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# Lecture 4: Objectives

## Analyse 1D motion using verbal, graphical and

algebraic representations
Describe motion in 1D in terms of average and
instantaneous accelerations
Accelerate in the direction of velocityspeed up
Accelerate against velocityslow down
Accelerate at an angle to velocitychange direction

## Acceleration is the rate of

change of velocity with time.
Acceleration,

Commonly expressed in
m/s2
Acceleration is how the
Velocity is how fast and
speed and direction of
in what direction an
the objects motion are
object moves.
changing
Instantaneous acceleration
acceleration at one point of
position or one instant of time

2
=
= 2

## The graph above shows the

velocity of a solar-powered car
as a function of time. The driver
accelerates from a stop sign,
cruises for a 20.0s at a constant
speed of 60.0km/h, and then
brakes to come to a 40.0s after
leaving the stop sign.
v 60

km 1000m 1h

16.7 m / s
h 1km 3600 s

## Compute the average acceleration during the

following intervals:
t = 0 to 10.0s
t = 10.0 to 30.0s
What is the instantaneous acceleration at t = 20.0s?

t = 0 to 10.0s

km 1000m 1h
v f 60

16.7 m / s
h 1km 60 s
v v f vi 16.7 m / s 0
aav

1.70m / s 2
t t f ti
10.0 s 0
t = 10.0 to 30.0s

v v f vi 16.7 m / s 16.7 m / s
aav

0
t t f ti
30.0 s 10.0 s
Acceleration is zero (0) at t = 20.0s
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## Is it possible for an object's instantaneous velocity

and instantaneous acceleration to be of opposite sign
at some instant of time?
1. yes
2. no

## Sign conventions for both

velocity and acceleration
Same signs (+ + or - -): object is speeding up
Different signs (+ - or - +): object is slowing down
> 0, > 0 moving to the right, speeding up
< 0, < 0 moving to the left, speeding up
> 0, < 0 moving to the right, slowing down
< 0, > 0 moving to the left, slowing down
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Sample problem:
Graphical analysis.
Which of the following
descriptions of the motion
depicted on the graph
is most accurate?
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

## The object is slowing down at a decreasing rate.

The object is slowing down at an increasing rate.
The object is speeding up at a decreasing rate.
The object is speeding up at an increasing rate.
The objects speed is changing at a steady rate.
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Sample problem:
Graphical analysis.
Which of the following
descriptions of the motion
depicted on the graph
is most accurate?
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

*decreasing slope

## The object is slowing down at a decreasing rate.

The object is slowing down at an increasing rate.
The object is speeding up at a decreasing rate.
The object is speeding up at an increasing rate.
The objects speed is changing at a steady rate.
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## Graphical analysis of velocity as

a function of time

Velocity,
Time,
graph
velocity at time
velocity at time

## Graphical analysis of average

and instantaneous acceleration
Average acceleration,

## Slope of the line

connecting ( , ) and
( , )

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## Graphical analysis of average

and instantaneous acceleration
Instantaneous
acceleration,
Limit of the average
acceleration as the
time interval
approaches zero

= lim
=
0

2
=
= 2

Slope of the
line tangent
to a point in
the plot

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Sample problem:
Velocity and acceleration from a plot.
C

D
B

## THINGS TO LOOK FOR:

1. CURVATURE - acceleration
2. SLOPE - velocity
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Sample problem:
Velocity and acceleration from a plot.
NOTE:
The greater the curvature,
the greater the acceleration
in the + or direction
The greater the slope, the
greater the velocity.

## THINGS TO LOOK FOR:

1. CURVATURE
-UPWARD > 0
-DOWNWARD < 0
-NONE (ZERO) = 0

2. SLOPE (recall)
-POSITIVE > 0
-NEGATIVE < 0
-NONE (ZERO) = 0
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Sample problem:
Velocity and acceleration from a plot.
C

D
B

A
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Sample problem:
Velocity and acceleration from a plot.
C

D
B

Curvature:
UPWARD

A
Curvature:
UPWARD
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Sample problem:
Velocity and acceleration from a plot.
C

Curvature:
DOWNWARD

D
B

Curvature:
UPWARD

A
Curvature:
UPWARD
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Sample problem:
Velocity and acceleration from a plot.
C

Curvature:
DOWNWARD

Curvature:
E
ZERO
Curvature:
B
UPWARD
Curvature:
ZERO

A
Curvature:
UPWARD
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Sample problem:
Velocity and acceleration from a plot.

