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Standards

Certification
Education & Train ing
Publishing

Conferences & Exhibits

"J

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~ Certified Automation Professional" (CAP)

) Study Guide
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Setting the Standard for Automation

The CAIJ Study Guide is designed to provide a review of key content areas
...

(domains) covered on the CAP examination and to familiarize the applicant with
the type of questions that may be covered. Actual CAP examination questions are

not available in the public domain and are not included in this study guide.
Satisfactory completion of study guide questions in no way assures a passing score
on the CAP examination.

Certified Automation Professionaie Study Guide - Version 4.1


Revision Date: August 2007
,

ISA -2007

All rights reserved.


Printed in the United States of America.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or
transmitted, in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, or otherwise), without prior written permission of the Publisher:
ISA
67 Alexander Drive
PO Box 12277
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709
U.S.A.
http;lfwwwisa.org
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Certified Automation Professionals' (CAP) program study guide.
p.cm.
ISBN 1-55617-888-3
1. Automatic control-Study and teaching. 2. Technicians in industry--Certification.
I. ISA--The Instrumentation, Systems and Automation Society.
TJ213.C46 2004
629.8--dc22
2004011284

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CAp Study Guide

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Table of Contents

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Introduction

Domain 1: Feasibility Study- identify, scope, and justify the automation project

Domain 2: Definition- identify and analyze customer requirements

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Domain 3: System Design- design, specify, and procure the hardware/


software used in the control and information system

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Domain 4: Development- software development and coding

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Domain 5: Deployment- field installation, checkout, and startup of the systems

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Domain 6: Operation and Maintenance - long term support of the system

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CAP Resources

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WELCOME
Thank you for your interest in the ISA
Certified Automation Professionals'
(CAJ:') Program. The CA.P program
recognizes your experience, knowledge,
and education in automation - and
provides objective, third-party
endorsement of your skills. Certification
from ISA demonstrates your
commitment to your future, establishes
your credentials as an automation
professional, and opens career
opportunities.
This self-study guide was developed
to help you prepare for the ISA CAP
exam. The CAP Introduction below will
provide you with information about the
Program.
The CAP Study Guide is divided into
six domains to reflect the structure of the
exam. Each domain consists of a
performance domain name and task list,
sample questions, and an answer key,
complete with justifications and a cited
reference. Recommended sources for
study are noted in a resource list.
Although the questions in this guide
reflect questions on the exam,
completing this guide is no guarantee of
achieving certification. The best way to
prepare for the exam is to study as much
information relative to the domains and
tasks as possible.

CAP PROGRAM OVERVIEW


The development of a valid
examination for the CAP certification
process began with a clear and concise
definition of the knowledge, skills, and
abilities needed for competent job
performance. Using interviews,

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surveys, observation, and group


discussions, ISA worked with
automation professionals to delineate
critical job components. The knowledge
and skill bases for the questions on the
examination were derived from the
actual practice of the automation
professionals as outlined in the 2004
CAP Role Delineation Study. CASTLE
followed the NOCA and ANSI
standards for test development. The
NOCA standards are published in:
National Commission for Certifying
Agencies (2002). Standards for the
Accreditation of Certification Programs.
Washington, D.C.: National Organization
for Competency Assurance. The
American National Standards Institute
(ANSI) administers a program for the
accreditation of personnel certification
programs, using ISO jlEC Standard
17024.

Program Definition
An ISA Certified Automation
Professional (CAP) has completed a
four-year technical or technology
degree and five years of experience
working in automation. CAPs are
responsible for the direction, definition,
design, development! application,
deployment, documentation, and
support of systems, software, and
equipment used in control systems,
manufacturing information systems,
systems integration, and operational
consulting.
The written CAP examination is a
measure of a candidate's general and
basic skills and knowledge of the

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information needed for the CAP to


perform his or her role effectively. To
ensure that the most stringent test
development requirements were
employed during the development of
CAP, ISA contracted with CASTLE
Worldwide, Inc., a full-service testing
company providing licensure,
certification, and specialty
examinations.

CAP PROGRAM
REQUIREMENTS &
DOCUMENTATION
The CAP examination is only one
requirement for certification. The
candidate must also meet minimum
requirements comprised of work
experience and education. The
qualification requirements for the
certification are described in detail
below. During the initial two years of
the CAP program (2005 - 2006), the
four year degree requirement will be
waived for automation professionals
who have been working in the
automation field for ten (10) or more
years.
General criteria to qualify to take the
CAP examination include a
commitment to the ISA Code of Ethics
(see Introduction, page XI), a completed
application with documentation
included to support the education and
experience requirements, and the
application fee. Applicants must meet
the qualifications outlined in either
section I or II below to be eligible to sit
for the CAP exam.

The following are acceptable work


experience and education requirements:
I. If you hold a 4 Year Technical Degree:

o Four-year academic degree from an


accredited educational institution in
a technical or technology field
including engineering, chemistry,
physics, math, etc.
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Related work experience.


Related experience means a
minimum of five years of work in
the automation field. One (1) year of
work experience means 1,500 hours
of active employment. A cumulative
total of 7,500hours of documented
work experience is required during
the five year period prior to your
application date.

n. If you hold a 2 Year Technical


Degree or do not have a degree:

l:l Related work experience.


Related experience means a
minimum of ten (10) years of
work in the automation field. One
(1) year of work experience
means 1,500 hours of active
employment. A cumulative total
of 15,000 hours of documented
work experience is required
during the ten (10) year period
prior to your application date. A
two year associate degree in
automation or a related field from
an accredited institution may be
used to satisfy two years of the
ten year work requirement.

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II

Evidence of responsible charge


position;
Two (2) work related references
should be submitted that
demonstrates that the applicant
has had at least two (2) years
experience in automation in a
position of responsible charge.
Each reference should be
completed and signed by a
former supervisor or someone
who is in a position to attest to
the applicant's responsibilities. At
least one of the references must
be signed by a current or former
supervisor. See below for a
definition of "responsible
charge."

Verification of Employment
Work experience and educational
periods may not overlap when
compiling the total number of years
required for this certification.
Applicants must submit
completed Verification of
Employment forms for all employers
or provide equivalent
documentation. All forms must be
signed by the supervisor. An
applicant with military experience in
the related technologies defined for
the CAP program must document
this period by submitting a copy of
his or her DD 214 form accompanied
by a written description of this
experience. An official college
transcript is also required.
For employers that may be
unavailable to provide first-hand
verification, a two-party verification
of the employment must be provided

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in the form of a statement signed by


a co-worker from that period of
employment and notarized by a
notary public. A full explanation of
why the employer is not verifying
the period of employment must be
provided. Full contact information,
i.e., name, address and telephone
number, must be provided for all
responsible parties who act to
confirm employment verification.
Self employed applicants should
complete the Verification of
Employment form to document the
required work experience and
include a notarized letter from at
least three (3) current customers
(customers during the eligibility
period), including full contact
information for customers.
Position of Responsible Charge
For applicants who do not meet
the four-year technical degree
requirement, two verifications must
accompany your application that
document that you have held a
position of responsible charge in the
automation field for at least two (2)
years. One of the references must be
from your direct supervisor.
Responsible charge relates to the
span or degree of control an
automation professional has to
maintain while exercising
independent control and direction of
professional automation work, and
to the level of decisions being made.
Responsible charge does not refer to
management control or
administrative functions such as

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accounting, labor relations, or


marketing.
The span of control necessary to be
considered in a position of
responsible charge includes:
Personally makes critical
automation project decisions, or
reviews and approves proposed
decisions prior to
implementation, including
consideration of alternatives.
OR

Judges the quality of other


technical specialists and the
validity and applicability of their
recommendations before such
recommendations are
incorporated in the work.

No documents will be returned to


applicants. Please keep a copy of your
application for your records.

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RENEWAL
CAPs will be required to renew
their certification every three years.
If you do not renew within 4 months
after your expiration date, your
certification is considered lapsed. In
order to renew, documentation of
work experience in automation
during the time certified will be
required, as well as documentation
of continuing education. A total of
135 Professional Development Points
(PDPs) are required to renew your
certification. The PDPs can be earned
as follows:
Work experience in automation
(30 PDPs each year). A minimum of
60 PDPs (2 years) must be obtained

from work experience. A year is


defined as 1,500 hours of active
employment. You must have
worked in the automation field for
3,000 total hours during the 3 year
renewal period.
A minimum of 45 hours of
continuing education or professional
development activity in an
automation or job-related field. An
hour is defined as a minimum of 50
minutes. Continuing education units
(CEUs) from an authorized provider
are acceptable. One CEU equals 10
PDPs.
Applicants without required
documentation will be notified to
submit the necessary verification. If
the applicant does not respond
within three (3) months, then the
application is considered abandoned.
Applicant will have to submit a new
application and the renewal fee
again to apply for renewal.
Record Retention Policy
All documentation received from
CAP applicants who are not eligible for
certification will be retained for one year
after the application is received.

