long.
Usage:
SYST PROB LINE $ siehe Beispiel -> hase1_bottomslab.dat
STEX
LC 1,2,3
Linear analysis with the full conditioned stiffness matrix for small systems.
SYST PROB LINE $ siehe Beispiel -> hase2_3d.dat
STEX OPT ITER
LC 1
Linear iterative analysis for big systems. Only one load case in one ASE
part (HEAD-END) allowed. No nonlinear effects are taken into account.
The result loadcases can be superposed with MAXIMA.
SYST PROB NONL $ siehe Beispiel -> hase2_3d.dat
STEX OPT ITER
LC 1
Nichtlinear effects as bottom slab lifting on tension or nonlinear pile bedding
are treated. A superposition with MAXIMA is usually not possible.

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-63

ASE | Input Description

Halfspace examples via HASE:


Task

Input file

Usage for big systems

hase2_3d.dat

Variable soil in ground view

hase5_profile_interpolation.dat

Halfspace with simple piles

hase8_slab_with_piles.dat

Pier with inclined piles

hase23_pier_foundation.dat

Bottomslab-pile interaction

kpp1.dat

-> Example overviews

-> Summary of example overviews

3-64

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

3.19

OBLI Inclination

See also: GRP, SYST, LC

Item

Description

SX

OBLI
Unit

Default

Inclination in X direction

SY

Inclination in Y direction

SZ

Inclination in Z direction

LC

Load case number of a available load case

FACV

Factor for displacements of LC

VMAX

Factor for imperfection

DIRE

Scaling direction of imperfection

XX,YY,ZZ

With OBLI it is possible to input a global inclination of the system. With the input
of SX=1/200 for example all nodes get an inclination of u-x=1/200height. The
used height is the height above the node which is the lowest one in dead weight
direction (see program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHC record SYST GDIR).
The global inclination affects also the linear calculation according to first-order
theory. It acts on all elements and also on mixed systems for example from
beam and shell elements. In the same way a imperfection of the beam axes is
considered due to the misalignment lateral buckling.
The input OBLI must occur before the definition of the load cases and acts then
for all load cases of this ASE calculation.
Imperfection
With OBLI LC FACV an additional load case can be defined for imperfections,
also if another primary load case is used with SYST PLC. The imperfection
load case in OBLI is used always as a non-stressed one and the normally
usual input GRP ... FACL is not necessary. Thus the input is easier and
simultaneously more flexible. The input SYST ... FACV should be omitted in
future. Alternatively (to FACL) a maximum imperfection can be scaled with
OBLI VMAX. DIRE defines the scaling direction if necessary (without DIRE the
maximum diplacementvector is scaled). For example OBLI LC 91 VMAX -0.050
DIRE YY describes an imperfection affin to load case 91 with a maximum value
in global Y direction of - 50 mm.

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-65

ASE | Input Description

An imperfection has here effects on the internal forces and moments of


the first- and second-order theory. Note please, that an imperfection via OBLI
does not generate local beam curvatures, however, a polyline-like continuous
beam imperfection.
The displacements always contain the sum of the displacement from the inclination plus additional deformation! So the inclination can be controlled graphically. If die additional deformation shall be printed separately, please first create
a loadcase with pure inclination (DLZ=0.000001). Then calcualte a following
loadcase, using the previous as PLC, apply the load and request storage of
differential displacement with CTRL DIFF.
Further possibilities for the input of imperfections:
- affin imperfections from scaled primary load case
- imperfections from buckling eigenvalue
example ase9_quad_euler_beam.dat
and: ase12_buckling_slab.dat
- precurvature of beams for example with temperature load delta-t/h or local
curvature TYPE KY or KZ
see example ase11_girder_overturning.dat

3-66

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

3.20

SLIP SLIP Cable

SLIP
Item

Description

Unit

Default

NOSL

SLIP cable number

NOG

Group number of the cable elements

group 0 is not allowed


NOEL

Element number of the cable element

SLIP Cable are a number of cable elements that get a forced common normal
force. Thus they can slide so to speak at intermediate points. The common
normal force is determined from the total strain of the corresponding cables
divided by their total length. In WINGARF/GRAFIX the axial displacement shows
the nodal deformation change. This can be used to visualize the slipping effect.
Slip cable are calculated without an own inner cable lag.
The definition of a SLIP Cable which is input in an ASE calculation is maintained
in the database. It is used also in the following calculations. A new SLIP input in
a further ASE calculation or a SLIP input without further parameters deletes the
SLIP Cable definition in the database.
Examples:
SLIP NOSL 4 NOG 4 assigns all cables of the element group 4 to the
SLIP Cable No 4.
SLIP NOSL 5 NOEL 717,718,719 summarizes the cable elements to the
SLIP Cable 5. The single cables 717+718+719 will have the same normal force
in the final result.
Example see slip_cable.dat

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-67

ASE | Input Description

3.21

VOLU Air Volume Element

VOLU
Item

Description

Unit

Default

NO

VOLU element number (without group)

GRP

associated QUAD-elements

POSI

QUAD element face (POSZ or NEGZ)

LT

POSZ

MNO

material number of the volume

default 0 = air under standard air pressure


starting volume

P0

given pressure (without stiffness)

PLC

primary load case (default = SYST PLC)

V0

m3

1008

kN/ m2

1192

DV

volumen add-on

DT

temperature increase

[grd] 1215

MASS

mass participation

0.5

OPT

(0.5 = apply 50 % of air masse in eigenfrequency analysis)


ITER: treat VOLU stiffness iteratively (without full conditioned stiffness matrix)
FULL = use full conditioned matrix

AUTO

m3

1008

AUTO = use ITER for more than 1000 nodes

VOLU defines an air volume on a face of quad elements. VOLU distributes the
air pressure uniformly onto the participated surfaces. Without P0 input it also
generates a stiffness matrix that represents the compressibility of the enclosed
air volume (stiffness bubble). With P0 input the pressure is taken into accout
constant and no stiffness matrix is necessary (quicker). VOLU is mainly used
for membrane air cushions.
An air pressure defined with VOLU-P0 is updated during the ASE-iterations and
loads the rotated quad area. Also an increase of the quad area during formfinding updates the air pressure load! This is not done using SOFILOAD loads - see
example air_volume_tennis.dat.
An input VOLU without further data delets VOLU elements of a previous ASE
run. Without VOLU-input all VOLU data is taken from the last run but without old

3-68

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

load input P0, DV ir DT. With a VOLU input using only the VOLU number (without
GRP, POSI, VO input) new loads for existing VOLU elements can be set.
A VOLU analysis without P0 input creates a fully occupied stiffness matrix which
causes high computation time. Therfore the number of contact nodes on the
volume with OPT FULL should not be greater than about 2000 (maximum 5000)!
In general the number of iterations should be 200 or higher, the tolerance should
be reduced, see example air_cushion.dat
Further explanations see:
Air pressure hall air_volume_tennis.dat
Air cushion air_cushion.dat
Please also ask for the corresponding SOFiSTiK paper contributed to the
CIMNE Membranes 2011 conference.

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-69

ASE | Input Description

3.22

MOVS Moving Spring

See also: V0, LAUN

MOVS

Item

Description

Unit

Default

NO

Spring number (GRP see below)

TYPE

Type

Use of the contact nodes

Use of QUAD elements

FROM

Start number of the nodes or elements

TO

End number of the nodes or elements

FROM+1

INC

Increment

LT/ m

AUTO
L0

GRP

Automatical node chain search

Initial length for springs without end node


N2
TRAN Consideration of the longitudinal
and rotational effects
instead of NO: all springs of group GRP

Examples to MOVS

Input file

Launching

csm40_incremental_launching_introduction.dat

Contact

movs_train_interaction.dat

Contact

movs_car_collision.dat

Kinematic

excavator.dat

-> Example overviews

-> Summary of example overviews

For the dynamic time step analysis it can be defined with the record MOVS
(moving spring) that the wheel springs of a train which goes over the bridge
search themselves for the current contact nodes of the bridge. Thus a train ride
is implemented with all effects of the train-structure-interaction. The mass of
the train is considered with the current train position. The contact nodes are
determined from the particular relative displacement of the going train and the
deformed bridge. Damper which are acted parallelly to the contact springs are
converted also to the particular interpolated contact node.
An input MOVS without further data delets MOVS elements of previous ASE

3-70

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

runs.
A spring NO is defined as moving spring. Following types are possible:

TYPE=1

The spring searches for the contact nodes of the nodes


FROM TO INC.

TYPE=2

The spring acts on one of the QUAD elements FROM TO


INC.

With an input for L0 the definition of the springs is more simple, because only a
direction has to be input and no node for kinematic constraint. In SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHC or the graphical input only a normal spring without 2. node must
be defined. The direction of the spring DX,DY+DZ then only defines the rough
direction in which the spring will look for a contact. The length - important for
first contact - will then be defined in ASE L0.
The definition of MOVS in an ASE calculation is maintained in the database.
It is used also in the following calculations. A new MOVS input in a further
ASE calculation or a MOVS input without further parameters deletes the MOVS
definition in the database.

