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PROPOSAL

THE USE OF SCRAPBOOK TO IMPROVE THE WRITING


ABILITY OF THE FIRST YEAR STUDENTS OF MAN 1 PEKANBARU

WRITTEN BY:
HARNILA
1205134926

THE TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY


LANGUAGE AND ART DEPARTMENT
ENGLISH STUDY PROGRAM
RIAU UNIVERSITY
PEKANBARU
2015

A. THE USE OF SCRAPBOOK TO IMPROVE THE WRITING


ABILITY OF THE FIRST YEAR STUDENTS OF MAN 1 PEKANBARU
B. Background
English has been learned as a foreign language in Indonesia for years. It is
considered as one of the most important subjects at school since it has become a
compulsory subject which is learned by the students from the Elementary school
level up to the University level. Learning English involves four skills: listening,
speaking, reading, and writing.
Writing is considered as the last skill that is quite difficult to be mastered
by the students. Based on the questionnaire which is given to the first year
students of MAN 1 Pekanbaru on September 28, 2015, it was found that 50% of
the frist year students of MAN 1 Pekanbatru agreed that writing is the most
difficult skill in English. In addition, the first year students of MAN 1 Pekanbaru
stated that writing is difficult because of various factors. 45% of the students
consider that the lack of mastering grammar is the main factor of the difficulty in
writing. Meanwhile, 30% of the students agreed that writing is considered as a
difficult skill is due to the fact that it needs a deep comprehension of its content
and organization. Then, 25% of the students agreed that writing is difficult due to
the the lack of creativity in developing ideas.
Based on the interview which had been held with Darwati, an English
teacher of SMA N 1 Batam who already applied scrapbook as a learning media in
writing class, it was found that the students had been sometimes reluctant to write
by themselves. They demanded on the teachers explanation during the learning
process. They are not confident to develop their own ideas. As a result, the
students are potentially difficult to possess a confidence in writing and the
students are not motivated to write. Whereas, in writing, the students should be
able to express things, explore and explain ideas themselves (Sharpless, 1998 in
Siburian, 2013).

In fact, many English teachers still teach writing in conventional way and
seldom use media and technique in teaching writing (Noprianto in Markhamah,
2012). In fact, there are various kinds of media which are used by the teacher in
teaching writing. One of them is picture. According to Munadi (2008), pictures
make the students easy to catch the ideas or information which are conveyed in
them clearly, more than if it is merely expressed verbally. Likewise, Harmer
(2004) points out that pictures are often used to present situations to help students
to work with grammar and vocabulary. Moreover, Heaton (2000) in Merliana
(2014) states that pictures can visual aid to help the students to find the ideas and
make the lesson become interesting.
Pictures can be applied as a media in various ways. One of them is
scrapbook. Scrapbook is wonderful media in writing class which students post
photos and embellishment in it (Mulvey and Cullen (2009)). Meanwhile, Al
Thelin (2003) states that scrapbook is an historical treasure. Since with scrapbook,
the readers can re-read the events or things that he had put it in a long time ago.
He also adds that scrapbook is a fascinating media when he applied it with
newspapers.
Since using scrapbook as a media in teaching writing involves applying
pictures and photographs, it is expected that scrapbook is effective to boost
students interests in writing and to grasp the ideas in the text more easily.
Based on the phenomena above, it is interesting for the writer to conduct a
research which is entitled The use of scrapbook to improve the writing ability of
the first year students of MAN 1 Pekanbaru.
C. The Formulation of the Problem
The formulation of this research can be stated as in the following:
Can the use of scrapbook improve the writing ability of the first year
students of MAN 1 Pekanbaru?

D. The Objective of the Research


The objective of this research can be stated as in the following:
To find out whether the use of scrapbook can improve the writing ability
of the first year students of MAN 1 Pekanbaru.
E. The Needs for the Research
The findings of this research are expected to give a remarkable contribution to
the following:
1. Students
To motivate the students to be better in writing a text or paragraph.
2. Teacher
To provide some information for English teacher about the use of
scrapbook in improving the students writing ability.
3. Readers
To give information to readers about the use of scrapbook in learning
process.
4. Writer
To enlarge the writers knowledge in conducting a research. In
addition, to fulfill one of the requirements in completing the writers
study program in English Study Program of Teacher Training and
Education Faculty of Riau University.
F. The Definitions of the Terms
The key-words available in the title can be defined as in the following:
1. Scrapbook : A material object that has potential to mirror and reinforce the
message of the text. (Richardson, 2004).
2. Writing Ability: The ability to respond a given stimulus according to some
authoritys definition of the correct response (Nunan in Yi, 2009).

