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Immersion in Video Games

Final Report
Submitted for the BSc in
Computer Science
May 2016
By
Oluwafemi Adedayo Adesanya Ogunjimi

Word Count: 13,486

Table of Contents
1.Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 4
2.Aim and Objectives ............................................................................................................ 6
3.Background ........................................................................................................................ 9
3.1 Virtual Reality Definitions ......................................................................................... 9
3.2 Problem Context .................................................................................................... 10
3.3 Virtual Reality Background and Technical Details .................................................. 10
3.4 Immersion Background .......................................................................................... 15
3.4.1 Factors affecting immersion ................................................................................ 16
3.4.2 Project discussion ............................................................................................... 20
3.5 Comparison of Technologies .................................................................................. 21
3.5.1 Development Platform ......................................................................................... 21
3.5.2 Survey and questionnaire.................................................................................... 21
4.Technical Development .................................................................................................... 22
4.1 Game Design ......................................................................................................... 22
4.2 Game Environment Design .................................................................................... 22
4.3 Level Design .......................................................................................................... 24
4.4 Experiment Design ................................................................................................. 29
4.4.1 Participant Selection ........................................................................................... 29
4.4.2 Equipment ........................................................................................................... 29
4.4.3 Methodology ....................................................................................................... 29
4.4.3 Variables ............................................................................................................. 30
4.4.4 Ethics .................................................................................................................. 31
4.4.5 Questionnaire Design .......................................................................................... 31
5.Evaluation ........................................................................................................................ 32
5.1 Survey.................................................................................................................... 32
5.2 Experiment Results ................................................................................................ 35
5.3 Questionnaire Results ............................................................................................ 38
6.Discussion ....................................................................................................................... 45
6.1 Project achievements ............................................................................................. 46
6.2 Further Work .......................................................................................................... 47
7.Conclusion ....................................................................................................................... 48
8. Acknowledgements ......................................................................................................... 49
Appendix A:Experiment Script ............................................................................................. 50
Appendix B:Immersion in video games survey .................................................................... 52
Appendix C:Experiment online questionnaire ...................................................................... 53
Appendix D:Risk Analysis ................................................................................................... 56
Appendix E:Time plan ......................................................................................................... 57
Appendix F:Testing ............................................................................................................. 59
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Appendix G:Consent Form .................................................................................................. 60


9.References ...................................................................................................................... 62

1. Introduction
Video games have a rich history of success and dominance in the entertainment market
since around 1970. In the modern day market, video gaming enjoys worldwide popularity
with video games being used recreationally and as learning aids. There were an estimated
1.78 billion video game players worldwide in 2014 (Statista, 2014). A video game is an
electronic game that involves human interaction with a user interface to generate visual
feedback on a video device such as a TV screen or computer monitor (Shneiderman et al.,
2009). There are many different platforms to play video games but the main platforms are;
PC (personal computer), games consoles and mobile devices.
Within these platforms, there is further competition for application and video games sales.
Games consoles split further with the Xbox One (Microsoft, 2013), PlayStation 4 (Sony,
2013) and the Wii U (Nintendo, 2012) being the bestselling video game consoles (Grubb,
2016). In terms of mobile devices, android (Google, 2016) and iOS (Apple, 2016) are directly
competing against each other. While the platform may be different the general idea of video
games stays the same, with a video game serving a purpose, which includes entertaining
and educating.
In 2015, the overall value of the United Kingdom games market was estimated to be around
4.19bn which is an increase of 7% from 2014. In comparison, other entertainment
industries saw a loss in market sales over the same period; the film industry decreased by 1.4% to 2.2bn and the music industry decreased by 1.6% to 1bn (UKIE, 2014).
In recent times there has been a shift in the video game market and 2016 is set to be the
first year where there will be multiple and affordable virtual reality headsets available to
general consumers. Virtual reality is a three-dimensional, computer-generated environment
which can be interacted with and explored by a person. At this moment there are three
virtual reality headsets that will soon be available and these include; Oculus Rift, HTC Vive
(HTC, 2015) and PlayStation VR (Sony, 2015).

