You are on page 1of 3

Pathogens and Infectious diseases

Bacteria
TUBERCULOSIS
Cause
(Pathogen)

Transmis
sion

It is caused
by
Mycobacte
rium
tuberculosi
s

you can
get TB by
breathing
in air
droplets
from a
cough or
sneeze of
an
infected
person

Host
respons
e
Cytokine
s such as
TNFalpha
and IL-1
beta are
produced
. These
cytokines
serve to
recruit
more
lymphoci
tes.

Symptoms

Treatment

Preventi
on

Control

Cough,
coughing
up blood,
excessive
sweating
(especially
night),
fatigue,
fever,
unintention
al weight
loss,
breathing
difficulty,
chest pain,
wheezing

Treatment
involves
combinatio
n of many
drugs (this
include
Isoniazid,
Rifampin,
Pyrazinami
de,
ethambuta
nol). The
prescription
involves
pills at
different
times of
the day.

Preventio
n
involves
skin
testing in
high
risked
populatio
n. Some
countries
with high
incidence
of TB
give
people a
BCG
vaccine
to
prevent
TB.

The patient is
asked to stay
home or
admitted to a
hospital for 2-4
weeks to avoid
spreading of
disease.

Virus
AIDS
Cause
(Pathogen)
Human
immunodefici
ency virus
(HIV) causes
AIDS

Transmissi
on
The virus
can be
transmitted
through
sexual
contact,
through
blood, from
mother to
child.
Accidently it
can be
passed by
accidently

Host
response
Immune
deficiency
. The
ability to
fight
against
disease is
severely
damaged.

Sympto
ms
Chills,
fever,
sweats,
swollen
lymph
glands,
weakne
ss,
weight
loss

Treatment
There is no
cure. However
treatments
that can
improve
quality of life
include
antiretroviral
therapy
suppresses
the replication
of HIV virus in
the body.
Preventing

Preventi
on
Safe sex
practice,
Do not
use illicit
drugs, do
not share
needles
or
syringes,
avoid
contact
with
another
persons

Control
disposing
of needles
and
syringes
after
single use
and
sterilising
certain
instrument
s after
every use

needle
injury,
artificial
inseminatio
n with
infected
donor
semen,
organ
transplantat
ion with
infected
organs

virus from
replicating
improves Tcell counts
and help the
immune
system to
recover from
the HIV
infection

blood,
HIV
infected
should
not
donate
the
blood,

Protozoans
Malaria
Cause
(Pathogen
)
Malaria is
caused by
parasite
that is
passed
from one
human to
another
by bite of
infected
anopheles
mosquito

Transmiss
ion

Malaria can
also be
transmitted
from a
mother to
her unborn
baby
(congenitall
y) and by
blood
transfusion
s Malaria
can be
carried by
mosquitoes
in
temperate
climates,
but the
parasite
disappears
over the
winter.

Host
response

The
release of
merozoites
into the
bloodstrea
m
Anaemia
resulting
from the
destruction
of the red
blood cells
Large
amounts of
free
haemoglobi
n being
released
into
circulation
after red
blood cells
break open

Sympto
ms

Treatment

Anaemia
Blood
The
stools
combinatio
Chills
n of
Coma
quinidine
Convulsio
or quinine
n
plus
Fever
doxycycline
Headache
,
Jaundice
tetracycline
Muscle
, or
pain
clindamyci
Nausea
n
Sweating
Vomiting Atovaquone
plus
proguanil
(Malarone)
Mefloquine
or
artesunate
The
combinatio
n of
pyrimetha
mine and
sulfadoxine

Preventio
n
For visitors
that go for
visiting
countries
with higher
risk of
disease
should go
to health
care
provider so
proper
prevention
medication
s can be
given.

Control

Strategies
to control
malaria
include the
use of
antimalaria
l drugs,
insecticides
to
kill
mosquitoes
, and bed
nets to
prevent
biting at
night

(Eansidar)

Prions
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Cause
(Pathogen
)
Creutzfeldt
-Jacob
disease is
caused by
a protein
called
prion. A
prion
causes
normal
proteins to
fold
abnormally

Transmissi
on

Host
response

Symptoms

Treatment

Preventio
n

Small
portion of
people
affected
with CJD is
due to
inheritance
of protein
(prion)

Rapid
decrease
of mental
function
and
movement

Blurred
vision,
Changes in
gait,
Confusion,
Dementia,
Hallucinatio
ns,
Muscle
stiffness,
Muscle
twitching,
Nervous,
jumpy
feeling,
Sleepiness,
Speech
impairment

No cure.
Interleukin
s and other
medication
s slow
down the
disease

Medical
equipment
should be
treated to
remove the
protein
that may
cause the
disease.
People with
CJD should
not donate
a cornea or
tissue

Control