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InternationalJournalofEnergyScience(IJES)Volume3Issue4,August2013

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AnalysisofTransmissionTowerunderthe
EffectofRupturedWireLoads
QianXu*1,2,YongxingZhang1,2,JiangongChen1,2
SchoolofCivilEngineering,ChongqingUniversity,Chongqing,400045,China

KeyLaboratoryofNewTechnologyforConstructionofCitiesinMountainArea(ChongqingUniversity),Ministry
ofEducation,Chongqing,400045,China
2

*1

xuqian0908140831@163.com,2cqyxzhong@163.com,2cjg77928@126.com

Abstract

Bothathomeandabroad,therehavebeenanumberof
researches on transmission tower under the effect of
ruptured wire loads, such as, Fleming analyzed
imbalance tension in transmission lines by static
equation methods, and compiled related computer
program(Fleming JF1978); Peyrot studied and
estimatedformulaofthefirsttwopeakdynamic

Transmission Towers are the main part to bear loads in


transmission lines. Without considering seismic loads and
wind loads, straight tower (transmission towers in straight
line)mainlybeardverticalloads;whiletheangletowersdid
not only bear vertical loads but also transverse loads.
Especially when wires broke, the responses of the different
types of towers were also varying under the effect of
rupturedwireloads.BytheanalysisofFEM(FiniteElement
Methods),itwasfoundthatthereweremuchmoreoblivious
displacements, to the direction of ruptured wires, on the
straighttower;onthecontrary,theresponsesofangletower
weredifferent.However,incurrentTowerDesignCode,the
ruptured wire loads were regarded as static ones without
consideringthedynamiceffectsoffragilewireloads.

stress in transmission lines under the effect of wires


failure(Peyrot AH 1980); Campbell deduced static
equation of tower suffering wire ruptured loads, and
acquired residual stress and balance position after
breaking of wires (David BCampbell 1970); Mozer
deduced partial analysis formula of peak stress,
caused by ruptured loads, inlight of concise physical
model (Mozer J D1981) (Fleming J F 1978 ); Thomas
developed displacement and stress time history
programs of insulators and wires in the condition of
wires fragile(Thomas M B 1982); Siddiqui compiled
static and dynamic equations, with wires breaking
instantaneously in transmission lines (Faruq M A
Siddiqui1984); Meclure obtained responses of
rupturedwireloadsconditionin2dmodels,adopting
ADINAfiniteelementsoftware(McClureG1987).

Keywords
Transmissiontower; Responses Analysis; Ruptured Wire Loads;
StraightTower;AngleTower

Introduction
Generally speaking, transmission towers are the main
parts to bear loads in transmission line system.
Normally, the tower bears the gravity of tower and
wires, besides, it might receive effects from seismic
loads,windloads,iceloadsandthunderloads.Under
the condition of operation or installation, wires and
landlines,intransmissionlinesystem,mightbreak,so
tower need bear effects of accidental ruptured wire
loads.Althoughtheprobabilityofwiresfragileismuch
smaller,oncewiresbreak,outcomewouldbeseriously.
For instance, a great many towers have collapsed due
tobreakofwiresinWiscomsinandIndianaofU.S.Ain
1975,whichledtothewholetransmissionlinesystem
paralysis(MozerJD1977);in1993,aboutfourhundred
towers continued collapsing in the transmission line,
with length of one hundred and three kilometers, in
Nebraska State of America (John D 1977); in 2008, a
largenumberoftowerswerealsodestroyedasresultof
wiresfragile,undertheeffectoficeloads,inthesouth
ofChina(FanglinWang2008).