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-71

ASE | Input Description

3.23

LAUN Incremental Launching

See also: MOVS

Item

Description

GRP
DX

LAUN
Unit

Default

Group number (-1 for a new step)

Total displacement

DY

DZ

XM

Coordinates of a centre point for a

YM

rotation around a global axis

ZM
NR1

Reference points for a rotation

NR2

around a free axis

PHI

Rotation (in radiant)

[rd] 3

Examples launching

Input file

Launching ASE

movs_incremental_launching_principle.dat

Launching CSM

csm41_launching_principle.dat

Launching training

csm40_launching_introduction.dat

Kinematic

kinematic_1.dat

Beam rotations

beam_rotation.dat

Excavator

excavator.dat

-> Example overviews

-> Summary of example overviews

A detailed description and training can be found in the CSM manual: Theoretical
background - Incremental Launching Training.
An input LAUN shifts the nodes of the element group GRP with DX,DY,DZ. An
input of XM and YM rotates around the centre point with PHI [ rad] as arc length
(around global Z axis). Starting on a PLC primary load case, the launching input
is the new total displacement.
A rotation around X- and Y- axis is possible with
Input LAUN XM+YM : rotation around Z axis

3-72

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

Input LAUN YM+ZM : rotation around X axis


Input LAUN XM+ZM : rotation around Y axis
A rotation of systems around a free axis is possible with input LAUN NR1 NR2
by two reference nodes to defined the rotation axis.
Also multiple rotations and displacements can be defined, separated by a LAUN
-1 line:
LAUN GRP 71 PHI 0.4 YM 3 ZM 3 $ rotation around the X axis
LAUN -1
LAUN GRP 71,72 PHI 0.3 XM 0 YM 0 $ followed by a rotation around Z axis
Problems may occur if two beams attach to a node and one beam rotates and
the other not. Then the nodal LAUN nodal rotation is not clear and we assume:
If the starting node of a beam rotates, the local coordinate system of the beam
rotates. If the starting node of a beam does not rotate, the beam does not rotate
(as shown in the animator beam coordinate system).

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-73

ASE | Input Description

3.24

SFIX Fixing Stiffness

See also: GRP

Item

Description

LC
PLC

SFIX
Unit

Default

Load case number

Load case number of the normal force to be


used

LC

Usage with one input line SFIX LC:


With one input line SFIX LC (PLC is set to LC) for all elements
(BEAM,QUAD,SPRI...) the geometric stiffness according to the normalforce of
the PLC is added. So e.g. a set of loadcases can be analyzed with a unique
geometric stiffness (TH2). This allows a later superposition with MAXIMA (linearization of the analysis). If a nonlinear material stiffness had been calculated
with AQB in the PLC, this nonlinear stiffness is also used.
Usage with multiple input lines for beam systems:
Here the minimum of the AQB stiffness is determined from a series of load cases
LC. With that and together with the geometrical stiffness from the normal force of
a PLC a linear beam calculation is performed, so that the superposition principle
is valid for following superposition.
Example see sfix.dat
Eigenfrequencies on cracked beam: aseaqb_1_column_cracked.dat

3-74

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

3.25

LC Load Case and Masses

See also: LAG, LCC, MASS

Item

Description

NO

Load case number


ALL

All load cases

TEST

Instability test

LC
Unit

Default

FACT

Factor for all loads

1.0

DLX

Dead weight factor in global X direction

0.0

DLY

Dead weight factor in global Y direction

0.0

DLZ

Dead weight factor in global Z direction

0.0

BET2

Coefficient for crack width calculation

0.5

LT32

0.5

longtime loading

1.0

short-term loading

TITL

Load case designation

TYPE

Type/Action of load case

GAMU

Unfavourable safty factor

GAMF

Favourable safty factor

PSI0

Rare combination value rare

PSI1

Frequent combination value frequent

PSI2

Quasi-permanent combination value

PS1S

Non-frequent combination value

CRI1

CRI2

Criteria 1,2,3: Without input a nonlinear


analysis stores:
CRI1=iterations (0 = no convergencs found)
CRI2=max. residual force, CRI3=energy
Criteria 2

CRI3

Criteria 3

LC activates a load case. All loads which are input after the LC record are
assigned to this load case. The factor FACT affects all loads, however, not the
temperature, strain and prestressing loads! It does not affect DLX, DLY or DLZ
dead loads. The loads are saved in the database without factor.

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-75

ASE | Input Description

LC ALL calculates all load cases stored in the database from LC 1 to 9999.
LC TEST activates the instability test. Comes aufomatically only for instable
systems.
For a negative dead load direction which is defined in the program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHC with SYST GDIR (e.g. SYST...GDIR=NEGZ) a positive value has to
be input in LC DLx for a load in dead load direction (negative global direction).
An error message follows for the input of a negative value (e.g. LC DLZ -1.00),
because a double negation is misleading. A warning follows for a negative inputs
unequal to -1.00 (e.g. for earthquake).
Positive as well as negative values for DLZ are possible for SYST GDIR=POSZ
in program SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHC.
During dynamic analysis ASE determines the dead weight of all elements according to its definition in the material records respective the cross section parameters. Additional masses can be defined with the record MASS. Therefore
for eigenvalue determinations the dead load has not to be input in the record LC.
For the dynamic time step method the mass inputs from ASE or DYNA are transformed to dead loads now with an input LC...DLZ, because these are used as
masses and therefore they have to produce dead load. Vertical slab eigenvalues
can be avoided with MASS FACT.
If dead loads should be used from the program SOFiLOAD, then only the load
case number NO has to be input for LC. If factors of the structural dead weight
or other loading are defined after a LC record, all loading data for that load case
will be deleted, to allow the redefinition of loading for a given load case.
If no designation was input, the program generates automatically a title from the
dead load factors as well as from the support sum.
The action type and the corresponding safety factors and combination coefficients may be defined already here for a later superposition with program MAXIMA. Several literals which are described in detail in the record ACT of the program SOFILOAD are possible for TYPE. If safety factors and combination coefficients which are different from the default should be used, these can be input
here. If the superposition factors are defined with the program SOFiLOAD or
MAXIMA, nothing is to be input here for TYPE to PS1S.
Values CRI1 to CRI3 are very general parameters of the load case. They may
be used freely for postprocessing. You may specify them in advance or set them
after the analysis by reading some results from the database. (e.g. a system
dimension, a strength reduction etc.) TALPA uses CRI1 for the safety factor
of the material needed by analysis according to Fellenius. The criteria are set

3-76

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

subsequently without further inputs with:


LC TYPE PROP CRI1 ... CRI2 ... CRI3 ...

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-77

ASE | Input Description

3.26

TEMP Temperature from HYDRA

See also: LC, GRP, GRP2

Item

Description

NO
T1

Load case number of the temperature calculation


Time of the interval beginning

T2

Time of the interval end

NOG

Element group which is to be loaded

TEMP
Unit

Default

sec

sec

T1

1.0

LT

YES

LT

NO

1/2

Default: all groups


FACT

Factor of the loading

EMOD

Stiffness modification of the elastic modulus for BRIC elements with HYDRA temperature fields, see also GRP2 ALP0
YES
Consideration of the stiffness
modification
OFF
No consideration of the stiffness
modification
value Development of elastic modulus
according to Wesche
Consideration of the relaxation via a reduced E modulus according to Technischen
Empfehlungen Bautechnick BAW / Wesche
YES
Consideration

RELA

NO
EXPO

No consideration

Exponent for the elastic modulus according


to "Braunschweiger Stoffmodell"

After a transient temperature calculation with the program HYDRA the element
group NOG with the temperature differences of the time T2-T1 from the HYDRA
load case NO can be loaded with this record. With that changing material properties or support conditions can be examined in the course of the temperature
development (e.g. variable elastic modulus during setting of the green concrete).
The time values T1 and T2 are arbitrary. For missing exact time values from the
program HYDRA the temperature is interpolated linearly between two available
time values or an end temperature is used. For T1=T2 the temperature is used
to this time.

