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Chapter 16 - The Baroque Age II: Revolutions in Scientific and Political Thought, 1600-1715

Chapter 16
The Baroque Age II: Revolutions in Scientific and Political Thought, 16001715

Multiple Choice Questions


1. The "crisis of the European conscience" that affected some European thinkers in the late
seventeenth century meant that they
A. no longer believed in God.
B. had given up hope about the future of the world.
C. had come to the conclusion that the truth lay in divine revelation.
D. were slowly moving from traditional ideas to modern views.

2. Aristotelian physics and astronomy were transmitted to the West through


A. Chinese and Indian culture.
B. Roman and Islamic culture.
C. Viking and Slavic culture.
D. Japanese and Mesoamerican culture.

3. Which of the following is the term for the theory that the universe is earth-centered?
A. heliocentrism
B. geocentrism
C. supralunar
D. sublunar

4. The Egyptian scholar Ptolemy can best be described as


A. a man who thought that the sun was the center of the universe.
B. an early scientist who provided Kepler with new mathematical findings.
C. a man who updated Aristotle's geocentric model.
D. a thinker who overturned the Aristotelian model of the universe.

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Chapter 16 - The Baroque Age II: Revolutions in Scientific and Political Thought, 1600-1715

5. A central characteristic of medieval science was that it


A. rejected Muslim findings as a way to understand the physical world.
B. argued that on earth, matter was incorruptible and no change occurred in matter.
C. maintained that the sun was the center of the universe.
D. identified Aristotle's Unmoved Mover with God.

6. In Aristotle's system of cosmology, which of the following was NOT considered a planet?
A. Jupiter
B. Venus
C. Mercury
D. Earth

7. In the Middle Ages, Aristotle's science began to be undermined by the


A. spread of the deductive method.
B. use of the Bible as a guide for research.
C. acceptance of the Ptolemaic order of the universe.
D. application of empiricism and inductive reasoning.

8. Which was NOT a feature of the seventeenth-century advances in science?


A. new discoveries in astronomy and biology
B. a radically changed perspective about the physical world
C. the development of tools for looking inside the atom
D. the beginning of the separation of philosophy and theology

9. Which of the following is a correct statement about the Scientific Revolution?


A. Late medieval technology had little impact on the new learning.
B. Early modern scientists built on the work of medieval thinkers.
C. Most of the new discoveries were done within the context of the Aristotelian-Ptolemaic
system.
D. Mathematics played a minor role in the discoveries.

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2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part

Chapter 16 - The Baroque Age II: Revolutions in Scientific and Political Thought, 1600-1715

10. Which scientist disproved Galen's theory about the circulation of the blood?
A. William Harvey
B. Marcello Malpighi
C. Andreas Vesalius
D. Robert Boyle

11. Copernicus's explanation of the universe can be described as a


A. brand-new idea.
B. revival of an ancient Greek theory.
C. system compatible with medieval Christian theology.
D. revival of an ancient Babylonian theory.

12. How did religious leaders react to Copernicus's theory?


A. It was fully accepted by both Catholics and Protestants.
B. Catholics and Protestants both initially rejected it, but Protestants, lacking a centralized
authority, more quickly accommodated themselves to his thinking.
C. It was accepted by Catholics but rejected by Protestants.
D. It was rejected by Catholics and Protestants for more than 200 years.

13. Tycho Brahe contributed to the Scientific Revolution by


A. inventing the telescope.
B. discovering the moons around the planet Jupiter.
C. amassing copious observations of planetary movement.
D. giving final form to the law of inertia.

14. Kepler's major contribution to the Scientific Revolution was


A. the invention of the telescope.
B. the discovery of three key planetary laws.
C. a convincing explanation of gravity.
D. a treatise on terrestrial motion.

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2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part

Chapter 16 - The Baroque Age II: Revolutions in Scientific and Political Thought, 1600-1715

15. A consequence of Kepler's scientific research was that


A. his startling discoveries made further investigation unnecessary.
B. the circular movement of planets was proven correct.
C. the sun-centered universe could now be understood in mathematical terms.
D. the belief that the planets moved in irregular orbits was reinforced.

16. Galileo's important discoveries were influenced by his


A. determination to win favor with the church.
B. reliance on the theory of Ptolemy.
C. use of the new technological invention, the telescope.
D. dependence on the writings of Thomas Aquinas.