EXAMINATION
A comprehensive job analysis
was conducted in 2004 to account for
the work performed by CAPs. The
job analysis identified performance
domains that were subsequently
validated in a nationwide survey.
Exam.questions are also distributed
by knowledge or technical topic
categories.

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IV

Candidates will have four hours


to complete the examination. The
following tables indicate the
percentage of questions appearing
on the exam as they relate to each of
the CAP domains and technical topic
categories to ensure broad coverage
of information which is especially
helpful for those preparing for the
CAP exam.
Domains
1
2
3
4

5
6

Feasibility Study
Definition
System Design
Development
Deployment
Operation and
Maintenance

% of Questions

12%
15%
25%
22%
15%
11%

Technical Topic Categories % of Questions


1
2

3
4

5
6

Basic Continuous 14 %
Control
Discrete,
13%
Sequencing, and
Manufacturing
Control
Advanced Control 9%
Reliability, Safety 13 %
and Electrical
Integration and
21 %
Software
Deployment and 16%
Maintenance
Work Structure
14 %

The examination is closed book. No


reference material of any kind may
be brought in the exam room.

www.isa.org/CAP

TAKING THE EXAM


For information on taking the
CAP exam, visit www.isa.orgiCAP,
email ISA at cap@isa.org, or call
Customer Service at (919) 549-8411.
The examination is offered in an
electronic format, or in the
paper/ pencil format for private
exam sites. ISA may administer the
CAP exam atspecial events and
these may be found on the ISA
Network. All candidates will have
four hours to complete the exam.
Electronic exams are available
during three testing windows as
shown in the table below. For details
on applying for electronic testing go
to www.isa.orglexamschedule.
2008 Exam Testing
Windows

2008 Application
Postmark Deadlines

Window 1:
1 March - 30 April
Window 2:
1 July - 31 August
Window 3:
1 November - 31
December

Tuesday,
15 January
Thursday,
15 May
Monday,
15 September

If the number of candidates for a


private exam site or a special event
administration of CAP falls below
the minimum number preestablished for the session, ISA
reserves the right to cancel the
session and reschedule the affected
examinees as quickly as possible. If
an exam site must be cancelled
because of a weather condition or
insurmountable problems in regard
to exam availability, test room
availability, or proctor availability,
ISA will contact the candidates as

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quickly as possible and arrange a


replacement exam date. Although
rare, the potential exists for a
cancellation to occur as late as the
actual day of the exam.
Candidates will not be admitted
to the examination once it has begun.
All candidates should bring their
confirmation letter and a valid photo
identification with signature to the
examination site. Acceptable forms
of identification include driver's
licenses, passports, and governrnentissued identification cards.
Unacceptable forms of identification
include gym memberships,
warehouse memberships, school
identification cards, and
identification with signature only.
In addition, candidates who are
taking the paper/pencil exam format
should bring at least two No.2
pencils, a soft eraser suitable for
cleanly erasing incorrect and stray
markings, and a self-powered or
battery-operated non-programmable
calculator. Electronic candidates will
be provided with a calculator on the
computer at the test center.

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Examination Fees
Currently, the application fee is
$250.00 for ISA Members and $295.00
for non-members. This fee is subject
to change. The fee must be paid in
U.S. funds. ISA will accept a check,
certified check, money order, or
credit card. Purchase orders are not
accepted. Payment must be received
with the application before it will be
processed.

Please make all checks payable to


ISA. Your canceled check is your
proof of payment. If you require a
receipt you must contact ISA.
Fees are due in advance and ARE
NOT REFUNDABLE. It is the
responsibility of the applicant to
thoroughly review the requirements
for the examination and apply only if
he or she is qualified. No refunds
will be made for applicants who do
not appear for testing on the
scheduled date.

COMPLETING THE
APPLICATION
Candidates must complete all
sections of the application. The
application is available as a
downloadable PDF file at
www.isa.orglCAP. You may also
contact ISA at cap@isa.org or (919) 5498411 to request a copy.
Section A: Applicant Information
Provide complete contact
information as requested. If ISA has
a different mailing address on file for
you, it will be changed to this
preferred mailing address. All ISArelated materials will be mailed to
this address unless you specify
otherwise.
Indicate if you suffer from a
disability or religious obligation that
would require an accommodation for
test administration. Provide a
written explanation of the
accommodation you request.

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VI

Section B: Job and Industry


Classification
Indicate your primary job function
and the industry in which you
currently work.
Section C: Certification Exam
Selection Information
Mark the appropriate box if you
wish to test electronically. For
private exam sites or special
administrations, specify the date,
city, and state where you will take
the test.
Section D: Employment Summary
Complete a record of employment
that fully covers the experience
requirement to sit for the
examination. Section D must be
completed in addition to any other
documentation submitted to verify
employment.
Section E: Education/fraining
Complete a record of education and
training that fully covers the
education requirement to sit for the
examination. Official transcripts
must be submitted as documentation
to verify educational degrees.
Certificates do not serve as
verification of an apprenticeship or
training. This experience must be
verified by signed documentation.
Section F: Verification of
Employment
Verification of Employment forms
must be completed and signed for all
work experience claimed as
qualification for examination. All

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documentation must be provided in


English. Faxed verification is not
accepted. The original signature
must be provided on this form. You
should also use this form to
document the two references
required to meet the responsible
charge eligibility if you do not have a
four year technical degree.
Section G: Verification of
Employment in Position of
Responsible Charge
Verification of Employment in
Position of Responsible Charge
forms must be completed by your
current and/ or former supervisor(s)
if you are documenting ten (10) years
of automation experience as
eligibility criteria to sit for the CAP
exam. Two references should be
submitted that documents that at
least two (2) years of the ten (10)
years experience must be in a
position of responsible charge.
Section H: Compliance with
Certification Criteria and
Qualifications
Read carefully and sign the
compliance agreement.
Section I: Fees
All applications must be
accompanied by full payment of the
required fees. No exceptions will be
granted.
Section J: Submitting Materials
Mail application and fee to ISA.
Incomplete or incorrectly completed
applications may be returned to an

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applicant. It is the responsibility of


the CAP applicant to promptly
notify ISA in writing of any changes
in his/her name or address.
Notification for admission to the
examination, test results, and
renewal of certification depends on
accurate information.

If mailing with a check payment or

through regular postal delivery, send


all materials to:

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ISA
CAP Program
P.O. Box 3561
Durham, NC 27702

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If mailing with credit card payment

or by overnight service, send all


materials to:
ISA
CAP Program
67 Alexander Drive
Research Triangle Park, NC 27709

applications completed in pencil are


not accepted.
Certification Status

Each application will be reviewed


for the necessary requirements. If
there are deficiencies, candidates will
receive a letter outlining what
documentation is still required.
Electronic exam candidates will
receive an eligibility letter with
instructions on how to register for an
exam date. For private exam sites or
special exam administrations,
applicants will receive a
confirmation letter that will include
the time, location, and a map, when
available, to the testing site.
Results for each paper/pencil
exam applicant will be mailed within
thirty (30) days after the examination
date. Electronic candidates will
receive immediate results at the
testing center.

Materials sent to any other


address will be returned. Fax, e-mail,
and photocopied applications, or

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V lJI

DUE PROCESS PROCEDURES


If an applicant feels he/she was wrongly denied certification, original or renewal,
from the CAP program, then he/she has the right to appeal.
I.

Appeals
A. All appeals shall be in writing.
1. The notice of appeal must be delivered to the Certification Board,
addressed to the attention of the ISA Executive Director, by the close of
business on the 21st day after the date of the notice of denied certification.
2. The appeal should include the date the notice of denied certification was
received and must state the reasons the applicant believes the denied
certification was in error.
3. The appeal should indicate whether or not the applicant requests a
hearing.
a. If a hearing is requested, the applicant must explain why a hearing is
needed, identify the issues to be resolved at a hearing, list names of
prospective witnesses, and identify documentation and other evidence
to be introduced at the hearing before the Board.
4. The Chair of the Certification Board will select a three-member panel of
the Board to become the Review Panel, one of whom shall be appointed
Chair and will be the final vote in the event of a tie during the ruling.

II. Procedures
A. The Review Panel will review the appeal and any request for a hearing. The
Review Panel will grant a hearing in connection with the appeal, if requested.
1. Hearing
a. The Chair of the Review Panel will determine the time and location of
the hearing within 90 days after determination that a hearing is
warranted and will notify the applicant within the first 21 days. The
applicant will be notified of the hearing time and location at least 20
days prior to the time determined for the hearing.
b. The applicant may be represented by counselor represent him/herself
at the hearing. The applicant may offer witnesses and documents and
may cross-examine any witness.
c. The Review Panel may consider any evidence it deems relevant
without regard to strict application of legal rules of evidence.
d. The applicant is urged to submit a written brief (four copies) 10 days
prior to the hearing to the Certification Board, addressed to the
attention of the ISA Executive Director, for distribution to the panel in
support of his/her position. However, written briefs are not required.