3-78

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

If a stationary calculation occurred, the temperature is used fully in spite of an


input for T1 and T2.
The temperature loading is applied currently only to BRIC and QUAD elements.
The input via GRP...FACT omits and is not anymore possible.
For the hydration of volume elements the elastic modulus can be still modified
according to the "Braunschweiger Stoffmodell" with an exponent:

E = E28

EXPO

1 0

(3.1)

The input is done with TEMP ... EMOD YES EXPO ...
For BRIC elements the HYDRA temperature fields are implemented by varying
material stiffness according to Wesche: With input TEMP ... EMOD=value the
development of elastic modulus is activated according to Wesche. The value
has to be be input as aw/z , e.g. for Z25 value=7.10.4 = 2.84.
The development of E-modulus can now be switched off per group with
TEMP...EMOD OFF.
Example see: bric_hydra_dt2h.dat
BAW / Wesche: ripe_creep_comparision.dat

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-79

ASE | Input Description

3.27

LAG Loads from Support Reactions

See also: LC, LCC

Item

Description

LCNO
FACT

Number of the load case with the reaction


forces
Load factor

TYPE

Selection of transferred support reactions

Unit

Default

1.0

LT

PZ

0.1

LT

PZ

Z
TOL
PROJ

Only PZ support reactions are


transferred.
PP
Only PP support reactions are
transferred.
FULL Forces and moments are transferred.
Z coordinate

LAG

Tolerance for consideration of support


forces
Name of the project from which the support
reactions should be used

Please use function SOFILOAD-COPY PSUP or SUPP AUFL to convert support


forces to loads. ASE-LAG applies support nodes only on quad elements!
With LAG the support reactions of a higher storey can be applied to the current lower storey. Thus the loads can be summarized from the roof up to the
basement. The support reactions of the lowest storey can be used then for the
dimensioning of the foundation. Wall loads have to be considered in each storey
here.
All support reactions which are farer outside the structure than TOL are ignored
via an input for TOL (default 0.1 m).
Without a definition of a project name all support loads of the load case LCNO
in the current database are considered as nodal loads in the current load case
which is specified with LC (the support loads are the support reactions multiplied
by -1).
If a project name is input, the support loads are applied as free loads with the
coordinates of the support nodes of this external project database. The Z coordinate can be modified in this case e.g. in order to apply the support loads

3-80

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

of a plate which was analysed as SYST GIRD to a higher storey of a threedimensional structure.

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-81

ASE | Input Description

3.28

PEXT Prestress of External Cables

PEXT
Item

Description

Unit

Default

NOG

Group number or

NOEL

Number of a cable of the cable-chain

P0

Prestressing force at stressing anchorage

kN

SIDE

Prestressing side

BETA

deg/ m

MUE

POSX, POSY, POSZ, NEGX, NEGY,


NEGZ
Unintensional wobble angle (imperfect inclination)
Friction coefficient

SS

Slip at stressing anchorage

mm

Cable groups or single cables can be selected with the record PEXT for prestressing. The cable side which is prestressed is defined with SIDE. For example POSX defines the cable side with the larger X coordinate.
For external tendons see also CTRL QTYP V2.

3-82

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

Figure 3.3: Example: cable over two internal blocks

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-83

ASE | Input Description

3.29

LCC Copy of Loads

See also: LC, LAG

Item

Description

NO

LCC
Unit

Default

Number of an already defined load case

FACT

Load factor

1.0

ULTI

A Sofiload time function is applied see example step_sofiload_ase.dat


Load factor increase at the ultimate load iteration
YES

YES

NEW

OFF
ALL
see record ULTI

PLC

Prestress-, temperature loads and settlements will only be increased on ALL see
record LC FACT
Temperature and strain loads for primary
load cases
YES
no use of temperature and strain
loads automatically LC had been
active in PLC
NEW use of all loads (Load acts for the
first time)

LCC can be used to copy loads from other load cases into the current load
case. Inputs for prestress loads from the program TENDON are accepted as
well. However, here the user must pay attention to the settings in the GRP -CS
record. Dead weight loads DLX, DLY, DLZ are not transferred.
If a load cases was already considered in the primary load case, only real loads
have to be defined again when using the primary load case. Temperature or
strain loads must not be defined again, because they act additive. These loads
are extracted now automatically with PLC = YES. If for instance the load factor
LC ... FACT is increased during a limit load iteration, the difference temperature
is used additionally. Default is PLC NEW, all loads are used.
In a dynamic time step analysis a SOFILOAD FUNC time funktion will be used.

3-84

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

The factor FACT will be multiplied with the time function using the time at the
end of the actual time interval (time of PLC + dt/2).
Base point accelerations from SOFILOAD (Effective force method und Large
Mass Method) can also be used in LCC.
Examples to LCC

Input file

Using PLC technique

ase6_two_span_girder_construction_stages.dat

LCC ULTI OFF load increase

push_over_quad_beam_frame.dat

Loadfunction SOFILOAD

a1_dynamic_overview.dat

Earthquake

a2_introduction_earthquake.dat

Large mass method

a3_introduction_base_acceleration.dat

Cinematic mashine loads

excavator.dat

-> Example overviews

-> Summary of example overviews

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-85

ASE | Input Description

3.30

EIGE Eigenvalues and -vectors

See also: SYST, GRP, LC

Item

Description

NEIG
ETYP

EIGE
Unit

Default

Number of the sought eigenvalues

Method for eigenvalue calculation

LT

LANC

Buckling eigenvalue solver for large systems:


BUSI Simultaneous vector iteration
BULL

Method of Lanczos

BURA Method of Rayleigh


BUCK uses the fastest solver for the current system. First positive with
LMIN AUTO
Dynamic eigenvalue solver:
SIMU

Simultaneous vector iteration

LANC

Method of Lanczos

RAYL

Method of Rayleigh

REST

Eigenvalues already available

NITE

Number of iteration or Lanczos vectors

MITE

Maximum number of iterations

LMIN

Eigenvalue shift

or
1/ sec

SAVE
LC

LMIN AUTO to search the first positive


buckling eigenvalue
Number of the generated load cases
Load case number of the smallest eigen
mode shape

0
2

< 10

2001

The input of EIGE causes the use and possibly the determination of eigenvalues
and eigenmode shapes. If eigenvectors have already been calculated, ETYP =
REST as well as the load case number LC have to be input. This is planned for
the subsequent calculation of modal damping values or loads.

3-86

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

The masses from dead load are used always. All further masses (record
MASS) from the generation program and ASE are considered additionally. Vertical slab eigenvalues can be avoided with MASS FACT.
If loads are defined additionally to EIGE, the modal loads are determined and
saved in the database. A further analysis does not occur.
The mode shapes are saved completely in the database in a compact form. This
is sufficient for a regular dynamic analysis. They can be saved as regular load
cases too. The latter form is to be selected, if a graphic representation of the
eigenvectors with the program WinGRAF or evaluations of element stresses in
the program DYNA should occur.
Eigenvalue determinations are not possible with the basic program version.
Explanations:
Using the input LMIN (Unit 1/sec2 for dynamic eigenvalues, factor for buckling
eigenvalues, taken from the result table Eigenfrequencies) the results can be
shifted. The number of excluded Eigenvalues are shown in the printout. Example see ase4_eigenfrequency_shift.dat
In a buckling eigenvalue analysis often only negative eigenvalues appear. They
represent failure under a negative load factor. In this case with LMIN AUTO
automatically an eigenvalueshift can be determined and applied to avoid the
negative eigenvalues and find the first positive one.
Example see buckling_eigenvalue_shift.dat
The choice of method for the eigenvalue analysis depends on the number of the
sought eigenvalues. The simultaneous vector iteration can be used in the case
of few eigenvalues. The number of iterations may be reduced, if a somewhat
expanded subspace for the eigenvalue iteration is used. Therefore the default
value for NITE is here the minimum between NEIG+2 and the number of the
unknowns. The iteration is interrupted, if the number of the maximum iterations
(default max (15,2NITE)) is reached or if the maximum eigenvalue has changed
only by the factor less than 0.00001 opposite to the previous iteration.
The method according to Lanczos is significantly quicker than the vector iteration, if a large number of eigenvalues is sought. A good accuracy is achieved, if
the number of the vectors NITE is at least the double one of the sought eigenvalues (default). Unlike the vector iteration the larger eigenvalues are usually
worthless for NITE=NEIG.
The modal damping is calculated from the defined dampings of the groups after
the determination of the eigenvalues.

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-87

ASE | Input Description

The vibration mode shapes are stored as load cases with ascending load case
numbers beginning with LC. Since the eigenvectors in certain cases may have
large amplitudes, the output of element stresses or support reactions is not usually desirable. It should be turned off with the record ECHO.
See also chapter theoretical orinciples eigenvalues (incl. examples).

3-88

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

3.31

MASS Lumped Masses

MASS
Item

Description

Unit

Default

NO

Node number

MX

Translational mass

0.

MY

Translational mass

MX

MZ

Translational mass

MX

MXX

Rotational mass

tm2

0.

MYY

Rotational mass

tm2

0.

MZZ

Rotational mass

tm2

0.

LC

Load case for mass conversion

PRZ

Factor in percent

LT

PG

PRZ=100: full conversion


default: PSI2 value of the load case
SELE

Selection of load direction


PG or PXX or PYY or PZZ

Examples to MASS

Input file

LC mass conversion

ase4_eigenfrequencies.dat

Earthquake

a1_dynamic_overview.dat

-> Example overviews

-> Summary of example overviews

The masses are additional to those defined in the program SOFIMSH*. They
are maintained over several input sets until they are redefined. Please notice
that only SOFIMSH* masses also produce dead load in a static analysis! ASE
additional masses dont act as dead load e.g. dlz in a static load cases [ except
in a time step analysis where they act as dead load and dynamic mass} ! MASS
0 can be used to delete all additional masses from ASE+DYNA. With MASS LC
0 additional masses defined in a previous run are applied.
A mass acts usually the same in all three coordinate directions and thus, it need
to be defined independently only for special cases. Rotational masses with inclined axis are not used in ASE.