17. Galileo's celestial observations proved that


A. the moon looked the same through a telescope as to the naked eye.
B. Jupiter has moons, or satellites.
C. Aristotle's calculations were essentially correct
D. the universe was about the size of Ptolemy's figures.

18. Besides astronomical research, Galileo also contributed to the


A. science of anatomy.
B. overturning of Aristotle's theory of earthly motion.
C. modern explanation for the circulation of the blood.
D. modern view that the body is composed of tiny cells.

19. Regarding Galileo's astronomical writings, the Catholic Church


A. readily accepted them as confirming biblical scripture.
B. agreed with his findings after summoning a church council.
C. arrested Galileo and threatened to torture him.
D. ignored him, although it declared his ideas to be unacceptable.

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2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part

Chapter 16 - The Baroque Age II: Revolutions in Scientific and Political Thought, 1600-1715

20. Newton's outstanding contribution to the Scientific Revolution was the mathematical basis
for the
A. law of gravity.
B. law of inertia.
C. theory of opposites.
D. theory of relativity.

21. Bayle's Historical and Critical Dictionary can be described as


A. a book that supported prevailing institutions and traditions.
B. a work that attacked the findings of the Scientific Revolution.
C. the last book to reflect medieval thought.
D. a new form of book in which ideas were arranged in systematic form.

22. Prior to modern times, knowledge of the human body was limited for which of the
following reasons?
A. There was general ignorance of the body because Christians prohibited the dissection of
corpses.
B. The medical schools relied on animal dissection, and this resulted in misinformation, since
animal bodies differed from human bodies.
C. The ancient Greek thinkers Aristotle and Galen were the supreme authorities, and they
were often incorrect.
D. All these answers are correct.

23. Both William Harvey and Isaac Newton


A. used mathematics to prove their theories.
B. made important discoveries in celestial physics.
C. borrowed from each other in their research.
D. were greatly influenced by Francis Bacon.

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2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part

Chapter 16 - The Baroque Age II: Revolutions in Scientific and Political Thought, 1600-1715

24. Robert Boyle made which contribution to modern chemistry?


A. He united alchemy with chemistry.
B. He organized the periodic table.
C. He sought to understand only chemical reactions that happened naturally and could be
analyzed in mathematical terms.
D. He arrived at his findings using the deductive method.

25. Marcello Malpighi's contribution to the study of the human body and circulation was the
A. discovery of capillaries.
B. discovery of arteries.
C. correct understanding of how the circulatory system worked.
D. scientific reinforcement of Galen's theories on circulation.

26. Which is NOT true of Francis Bacon's scientific career?


A. His lucid prose style helped make him popular.
B. He advocated the dismissal of Aristotle.
C. He made new scientific claims that elevated his work to legendary status.
D. He championed the inductive method.

27. The scientific work of Ren Descartes resulted in the development of


A. calculus.
B. analytic geometry.
C. logarithms.
D. irrational numbers.

28. Descartes, in his search for the truth,


A. never doubted the existence of God.
B. maintained that his body was always present.
C. concluded that he existed because his mind questioned.
D. doubted the truth of his own mental processes.

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2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part

Chapter 16 - The Baroque Age II: Revolutions in Scientific and Political Thought, 1600-1715

29. What is meant by Descartes' dualism?


A. Everything comes in pairs.
B. The material world and the human mind are separate.
C. Only by dividing objects into two parts can they be understood.
D. Human beings have both a human and an animal nature.

30. ________ left his mark in the study of probability.


A. Blaise Pascal
B. Francis Bacon
C. Ren Descartes
D. Thomas Hobbes

31. Pascal's attitude toward the existence of God was that


A. God did not exist.
B. one gained nothing by mistakenly believing in God but stood to lose everything by
mistakenly asserting that God did not exist.
C. it made no difference if God did or did not exist.
D. no one could ever prove the existence of God.

32. The seventeenth century witnessed the


A. end of witchcraft trials.
B. beginning of industrial capitalism.
C. full acceptance of the heliocentric view of the universe.
D. origins of liberal political theory.

33. A powerful influence on the political thought of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke was the
A. writing of St. Thomas Aquinas.
B. collapse of manorialism in western Europe.
C. rise of a large laboring class.
D. English civil war.