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2. Deposition
i. If the applicant or Review Panel desires to take a deposition prior
to the hearing of any voluntary witnesses who cannot attend the
hearing, the deposition of a witness may be applied for in writing
to the Chair of the Review Panel together with a written consent
signed by the potential witness that he or she will give a deposition
for one party and a statement to the effect that the witness cannot
attend the hearing along with the reason for such unavailability.
ii. The party seeking to take the deposition of a witness shall state in
detail as to what the witness is expected to testify.
iii. If the Chair of the Review Panel is satisfied that such deposition
from a possible witness will be relevant to the issue in question
before the Panel, then the Chair will authorize the taking of the
deposition. The Chair will also designate a member of the Panel to
be present at the deposition.
iv. The deposition may be taken orally or by video. Any refusal of the
taking of the deposition by the Chair shall be reviewed by the Panel
at the request of the applicant.
v. The party requesting the deposition will pay for the cost connected
with taking the deposition.
B. The applicant will be notified of the result of the Review Panel within 30 days
of the meeting.

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III.

Final Review
A. If the Review Panel makes a decision adverse to the applicant, the applicant
may appeal to the full Certification Board for a final review by the close of
business on the 21st day after the notice of decision is issued. Such appeal
shall follow the same procedures as the initial appeal to the extent possible
with the Chair of the Board serving as the Chair of the Final Review Panel.
The Chair will once again select a three-member panel, one of whom shall be
himself, to become the Review Panel, and the final vote in the event of a tie
during the ruling shall be his.
B. If the applicant does not petition the Board for review or request a hearing
before the Board regarding the recommendation of rejection of the
application within the time allowed by these rules, the original decision by
the Review Panel shall stand.

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THE ISA CODE OF ETHICS


Preamble
As engineers, scientists, educators,
technicians, sales representatives,
and executives in an important and
learned profession; and in order to
safeguard public welfare; and to
establish and maintain a high
standard of integrity and practice;
and as members of ISA, we hold to
these Articles:
Article I
Members shall hold paramount the
safety, health and welfare of the
public in the performance of their
duties, and shall notify their
employer or client and such other
authority as may be appropriate
where such obligations are abused.
Members shall hold in confidence
facts, data and information obtained
in a professional capacity, unless the
release thereof is authorized by their
employer or client, and shall not
engage in fraudulent or dishonest
business or professional practices.
ArticleD
Members shall perform services
only in areas in which they are
qualified by education or
experience, and shall endeavor to
maintain their professional skills at
the state of the art. Members shall
practice their profession in a
manner which will uphold public
appreciation of the services they
render.

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Article III
Members shall issue public
statements only in an objective and
truthful manner, and shall include
all pertinent and relevant
information in professional reports,
statements and testimony. Members
shall be honest and realistic in
making estimates or in stating
claims based on available data.
Members shall offer honest criticism
of work, and shall properly credit
the contributions of others.
Article IV
Members shall act in professional
matters for each employer or client
as faithful agents or trustees, and
shall not participate in any business
association, interest or
circumstances which influence, or
appear to influence, their judgment
or the quality of their services.
Members shall accept
compensation, financial or
otherwise, from only one party for
services on or pertaining to the
same work, unless otherwise agreed
to by all parties; and shall not give
or accept, directly or indirectly, any
gift, payment or service of more
than nominal value to or from those
having business relationships with
their employers or clients.
Article V
Members shall use only proper
solicitation of employments, and
shall represent their abilities,
qualifications, education, technical

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associations and professional


registrations without exaggeration
and in accordance with the laws of
the locations in which they practice.

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Article VI

Members shall pledge themselves to


live and work according to the laws
of man and to the highest standards
of professional conduct, using the ir
knowledge and skills to the benefit
of all mankind.

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Why Should You Join ISA?

Founded in 1945, ISA (www.isa.org) is a leading, global, nonprofit organization that


is setting the standard for automation by helping over 30,000 worldwide members and
other professionals solve difficult technical problems, while enhancing their leadership
and personal career capabilities. Based in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, ISA
develops standards; certifies industry professionals; provides education and training;
publishes books and technical articles; and hosts the largest conference and exhibition
for automation professionals in the Western Hemisphere.

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Here are some of the benefits you enjoy as an ISA Member:


I. Stay current within your field by reading your free InTec11 magazine every month.

2. Make professional contacts and open the door to your future by partici-pating in
Technical Divisions and other networking activities, such as local Section meetings,
conferences, and symposia.
3. Receive valuable money-saving discounts on all ISA training courses, books, videos,
and CD-ROMs.

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4. Shop smarter by using the ISA DirectonJ- ISA's exclusive annual guide of products,
specifications, manufacturers, sales offices, services, and more.
5. Keep up with industry standards and practices. As an ISA Member, you receive one
free standard per membership year.

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Get ahead by getting involved in ISA. To join ISA, complete an ISA Membership
enrollment form and return it with your CCST Application, or call (919) 549-8411.

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www.isa.org/CAP

xu

Feasibility Study

PERFORMANCE DOMAIN I
FEASIBILITY STUDY
Ide1ltifrJ, scope, and justifrJ the automation project

Task 1: Define the preliminary scope through currently established work


practices in order to meet the business need.
Task 2: Determine the degree of automation required through cost/benefit
analysis in order to meet the business need.
Task 3: Develop a preliminary automation strategy that matches the degree of
automation required by considering an array of options and selecting the most
reasonable option in order to prepare feasibility estimates.
Task 4: Conduct technical studies for the preliminary automation strategy by
gathering data and conducting an appropriate analysis relative to requirements
in order to define development needs and risks.
Task 5: Perform a justification analysis by generating a feasibility cost
estimate and using an accepted financial model to determine project viability.
Task 6: Create a conceptual summary document by reporting preliminary
decisions and assumptions in order to facilitate "gd'/"no go" decision making.

www.isa .orglCAP

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Feasibility Study

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1. Gathering requirements is critical to the success of an automation project


because they:

A. Establish the design and engineering schedule.


B. Provide a basis for performing calculations.
C. Define the purpose, scope, and objectives.
D. Determine funding and buy-in from stakeholders.

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2. Which of the following control strategies is used to measure disturbances and


compensate for them before they cause the controlled variable to deviate from the
setpoint?

A. Feedforward
B. Feedback
C. Cascade
D.Openloop

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3. Given the following diagram, what is the transfer function for C(s)jR(s)?

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R(s) ,-

---.t

t----r---+ C( s)

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A.

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B.

GcGpcG/,

I + GcGpcG p

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c.

GCGpCGpGM
1+ GcGPCG /,GM

D.

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www.isa.orglCAP

Feasibility Study

4. MOST initial project budgetary cost estimates have an acceptable margin of error of
plus or minus:
A.10%
B.30%
C. 50%
D.70%

www.isa.org/CAP

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Feasibility Study

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ANSWER KEY - DOMAIN I

1. C. Define the purpose, scope, and objectives.

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Gathering requirements is important because they define the objectives, purpose, scope,
needs, and other key meters. They perform the basis for understanding for the
customer, the engineer, and other stakeholders. Requirements may make it easier to get
funding approval and stakeholder approval but only because the purpose, scope, and
objectives are included. Gathering requirements should not affect the ease of
calculation.
Requirements will not be generated automatically and should be mapped out before an
automation project begins.
Reference:
Parshall & Lamb. Applying 588: Batch Control from a User/ s Perspective. ISA,2000.

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2. A. Feedforward

A. Feedforward
B. Feedback
C. Cascade
D.Openloop

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The objective of feedforward control is to measure disturbances and compensate for


them before the controlled variable deviates from setpoint. Feedback control can
compensate for a disturbance only after the control variable has deviated from setpoint.
Cascade is a form of feedback control. Open loop is not a control strategy.

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Reference:
Smith and Corripio. Principles and Practices of Automatic Process Control, 2nd Edition.
Wiley & Sons, 1997.

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3. A.

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The numerator is the product of the transfer functions between the input and output
which are "R" and "C," respectively in this case. The denominator is one plus the
product of all the transfer functions.

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Reference:
Ellis. Control System Design Guide, 3 rd Edition. Academic Press, 2000.

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www.isa .orglCAP

Feasibility Study

4. B. 300/0
It's commonly accepted to have a preliminary estimate with a margin of error of plus or
minus 30%. A more detailed estimate is done before the bid is presented to reduce the
margin of error to 10%.
Reference:
Whitt. Successful Instrument and Control System Design. ISA, 2004.

www.isa.orglCAP

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Definition

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PERFORMANCE DOMAIN II
DEFINITION
ldentifiJ customer requirements and complete high-leoel analusi of tire best way to meet
those requirements

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Task 1: Determine operational strategies through discussion with key


stakeholders and using appropriate documentation in order to create and
communicate design requirements.

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Task 2: Analyze alternative technical solutions by conducting detailed studies


in order to define the final automation strategy.
Task 3: Establish detailed requirements and data including network
architecture, communication concepts, safety concepts, standards, vendor
preferences, instrument and equipment data sheets, reporting and information
needs, and security architecture through established practices in order to form
the basis of the design.
Task 4: Generate a project cost estimate by gathering cost information in order
to determine continued project viability.