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-89

ASE | Input Description

The dead weight of the entire structure is always applied in the form of translational masses. If necessary, rotational masses must be defined separately with
MASS. If the dead weight of a structure is not to be applied, the dead weight of
the material or the cross section should be input as zero.
MASS can be used also to import nodal loads from the database as masses to
ASE. The load case number must be input in LC. The conversion factor has to
be defined in PRZ. PRZ = 100 means full mass conversion. Other loads then
loads in dead weight direction must be selected with SELE. Please check the
sum of masses in the output! The input
MASS LC 12 PRZ 100

creates translational masses from all loads of load case 12 in the direction of the
dead weight. By default the masses are applied as X, Y and Z mass. If this is
not desired, they can be factorized additionally with MX,MY and MZ, e.g. MASS
LC 12 PRZ 100 MX 1.0 MY 0.2 MZ 1.0.
With a negative node number MASS -NO the old input for a loadcase mass
conversion can be used see DYNA manual.
Masses can get also a factor with MASS. For this purpose the literal FACT has
to be input for NO. This can be reasonable particularly for larger systems, where
it is favourable to suppress many low frequencies which are not essential for the
analysis. With the input
MASS FACT MZ 0.01

The mass in global Z direction is reduced to one percent only. So vertical slab
eigenvalues of big buildings can be avoided. MASS FACT works additive to
MASS inputs and has an effect on the automatic element dead load mass. With
MASS FACT 1 1 1 0 0 0 rotational masses can be suppressed.
See also chapter theoretical orinciples masses (incl. examples).

3-90

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

3.32

V0 Initial Velocity

See also: MOVS

Item

Description

NO

Node number

VX
VY

V0
Unit

Default

Initial velocities in global

m/ sec

directions

m/ sec

m/sec

VZ

An initial velocity V0 in m/sec is defined for the node NO. To be used in a dynamic
time step analysis.
Example see: ase_nstr_pld_pile_crash.dat
Car collision: movs_car_collision.dat
Train interaction: movs_train_interaction.dat
Glass impact: pendulum_impact_test.dat

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-91

ASE | Input Description

3.33

REIN Specification for Determining Reinforcement

See also: DESI

REIN

Item

Description

Unit

Default

MOD

Design mode

LT

SECT

LT

SING

SECT

Reinforcement in cut

BEAM Reinforcement in beam


SPAN

Reinforcement in span

GLOB Reinforcement in all effective


beams
TOTL Reinforcement in all beams
RMOD

Reinforcement mode
SING

Single calculation

SAVE

Save as minimum reinforcement

SUPE

Superposition with minimum reinforcement


ACCU Superposition with existing LCR
reinforcement
ACSA Comb. ACCU and SAVE
ACSU

Comb. ACCU and SUPP

NEW

LCR

New definition of the reinforcement distribution (for special


cases only)
Number of reinforcement distribution
a negative value reinitializes all

ZGRP

Grouping of prestressing tendons

SFAC

Factor for continuous reinforcement

1.0

P6

Parameter for determining

P7

reinforcement

P8

(See notes)

P9

P10

P11

0.20

Table continued on next page.

3-92

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

Item

Description

P12
TITL

Title of the design case

Unit

Default

LT24

Any number of types of reinforcement distribution can be stored in the database.


Under number LCR, the most recently calculated reinforcement for graphic depictions and for determinations of strain is stored. LCR=0 is reserved for the
minimum reinforcement. This makes it possible, for instance, to design some
load cases in advance and to prescribe their reinforcements locally or globally
as defaults. The input value RMOD refers to the minimum and link reinforcement:
SING

creates new LCR reinforcements using the given stored minimum reinforcement

SAVE

ignores the stored minimum reinforcement and overwrites it with the


current reinforcement.

SUPE

uses the stored minimum reinforcement and overwrites it with the


possibly higher values of this run.

ACCU

Superposition with existing LCR reinforcement

ACSA

Combination from ACCU and SAVE

ACSU

Combination from ACCU and SUPP

There is also a control flag CTRL REIN, defining if the reinforcements should be
increased or not. The latter to be used for the analysis of existing structures.
Mit BEW BMOD ACCU LFB nnn kann man bis zu 255 Bewehrungsflle als
vorhandene Bewehrung fr die aktuelle Berechnung aktivieren, gespeichert wird
unter der letzten angegeben LFB-Nummer.
With REIN RMOD ACCU LCR nnn it is possible to add up to 255 reinforcement
results as active reinforcement of this run. It will be saved with the last defined
LCR entry
SUPE cannot be used during an iteration, since then the maximum reinforcement for an iteration step will not be able to be reduced. STAR2 therefore ignores a specification of SUPE, as long as convergence has not been reached.
AQB can update or superpose the reinforcements at a later time: with REIN
RMOD SUPE but without any DESI input.

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-93

ASE | Input Description

A specification of BEAM, SPAN, GLOB or TOTL under MOD refers to interpolated sections or sections with the same section number. For all connected
ranges with the same section, the maximum for the range multiplied with SFAC
is incorporated as the minimum reinforcement. The design is done separately
in each case for each load, however, so that the user can recognize the relevant
load cases.

Section 1

Sect. 2

Section 1

SECT

BEAM

SPAN

GLOB

Figure 3.4: Distribution of reinforcements

As the existing reinforcement has a considerable impact on the shear design,


AQB will perform an intermediate superposition after the design for normal force
and bending moments. However, use of minimum reinforcement in ultimate load
design has also a detrimental effect on the shear reinforcement, since the lever
of internal forces is reduced. The user can take the appropriate precautions by
specifying a minimum lever arm in AQUA.
Since this latter effect is especially strong with tendons, AQBS can give special
effect to the latter in ultimate load design. This option is controlled with ZGRP:
ZGRP = 0

3-94

Tendons are considered with both their area and their prestressing. Normal reinforcement is specified at the minimum

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

percentage.
The relative loading capacity is found.
ZGRP > 0

Tendons are specified with their full prestressing, but with their
area (stress increase) only specified in so far as necessary.
Normal reinforcement if installed only if the prestressing steel
alone is not sufficient.
A required area of prestressing steel is determined.

ZGRP < 0

Tendons are specified with their prestressing, only specified in


so far as necessary, otherwise the same like ZGRP > 0.

If ZGRP < > 0 has been specified, the tendons are grouped into tendon groups.
The group is a whole number proportion which comes from dividing the identification number of the tendon by ZGRP. Group 0 is specified with its whole
area, the upper group as needed. Any group higher than 4 is assigned group
4. The group number of the tendons is independent of the group number of the
non-prestressed reinforcement.
Assume that tendons with the numbers 1, 21, 22 and 101 have been defined.
With the appropriate inputs for ZGRP, the following division is obtained:
ZGRP 0

All tendons are minimum reinforcement

ZGRP 10

Tendon 1 is group 0 and minimum reinforcement


Tendons 21 and 22 are group 2 and extra
Tendon 101 is group 4 and extra

ZGRP 100

Tendons 1, 21 and 22 are minimum reinforcement


Tendon 101 is group 1, extra

An example of the effect can be found in Section 5.1.5.3.


Notes: Parameters for determining reinforcement
The following parameters are not to be changed by the user in general:
Default

Typical

P7 Weighting factor, axial force

0.5 - 50

P8 Weighting factor moments

-2

-2

When designing, the strain plane is iterated by the BFGS method. The
required reinforcement is determined in the innermost loop according to
the minimum of the squared errors.
MN((N N)2 + F1 (MY MY)2 + F2 (MZ MZ)2 )

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-95

ASE | Input Description

F1 = P7 (zm zmn)P8
F2 = P7 (ym ymn)P8

The default value for P8 leads to the same dimensions for the errors. The
value of P7 has been determined empirically. With symmetrical reinforcement and tension it is better to choose a smaller value, with multiple layers
and compression a larger one. For small maximum values of the reinforcement the value of P7 should be increased.
Default

Typical

P9 Factor for reference point of strain

1.0

1.0

P10 Factor for reference point of moments

1.0

0.2-1.0

Lack of convergence in the design with biaxial loading can generally be


attributed to the factors no longer shaping the problem convexly, so that
there are multiple solutions or none. In these cases the user can increase
the value of P7 or can vary the value of P10 between 0.2 and 1.0, for individual sections. In most cases, however, problems are caused by specifying the minimum reinforcement improper.
P11 Factor for preference outer reinforcement
Reinforcement which is only one third of the lever arm, is allowed to be
maximum one third of the area of the outer reinforcement. P11 is the
factor to control this. For biaxial bending P11=1.0, for uniaxial bending
P11=0.0

3-96

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

3.34

DESI Reinforced Concrete Design, Bending, Axial


Force

See also: REIN, NSTR

DESI

Item

Description

Unit

Default

STAT

Load condition and code

LT

NO

Save reinforcement only

SERV

Serviceability loads

ULTI

Ultimate loads

NONL Non-linear analysis combin.


