Lecture 4: Objectives
Analyse 1D motion using verbal, graphical and
algebraic representations
Describe motion in 1D in terms of average and
instantaneous accelerations
Accelerate in the direction of velocityspeed up
Accelerate against velocityslow down
Accelerate at an angle to velocitychange direction
Acceleration is the rate of
change of velocity with time.
Acceleration,
Commonly expressed in
m/s2
Acceleration is how the
Velocity is how fast and
speed and direction of
in what direction an
the objects motion are
object moves.
changing
Instantaneous acceleration
acceleration at one point of
position or one instant of time
2
=
= 2
The graph above shows the
velocity of a solarpowered car
as a function of time. The driver
accelerates from a stop sign,
cruises for a 20.0s at a constant
speed of 60.0km/h, and then
brakes to come to a 40.0s after
leaving the stop sign.
v 60
km 1000m 1h
16.7 m / s
h 1km 3600 s
Compute the average acceleration during the
following intervals:
t = 0 to 10.0s
t = 10.0 to 30.0s
What is the instantaneous acceleration at t = 20.0s?
t = 0 to 10.0s
km 1000m 1h
v f 60
16.7 m / s
h 1km 60 s
v v f vi 16.7 m / s 0
aav
1.70m / s 2
t t f ti
10.0 s 0
t = 10.0 to 30.0s
v v f vi 16.7 m / s 16.7 m / s
aav
0
t t f ti
30.0 s 10.0 s
Acceleration is zero (0) at t = 20.0s
4
Is it possible for an object's instantaneous velocity
and instantaneous acceleration to be of opposite sign
at some instant of time?
1. yes
2. no
3. need more information
Sign conventions for both
velocity and acceleration
Same signs (+ + or  ): object is speeding up
Different signs (+  or  +): object is slowing down
> 0, > 0 moving to the right, speeding up
< 0, < 0 moving to the left, speeding up
> 0, < 0 moving to the right, slowing down
< 0, > 0 moving to the left, slowing down
6
Sample problem:
Graphical analysis.
Which of the following
descriptions of the motion
depicted on the graph
is most accurate?
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
The object is slowing down at a decreasing rate.
The object is slowing down at an increasing rate.
The object is speeding up at a decreasing rate.
The object is speeding up at an increasing rate.
The objects speed is changing at a steady rate.
7
Sample problem:
Graphical analysis.
Which of the following
descriptions of the motion
depicted on the graph
is most accurate?
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
*decreasing slope
The object is slowing down at a decreasing rate.
The object is slowing down at an increasing rate.
The object is speeding up at a decreasing rate.
The object is speeding up at an increasing rate.
The objects speed is changing at a steady rate.
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Graphical analysis of velocity as
a function of time
Velocity,
Time,
graph
velocity at time
velocity at time
Graphical analysis of average
and instantaneous acceleration
Average acceleration,
Slope of the line
connecting ( , ) and
( , )
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Graphical analysis of average
and instantaneous acceleration
Instantaneous
acceleration,
Limit of the average
acceleration as the
time interval
approaches zero
= lim
=
0
2
=
= 2
Slope of the
line tangent
to a point in
the plot
11
Sample problem:
Velocity and acceleration from a plot.
C
D
B
THINGS TO LOOK FOR:
1. CURVATURE  acceleration
2. SLOPE  velocity
12
Sample problem:
Velocity and acceleration from a plot.
NOTE:
The greater the curvature,
the greater the acceleration
in the + or direction
The greater the slope, the
greater the velocity.
THINGS TO LOOK FOR:
1. CURVATURE
UPWARD > 0
DOWNWARD < 0
NONE (ZERO) = 0
2. SLOPE (recall)
POSITIVE > 0
NEGATIVE < 0
NONE (ZERO) = 0
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Sample problem:
Velocity and acceleration from a plot.
C
D
B
A
14
Sample problem:
Velocity and acceleration from a plot.
C
D
B
Curvature:
UPWARD
A
Curvature:
UPWARD
15
Sample problem:
Velocity and acceleration from a plot.
C
Curvature:
DOWNWARD
D
B
Curvature:
UPWARD
A
Curvature:
UPWARD
16
Sample problem:
Velocity and acceleration from a plot.
C
Curvature:
DOWNWARD
Curvature:
E
ZERO
Curvature:
B
UPWARD
Curvature:
ZERO
A
Curvature:
UPWARD
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Sample problem:
Velocity and acceleration from a plot.
Pt
A
B
C
D
E
Curve
Up
0
Down
0
Up
ax
+
0
0
+
18
Sample problem:
Velocity and acceleration from a plot.
C
D
B
A
19
Sample problem:
Velocity and acceleration from a plot.
C
D
B
A
20
Sample problem:
Velocity and acceleration from a plot.
C
Slope:
ZERO
Slope:
NEGATIVE
D
B
Slope:
POSITIVE
Slope:
NEGATIVE
A
Slope:
POSITIVE
21
Sample problem:
Velocity and acceleration from a plot.
Pt
A
B
C
D
E
Slope
+
+
0