G. LITERATURE REVIEW

1. Scrapbook
In the late seventeenth century, scrapbook was a commonplace book which
is mostly used by educated people to record and list quotations, proverbs, and
achievements (Ott et.al., 2006 in Alexander, 2013). They further states that
throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth ceturies, scrapbook began to emphasize
personal expression.
According to Kalamarides (2014), scrapbooking is a way to tell a story
through photographs which on each page of scrapbook, pictures, shapes, different
colored words, and description are presented. Meanwhile, scrapbook is defined as
a book of blank pages for sticking cuttings, drawings, or pictures in. (Oxford
Advanced learners dictionary, 2014). Likewise, Solomon and Willard (2007)
point out that scrapbook is a tangible academic media which enable students to be
accustomed to reading, writing, research, and critical-thinking skills. They add
that scrapbook is effective to increase students comprehension of the scientific
concept by relating the materials to their own interests and experience..
In addition, Alexander (2013) emphasizes that scrapbook is pedagogically
important since it teaches students the concept of affordances. He adds that
scrapbook demonstrates how materiality impacts design, composition, and
rhetorical choices. Moreover, Williams and Burden (1997) in Mulvey and Cullen
(2009) state that scrapbook is defined as a realization of a social constructivist
model of the teaching-learning process in which teacher, learner, learning
materials, and task mutually interact within a supportive context in order to lead to
a dynamic ongoing learning process.
Moreover, a multiple of advantages can be gained from writing text by
using scrapbook, one of them is to encourage students to see the science all
around them and realize that it is truly relevant in their lives outside of school
(Phillips, 2007). Meanwhile, Mulvey & Cullen (2009) points out that the students
will achieve more genuine oral communication while using scrapbook as media in
writing. They add that scrapbook acts as as a powerful tool in the generation of

genuine interaction at many levels. Furthermore, Ruecket (2008) in Mulvey &


Cullen (2009) states that scrapbook is effective in consolidating vocabulary and
learning process. Likewise, Lawless (2009) in Mulvey & Cullen (2009) states that
the use of scrapbook as a media in learning process is effective to enliven learning
notebooks.
From the expalantion above, it can be concluded that scrapbook is a media
which stimulates the students to be creative in writing and creating an attractive
paper by using pictures and embellishments, such as postcards, stickers, letters,
magazine or newspaper clippings, illustrations, charts, food labels, etc.
5. Writing Ability
According to Marianne C Murcia (1991), writing is the ability to express
someones ideas in a written form. She also points out that writing is a physical
act, which requires material and energy. Moreover, Nunan (2003) in Styati (2010)
states that writing is a process of thinking to invent ideas, thinking about how to
express something into a good writing, and arranging ideas into statement and
paragraph clearly.
In addition, Sholihah (2011) states that writing ability is an ability to
express ideas, opinions or feeling in written form beginning from the simplest one
to the advanced level on a certain medium consistency over period of time.
Likewise, Bell and Burnbay in Nunan (1998) defines writing as a complex
cognitive activity which the writer is demanded to demonstrate control of a
number of variables simultaneously at the sentence level and integrate information
into cohesive and coherent paragraph and text. Moreover, Bell and Burnbay in
Nunan (1998) state that writing is a complex cognitive activity in which the writer
is demanded to demonstrate control of a number of variables simultaneously.
Meanwhile, Zamel (1983) in Ho (2006) points out that writing is a process
which students can explore and discover their thoughts, constructing meaning and
assessing it at the same time. According to Beare in Sholihah (2011), the most

important factor in writing is that students need to be personally involved in order