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Task 5: Summarize project requirements by creating a basis-of-design


document and a user-requirements document in order to launch the design
phase.

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www.isa.orgiCAP

Definition

1. Which of the following is NOT a benefit of using an agenda for discussions?


A.
B.
C.
D.

An
An
An
An

agenda assures meeting objectives.


agenda keeps discussion on track.
agenda helps manage time.
agenda allows everyone equal participation.

2. To MINIMIZE the effect of feed upsets to the top of a distillation column, the flow
feed forward signal should be connected to a tray temperature controller output that
then directly manipulates a(n):
A.
B.
C.
D.

Overhead pressure controller.


Linear reflux valve.
Reflux controller.
Reboiler stream ratio controller.

3. What is the MOST appropriate technique for modeling linear relationships for a
large number of correlated inputs where the equations are unknown?
A. Artificial neural networks
B. Multivariable statistical process controls
C. Step response models
D. First principle models
4. What is required to find the MOST efficient operating points that are highly
dependent on complex shifting process conditions, such as equipment fouling?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Real-time optimization with a detailed process model


Tactical schedulers w ith business economics
Linear programs with detailed process economics
Model predictive controls with a constraint pusher

5. What is the recommended limitation in meters for the length of a "fast Ethernet" (100
mbs) segment on twisted pair cable?
A.10
B. 100
C. 300
D.350

www.isa.orglCAP

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Definition

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6. According to NFPA Electrical Standards for Industrial Machinery, which of the


following actions in NOT acceptable for emergency operations?
A. Using a locally supplied disconnect
B. Using an emergency stop to override all other functions and operations with
all modes
C. Using an emergency switch off initiated by a single human action
D. Resetting an emergency stop circuit to initiate a restart
7. Which of the following contract types places the PRIMARY risk with the supplier?

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A.
B.
C.
D.

Cost plus
Fixed price
Time and material
Unit price

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Definition

ANSWER KEY - DOMAIN II

1. D.

An agenda allows everyone equal participation

An agenda does not enforce an individual's participation.

Reference:
Haynes. Effective Meeting Skills. Crisp, 1998.

2. C. Reflux Controller
A distillation tower, such as that shown in Figure 9-3a p317 of Advanced Control
Unleashed (2003), has feed upsets that are measured and used to create a feedforward
signal. A reflux flow controller remote setpoint becomes the feed multiplied by a refluxto-feed ratio that will be corrected by the temperature controller output. This is the most
linear and accurate way of maintaining the material balance as long as the flow
measurements are above their low range ability limit.
Changes in the pressure drop of a linear reflux valve and the valve installed
characteristics and deadband will introduce errors into the feedforward. Manipulating a
pressure controller setpoint will not set up a flow ratio to maintain the material balance.
A ratio controller uses a ratio of flows as its controlled variable. This creates a nonlinear
loop. Also, the remote set point as started would be incorrect and steam would have a
slower, and generally smaller, effect than reflux flow on the top.
Reference:
Blevins, et al. Advanced Control Unleashed: Plant Performance Management for
Optimum Benefit. ISA,2003.

3. B. Multivariable statistical process controls


Artificial Neural Networks excel at modeling nonlinear relationships for a relatively
large unknown number of inputs. However, the inputs cannot be correlated and the
training data must cover the whole region. An ANN cannot be used to extrapolate
values outside the test region and doesn't handle large lags well. The multivariate
statistical-process control excels at modeling unknown linear relationships for a large
number of inputs that could be correlated. Step response models excel at linear
relationships for a small to moderate number of uncorrelated inputs where dynamics
are important. Step response models are used for linear dynamic on-line property
estimates. First principle models require known equations and parameters that use
process principles and material and energy balances.
Reference:
Blevins, et al. Advanced Control Unleashed: Plant Performance Management for
Optimum Benefit. ISA, 2003.
www.isa.org/CAP

Definition

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4. A. Real-time optimization with a detailed process model.

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The question implies that relationships to find optimum operating points are buried in
the process and change with time. Real-time optimization uses a reconciled high fidelity
process model with the equipment details, such as heat transfer coefficients and
physical properties of the components. Tactical schedulers don't have process
knowledge built in and may request operating points that are not achievable or
advisable based on equipment and process constraints. A linear program assumes fixed
economic relationships and doesn't deal with stationary behavior shifts and nonlinear
process behavior. A model predictive control with a constraint pusher is only able to do
a simple maximization on minimization of a process variable such as feed flow.

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Reference:
Blevins, et al. Advanced Control Unleashed: Plant Performance Management for
Optimum Benefit. ISA, 2003.

5. B. 100

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Because of the high speed of "fast Ethernet," the use of twisted pair cable is limited to
100 meters (330 feet). 10 meters would limit installations unnecessarily. 300 meters and
350 meters would exceed recommendations substantially, which could potentially cause
signal errors.
Reference:
Berge. Fieldbuses for Process Control: Engineering, Operation, and Maintenance.
ISA,2001.

6. D. Resetting an emergency stop circuit to initiate a restart


The reset of an emergency stop circuit will not initiate a restart; therefore, the answer is
not an acceptable emergency operation and is the correct answer.
Emergency stop to override all other functions and operations with all modes is an
acceptable emergency operation, per NFPA 79 - 9.2.5.4.11.
Emergency switching off initiated by a single human action is an acceptable emergency
operation, per NFPA 79 - 9.2.5.4.1.
Using a locally supplied disconnect is an acceptable emergency operation, per NFPA10.7.5.1.

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Reference:
NFPA. NFPA 79, NFP A. 2002.

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www.isa.o rgiCAP

10

Definition

7. B. Fixed price

A fixed-price contract is estimated by the supplier and agreed to by the customer before
the project begins. Any overruns are the responsibility of the supplier. In cost plus, time
and material, and unit-price contracts, the supplier and customer agree on the margin-not the total cost of the project.
Reference:
Albert and Coggan. Fundamentals of Industrial Control, 2nd Edition. ISA, 2004.

www.isa.orgiCAP

II

System Design

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PERFORMANCE DOMAIN III


SYSTEM DESIGN

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Design, specifi], and procure the hardtoare / software used in the system

Task 1: Perform safety and/ or hazard analyses, security analyses, and


regulatory compliance assessments by identifying key issues and risks in order
to comply with applicable standards, policies, and regulations.

Task 2: Establish standards, templates, and guidelines as applied to the


automation system using the information gathered in the definition stage and
considering human-factor effects in order to satisfy customer design criteria
and preferences.

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Task 3: Create detailed equipment specifications and instrument data sheets


based on vendor selection criteria, characteristics and conditions of the physical
environment, regulations, and performance requirements in order to purchase
equipment and support system design and development.

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Task 4: Define the data structure layout and data flow model considering the
volume and type of data involved in order to provide specifications for
hardware selection and software development.

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Task 5: Select the physical communication media, network architecture, and


protocols based on data requirements in order to complete system design and
support system development.
Task 6: Develop a functional description of the automation solution (e.g.,
control scheme, alarms, HMI, reports) using rules established in the definition
stage in order to guide development and programming.

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Task 7: Design the test plan using chosen methodologies in order to execute
appropriate testing relative to functional requirements.

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www.isa.orgiCAP

12

System Design

Task 8: Perform the detailed design for the project by converting the
engineering and system design into purchase requisitions, drawings, panel
designs, and installation details consistent with the specification and functional
descriptions in order to provide detailed information for development and
deployment.
Task 9: Prepare comprehensive construction work packages by organizing the
detailed design information and documents in order to release project for
construction.

www.isa.org/CAP

13

System Design

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1. Which of the following standards applies to the development of embedded software


for a SIL 3 certified safety system?
A. ANSE/ISA 584
B. IEC 61511
C. rsc 61508
D. 20 CFR Part 11
2. Which of the following protection techniques is acceptable for equipment located in a
Class I, Division 1 area?

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A.
B.
C.
D.

Explosion-proof apparatus and nonincendive equipment


Explosion-proof apparatus and intrinsic safety
Dust ignition-proof and nonincendive equipment
Hermetically sealed and intrinsic safety

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3. If you need an enclosure that resists corrosion and provides protection for outdoor
use, dust, and hose-directed water, which type of enclosure would you select?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Type 1 (NEMA 1)
Type 4x (NEMA 4x)
Type 12 (NEMA 12)
Type 13 (NEMA 13)

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4. Which of the following control valve body styles is MOST likely to develop blockage
in a paper pulp slurry service?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Pinch
Characterized ball
Butterfly
Globe

5. According to the NFPA 79, the standard wire colors for line voltage, AC control
currents, DC control circuits, and interlock circuits are respectively shown as:

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A.
B.
C.
D.

Black, red, blue, yellow.


Black, red, orange, yellow.
Brown, red, orange, yellow.
Brown, black, white, red.