ACCI

Accidental combination

KSV

Control for material of cross section

KSB

Control for material of reinforcements

AM1

Minimum reinforcement for beams

AM2

Minimum reinforcement for columns

AM3

Minimum reinforcement

%/ LT

SC1

the current reinforcements will be


fixed as maximum
Safety coefficient concrete bending

SC2

Safety coefficient concrete compression

SCS

Safety coefficient concrete shear

SS1

Safety coefficient reinforcing steel

SS2

Safety coefficient structural steel

C1

Maximum compression

o/ oo

C2

Maximum centric compression

o/ oo

S1

Optimum tensile strain, see below

o/ oo

o/ oo

statically required cross section


AM4

Minimum reinforcement
depending on normal force

AMAX

Maximum reinforcement
FIX

(= limit for symmetric reinforcements)


S2

Maximum tensile strain

Table continued on next page.

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-97

ASE | Input Description

Item

Description

Unit

Default

Z1

Maximum effective compressive strain

o/ oo

o/ oo

LT

of prestressing steel
Z2

Maximum effective tensional strain


of prestressing steel

SMOD

Design mode shear


NO

No shear design

TVS

Deductional shear stress / stress limit

N/ mm2

MSCD

Maximum tensile longitudinal stress

N/ mm2

KTAU

Shear design for plates

/ LT

K1

K2S

not staggered for normal slabs


(DIN 1045 17.5.5. equ. 14)
not staggered for slabs with
evenly distributed loading (DIN
1045 17.5.5. equ. 15)
like K1, but staggered (DIN 1045
17.5.5. Table 13 1a)
like K2, but staggered

num

coefficient k for equ. 4.18 EC2

0.0

no shear check

K2

K1S

TTOL

Tolerance for the limit values

0.02

TANA

Lower and upper limit for inclination of struts


of shear design (tan = 1/cot )

TANB
SCL

Plasticity control for steel and composite


sections
1
No limits on steel stress
2
3
4

3-98

Outmost
compressive
yield
stress is limited
Compressive stress is limited to
the yield value
Yield stress will be applied as
limit in the tensile and compressive region

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

Design may be performed for various safety concepts. When designing for ultimate load or combinations with divided safety factors, the load factor must be
contained in the internal forces and moments. One way to accomplish this is
with the COMB records.
With KSV and KSB will be controlled the material law. As the correct default is
taken from the INI-file selected with the design code NORM, it is only for very
special cases that you may enter:
EL

linear elastic, but without tension if concrete

ELD

linear elastic with added material safety factor from AQUA

SL

serviceability without safety factors

SLD

serviceability with added material safety factor from AQUA

UL

ultimate design without safety factors from AQUA

ULD

ultimate design with safety factors from AQUA

CAL

Calculatoric mean values

CALD

Calculatoric mean values with safety factors from AQUA

PL

plastic nominal without safety factors

PLD

plastic design with material safety factors from AQUA

The safety factors referenced above refer to the values defined with the material
in AQUA. Without D only the factors defined in the INI file or the explicitly defined values SC1 to SS2 of the DESI record are applied. However the additional
safety factor for high strength concrete of DIN will be applied additionally. The
printout will flag global safety factors
With Option D we have to distinguish between two different cases:

If the values defined in DESI are < 1.0 or negative or SC1 is not equal SC2
(e.g. ACI or odl DIN) or the design code has special provisions for that
(SNIP), the safety factors are multiplicative. Printed stresses contain only
the safety factors of the materials.

In all other cases the value from the material will be taken instead of the default value of DESI. However if the safety factor is explicitly defined with DESI
with a value > 1 the option D will be deactivated with a warning. (Attention:
has been changed Sept. 2008)

If a design without any safety factors is required, all saftey factors have to be
specified as 1.0 which will then change the default for KSV/B to UL.

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-99

ASE | Input Description

PL resp. PLD will modify for some design codes (DIN, EC, ACI) the stress strain
law to a constant equivalent stress block, i.e. the stress value and the strain
range will be modified according to the provisions of those codes.
With the special definition of SS1 NRIL the safety factors of the reinforcements will be set to 1.05 and 1.10 according to the provisions of the German
Nachrechnungsrichtlinie, also the ordinates of those reinforcements will be
reduced then by an offset of 20 resp. 10 mm.
The minimum reinforcements AM1 to AM4 are preset according to the design
code (INI file) and apply to all cross sections; they are input as a percentage of
the section area.
The relevant value is the maximum of the minimum reinforcements:
-

Absolute minimum reinforcement (AM1/AM2)

Minimum reinforcement of statically required section

Minimum reinforcement defined in cross section program AQUA

Minimum reinforcement stored in the database

Note:
The statically determined portion of the forces and moments of prestressing
is always deducted when determining the external forces and moments. This
contribution is found from the location of the tendons and their tensile force.
AQB only: A specification of the bifurcation factor BETA in record BEAM is
changed to additional moments according to DIN 1045 17.4.3 resp. Eurocode
4.3.5.6. resp. DIN 1045 neu 5.6.4. resp. OeNORM B 4700 2.4.3. or other
design codes. The design will always generate both bending axis. The output of
the extra moments is given with the forces of the combinations.
Defaults for strain limits and safety coefficients depend on the selected design
code and the type of load combination. They may be specified in the INI-file of
the design code. If SC1 and SC2 are defined different (e.g. old DIN 1045, ACI),
then the safety factors of the reinforcements will be also interpolated if SS1 is
equal to SC1.
The maximum strain depends on the stress-strain curve. The value of 2.2 is
reduced for example at the old DIN or high strength concrete automatically. The
EN and the DIN suggest to limit the strain also for the midpoint of compressive
flanges. This option may be selected by defining a value of C2 as positive (select
teh control) or negative (disable the control).

3-100

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

The values Z1 and Z2 do not limit the range of possible strains, but the maximum
corresponding values are used as strain increments for the tension members in
the section. This is necessary, for instance, when designing with partial prestressing under DIN 4227 Part 2.
According to DIN 1045-1 8.2 (3) some bending structures should have a height
of the compressive zone not larger than 0.45 d, or 0.35 d for high strength concrete. If this is not fulfilled a minimum shear link according to 13.1.1. (5) has to
be provided. As the maximum compressive strain is fixed (3.5 per mille), this is
equivalent to the request that the steel strain has at least a value of 4.278 or a
higher value for C55 on.
Thus the control of this paragraph is easily performed via the steel strain. An
equivalent formulation is given in OENORM 4700, where it is requested that the
steel should reach the yield strength. As the old DIN 1045 had the more general
formulation for the same ductile request, that the compressive reinforcement is
not allowed to be considered with a larger value than the tensile reinforcement
Thus AQB provides symmetric reinforcements for all design codes when the
steel strain does not exceed the value of S1, fulfilling the request for ductility in
that way.
This design operation is also suitable for non-reinforced sections. In that case
the program produces internal forces and moments which are in the same proportion to each other as the external forces and moments. The safety factors
SC1 and SC2 have to be defined dependent on the design code. The program
then shows the relative load carrying capacity and prints a warning if this should
fall below 1.0.
The shear design finds the lever of internal forces for all load cases with compression and tension forces in the section, and finds the shear stress and shear
reinforcement resulting from shearing force and torsion. The shear stress limits
are set automatically depending on SMOD and the material. Deviating values
for the shear stress limits can be defined within AQB with a record STRE (under
4227 only) or TVS. Since in case of excess of the shear stress limits no design
more occurs, this can be exceeded onto own responsibility of the user with a
tolerance.
For the reduction of the shear capacity for tensile members the normal stress
pc is limited to the value MSCD. The default is selected with the mean tensile
strength fctm .
Consideration of the shift of the envelope line of the tensile force (shift rule)
depends upon the CTRL option VM. The ratio Ved/Vrd,max and the value of the

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-101

ASE | Input Description

shift will be saved to the database.