to make the learning experience of lasting value.
Furthermore, Blanchard and Root (2003) in Alawi (2010) point out that
writing process is as follows:
a. Prewriting
b. Writing
c. Revising
In prewriting, the students are allowed to brainstorm the ideas, cluster and
draw a diagram of ideas, and write independently. While, in writing phase, the
students are required to write a topic sentence that states main ideas, including
supporting sentences, arranging the words, and using signal words. In revising,
the students written work is revised. In this phase, the things that need to be
improved are edited.
According to Galbraith and Torrance (2004), there are two important
views in terms of the practical implications of writing strategies as follows:
a. Planning strategy
b. Revising strategy
Planning is a process in which writer concentrates on working out what
they want to say before setting pen to paper, and start to produce full text once
they have worked out what they want to say. Based on the planning strategy, the
teacher uses available media, such as pictures or instruments to assist writing and
guide students who have some ideas to express before actually begin to write.
While, in revising, the students work out what they want to say in the course of
writing and content evolves over a series of drafts. According to this strategy,
students are allowed to think of what they want to write by observing the media
content and revising their drafts simultaneously.
According to Boardman (2008) in Pardede et.al. (2014) there are three
characteristics in writing a good text or paragraph:

a. Coherence
Coherence means stick together, which is basically a matter of having
the part of a piece of writing in the right with a clear process. A paragraph
has coherence when the supporting sentences are ordered according to the
principles which depend on the types of paragraph.
b. Cohesion
When a paragraph has a cohesion, all the supporting sentences connect
to each other in their supporting sentences.
c. Unity
The supporting sentences should relate to the topic sentence. Each
sentences in paragraph should be united each other.
In line with this, it is known that there are five genres of text which are
learnt in Senior High Schools. They are as following:
a. Report Text
According to Widowati (2012), report text is a text which is result of
systematic observation and analysis to present information about something. She
points

out

the

generic

structure

of

report

text

as

follows:

1). General classification: Stating classification of general aspect of thing; animal,


public

place,

plant,

etc

which

will

be

discussed

in

general

2). Description: Describing the thing which will be discussed in detail; customs or
deed for living creature and usage for materials.
Likewise, she also explains the language feature of report text, as follows:
1). Introducing group or general aspect
2). Using conditional logical connection; when, so, etc
3). Using simple present tense
b. Descriptive Text

According to Pujianto et.al. (2014), descriptive text is a text which


describes about person, place, or certain thing and is generally in the form of
simple present tense. The purpose of descriptive text is to convey to the reader
what something looks like (Alawi, 2011).
In addition, Pardiyono (2007) in Siburian (2013) states that descriptive
text is a written text which aims to describe about an object clearly. Furthermore,
Jolly (1984) in Siburian (2013) asserts that there are five types of descriptive text
as follows:
1). Describing process
Describing a process not only explains how something is done, but also
explains why it is done and what is needed to complete the process.
2). Describing an event
To describe an event, the students should be able to memorize and
remember what happened in the event.
3). Describing a personality
In describing a person, it is necessary to recognize the individual
characteristics, areas of physical attribute (hair, eyes, etc), emotional (warm,
nervous, confident, etc.), moral attributes (greedy, honest, etc.), and intellectual
(cleverness, perception, etc.)
4). Describing a place
Describing something concrete is the way to describe place, for example a
house, a hospital, and school.
5). Describing an object
To describe an object accurately, it is necessary to provide the physical
characteristics of the object, such as the color, form, and so on.
c. Recount text
Recount text is a text which is intended to tell something that happened in
the past (Grace and Sudarwati, 2005 in Merliana, 2014). In addition, Hoyle (2000)
in Merliana (2014) point out that the generic structures of recount text are as
follows:

1). Orientation: It sets the scene and introducing the participants. E.g.: place
and time.
2). Events: Describing the events in an interesting way and arranged in
chronological order.
3). Re-orientation: A concluding statement which involves stating personal
comment of the writer to the story.
The language features of recount text are as follows:
1). Introducing personal participant. E.g.: I, my group, etc.
2). Using chronological connection. E.g.: then, first, etc.
3). Using linking verb. E.g.: was, were, etc.
4). Using action verb. E.g.: look, go, change, etc.
5). Using simple past tense (Purwati, 2011).
d. Narrative text
Narrative text is a text focusing on the specific participants which tells an
interesting story (Widowati, 2012). Meanwhile, Surya (2014) points out that
narrative text is intended to tell stories or past events and enetertain the readers.
Mark & Kathy (1998) in Alawi (2014) points out the generic structures of
narrative text, as follows:
1). Orientation
2). Complication
3). Sequence of events
4). Resolution
5). Coda