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www.isa.org/CAP

14

System Design

6. R=rL/A
What is the resistance of 1000 ft of copper wire (specific resistance = 10.37) given a
cross-sectional area of 10370 emil and a wire temperature of 200 C ?

A. In

B. 2n
C. Ion

D. loon

7. An application includes a VFD that implements a V /Hz method of torque control


while maintaining a fixed V 1Hz ratio. The motor has a nameplate rating of 460 volts and
60Hz. If the drive is operating at 30Hz, what percent of rated torque will the motor MOST
likely develop?
A.25%
B. 50%
e. 100%
D.200%
8. To measure the level of a liquid with a dielectric constant greater than 2 in a
horizontal vessel with changing composition and temperature, the device with BEST
reproducibility is a:
A. Radar level detector.
B. Ultrasonic level detector.
e. Capacitance level detector.
D. Differential pressure transmitter.

9. To minimize electrical interference when AC power and DC signal wiring meet in a


control panel, it is BEST to:
A. Use a different size wire.

B. Cross the wires at 90 degrees.


Run the wires parallel to each other.
D. Twist the AC wires around the DC wires.

e.

10. Using Modbus, what is the MAXIMUM level of precision available?


A. 8-bits
B. 16-bits
e. 24-bits
D. 32-bits

www .isa.org/CAf"

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System Design

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11. How is PID defined in the phrase liPID control loop"?


A. Proportional Instrument Device

B. Piping Instrumentation Diagram


C. Percentage Integration Delta
D. Proportional Integral Derivative

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12. P&ID is an acronym for which of the following?


A.
B.
C.
D.

Process and Instruction Document


Process and Instrument Diagram
Piping and Instrument Diagram
Piping and Installation Drawing

13. Which fuse has the quickest response to overcurrents?


A. Single-element
B. Dual-element
C. Time-delay
D. Dual-element time-delay

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16

System Design

ANSWER KEY DOMAIN m

1.

C. IEC 61508

According to IEC 61511-1, embedded software which is part of the safety device/
controller should follow software guidelines in IEC 61508-3. IEC 61511 and ANSI/ISA
S84 are system standards and not a product standard. 20 CFR Part 11 is not relevant as it
deals with electronic signature.
Reference:
IEC 61511. IEC,2003.

2. B. Explosion-proof apparatus and intrinsic safety


Hazardous location protection techniques are defined by NEC 500.7 (NEC 2002 Code).
The protection techniques are permitted as follows:
Explosion proof apparatus - Class I, Divl or 2
Intrinsic safety Class I, Div 1 or2; Class IT Div 1 or 2; or Class III, Div 1 or 2
Non-incendive equipment - Class I, Div 2; Class IT, Div 2; or Class ill, Div 1 or 2
(Does NOT Include Class 1, Div 1)
Dust ignition proof Class II, Di 1 or 2
(Does NOT include Class I, Div 1)
Class I, Div 2; Class II, Div 2; Class III, Div 1 or 2
Hermetically sealed (Does NOT include Class I, Div 1)
Reference:
Earley. NEC 2002 Handbook. NFPA, 2002.

3. B. Type4x (NEMA4x)
NEC 2002 defines an enclosure type 4x as ideal for outdoor use and resistant to splashing
water, windblown dust, hose directed water, and corrosion. It is also undamaged by the
formation of ice on the enclosure. A type 1 enclosure is for indoor use. A type 12
enclosure is for indoor use and resists only dust and dripping non-eorrosive liquids. A
type 13 enclosure is for indoor use and resists dust, spraying water, oil, and non-corrosive
coolants.
Reference:
Earley. NEC 2002 Handbook. NFPA,2002.

www.isa.org/CAP

17

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System Design

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4. D. Globe

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A globe valve consists of a plug on the end of a stem that moves the plug onto a seat.
Because of the body design of this valve, cavities in the body can easily fill with materials
and develop blockage. Ball-, butterfly-, and pinch valve body style have straight-through
flow, which is less likely to develop blockage.

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Reference:
Liptak. Instrument Engineers' Handbook - Process Control, Volume 2. CRC Press, 2001.

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5. A. Black, red, blue, yellow

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Black, red, blue, yellow is the correct answer per NFPA-79: The Electrical Standard for
Industrial Machinery, which is in correspondence with article 670 in the National
Electrical Code (NEC). This is located in section 14.2: Identification of Conduction.
Reference:
NFPA-79: Electrical Standard for Industrial Machinery. NFPA, 2002.

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6.

A. 1 n

The resistance of a length (L) of a conductor can be determined using the specific
resistance and the cross-sectional area (A) in emil by using the equation R = rLI A. 1 Q is
the correct answer.
Reference:
Hughes. Programmable Controllers. ISA, 2001.

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7. C. 100%
The torque of a motor is controlled by the volts per hertz ratio (V1Hz). As long as this
ratio is kept in proportion with the nameplate rating, the motor will develop rated torque.
The only answer that represents rated torque is 100% rated torque. The other values do
not represent rated torque.
Reference:
Polka. Motors and Drives - A Practical Technology Guide. ISA, 2003.

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www.isa.org/CAP

18

System Design

8.

A. Radar level detector

The fact that the tank is horizontal implies that the angle of the beam will be narrow at
the surface and the vessel walls will not interfere. Radar can detect the smallest change in
surface level. It does not depend upon the temperature or composition of the fluid as long
as the beam is narrow and the dielectric constant of the fluid is greater than 2. Ultrasonic
level detectors are affected by changes in the speed of sound with temperature and are
not quite as sensitive as radar. Capacitance level detectors are affected by changes in the
dielectric constant with composition and are not quite as sensitive as radar. Differential
pressure transmitters are affected by changes in liquid density with composition and
temperature and are not as sensitive as radar.
Reference:
Blevins, et al. Advanced Control Unleashed: Plant Performance Management for
Optimum Benefit. ISA, 2003.

9. B. Cross the wires at 90 degrees


Crossing the wires at 90 degrees will minimize the exposure of the wire to each other and
therefore minimize the effects of interface. Using a different size wire will have no effect
on the electrical interference. Running the wires parallel to each other will increase the
exposure of the wires to each other and increase the effects of interference. Twisting the
AC wires around the DC wires will also increase the effects of interference.
Reference:
Hughes. Programmable Controllers. ISA, 2001.

10. B. 16-bits
Common Modbus uses two 8-bit bytes for each data register.
2 x 8 bits = 16 bits
To achieve more precision special programming or a specialized version of Modus would
be needed. Eight-bits is less precise than 16-bits. 24-bits and 30-bits require uncommon
means to achieve.
Reference:
Liptak. Instrument Engineers Handbook - Volume 3 (3rd Edition). Process Software and
Digital Networks. ISA, 2002.

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System Design

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11. D. Proportional Integral Derivative

The PID term as described refers to the loop control technique used in controllers.
Proportional Integral Derivative is the correct term as referenced. A PID Control Loop
includes proportional, integral, and derivative functions to control the process.

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Reference:
Erickson and Hedrick. Plantwide Process Control. Wiley, 1999.

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12. C. Piping and Instrument Diagram

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P & ID is a widely used acronym for Piping and Instrument Diagram.


Reference:
Fleming. 588 Implementation Guide. McGraw-Hill, 1999.

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13. A. Single-element

Single element fuses have a very high speed of response to overcurrents. They provide
excellent short-circuit component protection. Dual-element and time-delay fuses can be
applied in circuits subject to temporary motor overloads and surge currents. Dualelement and time-delay fuses contain two series elements-- a short-circuit element and an
overload element.
Reference:
Bussmann Cooper Industries. SPD Electrical Production Handbook.. 1992.

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20

Development

PERFORMANCE DOMAIN IV
DEVELOPMENT
Software development and coding

Task 1: Develop Human Machine Interface (HMI) in accordance with the


design documents in order to meet the functional requirements.
Task 2: Develop database and reporting functions in accordance with the
design documents in order to meet the functional requirements.
Task 3: Develop control configuration or programming in accordance with the
design documents in order to meet the functional requirements.
Task 4: Implement data transfer methodology that maximizes throughput and
ensures data integrity using communication protocols and specifications in
order to assure efficiency and reliability.
Task 5: Implement security methodology in accordance with stakeholder
requirements in order to mitigate loss and risk.
Task 6: Review configuration and programming using defined practices in
order to establish compliance with functional requirements.
Task 7: Test the automation system using the test plan in order to determine
compliance with functional requirements.
Task 8: Assemble all required documentation and user manuals created during
the development process in order to transfer essential knowledge to customers
and end users.

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21

Development

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1. The graphic display for a distillation column in a refining train would BESTfit in the
HMI Display hierarchy at which level?
A. Plant
B. Area
C. Group
D . Loop
2. When developing HMI screens it is recommended that the quantity of items an
operator has to remember is less than:

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A.1.
B. 3.
C. 7.
D.20.

3. The average person cannot respond to signals more frequent than one every:

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A.
B.
C.
D.