Domestic results of researches on transmission tower


were mainly on vibration control, due to wind loads
andseismicones,aswellasvibrationcontrolofwires
in transmission lines and so on. However, researches
on dynamic responses of transmission tower, under
the effects of ruptured wire loads, were much fewer.
For example, Zhengchun Xia simulated rigidity of
towers by adopting equivalent springs and got
dynamic responses of transmission lines(Zhengchun
Xia2007); Zhengchun Xia, Li Li and Zhengping Liang
acquired responses of transmission tower under the
effect of ruptured wire loads, by FEM numerous
simulationanalysis(ZhengpingLiang2009);QingTan,
fromLogisticsEngineeringCollege,provideddynamic
responses of transmission towerline system, under
theeffectofwiresfragile(QingTan2009);inaddition,

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Guohui Shen, Bingnan Sun, Zenglu Mo and Wenjuan


Lou,fromZhejiangUniversity,alsostudiedtheimpact
oftowerline,resultingfromrupturedwireloadsover
and above, and they as well made research on sub
impactresponsesoftowerline,whenthebrokenwires
fallenontheground(GuohuiShen2009).
Model of Transmission Tower
In this part, the model consists of straight towerline
system and angle towerline system. Though both
straight tower and angle one have the same
components,thedifferenceisthatangletowersarenot
in the straight line, but with angle thirty degree. The
modelsofstraighttowerandangletowerareshownin
Fig.1andFig.2below.

FIG.3CALCULATINGJOINTSONTHETOWER

FIG.1MODELOFTOWERINSTRAIGHTLINE

FIG.2MODELOFANGLETOWER

And the height of tower is 85.9 meters, the width of


head tower is 3 meters, and the length of span
betweentwotowersis450meters.

FIG.4CALCULATINGRODSONTHETOWER

Wires, on the top, are landlines; and there are four


wires on the rest three layers. The brand of wires is
LGJ240/40,andthebrandoflandlinesisJL/LBA99/55,
parametersofwiresandlandlinesareshownintable1.

Analysis of Tower under the Effect of


Ruptured Wire Loads
It is assumed that the landlines are intact, only wires
break. And the possibility of twelve wires fragile is
extremely low, so six wires are assumed to break in
themostdangerouscondition.Whenwiresbreak,itis
believed that loads on the wires are removed
instantaneously(withine4second).Afterwiresbeing
fragile, transmission tower vibrates freely under the
effectofdamp(thedampratiois0.02).Justanalyzing
dynamic responses of tower within ten seconds after
wires failure, UX and UY represent displacements of
tower, and UX stands for X axial displacement while
UYstandsforYaxialdisplacement;impactcoefficient
isdefined,showingdynamiceffectsofrods,and=
(NUN0)/N0,NUultimateaxialstressofrodsunder
the effect of ruptured loads, N0axial stress of rods
undertheeffectofgravity.

Both straight towerline system and angle towerline


systemconsistofthreetowersandtwospansofwires,
and the models of these towerline systems are
established by SAP2000 finite element method
program, the model includes 1058 nodes and 2674
rods. Rods are used to simulated anglesteels and
wires,buttherodssimulatingwiresonlybeartension,
are unable to bear press and moments, so the
propertiesoftheserodsshouldbemagnified.Inorder
to observe dynamic responses of tower, 730, 729 and
77 are selected as calculating joints, while other
thirteen rods are as computing rods. Specific position
of both specific jointsand rodsarelistedin the Fig.3
andFig.4below:

TABLE1PARAMETERSOFWIRESANDLANDLINES

262

grade

Modulusof
elasticity/MPa

LGJ240/40

78.4

JL/LBA99/55

178

Area/mm2

Specific
load/N/m.mm2

18.58

271

13.95

152.8

Diameter/mm

Operation
stress/MPa

Ultimate
tension/kN

34.047

43.09

77.028

40.99

103,76

83.48

InternationalJournalofEnergyScience(IJES)Volume3Issue4,August2013

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TABLE2AXIALSTRESSANDIMPACTCOEFFICIENTOFCALCULATINGRODS

element
302
221
464
306
307
691
719
1235
1239
1589
1585
1742
1743

Axialstressofrodsonstraighttower
NUmax/MPa
NUmin/MPa
3.41
3.58
8.56
8.56
7.66
7.30
11.74
14.86
20.22
23.87
13.22
13.3
12.85
12.25
11.87
10.9
12.31
11.04
18.02
17.27
21.28
16.69
12.22
16.10
9.23
12.36