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The language features of narrative text are as followings:


1). There are many action verbs, verbal and mental process.
2). Direct and indirect speeches are often used.
3). It usually uses past tense.
4). Linking words are used, related with time.
5). There are sometimes some dialogs and tenses can change..
e. Procedure text.
Procedure text is a text that is intended to tell reader how to do, operate or
make something. (Herliyati, 2013). She also states that the information in
procedure text is usually written in the form of presnt tense and is arranged in a
logical sequence of events which is broken up into several sequenced steps.
The generic structures of procedure text are as follows:
1. Goal (Aim/title)
2. Materials (Not required for all procedural texts)
3. Steps (the actions that must be take)
Based on the explanations above, it can be stated that writing is an activity
which involves brainstorming ideas and expressing thought in written text.
H. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
1. Time and Place
This research will be conducted at MAN 1 Pekanbaru from October 5, 2015
up to November 5, 2015. The treatment will be conducted for eight weeks. The
time allocation for each meeting is 2 x 45 minutes.

11

2. The Research Design


This research is a classroom action research. According to Kemmis and
Mctaggart (1988) in Surya (2014) action research is a form of collective selfreflective enquiry undertaken by participants in social situations in order to
improve educational practices and the understanding of these practices and the
situations in which the practices are carried out.
Kemmis and Taggard states that there are four fundamental aspects that occur
in the action research: planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. The research
design can be drawn as follows:
4. Reflection

1. Planning

3. Observation

2. Action

(Kemmis and Taggart, 1988)


a. Planning
In this stage, there will be several activities which will be applied:
1) Preparing lesson plan.
2) Preparing observation sheets for teacher and students.
3) Preparing materials.
4) Preparing media.
5) Preaparing the pre-test and post-test.
6) Preparing the scoring system.

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b. Action
1) The teacher informs the students that they are going to have some
materials to make a scrapbook.
2) The teacher shows the steps how to make a scrapbook.
3) The teacher asks the students to write a paragraph
4) The teacher gives the conclusion about the learning material.
c. Observation
There are two kinds of observation sheet. The first is used to the
teacher activities in learning process. The second is used to observe the
students activities in the classroom. The observer carries out the
observation baseed on the observation sheet.
d. Reflection
In this study, reflection is shown as the personal reflection from the
writer about the strengths or weaknesses in conducting the
treatment. The result of the observation is collected and analyzed
including the eavluation. In reflection, the students improvement
of writing descriptive text will be known.
3. Population and Sample of the Research
The population of the research is the eleventh grade students of the second
semester of the academic year 2015/2016 in MAN 1 Pekanbaru. There are 11
classes from XI IPA 1 up to XI IPA 7 and XI IPS 1 up to XI IPS 4. Each of the
eleventh grade in MAN 1 Pekanbaru consists of thirty seven to thirty nine
students. The population is 334 students.
Since the number of the students is large, sample is needed to be taken.
The sample which is used in this research is purposive sampling. X IPS 3 is
chosen to be the participant of this research The reason for choosing X IPS 3 as
the sample of this research is X IPS 3 get the lowest score in the writing test
which had been held by their teacher.
4. Data and Instrument
a. Writing test
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Test is considered as the best way to know how well students to achieve
and understand the materials they have learnt (Harris, 1998). The essay test is
chosen to be used in collecting data. According to William and Stephan, essay test
is an item format that requires the students to structure a rather long written
response up to several paragraphs. The data will be collected by administering a
written test in the pre-test and post-test. The aspects which will be measured are
grammar, vocabulary, mechanics, accuracy, and form (organization).
b. Observation Sheet
In this research, there are two observation sheets; teachers observation
sheet and students observation sheet.
1) Teachers observation sheet is used to measure the teachers
performance in learnning process. In order to help the writer to observe
her performance, an observer is required to fill the observation sheet.
The format of teacher observation is as following:
Table 1.
Teachers Observation Sheet
No.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Teacher activities
Yes
Conveying competence to be achieved
Presenting material as an introduction
Ask the students to prepare their scrapbooks.
Ask the students to choose their ornaments (pictures,

5.

glitter, embellishments, etc.).