vx
+
+
0

22
Sample problem:
Velocity and acceleration from a plot.
Pt
A
B
C
D
E
Curve
Up
0
Down
0
Up
ax
+
0
0
+
Slope
+
+
0

vx
+
+
0

23
Suppose the acceleration of the car is 2.5 mi/(hr)(s)
and the velocity at this instant is 20 mi/hr. What will
be the velocity at the end of the next second?
At the end of the following second? And so on.
24
A train car moves along a long straight track. The
graph shows the position as a function of time for this
train. The graph shows that the train:
1. speeds up all the time.
2. slows down all the time.
3. speeds up part of the time and slows down
part of the time.
4. moves at a constant velocity.
25
Example: Draw a graphical representation (xt, vt and yt) of
a particle moving at a constant and positive acceleration
Again
slope of xt graph: ave. velocity
slope of tangent line of xt graph:
instantaneous velocity (sometimes
instantaneous is dropped)
curvature of xt graph: acceleration
slope of vt graph: ave. acceleration
slope of tangent line of vt graph:
instantaneous acceleration (sometimes
instantaneous is dropped)
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SUMMARY:
Velocity/Speed: change in position
Acceleration: change in velocity
speed
direction
2
=
= 2
slope of xt graph: ave. velocity
slope of tangent line of xt graph:
instantaneous velocity
curvature of xt graph: acceleration
slope of vt graph: ave. acceleration
slope of tangent line of vt graph:
instantaneous acceleration
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Seatwork
 solve problems in your
notebooks
 write the answers only in
your bluebook
 indicate the date
Date:
1. Blah?
2. Blah blah!
3. Blah blah blah!
4. Blah blah blah blah!
28
Seatwork
 seatwork will be checked at
the end of the class
 if wrong, write the correct
answer
 in checking: place the score
above the checkers name
 the checker must sign under
his/her name & student
number
March 14, 2016
1. Blah? X Bleh!!!
2. Blah blah!
3. Blah blah blah!
4. Blah blah blah blah!
Score: 3/4
Checked by:
(signed)
Albert Einstein Jr.
(201324601)
29
(1) multiple choice (from previous long exam)
3.00
4.00
=
+
= 17.0/
2
Seatwork
 solve problems in your
notebooks
 write the answers only in
your bluebook
 indicate the date
Date:
1. Blah?
2. Blah blah!
3. Blah blah blah!
4. Blah blah blah blah!
31
(1), (2) Multiple choice (from previous long exam)
(free fall  acceleration is constant, downward)
32
The graph above shows the
velocity of a solarpowered car
as a function of time. The driver
accelerates from a stop sign,
cruises for a 20.0s at a constant
speed of 60.0km/h, and then
brakes to come to a 40.0s after
leaving the stop sign.
v 60
km 1000m 1h
16.7 m / s
h 1km 3600 s
34. Compute the average acceleration during the
following intervals:
t = 30 to 40s
t = 0 to 40s
5. What is the instantaneous acceleration:
t = 35s
???
???
HOMEWORK:
67: Draw a rough sketch of the xt and at
graph for time t = 30 to 40s.
(shape/slope only, no numerical details)
34
t(s)
1.0
3.0
5.0
7.0
9.0
11
13
15
vx (m/s)
0.8
1.2
1.6
1.2
0.4
1.0
1.6
0.8
HOMEWORK:
Find the average xacceleration,
and describe whether the speed
increases or decreases for each
of these time intervals:
89) t1=1.0s to t2=3.0
1011) t1=5.0s to t2=7.0s
1213) t1=9.0s to t2=11.0s
1415) t1=13.0s to t2=15.0s
=
=
Hint: Graphing maybe helpful in checking your answer
35