Axialstressofrodsonangletower
NUmax/MPa
MUmin/MPa
25.35
27.87
65.29
40.55
66.42
57.54
71.89
96.63
126.95
155.42
102.99
61.80
116.23
98.59
120.93
109.79
101.52
76.09
116.20
111.75
149.20
139.40
80.32
106.26
61.47
82.21

0.87
0.75
0.74
0.13
0.32
0.64
0.60
0.67
0.7
0.01
0.001
0.37
0.34

DangerousConditionofOneWireBreaking

straight tower

According to Fig. 5 and Fig. 7, it is concluded that


angle tower has more obvious X axial displacement
thanstraighttower;andinthelightofFig.6andFig.8,
thereisstilllargeYaxialdisplacementinbothstraight
tower and angle one. In addition, it has been found
that both straight tower and angle tower have twist
deformation from Fig. 9 and Fig. 10, and the straight
tower twists much significantly than angle one. And
from the Table 2, it has been observed that there are
impact stress appearing in calculating rods, besides
the stress ofmajority of rods on angle tower is larger
thanthatonstraighttower.

displacement/cm

10
5
0
-5
-10
-15
1

FIG.7XAXIALDISPLACEMENTTIMEHISTORYDRAWINGSOF
JOINT730

straight tower

angle tower

FIG.8YAXIALDISPLACEMENTTIMEHISTORYDRAWINGSOF
JOINT730

FIG.5XAXIALDISPLACEMENTTIMEHISTORYDRAWINGSOF
JOINT77

joint 730

angle tower

displacement/cm

displacement/cm

15
10
5
0
-5
-10
-15

joint 729

100
80
60
40
20
0
-20
-40
-60
-80
1

1201 2401 3601 4801 6001 7201 8401 9601

1201 2401 3601 4801 6001 7201 8401 9601


time/0.001s

time/0.001s

FIG.9YAXIALDISPLACEMENTTIMEHISTORYDRAWINGSOF
JOINT729ANDJOINT730ONSTRAIGHTTOWER

FIG.6YAXIALDISPLACEMENTTIMEHISTORYDRAWINGSOF
JOINT77

1201 2401 3601 4801 6001 7201 8401 9601


time/0.001s

time/0.001s

angle tower

100
80
60
40
20
0
-20
-40
-60
-80

1201 2401 3601 4801 6001 7201 8401 9601

straight tower

1201 2401 3601 4801 6001 7201 8401 9601


time/0.001s

20
15
10
5
0
-5
-10
-15
1

angle tower

15

displacement/cm

displacement/cm

straight tower

0.99
0.15
1.55
458
1475
0.03
3.64
5.5
0.14
8.74
0.51
3.01
2.13

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joint729

straight tower

80
60
40
20
0
-20
-40
-60
-80
-100

displacement/cm

displacement/cm

joint 730

125
100
75
50
25
0
-25
-50
-75
-100
-125

1201 2401 3601 4801 6001 7201 8401 9601

time/0.001s

FIG.12YAXIALDISPLACEMENTTIMEHISTORYDRAWINGS
OFJOINT77

DangerousConditionofSixWiresBreakings

straight tower
displacement/cm

Basedonanalysisabove,bothstraighttowerandangle
tower under the effect of ruptured wire loads, are
deformed greatly. Straight tower deformed greatly
alongYaxisbutalittlealongXaxisfromFig.11and
Fig. 12; while on the contrary, angle tower didnt
deformed intensely not only along Y axis but also X
axis according to Fig. 13 to Fig. 14. With the rising
number of ruptured wires, these effects will be more
obvious. And the peak value of Y axial displacement
onstraighttowerisupto162.7cmfromFig.15,while
the maximum value of Y axial displacement of angle
towerisupto187.3cmfromFig.14.Additionally,the
peak value of X axial displacement on angle tower is
up to 76.11 cm while the value of straight is so small
thatitcanbeoverlooked.