Ask the students to write a text based on the topic given by

6.

the teacher.
Ask the students to decorate their scrapbooks by using the

ornaments they chose.


7.
Ask the students to submit their scrapbooks
8.
Give feedback or reflection to the students.
9.
Assess the students scrapbook based on the rubric
PERCENTAGE
1) Students observation sheet
14

No

Students observation sheet aims to observe the students activities


during the learning process. The format of students observation sheet is as
follows:
Table 2.
Students Observation Sheet

PercentageeTotal

36.

No

Yes

Answer
Discussing the result
with the teacher and
making conclusion

scrapbookCollecting their

on the topic givenWriting a text based

1.
2.

scrapbookDecorating the

Students activity
ornamentsChoosing the

Name
scrapbookPreparing a

No.

3). Field Notes.


Field notes are used to note everything which has not covered in
the observation sheet. It will be written by the collaborator to help the teaher in
monitoring the students behaviors.
Table 3. Field Notes
No
.

Notes
Teacher

Student

15

1.
2.
3.

5.The Data Collection Technique


There are two kinds of data, qualitative and quantitative. They are as
follows:
a. Quantitative Data
To analyze the data and to find out the students progress in writing by
using scrapbook, the writer uses the scoring by Hughes (1989) in Merliana (2014)
as follows:
Table 5.1 Score of the Writing Aspects
Description of the Criteria
Vocabulary Mechanics
Accuracy

Score

Gramma

r (G)
Few (if

(V)
Use of

(M)
Few (if any)

(A)
Choices of

n (O)
Highly

any)

vocabulary

noticablelap

structures

organized;

noticable

and idiom

es in

and

clear

errors of

rarely (if at

punctuation

vocabulary

progression

grammar

all)

or spelling

consistently

of ideas well

or word

distinguishab

appropriate,

linked; like

order.

le from that

like that of

native

of native

native

speaker

Some

speaker
Occasionally

Occasional

speaker
Occasional

Material well

errors of

uses

lapes in

lack of

organized;

grammar

inappropriate

punctuation

consistency

links could

16

Organizatio

or word

terms or

or spelling

in choice of

occasionally

order

relies on

which does

structure

be clearer but

which do

circumlocutio

not,

and

communicati

not,

ns;

however

vocabulary

on not

however,

expression of

interfere

which does

impaired

interfere

ideas hardly

with

not,

with

impaired

comprehens

however,

ion

impair over

comprehe
nsion

all ease of
communicat

Errors of

Uses wrong

Errors in

ion.
Patchy,

Some lack of

grammar

or

punctuation

with some

organization;

or word

inappropriate

or spelling

structures

re-reading

order

words fairly

fairly

and

required for

fairly

frequent;

frequent;

vocabulary

clarification

frequent,

expression of

occasional

items

of ideas

efforts of

ideas may be

re-reading

inappropriat

interpretat

limited

necessary

enoticably

ion;

because of

for full

to general

occasional

inadequate

comprehens

style

re-reading

vocabulary

ion

nsion
Errors of

Limited

Frequent

Structures

Little or no

grammar

vocabulary

errors in

or

attempt at

or word

and frequent

spelling or

vocabulary

connectivity,

order

errors clearly

punctuation

items

though reader

frequent,

hinder

; lead

sometimes

can deduce

necessary
for full
comprehe
3

17

efforts of

expression of

sometimes

not only

some

interpretat

ideas

to obscurity

inappropriat

organization

ion

e but also

sometime

misused;