30 milliseconds.
80 milliseconds.
300 milliseconds.
800 milliseconds.

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4. A process data historian should be designed to:

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A.
B.
C.
D.

Store data using an efficient data compression algorithm.


Store high-frequency process data online for a minimum of 10 years.
Store discrete values efficiently by combining bits into hexadecimal values.
Interpolate historical values to align time stamps.

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5. Which database arranges data in a tabular format and links records by key values?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Hierarchical
Neutralized
Relational
Distributed

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22

Development

6. Which PLC programming languages consists of contacts, timers, and counters?


A.
B.
C.
D.

Sequential Function Charts (SFC)


Ladder Diagram (LD)
Function Block Diagram (FBD)
Structured Text (ST)

7. In a typical PLC timer, what does the function of the preset value determine?
A.
B.
C.
D.

The
The
The
The

resolution of the time base such as 1/10 sec or 1/100 sec


length of time before the timer is energized or de-energized
length of time the timer has been active
on-delay or off-delay setting that determines the reset of the timer

8. Which of the following is NOT a strong source of electrical noise?


A.
B.
C.
D.

Variable speed drives


Switching power supplies
Electronic lighting ballasts
Regulated magnetic transformer power supply

9. Which of the following security technologies would BEST protect a manufacturing


and control system from file transfer protocol access from outside the network?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Intrusion detection
Public key encryption
Password authentication
Firewall

10. A binary number of 1101 has a hexadecimal equivalent of:


A.8.
B. 13.
C. A.
D. D.
11. Which set of documents should be reviewed to gain a quick understanding of plant
operations?
A.
B.
C.
D.

System architecture diagrams


Piping and Instrumentation diagrams
Plant layout drawing
Process flow diagrams

www.isa.orgiCAP

23

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Development

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ANSWER KEY DOMAIN IV


1.

C. Group

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A typical hierarchy is composed of displays at four levels:


Plant level - Provides information regarding the entire plant
Area level - Provides information on portions of the plant equipment that is related in
someway
Group level - Provides information for the control loops and data points relating to a
single process unit within a plant area
Loop level- Provides information that deals with individual control loops, sequences,
or data points
A distillation column refers to one piece of equipment in the distillation process which
will contain several loops. Therefore, it falls into the group-level category.

)
)

Reference:
Lukas. Distributed Control Systems, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1986.

2.

C. 7

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Studies show that people can remember approximately seven new things for about 20
seconds. This is called short term memory. After 20 seconds, people will have lost the
information if they cannot quickly store it in long-term memory.
Reference:
Weinschenk. Gill Design Essentials, Wiley Computer Publishing. 1997.

)
)

)
)
)

3.

C. 300 milliseconds

The average person cannot process signals more frequent than one every 300 ms, or
about three signals per second. Therefore, for reliable regulation of events that are faster
than three signals per second, a person should not act as the controller.

Reference:
Albert and Coggan. Fundamentals of Industrial Control. ISA, 2004.

4. A. Store data using an efficient data compression algorithm

)
)
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\

Storing data using an efficient data compression algorithm is the correct answer.
Storing high frequency process data online for a minimum of 10 years does not suggest
any data-comparison techniques. Storing discrete values efficiently by combining bits
www .isa.orgiCAP

24

Development

into hexadecimal values could result in lost time-stamp data. Using interpolate
historical values to align time stamps would corrupt the actual data.
Reference:
Fisher. Batch Control. ISA, 1996.

5. C. Relational
A relational database arranges information in a tabular format with each table, or
"relation," contributing data that describes a particular type of object. All connections
between tables are based on shared key values. In a hierarchical database, information
is maintained in a tree structure that emphasizes relationships between superior and
subordinate items. In a neutralized database, predefined links connect many leaves in a
tree. Distribution is not a standard database model.
Reference:
Fisher. Batch Control. ISA, 1996.

6. B. Ladder Diagram (LD)


The Ladder Diagram Language consists of relay-type logic, timing, counting, and basic
math operations. SFC and FBD are graphical languages in a high level structured
language.
Reference:
Lewis. Programming Industrial Central Systems Using me 1131-3. lEE
Publishing, 1998.

7. B. The length of time before the timer is energized or de-energized.


A timer pre-set is a programming value for the timing function. The resolution of the
time base relates to accuracy. The length of time before the timer is energized or deenergized is a timer function.
Reference:
Bailey and Wright. Practical SCADA for Industry. Newnes, 2003.

8. D. Regulated magnetic transformer power supply


A regulated magnetic-transformer power supply is the only choice that does not
include power supply switching. Variable speed drives, switching power supplies, and
www.isa.orglCAP

25

Development

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electronic lighting ballasts all include switching power supplies, which is known to
produce noise in the system due to the high switching rate.
Reference:
Polka. Motors and Drives. ISA, 2003.

-)
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9. D. Firewall
Firewalls enforce access control policies using mechanisms that either block or permit
certain types of traffic, thus regulating the flow of information. Public key encryption,
password authentication, and intrusion detection are security techniques that block
access to users.

)
)
)

Reference:
ISA TR99.00.01 - 2004 - Security Technologies for Manufacturing and Control Systems.
ISA,2004.

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10. D. D

D is correct. In hexadecimal, D is the equivalent of 1101 in binary. 8 in hexadecimal is


the equivalent of 1000 in binary. 13 is not a hexadecimal format. A in hexadecimal is the
equivalent of 1010 in binary.

)
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)

Reference:
Hughes. Programmable Controllers. ISA, 2001.
11. D. Process flow diagrams

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Process flow diagrams depict the flow of material through a plant, the major
equipment, and their capacities. These diagrams make it very easy to visualize the plant
asa whole.
Piping & Instrumentation diagrams are derived from PFDs and typically have too much
detail to visualize the entire plant. Plant layout drawings provide a visual
representation of the physical locations of buildings, major structures, and major
equipment, much like a map. System architecture diagrams show the interconnection of
all the major control system components. They do not provide much information on
how the plant works.
Reference:
Liptak. Instrument Engineers' Handbook: Volume 3 (3rd Edition) Process Software and
Digital Networks. CRC Press, 2002.

)
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www.i sa.org/CAP

26

Deployment

PERFORMANCE DOMAIN V
DEPLOYMENT
Field installation and checkout and startup of the systems
Task 1: Perform receipt verification of all field devices by comparing vendor
records against design specifications in order to ensure that devices are as
specified.
Task 2: Perform physical inspection of installed equipment against construction
drawings in order to ensure installation in accordance with design drawings and
specifications.
Task 3: Install configuration and programs by loading them into the target
devices in order to prepare for testing.
Task 4: Solve unforeseen problems identified during
trou bleshooting skills in order to correct deficiencies.

installation

using

Task 5: Test configuration and programming in accordance with the design


documents by executing the test plan in order to verify that the system operates as
specified.
Task 6: Test communication systems and field devices in accordance with design
specifications in order to ensure proper operation.
Task 7: Test all safety elements and systems by executing test plans in order to
ensure that safety functions operate as designed.
Task 8: Test all security features by executing test plans in order to ensure that
security functions operate as designed.
Task 9: Provide initial training for facility personnel in system operation and
maintenance through classroom and hands-on training in order to ensure proper
use of the system.
Task 10: Execute system-level tests in accordance with the test plan in order to
ensure the entire system functions as designed.
Task 11: Troubleshoot problems identified during testing using a structured
methodology in order to correct system deficiencies.
Task 12: Make necessary adjustments using applicable tools and techniques in
order to demonstrate system performance and turn the automated system over to
operations.
www.isa.org/CAP

27

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Deployment

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1. A Bill of Materials for purchase of cable on a project is created by completing a


material:

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A. Procurement.
B. Inspection.
C. Takeoff.
D. Requisition.

2. A diagram that shows all electrical devices and wiring details specific to a particular
physical location is commonly referred to as a(n)
diagram.

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A. Arrangement
B. Termination
C. Loop
D. Schematic

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3. For a rapid and representative pH measurement at the outlet of an inline neutralizer,


such as a static mixer, the electrode should be approximately
pipe diameters
downstream of the outlet.
A.0.2
B. 2
C. 20

n zoo
4. Considering a 60Hz power source, at what speed does a 4-pole synchronous motor
run?

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A.1200RPM
B. 1800RPM
C. 2400RPM
D.3600RPM
5. When a large automation project makes significant changes to plant operations, it is
BEST to perform operator training:

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)

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)

A.
B.
C.
D.

Six months prior to the startup phase, during control system development.
After acceptance testing and prior to the startup phase.
During the startup phase after water batching.
After the startup phase is complete and the process has stabilized.

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www.isa.orglCAP

28

Deployment

6. If the distance in a sheet line from the thickness gauge to the manipulated diebolt
actuators is 200 meters and the speed is 4 meters per second, then the dead time from
the transportation delay for thickness control is
seconds.
A. 200
B. SO
C.S
D.0.02

7. If an exothermic reactor can runaway in manual, then the temperature controller


should be tuned with a(n):
A.
B.
C.
D.