If a section is to be considered as a plate has already been defined with the
section itself. The definition of KTAU is thus only effective for those sections.
For sections with tendons, the bond stress for every tendon will be evaluated
according to DIN 4227 chapter 13 as the increment in tendon force divided by
the periphery and the length given by BETA in record BEAM. (Use negative
factors for bending members)

3-102

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

3.35

NSTR Non-linear Stress and Strain

See also: REIN, DESI

NSTR

Item

Description

Unit

Default

KMOD

Nonlinearity for beam elements

LT

S0

LT

SL

LT

KSV

(and truss and cable elements)


possible input - see manual AQB
- or S0 = beam+truss+cables material linaer

KSV

S1,K1,KN... = beam+truss+cables nonlinear


Selection of stress strain curve for
quad, beam, truss, cable and springs

KSB

Stress strain curve for beam reinforcement


(quad elements always use KSV inclusive
tension stiffening)

...

further input for beam elements


- see AQB manual

With NSTR the kind of investigated material limit state is specified, in particular,
serviceability and ultimate limit state are distinguished, here. Depending on the
choice, the appropriate material working law (cf. AQUA manual, input records
SSLA and SFLA) is processed for evaluation of the material response.
Possible specifications for KSV are:
EL

linear elastic, but without tension if concrete

ELD

linear elastic with material safety factor

SL

service nominal without material safety factor

SLD

service design with material safety factor

UL

ultimate nominal without material safety factor

ULD

ultimate design with material safety factor

CAL

Calculatoric mean values

CALD

Calculatoric mean values with safety factors from AQUA

PL

plastic nominal without material safety factor

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-103

ASE | Input Description

PLD

plastic design with material safety factor

Main usage without KMOD input (e.g. NSTR KSV SL) for:

nonlinear quad elements (require additional SYST...NMAT YES)

nonlinear springs

beam elements with fullplastic interaction (KSV PL/PLD)

implicit beam hinges with spring work law (AQUA - SFLA)

Usage with KMOD input (e.g. NSTR KMOD K1 KSV ULD) for:

nonlinear beam elements with internal AQB call

Detailed describtion of possibilities including example references see following


chapter:
Nonlinear Material Analysis in ASE.

3-104

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

3.36

Non-linear Material Analysis in ASE

Examples see -> Summary of example overviews


Non-linear material analyses can be activated or deactivated with different parameters:
SYST PROB NONL
activates a material non-linear analysis.
Using SYST PROB TH2, TH3B, TH3 additional geometric non-linear
effects are activated.
SYST ... NMAT YES
activates material non-linear effects for shell and volume elements:
for shells: concrete rule (AQUA-CONC)
steel yielding (AQUA-STEE)
membranes (AQUA-NMAT-MEMB)
for volume elements: soil mechanical yielding criteria
(AQUA-NMAT-MOHR...)
GRP ... LINE
switches off non-linear effects of a group.
NSTR Without input of a record NSTR: same as NSTR S0.
NSTR S0
Beam, cable and truss elements are analyzed with a linear material
behaviour. Spring elements are analyzed with a non-linear spring
work law if defined. The non- linear spring effects GAP, CRAC, YIEL
and MUE are taken into account in a nonlinear analysis.
NSTR S1 or SN
Beam elements are analyzed non-linear via an internal AQB calculation, Cables, truss and spring elements take into account all non
linear effects.
Material safety factors see following table *1).
See example file aseaqb_1_column_cracked.dat
NSTR S1 KSV PL (or PLD):
For beam elements the internal forces and moments are limited in a
simple way to the full plastic values of the program AQUA (without
internal AQB calculation). See example file ase_nstr_pld.dat
On the safe side a code independant interaktion with an exponent
1.70 is used (2.0 is too unsafe):
= (M/ MPL)1.70 + (N/ NPL)1.70 + (V/ VPL)1.70 ...

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-105

ASE | Input Description

Cable, truss and spring elements as described in NSTR S1.


The following table lists all possible material non-linear effects which are available in ASE. It shows also the essential inputs and possibilities for the activation
or deactivation of different effects. In an input only with SYST PROB NONL
without further definitions the behaviour =standard is active!
Elementtype NL effect

material input

activated in ASE:

deactivated:

Beam elements

AQUA-CONC

- NSTR S1/SN *1)

= standard

AQUA-STEE

(full-plastic:

- NSTR S0

AQUA-SSLA

NSTR S1 KSV PLD)

- GRP LINE

Cables + truss
material stress-

= standard
CONC/STEE/SSLA

- NSTR S1/SN

strain curves

- NSTR S0
- GRP LINE

Cables
compress.failure

= standard *2)

- GRP LINE

= standard

- GRP LINE

= standard

- GRP LINE

Springelements
gap,crac,yiel,mue

SPRI

Spring elements *3)

AQUA-SARB and

spring stress-

SPRI-MNO

strain curves
implicit beam hing

AQUA-SARB

Spring elements *4)

AQUA-SSLA and

material stress

SPRI+AR

= standard

- GRP LINE

AQUA-BMAT-CRAC

= standard *5)

- GRP LINE

= standard *6)

or
CRAC=9999
- GRP LINE

-strain curves
QUAD bedding
tension cut off

friction

AQUA-BMAT-MUE

QUAD elements

AQUA-CONC

of concrete/steel

AQUA-STEE

- SYST...NMAT YES

= standard
*9)

*7)

AQUA-SSLA *8)

*9)

- GRP LINE

Membrane elements

AQUA-MAT-

- SYST...NMAT YES

= standard

NMAT MEMB *10)

- GRP LINE

Volume elements

AQUA-MAT...

- SYST...NMAT YES

= standard

BRIC

NMAT MOHR...

*11)

- GRP LINE

Halfspace contact

HASE-PLAS PMAX

= standard *12)

only SYST
LINE

3-106

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

*1) Important is the input of the material safety factor with NSTR...KSV: Using
NSTR always the stress-strain curves of the program AQUA are taken into account. In this case the material safety factors are not used for KSV SL, UL, CAL.
On the other hand the AQUA material safety factors are multiplied for KSV SLD,
ULD, CALD. In the first part of the ASE output the maximum stresses for the
materials are printed.
Due to different defaults in the programs AQB / STAR2 / ASE the items KSV
and KSB should be input. The usage of material safety factors for the stiffness
determination (NSTR) is interpreted differently by the specialists. For a ultimate
limit check without further design the input ULD or CALD is reasonable (without
modifications of the material stress-strain curve in the program AQUA). SL has
to be used for calculations in the serviceability state.
Default for the material safety factors of non-linear analyses:
-

With an input of a record NSTR:


default for KSV=ULD = stress-strain curve for the ultimate limit state
with the material safety factor (SCM) of the program AQUA
With that also the stiffness of linear elements is changed!

Without an input of a record NSTR all elements are analyzed with the linear
E modulus. So a simple non-linear analysis will give the same displacements
as a linear analysis (provided that non-linear effects do not occur).

At the end of a non-linear ASE calculation a statistics is printed with the available
non-linear effects.
*2) Cables which are loaded in the transverse direction (e.g. by dead load) never
fail due to compression in a geometrical non-linear analysis TH3 with the default,
because the inner cable sag produces always a tensile force (see CTRL CABL).
For the input SYST PROB NONL or with CTRL CABL 0, cables cannot get an
inner cable sag and fail due to pressure load!
*3) Springs can be defined with a non-linear spring stress-strain curve in the
program AQUA. Please refer to example a1_spring_overview.dat
*4) For soil analysis (e.g. tunnel calculations) springs can be defined also via
an effective area AR and a material number. Then ASE calculates a non-linear
spring characteristic curve by using the material stress-strain curve SSLA of the
program AQUA.
*5) Without further input in program AQUA a QUAD bedding is preset with
CRAC=0, i.e. QUAD elements can have a tension cut off. See example

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-107

ASE | Input Description

ase_bed_uplift.dat
*6) Without further input in program AQUA no friction coefficient MUE is preset,
i.e. horizontal forces can be transferred without limitation, if the element is not
cracked (no tension cut off).
*7) QUAD elements with simple MAT input are analyzed linearly. Only QUAD
elements of CONCRETE or STEEL can be analyzed non-linearly with the input
SYST...NMAT YES .
*8) Also for shell elements, ASE uses the concrete stress-strain curve of AQUA.
The concrete tensile strength can be changed temporarily with CTRL CONC V3
V4.
*9) Often only non-linear springs or bedding should be taken into account in
a non-linear analysis. Therefore the material non-linear QUAD elements are
deactivated in the default (default SYST ... NMAT=NO). If required, they have to
be activated explicitly with SYST ... NMAT YES.
*10) A membrane failure due to pressure must be activated via AQUA... NMAT
MEMB and ASE...SYST NMAT YES.
*11) For volume elements (BRIC) various soil-mechanical material rules can
be defined in AQUA...NMAT MOHR.... Example see ase14_tunnel_3d.dat.
BRIC elements with CONCRETE see bric_concrete.dat or STEEL see
bric_steel_van_mise.dat
*12) Details see program HASE.

3-108

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

3.37

ECHO Output Control

See also: CTRL, SYST, GRP

ECHO

Item

Description

Unit

Default

OPT

A literal from the following list:

LT

NODE Nodal values


GRP

Group parameters

MAT

Material parameters

ELEM

Element values

LOAD

Loads

DISP

Displacements

FORC Internal forces and moments


SPRI

Spring and cable results (additiv)

NOST Internal forces and moments at


the nodes
BEDD Foundation stresses
REAC

Support reactions

LINE

Distributed support reactions

PLAB

Statistics T-beam components

EIGE

Eigenvalues

STEP

NSTR print every VAL iterations

RESI

ERIN

Residual forces during iteration. RESI=7 writes 90000...Iterationssteps


Error estimates

STAT

Statistics + group + plots

NNR

Nodal displacement during iterations


Element stresses during iteration

ENR

LSUM Sum of the loads + Statistics


STRG Tendon group stresses
BDEF

Local beam deformations


Table continued on next page.