s required

little sense

on

of ease of

readers

communicat

part
Errors of

Vocabulary

Errors in

ion
Communica

Individual

grammar

so limited

spelling or

tion often

ideas may be

or word

and so

punctuation

impaired by

clear, but

order very

frequently

so frequent

completely

very difficult

frequent,

misused that

that reader

inappropriat

to deduce

reader

reader must

must often

e or

connection

often has

often rely on

rely on own

misused

among them

to rely on

own

own

interpretation

interpretatio structures or
n

interpretat
1

vocabulary
items

ion
Errors of

Vocabulary

Errors in

A hotch-

Lack of

grammar

limitation so

spelling or

potch of

organization

or word

extreme as to

punctuation

half-learned

so severe that

order so

make

so severe as

misused

communicati

severe as

comprehensi

to make

structures

on is

to make

on virtually

comprehens

and

seriously

comprehe

impossible

ion virtually

vocabulary

impaired

impossible

items

nsion
virtually

rendering

impossibl

communicat

ion almost
impossible

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To know the total score of students writing, the following formulas will be
used:
Score= G+V+M+A+O
Note: S: Students score
G: Students ability in Grammar
V: Students ability in Vocabulary
M: Students ability in Mechanics
A: Students ability in Accuracy
O: Students ability in Organization
(Wayan and Sumartana (1983) in Merliana (2014))
To know the real score of the students, the formula as follows is used:
TS
30

RS =

x 100

Where : RS= Real Score of each student


TS= Total score of the aspect of writing
To know the students ability in pre-test and post-test, the data that already
collected were analyzed by using the following formula:
The average score as follows:
X=

Where:

N
X

= The average of the test

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x
N

= The total score of the correct answer


= The number of the students
(Hatch & Farhady (1982) in Herliyati (2013))

The data is analiyzed by using t-test. The match t-test is used to find out
the difference man between each pair of students score. Before finding
difference betwee each pair of score, the standard error and standard deviation
have to be found. To know the standard error, the writer uses the following
formula:

D ( N1 )
2

SD=
Where:
SD

: Standard Deviation of difference

2
D

: Mean score

: difference of score

: number of the students


(Hatch & Farhady (1982) in Herliyati (2013))

After finding the standard of error and the standard deviation, the
following formula is used :
T=

X 1X 2
SD

20

Where:
T

= The difference between each pair


X 1 = The mean score of the pre-test
X 1 = The mean score of post-test

X 1 = The standard of error


After computing the individual score of the students, the level of the
students; writing ability before and after using scrapbook is classified based on the
following classification:
Table 5.2 The Classification of the Students Score
No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Test Score
81-100
61-80
41-60
21-40
0-20

Classification
Excellent
Good
Moderate
Poor
Very Poor

Adopted from Harris (1968) in Merliana (2014)


b. Qualitative Data
The qualitative data will be in the form of questionnaire and
observation sheet.
1). Questionnaire
Questionnaire is written questions to be answered by the students.
This instrument takes the first year students of MAN 1 Pekanbaru as the
respondents.
2). Observation sheet

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Observation sheet is used to collect data based on the observation.


There are two kinds of observation sheets, tecahers observation sheet and
students observation sheet
According to Gay (2000) in Surya (2014), there are five steps in
analyzing qualitative data:
1). Preparing the data.
The writer must make an organization of grouping data. The
writer made a format for the data from observation sheet and field
note.
2). Reading the data
The writer reads and analyzes the data from observation sheet
and field note.
3). Describing the data
The writer describes the data that had been collected from
teaching and learning process in order to complete the information
about arrangement, participant, and activity.

4). Grouping the data


The writer mustarrange the data in groups, categories or classes
with related characteristics.
5). Interpreting the data
In interpreting the data, the writer must know about the aspects
and connection of the data in order to make a summary.
5. The Data Analysis Technique

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The data will be analyzed by using statistical analysis. In order to compare


the results of the students ability in writing, the t-test will be used by employing
SPSS 20.0. The researcher will find the complete results in SPSS including the
mean, the variance and how accuracy the data of the test. T-test is chosen to
compare the differences of the students score in the pre-test and the post-test.

I.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Alawi, Fikri. 2011. Improving Studets Ability in Writing Descriptive Text Using
Clustering Technique.UIN Syarif Hidayatullah. Jakarta.
Alexander, K.P. 2013. The Potential of Scrapbook in the Composition Classroom.
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from
http://www.addthis.com/bookmark.php?
v=250&username=compforum. (September 3, 2015).
Burke, Jim. 2008. The Teachers Essential Guide to Writing. Retrieved from
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Donough, Jo Mc and Shaw, Christoper. 2003. Materials and Methods in ELT: A
Teachers Guide. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. United Kingdom.
Galbraith, D., & Torrance, M. 2004. Revision in the Context of Different Drafting
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