Open loop short cut method.


Closed loop.
Lambda Tuning method.
Reaction curve method.

8. An increase in which setting can compensate for a thermoweIllag time?


A.
B.
C.
D.

Rate time
Reset time
Gain
Filter time

www.isa.org/CAP

29

Deployment

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ANSWER KEY DOMAIN V


1. C. Take off.

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A material takeoff is the process of analyzing the drawings and determining all the
materials required to accomplish the design. The material takeoff is then used to create
a Bill of Materials. Inspection does not aid in creating a Bill of Material. Procurement
and requisition are activities that occur after the Bill of Materials is complete.

)
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Reference:
Whitt. Successful Instrument and Control System Design. ISA, 2004.

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2.

B. Termination

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The termination diagram's purpose is to show all electrical devices and wiring details
specific to a particular physical location. Arrangement drawings show the dimensional
mounting arrangement of all devices specific to a particular physical location and to
prove installation specifics and Bill of Material. A loop diagram's purpose is to use the
process function as the focal point and show all wiring and devices required to
accommodate that function. A scheme diagram shows electrical devices and wiring
details required for correct operation regardless of physical location or wiring methods.
Reference:
Whitt. Successful Instrument and Control System Design. ISA, 2004.
3. C. 20
Equipment in a pipeline, such as static mixers, split up or stratify streams that need
some distance to recombine to reduce the noise in the measurement. 20 pipe diameters
will provide enough mixing in most cases for turbulent flow and liquid mixing. 200
pipe diameters will introduce too much transportation delay. 2 pipe diameters and 0.2
pipe diameters are insufficient to recombine streams.

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Reference:
Blevins, et aI. Advanced Control Unleashed: Plant Performance Management for
Optimum Benefit, ISA. 2003.

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www.isa.orglCAP

30

Deployment

4. B. 1800 RPM
2 x frequency x 60
# Poles
For a 60 Hz, 4 pole motor = 2 x 60 x 60 = 1800 RPM
4
Therefore, 1800 RPM is the correct response.
Synchronous spend in RPM

Reference:
Webb. Industrial Control Electronics, 2nd Edition. Prentice Hall, 1993.

5. B. Mter acceptance testing and prior to the startup phase.


The best time to train operators is after acceptance testing and prior to startup. Ideally,
you want to train the operators after the bulk of the changes have been made, but before
they will need to implement the knowledge. This reduces confusion and also reduces
the chance that training will be forgotten. Training needs to occur before the startup
phase because the operator would have to know something about the process before
they could startup the plant. However, if training occurs too early the operator will
forget what has been learned before having a chance to apply the knowledge.
Reference:
Liptak. Instrument Engineers' Handbook - Volume 3 (3rd Edition): Process Software
and Digital Networks. ISA, 2002.

6. B. 50

The time it takes the sheet to go from the diebolt actuators, which are the manipulated
variable, to the thickness gauge that transverses the sheet to provide the controlled
variable (sheet thickness profile across the sheet), is the transportation delay.
50 seconds: Distance / velocity (200 meters/ 4 meters per sec) is the transportation
delay
Reference:
McMillan. Good Tuning: A Pocket Guide. ISA, 2000.
Blevins, et al. Advanced Control Unleashed: Plant Performance Management for
Optimum Benefit. ISA, 2003.

www .isa.org/CAP

31

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Deployment

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7. B. Closed loop.

The controller must stay in automatic to prevent a runaway reaction. Closed-loop


methods keep the controller in automatic. Normally, the gain is maximized to the point
where either the error is small enough or the process starts to show a slight oscillation.
It does not imply the ultimate oscillation method. The controller is in manual for open
loop, Lambda Tuning, and reaction curve methods.

)
)
)
)

Reference:
McMillan. Good Tuning: A Pocket Guide. ISA, 2000.

)
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)

8.

A. Rate time

Thermowell and temperature processes have multiple interacting thermal lags.


Rate time cancels a secondary thermal lag that can improve control in a slow
temperature process without AID chatter. Reset time adds another lag that further
increases the apparent dead time from multiple lags. A large thermowelllag reduces
the allowable gain. A process variable filter adds another lag that further increases the
apparent dead time from multiple lags.

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Reference:
McMillan. Good Tuning: A Pocket Guide. ISA, 2000.

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www .isa.orglCAP

32

Operations and Maintenance

PERFORMANCE DOMAIN VI
OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE
Long term support of the system
Task 1: Verify system performance and records periodically using
established procedures in order to ensure compliance with standards,
regulations, and best practices.
Task 2: Provide technical support for facility personnel by applying system
expertise in order to maximize system availability.
Task 3: Perform training needs analysis periodically for facility personnel
using skill assessments in order to establish objectives for the training
program.
Task 4: Provide training for facility personnel by addressing identified
objectives in order to ensure the skill level of personnel is adequate for the
technology and products used in the system.
Task 5: Monitor performance using software and hardware diagnostic tools
in order to support early detection of potential problems.
Task 6: Perform periodic inspections and tests in accordance with written
standards and procedures in order to verify system or component
performance against requirements.
Task 7: Perform continuous improvement by working with facility
personnel in order to increase capacity, reliability, and/or efficiency.

...,

Task 8: Document lessons learned by reviewing the project with all


stakeholders in order to improve future projects.
Task 9: Maintain licenses, updates, and service contracts for software and
equipment by reviewing both internal and external options in order to meet
expectations for capability and availability.
Task 10: Determine the need for spare parts based on an assessment of
installed base and probability of failure in order to maximize system
availability and minimize cost.

www.isa.orglCAP

33

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Operations and Maintenance

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Task 11: Provide a system management plan by performing preventive


maintenance, implementing backups, and designing recovery plans in order
to avoid and recover from system failures.
Task 12: Follow a process for authorization and implementation of changes
in accordance with established standards or practices in order to safeguard
system and documentation integrity.

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www.isa.org/CAP

34

Operations and Maintenance

1. Most AC motors operate on the principle of:


A. Capacitance.

B. Resistance.
C. Induction.

D. Semiconduction.
2. One of your training objectives is to teach the operator to successfully react to a
process upset. The MOST effective method to achieve that goal is to:
A. Review the control system logic with the operator.
B. Provide a copy of the standard operating procedure manual.
C. Provide a hands-on session in a virtual plant environment.
D. Review the system alarm list.
3. If diagnostic software flags a controller as having high process variability when its
output is hitting a low limit, the MOST probable cause is a(n):
A. Zero shift in the measurement.
B. Noisy measurement.
C. Nonlinear control valve.
D. Over-sized control valve.
4. Which of the following MUST be performed to reveal a normally undetected fault in
a safety system?
A. Proven in use
B. Proof test
C. System software test
D. System validation

5. The peak performance demonstrated in an operating unit should be based on a(n):


A.
B.
C.
D.

Expert system.
Operator's sweet spot.
Process flow diagram.
Review of cost sheets and historian data with operations.

www.isa.org/CAP

35

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Operations a nd Maintenance

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6. To simultaneously optimize an interacting dead-time dominant process with


multiple constraints, one should use a(n):
A. Override PID control.
B. Model predictive control.
C. Decoupled PID controL
D. Advisory controL

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www.isa.org/CAP

36

Operations and Maintenance

ANSWER KEY DOMAIN VI


1.

C. Induction.

Most AC motors work on the principle of induction. The motor consists of a rotor
(rotating portion) with a laminated iron core containing copper bars in the slots. In
addition, the motor contains stator field windings (stationary portion). When AC
current is applied to the stator a current is induced in the rotor producing a rotor field
polarity that opposes the stator field. Capacitors may be used for starting single-phase
motors, but this does not apply to the operational basics of the motor, as capacitance
refers to the storage of energy (not a function of a motor). A motor does include
resistance, but the operation of the motor rotation is not due to its resistance. Basic
motor operation has no relation to semiconduction.
Reference:
Tomal. Electronic Troubleshooting. McGraw-Hill, 1998.

2. C. Provide a hands-on session in a virtual plant environment.

Providing a hands-on session in a virtual plant environment is the ideal method. Handon sessions will demonstrate to the operator what they might see during normal
conditions as well as during upset conditions. Reviewing the control system logic with
the operator would be useful if the operators have a technical background and
understand logic. However, this may not be the case. Standard Operating Procedures
do not familiarize the operator with the control system interface to the point that
he/ she will be able to recognize problems. Reviewing the system alarm list is also not a
solution. The alarm list tells the operator what is wrong; however, one problem can
raise a number of individual alarms. An operator needs to understand how to correlate
multiple alarms to quickly identify the cause.
Reference:
Blevins, et aI. Advanced Control Unleashed: Plant Performance Management for
Optimum Benefit. ISA, 2003.

www.isa.org/CAP

37

)
Operations and Maintenance

)
)

)
)

)
)

)
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)

)
)

3. D. Over-sized control valve


Controller output successively hits its low limit and shores a sawtooth oscillation.
An oversized control valve will operate next to the seat where the friction and stick-slip
is greatest. A noisy measurement increases high-frequency variability but does not
necessarily cause a controller output to hit its limit. A nonlinear valve may require
detuning but does not necessarily cause a controller output to hit its limit. Zero shift, or
bias errors, exists to some degree in all measurements and results in running at a
setpoint that is shifted. However, is does not cause a controller output to hit its limit
unless it is extremely large, which is not as probable as an oversized valve since such
large errors are not common and should have been found during calibration checks and
process problems.