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-109

ASE | Input Description

Item

VAL

3-110

Description

STOR

Database memory location

FULL

All the above options

STRE, NSTR, DESI, REIN, SHEA, LC,


BSEC, CRAC, B2T, USEP: See manual
for the program AQB
Output extent
OFF

No calculation / output

NO

No output

YES

Regular output

FULL

Extensive output

EXTR

Extreme output

0-7

See output description for BRIC

Unit

Default

/ LT

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | ASE

Default:
ECHO LOAD
ECHO DISP,FORC,REAC,NOST,BEDD,BDEF

YES
NO

as well as NO for NODE and MAT and YES for all other
for small beam systems < 1000 nodes additionally:
ECHO LOAD
ECHO DISP,FORC,NOST,BEDD
ECHO REAC

FULL
NO
YES

for very small beam systems < 100 nodes additionally:


ECHO DISP,FORC

YES

The record name ECHO should be repeated in every record to avoid confusion
with similar record names. See chapter 4 for the effect of ECHO.
ECHO SPRI activates only the result print of springs and cables. This is often
useful in nonlinear analysis to focus on these elements. ECHO FORC also
activates this print.
For the check of the iteration ECHO NNR xxx prints the node displacements of
the node xxx after each iteration (10 nodes maximum). Only the displacement
component of the current analysis step is output (without primary load case
component). ECHO ENR is implemented so far only for cables.
With ECHO BDEF EXTR a storage of the local beam deformations can be enforced for primary load case processing. An outprint in ASE is not implemented,
please use WINGRAF for this.
The strain energy of the groups is only printed and stored with both input ECHO
STAT FULL and ECHO GRP FULL.

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-111

ASE | Input Description

3-112

SOFiSTiK 2016

Output Description | ASE

Output Description

The results of the FE analysis are:

4.1

Check List of the Generated Structure

The table of nodal values is mostly identical to the table of the program
SOFIMSHA/SOFIMSHC and is output with ECHO NODE YES. For evaluation
of unstable systems the equation numbers may be printed with ECHO NODE
FULL as well.
ECHO MAT YES causes the output of the material parameters.

4.2

Check List of the Non-linear Parameters

These are output with SYST NMAT=YES for non-linear analyses with QUAD
shell elements only (concrete or steel material rule).

4.3

Check List of the Analysis Control Parameters

ELEMENT GROUPS
No

Group number

fac-S

Stiffness of the group

fac-L, fac-D, fac-P

Primary load case factors

Fak-B

Factor for bedding of QUAD elements

fac-T
PLC

Factor for temperature load case from HYDRA


Primary load case

HW

Ground water level

T1

Concrete age in days (GRP ... T1)

ANALYTICAL PRIMARY STRESS STATE


Nr

Group number

Gam-P

Specific weight

Gam-P

Specific weight under buoyancy

SOFiSTiK 2016

4-1

ASE | Output Description

H-P, K-P, sig-P, sig-H

Primary state parameters

Type of analysis
Calculation with non-linear (SYST PROB NONL)
material properties
Geometrically
analysis

non-linear (SYST PROB TH3)

Primary state for displace- (SYST PLC)


ments of the total system is
load case ...

4.4

Check Lists of the Loads

The check lists of the loads are taken over from the program SOFiLOAD. Or
in the case of the load input in ASE they are generated in analog mode to the
SOFiLOAD output.
SUM OF LOADS CASE
LC

Load case

PXX, PYY, PZZ,

Load sums

MXX, MYY, MZZ


SUM OF MASSES
TM-X(t), TM-Y(t)

Translatory masses TM-Z(t)

RM-X(tm2), RM-Y(tm2)

Rotational masses RM-Z(tm2)

total

Total mass

active

Active part

The loads are stored in the database without load case factor. However, they
are output with this factor.

4.5

Process of the Analysis

For non-linear calculations the in each case maximum residual force is output
with the corresponding energy norm (sum from nodal forces nodal displace-

4-2

SOFiSTiK 2016

Output Description | ASE

ments of all nodes) in the list of the iterations. The residual force is printed firmly
in the dimension kN, the energy norm in kNm, however, multiplied by the factor
106 , 103 , 103 or 103 according to the size. For linear systems without primary
load case the system energy is equal to the printed energy norm/2. The e/f values indicate the correction factors of the Crisfield method (see chapter 3, record
SYST).
Example of a converging iteration:
Iteration 1 Residual
Iteration 2 Residual
Iteration 3 Residual

5.578 energy 21.3532 e/f .000 1.000


2.478 energy 36.3192 e/f .000 1.701
.000 energy 48.2837 e/f .329 1.799

The user has to check for a non-linear calculation whether the residual forces are
sufficiently small. In the case of calculations with non-linear material properties
there is no error message, if the residual forces can not be counterbalanced
fully.
During ultimate load calculations the convergence is checked automatically and
a new calculation is generated with a new load step.
Example:
ULS-iteration 1 loadcase 1 with loadfactor 1.000 was converged.

The residual forces can be checked with ECHO RESI:


RESIDUAL FORCES ITERATION 1
nodeno

Node number

P-X,P-Y,P-Z,

Unbalanced residual force

M-X,M-Y,M-Z
A graphic control can occur in program WING with NODE SV, because unbalanced residual forces are saved as support reactions.

4.6

Eigenvalues

Provided that eigenvalues are calculated, they are output in a table with the corresponding frequencies and error limits. The errors of the eigenvalues constitute
a measure of the accuracy of the frequencies and, if their values are larger than
103 , they may indicate as well the presence of possible multiple eigenvalues
which could be overlooked.

SOFiSTiK 2016

4-3

ASE | Output Description

EIGENFREQUENCIES
Using Lanczos method or
Using simultaneous vector iteration
Iteration vectors

Input with EIGE record

Iterations

Required iterations for SIMU

No.

Number of natural frequency

LC

stored as load case LC

Eigenvalue (1/Sec2)
Relative error

Error limits

omega (1/sec)

Circular frequency

frequency (Hertz)
Period (sec)
activated mass *
modal damping

4.7

Element Results

BEAM FORCES AND MOMENTS


Beam x(m)

Section identification

N, Vy, Vz, Mt, My, Mz,

Internal forces and moments

Mb, Mt2
PILE FORCES, MOMENTS AND REACTIONS
Pile No. x(m)

Section identification

N, Vy, Vz, Mt, My, Mz

Internal forces and moments

Pa, Pt

Foundation forces long., transv.

Pty,Ptz

Components y and z of the pile pressure Pt

SHELL FORCES AND MOMENTS


El-No.

4-4

Element number

SOFiSTiK 2016

Output Description | ASE

m-xx, m-yy, m-xy

Plate moments (kN/m)

m-I, m-II, alfa

Principal moments and their angle

v-x, v-y

Plate shear forces (kN/m)

n-xx, n-yy, n-xy

Membrane axial forces (kN/m)

n-I, n-II, alfa

Principal axial forces and their angle

The internal forces and moments are output in the centre of gravity of the element for every QUAD element. The principal moments and the principal axial
forces are output with the option ECHO FORC FULL only. The input of ECHO
FORC EXTR causes the output of the internal forces and moments at the integration points of the elements as well.
The angles between the direction of m-I or n-I and the local x axis are output.
Positive moments produce tensile stresses at the bottom side of the plate.
ELASTIC SUPPORT OF QUADRILATERALS
Number

Element number of the QUAD element

p(kN/m2)

Foundation stress perpendicularly to the


element
Tangential foundation stress

pt(kN/m2)
P(kN)

Resultant perpendicular foundation force


(elements foundation force in kN)

Foundation stresses are output only with ECHO FORC FULL. ECHO FORC
EXTR results in the output of the foundation values at the corners too. The
value P represents the corner force resulting from the foundation stresses of
this element.
STRESSES IN 3D ELEMENTS
Element Number

Element number

IP

Integration point 0=gravity centre

sig-x, sig-y, sig-z

Stresses in global system XYZ

tau-xy, tau-xz, tau-yz

Shear stresses

sig-I, sig-II, sig-III

Principal stresses

dx,dy,dz

Principal stress directions

Output control for volume elements BRIC:


SOFiSTiK 2016

4-5

ASE | Output Description

ECHO FORC =
0

- no output (NO)

- internal forces in the centre of gravity (YES)

- additionally principal stresses -I, -II, -III (FULL)

- additionally principal stress directions (EXTR)

4 or 5

- internal forces in centre of gravity and integration points

- additionally principal stresses -I, -II, -III

- additionally principal stress directions

The same ECHO input values are also applicable in the case of ECHO NOST.
Plastification mark: If an element is plasticized, a P is printed behind the stress
values.
TRUSS ELEMENTS
Load case
EL-NO

Element number

P (kN)

Axial force

u (mm)

Elongation -l

FORCES AND DISPLACEMENTS OF SPRINGS


Load case
Number

Element number

P (kN)

Axial force

P-t (kN)

Lateral force

M (kNm)

Moment

u (mm)

Spring displacement, elongation

u-t (mm)

Lateral displacement

phi (mrad)

Rotation

FORCES IN CABLE ELEMENTS

4-6

Number

Element number

N (kN)

Max. cable force above

SOFiSTiK 2016

Output Description | ASE

u (mm)

Elongation -l

u-t (m)

Cable sag perpendicularly to chord 1)

f0 (mm)

Cable sag in load direction

N-m (kN)

Cable force at midpoint

L_NO (mm)

Element length after normal force relaxation

1)

is calculated only for geometrically non-linear analysis and CTRL CABL >0.
The program calculates the loading and the sag f0 in the direction of the load.
These can be output for all iterations with ECHO ENR CableNo.