FIG.13XAXIALDISPLACEMENTTIMEHISTORYDRAWINGS
OFJOINT730

displacement/cm

straight tower

angletower

200
150
100
50
0
-50
-100
-150
-200
-250
1

1201 2401 3601 4801 6001 7201 8401 9601


time/0.001s

FIG.14YAXIALDISPLACEMENTTIMEHISTORYDRAWINGS
OFJOINT730

joint 729

angle tower

100
80
60
40
20
0
-20
-40
-60
-80

displacement/cm

displacement/cm

1201 2401 3601 4801 6001 7201 8401 9601


time/0.001s

joint 730

200
150
100
50
0
-50
-100
-150
-200
1

1201 2401 3601 4801 6001 7201 8401 9601

1201 2401 3601 4801 6001 7201 8401 9601


time/0.001s

time/0.001s
FIG.11YAXIALDISPLACEMENTTIMEHISTORYDRAWINGS
OFJOINT77

264

angle tower

100
80
60
40
20
0
-20
-40
-60
-80
1

Besides, there are great relative displacements


appearing on the both sides of cross arms, which
meansthatthereareobvioustwisteddeformationson
bothstraighttowerandangletower.Overandabove,
with the increasing number of ruptured wires,
distorteddeformation onstraight tower will be much
largeraccordingtoFig.15;whiletwisteddeformation
on angle tower tends to decline even disappear
accordingtoFig.16.

1201 2401 3601 4801 6001 7201 8401 9601


time/0.001s

FIG.10YAXIALPLACEMENTTIMEHISTORYDRAWINGSOF
JOINT729ANDJOINT730ONANGLETOWER

straight tower

angle tower

FIG.15YAXIALTIMEHISTORYDRAWINGSOFJOINT729AND
JOINT730ONSTRAIGHTTOWER

InternationalJournalofEnergyScience(IJES)Volume3Issue4,August2013

www.ijesci.org

TABLE3AXIALSTRESSANDIMPACTCOEFFICIENTOFSPECIFICRODS

element
302
221
464
306
307
691
719
1235
1239
1589
1585
1742
1743

Axialstressofrodsonstraighttower
NUmax/MPa
NUmin/MPa

78.89
87.95
1.98
151.07
126.41
2.63
147.63
143.37
4.2
142.63
171.95
9.07
261.16
316.68
16.51
4.72
250.32
211.53
7.45
268.84
260.61
10.38
397.08
376.87
9.36
413.87
378.42
17.45
317.79
316.54
15.16
296.02
269.19
20.22
189.11
224.42
8.88
137.79
162.42

Axialstressofrodsonangletower
NUmax/MPa
NUmin/MPa

71.84
86.63
4.63
223.76
136.61
1.86
233.49
196.25
7.7
82.05
93.63
443.75
75.16
87.00
825
360.83
216.91
2.63
415.29
346.26
15.31
491.92
466.73
26.62
454.91
333.76
2.78
388.06
379.98
31.25
4.34
428.79
491.60
3.24
85.05
94.21
3.98
97.74
102.11

joint 729

responses of angle tower are even more intense than


thoseofstraighttower.Soitisunreasonabletoconsider
the ruptured wire loads as static one, but this dynamic
effectsshouldbetakenintoaccount.

joint 730

displacement/cm

150
100
50
0

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1201 2401 3601 4801 6001 7201 8401 9601

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FIG.16YAXIALDISPLACEMENTTIMEHISTORYDRAWINGS
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under

the

Effect

of

Ruptured

Wire