)
)

Reference:
Blevins, et al. Advanced Control Unleashed: Plant Performance Management for
Optimum Benefit. lSA, 2003.

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4. B. Proof Test
A proof test on a system may reveal faults that would otherwise not be mentioned by
internal diagnostic measures and is therefore correct. Proven in use is an assessment on
suitability for use and not related to fault detection. A system software test is only
related to software and not system faults. System validation is performed to test to
requirements and specifications and may not reveal faults which have not been refined
by the requirements.
Reference:
lEC. IEC 61511-1. 2002,
Tomal. Electronic Troubleshooting, McGraw-Hill. 1998.

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www. isa.org/CAP
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38

Operations and Maintenance

5. D. Review of cost sheets and historian data with operations.

The peak performance is needed to determine the gaps in an opportunity sizing. Cost
sheets show the best periods of operation and data historians explain the conditions and
relationships. However, these must be reviewed in the operations to rule out extraneous
information and explain special conditions. The operator's "sweet spot" is most often
based on what makes the job easiest. Process flow diagrams depict how it should be
and not the way it is and may be based on sub-optimum design criteria. Expert systems
are too fuzzy and tend to reflect a narrow and prejudiced knowledge base.

Reference:
Blevins, et al. Advanced Control Unleashed: Plant Performance Management for
Optimum Benefit. ISA, 2003.

6. B. Model predictive control.

Model Predictive Control (MPC) excels at dead-time dominance and simultaneous


optimization while accounting for future prediction of proximity to constraints.
PID controllers are not suitable dead-time dominance. Derivatives cannot be used, but
even PID controllers don't do as well as MPCs. Override controllers select a single PID
output and are not simultaneous. PID controllers are not suitable. Decoupling is limited
in practice to steady state gains and a small number of variables with no optimization
built in. Operators cannot handle the interactions, the dead time or provide minute-tominute simultaneous corrections even if they are given the new setpoints.
Reference:
Blevins, et al. Advanced Control Unleashed: Plant Performance Management for
Optimum Benefit. ISA, 2003.

www .isa.orglCAP

39

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ISA Resources for the Certified


Automation Professionals' (CAp) Program

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Resource & Domain Matching


A list of possible CAP book resources is provided below. The publisher of the book is
noted after the title. ISA also has a variety of training courses that would be helpful in
preparing for CAP. Visit www.isa.org/training for a complete list. For more
information about the ISA products listed in this chart, go to www.isa.org/books,
e-mail ISA at info@isa.org, call (919) 549-8411, or write to ISA at: 67 Alexander Drive,
P.O. Box 12277, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709.

CAP!> Performance Domains

1
2
3
4
5
6

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Feasibility Study
Definition
System Design
Development
Deployment
Operation and Maintenance

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Resources for the


Certified Automation Professionals (CAP) Program

Resources

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Advanced Control Unleashed: Plant Performance Management for


Optimum Benefit
(ISA, 2003) - www .isa.orz/advancedcontrol
Applying Manufacturing Execution Systems
(CRC Press, 1997) - www.crcpress .com
Applying S88: Batch Control from a User's Perspective
(lSA, 2000) - www.isa.org/applyS88
Automation and Control CD or Online Curriculum
(Coastal Training Technologies, ISA) - www.isa/distancelearning
Batch Control Systems - Design, Application, and Implementation
(ISA , 2006) - www.isa.orglbatchcontrol
CAP Review Course rsco
(lSA, 2oo5) - www .isa.orglCAPtraining
CAP Learning System
(lSA, 2006) - www .isa.orglCAPlearn

Domain
1 2 3 4 5 6
X X

X X

X
X

X X

X X X X X X
X X X X
X X X X X X
X X X X X X

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www.isa.org/CAP
)
)

Resources for the


Certified Automation Professional" (CAP) Program

Resources
rtJ

Control System Design Guide, 3 Edition


(Academic Press, 2004) - www.harcourt-international.com
Control System Safety Evaluation and Reliability, 2 na Edition
(ISA, 1998) - www.isa.org/safetyevaluation
Control System Documentation: Applying Symbols and Identification
(lSA, 1993) - www.isa.org/symbolsandlD
Electrical Instruments in Hazardous Locations, 41n Edition
(ISA, 1998) - www.isa.org/hazardlocations
Fieldbuses for Process Control: Engineering, Operation, and
Maintenance
(lSA, 200 1) - www.isa.orz/fieldbuses
Fundamentals of Process Control Theory, 3rd Edition
(ISA, 2000) - www.isa.orgltheoryfundamentals
Fundamentals of Industrial Control, 2na Edition
(ISA, 2004) - www.isa.org.fundamentalcontrol
GAMP Good Practice Guide: Validation of Process Control Systems
(ISPE, 2003) - www.ispe.org
Good Tuning: A Pocket Guide
(ISA, 2000) - www.isa.orgltuningpocket
Guide to the Automation Body of Knowledge
(lSA, 2005) - www.isa.org/autobok
Industrial Control Electronics, 2na Edition
(Prentice Hall, 1993) - www.prenhall.com
Instrument Engineers' Handbook, Volume 3 (3rd Edition): Process
Software and Digital Networks
(ISA, 2002) - www.isa.org/iehvoI3
Industrial Instrumentation Technician Assessment: Review for
Certification, Levels III & IV
(lSA , 1994) - www.isa.orz/nicetlflandfv
Internetworkin~ with TCP/IP Vol. I: Principles, Protocols, and
Architecture, 4' Edition
(Prentice Hall, 1995) - www.nrenhall.corn
Motors & Drives: A Practical Technology Guide
(ISA, 2003) - www.isa.org/motorsanddrives
NFPA 79 - Electrical Standard for Industrial Machinery
(NFPA, 2002) - www .nfpa.org
Practical Project Management - Learning to Manage the Professional
(lSA, 200 1) - www .isa.org/projectmanage
Practical SCADA for Industry
(Newnes, 2003) - www .elsevier.com
www.isa.orgiCAP

Domain
1 2 3 4 5 6
X

X
X
X
X X

X X

X
X

X X
X X

X
X

X X X X X X
X

X X X X

X X

X X

X
X X

41

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Resources for the


Certified Automation Professional" (CAP) Program

Resources

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Preventive Maintenance
(ISA, 2004) - www.i sa.org/preventivemaintenance
Principles and Practices of Automatic Process Control, 2 M Edition
(Wiley, ]997) - www.wiley.com
Programming Industrial Control Systems Using IEC 1J 31-3
(lEE Publishing, ]998) - www.iee.org.uk
Quality Management, 3ra Edition
(McGraw-Hili/Irwin, 1995) - books.mcgraw-hill.com
S88 Implementation Guide
(McGraw-Hili, 1998) - books.mcgraw-hill.com
Safety Integrity Level Selection - Systematic Methods Including Layer
of Protection Analysis
(ISA, 2002) - www.isa.org/safetyintegrity
Safety Instrumented Systems: Design, Analysis, and Justification,
2nd Edition
(ISA, 1998) - www.isa.or~/SafetvInstrumentedSvstems
Successful Instrument and Control System Design
(ISA, 2004) - www.isa.org/iandcdesignCD
The New Rational Manager
(Kepner-Tregoe, 1997) - www.kepner-tregoe.com
Troubleshooting: A Technician's Guide
(ISA, 2000) - www.isa.org/troubleshoot
Understanding Distributed Processor Systems for Control
(ISA, 1999) - www.isa.org/distributedcontrol
ISA-5.1-1984 (1992) Instrumentation Symbols and Identification
(ISA, 1992) - www.isa.org/isa511984
ANSIIISA-84.0 1-1996 - Application of Safety Instrumented Systems for
the Process Industries
(lSA, 1996) - www .isa.or~/isa840 1996
ANSIIISA-88.0 1-1995 - Batch Control Part I: Models and Terminology
(ISA, 1995) - www.isa.org/isa880] 1995
ANSIIISA-88.00.03-2003 - Batch Control Part 3: General and Site
Recipe Models and Representation
(ISA, 2003) - www.isa.on!lisa8800032003
ANSIIISA-95.00.0 1-2000 - Enterprise-Control System Integration Part
I: Models and Terminology
(lSA, 2000) - www.isa.on!lisa9500012ooo
ISA-TR99.00.01-2004 - Security Technologies for Manufacturing and
Control Systems
(lSA, 2004) - www.isa.orvisatr99000]2004
www.isa.org/CAP

Domain
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X
X X
X

X X
X

X X

X X

X X X X X
X

X
X
X X
X

X
X

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