Pt
A
B
C
D
E

Curve
Up
0
Down
0
Up

ax
+
0
0
+

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Sample problem:
Velocity and acceleration from a plot.
C

D
B

A
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Sample problem:
Velocity and acceleration from a plot.
C

D
B

A
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Sample problem:
Velocity and acceleration from a plot.
C

Slope:
ZERO

Slope:
NEGATIVE

D
B
Slope:
POSITIVE

Slope:
NEGATIVE

A
Slope:
POSITIVE
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Sample problem:
Velocity and acceleration from a plot.

Pt
A
B
C
D
E

Slope
+
+
0
-

vx
+
+
0
-

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Sample problem:
Velocity and acceleration from a plot.
Pt
A
B
C
D
E

Curve
Up
0
Down
0
Up

ax
+
0
0
+

Slope
+
+
0
-

vx
+
+
0
-

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## Suppose the acceleration of the car is 2.5 mi/(hr)(s)

and the velocity at this instant is 20 mi/hr. What will
be the velocity at the end of the next second?
At the end of the following second? And so on.

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## A train car moves along a long straight track. The

graph shows the position as a function of time for this
train. The graph shows that the train:

## 1. speeds up all the time.

2. slows down all the time.
3. speeds up part of the time and slows down
part of the time.
4. moves at a constant velocity.
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## Example: Draw a graphical representation (x-t, v-t and y-t) of

a particle moving at a constant and positive acceleration
Again
slope of x-t graph: ave. velocity
slope of tangent line of x-t graph:
instantaneous velocity (sometimes
instantaneous is dropped)

## slope of v-t graph: ave. acceleration

slope of tangent line of v-t graph:
instantaneous acceleration (sometimes
instantaneous is dropped)

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SUMMARY:
Velocity/Speed: change in position
Acceleration: change in velocity
speed

direction

2
=
= 2

## slope of x-t graph: ave. velocity

slope of tangent line of x-t graph:
instantaneous velocity
curvature of x-t graph: acceleration
slope of v-t graph: ave. acceleration
slope of tangent line of v-t graph:
instantaneous acceleration
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Seatwork
- solve problems in your
notebooks
- write the answers only in
- indicate the date

Date:
1. Blah?
2. Blah blah!
3. Blah blah blah!
4. Blah blah blah blah!

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Seatwork
- seatwork will be checked at
the end of the class
- if wrong, write the correct
- in checking: place the score
above the checkers name
- the checker must sign under
his/her name & student
number

## March 14, 2016

1. Blah? X Bleh!!!
2. Blah blah!

## 4. Blah blah blah blah!

Score: 3/4
Checked by:
(signed)
Albert Einstein Jr.
(2013-24601)
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## (1) multiple choice (from previous long exam)

3.00
4.00
=
+
= 17.0/
2

Seatwork
- solve problems in your
notebooks
- write the answers only in
- indicate the date

Date:
1. Blah?
2. Blah blah!
3. Blah blah blah!
4. Blah blah blah blah!

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## (1), (2) Multiple choice (from previous long exam)

(free fall - acceleration is constant, downward)

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## The graph above shows the

velocity of a solar-powered car
as a function of time. The driver
accelerates from a stop sign,
cruises for a 20.0s at a constant
speed of 60.0km/h, and then
brakes to come to a 40.0s after
leaving the stop sign.
v 60

km 1000m 1h

16.7 m / s
h 1km 3600 s

## 3-4. Compute the average acceleration during the

following intervals:
t = 30 to 40s
t = 0 to 40s
5. What is the instantaneous acceleration:
t = 35s

???

???

HOMEWORK:
6-7: Draw a rough sketch of the x-t and a-t
graph for time t = 30 to 40s.
(shape/slope only, no numerical details)
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t(s)
1.0
3.0
5.0
7.0
9.0
11
13
15

vx (m/s)
0.8
1.2
1.6
1.2
-0.4
-1.0
-1.6
-0.8

HOMEWORK:
Find the average x-acceleration,
and describe whether the speed
increases or decreases for each
of these time intervals:
8-9) t1=1.0s to t2=3.0
10-11) t1=5.0s to t2=7.0s
12-13) t1=9.0s to t2=11.0s
14-15) t1=13.0s to t2=15.0s

=
=