4.8

Non-linear Results

NON-LINEAR MATERIAL STEEL


Elem. (-)

Element number

z (-)

= top side (neg-z) v bottom side

sigx,sigy,tau (MPa)

Stresses at side z

sig-I,sig-II (MPa)

Principal stresses at side z

sigv (MPa)

Equivalent stress at side z

sigvlin (MPa)
depth (mm)

Equivalent stress calculated with eps*Elinear


Depth of plastification

fy (-)

Plastification number
sigvlin/sigzul-1
with sigzul = tensile strength (MPa)

NON-LINEAR MATERIAL CONCRETE


Elem.

Element number

Rich

Observed direction w.r.t. x

eps-o (o/oo)

Upper strain (neg-z) in direction RICH

eps-u (o/oo)

Lower strain (pos-z)

x/d (-)

Depth of compressive zone

sigb-o (MPa)

Upper edge concrete stress

sigb-u (MPa)

Lower edge concrete stress

SOFiSTiK 2016

4-7

ASE | Output Description

sigs-o (MPa)

Upper steel stress, cracked condition

sigs-u (MPa)

Lower steel stress, cracked condition

wcalo (mm)

Upper crack width wk-cal

wcalu (mm)

According to Heft 400 DAfStb at the bottom


side

ECHO FORC YES prints out both reinforcement directions, while ECHO FORC
FULL prints also the values in principal stress directions at the top and the bottom side. Crack widths can be calculated only in the directions of the reinforcement.
In the element centre of gravity the maximum of the non-linear effects of the four
Gauss points of an element is stored in order to show the in each case most
unfavourable value in the graphics.
In the graphical representation (program WinGRAF) with ISOL YIEL (FLIU,FLIL)
the plastification number is obtained as siglin/signl-1 (siglin = concrete stress
computed linearly from the strain, signl = non-linear stress). The most unfavourable value from the tensile or the compressive zone is used.
In the case of unreinforced concrete the crack width is set to 1 mm for the graphical representation of the crack pattern (a crack width can be computed only in
context with reinforcement).
Statistics of plastification:
For non-linear calculations a statistics of the number and type of the plasticized
Gauss points is printed in the result file. For area elements of concrete the compressive stresses which are larger than the linearity limit of 1/3r are output as
a plastification, cracks as overflow of the tensile strength. For plates of massive steel an overflow of the linearity limit is calculated always as a plastification
independently of tension/pressure.

4.9

Nodal Results and Support Reactions

ELIMINATED FORCES FROM CONSTRAINTS


Node

Node number

P-X, P-Y, P-Z

Constraint forces

M-X, M-Y, M-Z, Mb


The table of constraint forces is output only with ECHO REAC FULL.

4-8

SOFiSTiK 2016

Output Description | ASE

NODAL DISPLACEMENTS
Node No

Node number

u-X, u-Y, u-Z

Displacement

phi-X, phi-Y, phi-Z

Rotation

Clockwise rotations are positive.


NODAL REACTIONS AND RESIDUAL FORCES
Node No

Node number

P-XX, P-YY, P-ZZ

Support reaction

M-XX, M-YY, M-ZZ

Restraint moment

SUM OF REACTIONS AND LOADS


Load case
P-X, P-Y, P-Z, M-X, M-Y, M- 1st line= sum of the support reactions
Z
2nd line= sum of the loads
The output of the two lines serves as a check. The sum of the support reactions
has to be equal to the sum of the loads.
The sum of the support reactions and loads is an important index for the completeness of the loads and the accuracy of the entire analysis. In the case of
linear analysis an error message is issued, if there is a noteworthy deviation of
the two values.

4.10

Internal Forces and Moments at Nodes

SHELL FORCES IN NODES


load case
group

Element group

node

Node number

m-xx, m-yy, m-xy

Plate moments (kN/m)

m-I, m-II, alfa

Principal moments and their angle

v-x, v-y

Plate shear forces (kN/m)

SOFiSTiK 2016

4-9

ASE | Output Description

n-xx, n-yy, n-xy

Membrane axial forces (kN/m)

n-I, n-II, alfa

Principal axial forces and their angle

STRESSES IN NODES OF 3D ELEMENTS


Load case
sum

Sum of the load

Group

Element group

Node

Node number

sig-x, sig-y, sig-z

Stresses in global system XYZ

tau-xy, tau-xz, tau-yz

Shear stresses

sig-I, sig-II, sig-III

Principal stresses

dx,dy,dz

Principal stress directions

The output is controlled with ECHO NOST, which has the same effect as ECHO
FORC.
Determination of the results at the nodes:
The internal forces and moments and stresses of the adjacent elements
are averaged in groups for each node and they are stored or output. The output
is controlled with the ECHO option NOST.
This averaging is not always allowed, e.g. in the case of jumps of the values
between elements and especially for bends in folded structures, where shear
forces change into axial forces. The program does not determinate the results
in following cases:

If at a node the thickness of the bordering elements jumps.

If at a node the material number changes.

If the direction of the local coordinate system jumps more than 5 degrees.

Two or more results are output then at the very same node. In program BEMESS
the two results are calculated then with the relevant thickness and the relevant
material number.
At the group boundaries the results become also average provided that there
no jump in the material number, the thickness or the local coordinate system is
available.

4-10

SOFiSTiK 2016

Output Description | ASE

Kinematic constraints are ignored for the averaging (except for INTE). If needed,
a known point of discontinuity can be described with double coupled (KF)
nodes.

4.11

Error Estimates

ERROR ESTIMATES SHELL FORCES


el-no.

Element number

m-xx, m-yy, m-xy

Error estimates for plate moments

v-x, v-y

Error estimates for plate shear forces

n-xx, n-yy, n-xy

Error estimates for membrane axial forces

ERROR ESTIMATES QUAD-ELEMENTS


LC

Load case

type

Internal force or moment

dimension

Dimension of the internal force

maximum val

Maximum value of the internal force

maximum error

Maximum error of the internal force

element

Found in element ...

ERROR ESTIMATES BRIC-STRESSES


element number

Element number

sig-x, sig-y, sig-z

Error estimates for stresses

tau-xy, tau-xz, tau-yz

Error estimates for shear stresses

ERROR ESTIMATES BRIC-ELEMENTS


LC

Load case

type

Internal force or moment

dimension

Dimension of the internal force

maximum val

Maximum value of the internal force

maximum error

Maximum error of the internal force

element

Found in element ...

SOFiSTiK 2016

4-11

ASE | Output Description

The averaging of the results at the nodes allows the estimation of the error in
individual elements. This error describes the average size of the jump in the
results from one element to the other. The average values as well as the values
at the element centre are usually considerably more precise.
With ECHO ERIN YES the maximum magnitude of the internal forces and moments and the presumed maximum error for every load case are printed in the
protocol file. With ECHO ERIN FULL the errors are output in all the elements.
The error estimates are stored in the database and can be represented graphically. The user should take a closer look and possibly refine regions with high
error estimates.
Additional instructions are to be found in the manual of the program TALPA.

4.12

Distributed Support Reactions

The following result values are output for each boundary for which a designation
has been input:
DISTRIBUTED FORCES ALONG NODES
LC

Load case

No.

Boundary number and designation

nodeno

Node number

p-X, p-Y, p-Z

Distributed support reaction in kN/m

m-n

Distributed clamping moment in kNm/m


about the axis of the boundary

m-n

2nd value, if boundary is a broken line

average

Average support reaction in kN/m

sum
length

Total support reaction of the boundary in


kN
Length of the boundary

sum all boundaries

Total support reaction of all boundaries

The output can be controlled with ECHO LINE. With ECHO LINE YES only the
sums of the boundaries appear, with ECHO LINE FULL the individual values are

4-12

SOFiSTiK 2016

Output Description | ASE

output too.

4.13

Strain Energy of Groups

The strain energy of the groups is only printed and stored with both input ECHO
STAT FULL and ECHO GRP FULL:
Strain energy of groups
load case

Load case number

group

Group number

Energy

Energy in kNm

=% of sum

Percentage part

4.14

Wind Load Generation

With ECHO ELEM 4 an output of all QUAD elements with centre of gravity coordinates and normal direction can be requested. With that a further processing
can occur for load generation with a spreadsheet program (wind load on a cooling tower).

SOFiSTiK 2016

4-13