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2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part

Chapter 16 - The Baroque Age II: Revolutions in Scientific and Political Thought, 1600-1715

34. A major source of seventeenth-century political thought was the


A. writing of Byzantine historians.
B. work of Arab scholars.
C. period's scientific discoveries.
D. uncovering of medieval manuscripts on feudal law.

35. Grotius based his political theories on his belief in


A. original sin.
B. natural law.
C. divine right.
D. the social contract.

36. Bishop Bossuet's arguments for the divine right of kings rested on
A. the Qur'an's statements about Allah.
B. his belief that God gave certain men the right to rule.
C. the assumption that a king's subjects possess certain basic rights.
D. the long-standing feudal law of right to property that the lord had over his knights.

37. Hobbes based The Leviathan on the assumption that


A. humans are basically good.
B. individuals act out of fear of death and the quest for power.
C. God controls human activity.
D. the world is run by chance.

38. Hobbes reasoned that the best form of government is


A. a constitutional monarchy limited by the doctrine of natural rights.
B. an absolutist state with the ruler completely controlling the people.
C. an enlightened aristocracy in which the best people rule.
D. a democracy where there is rule of the people, by the people, and for the people.

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2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part

Chapter 16 - The Baroque Age II: Revolutions in Scientific and Political Thought, 1600-1715

39. Hobbes's legacy to modern political thought was a theory of


A. self-government.
B. absolutism.
C. liberalism.
D. socialism.

40. John Locke believed all of the following EXCEPT that


A. people should form a limited government that had no other purpose than the protection of
the basic natural rights of life and property.
B. humans are fundamentally decent and slow to change.
C. humans give up their sovereignty to the state in civil society.
D. the right to property exists in nature.

41. Locke argued that the social contract


A. was an ironclad agreement that could not be broken.
B. was written to give all the power to the state.
C. was a gift from God.
D. could be broken if a ruler did not govern equitably.

42. John Locke is considered to have written the classic expression of which political school
of thought?
A. communism
B. totalitarianism
C. early liberalism
D. social welfare thought

43. When Locke argued that the mind at birth is tabula rasa, he meant that the mind is
A. already furnished with the germs of ideas.
B. empty, devoid of ideas.
C. ready to receive the ideas that God inspires.
D. muddled until internal reasoning can take over.

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2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part

Chapter 16 - The Baroque Age II: Revolutions in Scientific and Political Thought, 1600-1715

44. Both Hobbes and Locke agreed that the basis of government should be
A. a constitution.
B. an entail.
C. a social contract.
D. a gentleman's agreement.

45. One of the major contributions that Fontenelle made was to


A. reinforce the stand of the Roman Catholic Church against early modern science.
B. push the political ideas of Bishop Bousset.
C. argue for limitations on information to the public.
D. explain to the public the findings of seventeenth-century science.

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2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part

Chapter 16 - The Baroque Age II: Revolutions in Scientific and Political Thought, 1600-1715

Essay Questions
46. Why did one historian refer to the period between 1685 and 1715 as "the crisis of the
European conscience"? What scientific and intellectual changes were occurring during this
period? How was the intellectual crisis resolved?
Answers will vary

47. Discuss the differences between inductive and deductive reasoning and note their impact
on early modern thought.
Answers will vary

48. Discuss Galileo's research in light of the seventeenth century's ongoing conflict between
religion and science. Why was the church afraid of his findings? Ought it to have been?
Explain.
Answers will vary

49. What concept of the universe did Newton end up with? Describe it.
Answers will vary

50. What contributions did Vesalius, Harvey, and Malpighi make to the study of the human
body?
Answers will vary

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2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part

Chapter 16 - The Baroque Age II: Revolutions in Scientific and Political Thought, 1600-1715

51. What has been the impact of Francis Bacon on modern thought?
Answers will vary

52. Discuss Descartes' most important contributions to philosophy, and assess their value to
modern thought.
Answers will vary

53. How did Fontenelle and Bayle help spread the ideas of the Scientific Revolution?
Answers will vary

54. Define "natural law", and demonstrate how it was manifested in the writings of Grotius.
Answers will vary

55. How did English politics influence Hobbes's political thinking? What impact has The
Leviathan had on modern political theory?
Answers will vary

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2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part