With so many companies and business start-ups each making their own version of a virtual
reality headset this new technology has generated a lot of attention from the industry and
consumers. The pre-order information for the Oculus Rift shows the level of interest as it is
currently four months back ordered and the HTC Vive selling over 15,000 units in around 10
minutes of the device going on sale (Shen Ye., 2015). This could be the next need-to-have
gadget to enjoy the next generation of games, further increasing the size of the video games
industry.
With all the success in the past of the video game industry research has been conducted
around why video games were so popular and why they were selling so well. This led to
most of the research focusing on the level of immersion a person feels while playing a video
game.
As Immersion is such a personal experience and varies from person to person, accurately
defining it has been a challenge and there have been studies conducted by academics
which have led to multiple definitions and explanations as to how it is achieved.

Definitions
Various researchers, experts and gamers have explored and attempted to define
immersion
Hotshot digital cinematography doesnt make a digital story immersive. What makes it
immersive is a world where no territory is off limits, anything you see is fair game, and all
your actions have consequences (Mcmahan, 2003).
Immersion refers to the degree to which an individual feels absorbed by or engrossed in a
particular experience (Witmer, 1998).
Immersion means the player is caught up in the world of the games story (the diegetic
level), but it also refers to the players love of the game and the strategy that goes into it (the
non-diegetic level) (McMahan, 2003).
The experience of being transported to an elaborately simulated place is pleasurable in
itself, regardless of the fantasy content. We refer to this experience as immersion.
Immersion is a metaphorical term derived from the physical experience of being submerged
in water. We seek the same feeling from a psychologically immersive experience that we do
from a plunge in the ocean or swimming pool: the sensation of being surrounded by a
completely other reality, as different as water is from the air that takes over all of our
attention. We enjoy the movement out of our familiar world, the feeling of alertness that
comes from being in this new place and the delight that comes from learning to move within
it (Harteveld, 2011).
Designing for Immersion
When designing games to be immersive the player has to be taken into account as game
designers can often become attached to their work and create a game that they enjoy but
others may not.
"Three conditions create a sense of immersion in a virtual reality or 3-D computer game:
1. The user's expectations of the game or environment must match the
environment's conventions fairly closely;
2. The user's actions must have a non-trivial impact on the environment;
3. The conventions of the world must be consistent, even if they don't match those
of 'meatspace'" (McMahan, 2003).
The degree to which the player feels integrated with the game space is a measure of her or
his sense of immersion. Immersion is another much-contested term in video gaming
discourse. For my purposes, I will define it here as diegetic immersion, where the player is
immersed in the act of playing the video game, and as intra-diegetic or situated immersion,
where the player is immersed in playing the game and in the experience of the game space
as a spatial and narrated space (Taylor LN., 2002).
"The user's expectations of the game or environment must match the environment's
conventions fairly closely" (McMahan, 2003).

2. Aim and Objectives


The purpose of this report is to understand, in more of a scientific way, the immersion when
people are playing games. This report will discuss and analyze different factors that affect
the level of immersion while playing a video game. In particular, the effect of virtual reality on
the level of presence was studied. This report will also state how tasks were planned and the
order they were executed.
This report is based around the following question:
High-quality graphics, storytelling, and technology all contribute to the creation of an
immersive video game. But what exactly is immersion and to what extent does the video
gamer help to shape their own experience? (Jennett et al., 2008).
We seem to all know what it means to be immersed in a game but what exactly is
immersion? This project is to understand, in more of a scientific way, the immersion when
people are playing games.
Detailed descriptions of the experiment methods, results, analysis and findings will be
discussed.

Aim:
Determine what immersion is in video games and investigate how virtual reality affects
immersion in video games.
This will be done by developing a virtual reality platforming game and comparing the level of
immersion a user feels while playing a non-virtual reality platforming game.

Objectives:
Objective 1: Research

- Research concepts around Immersion


Provide a comprehensive background around the topics of immersion and discuss how
immersion is achieved and measured.
- Research concepts around virtual reality
Provide a comprehensive background around the topics of virtual reality including the state
of the industry and where it is headed in the future.
- Compare both concepts and discuss how one is affected by the other
Show the relationship between virtual reality and immersion and discuss how the use of
virtual reality affects the level of immersion.
- Link both concepts to their relationship to video games
Immersion and virtual reality concepts should be linked to video games and show how these
concepts affect the way games are developed, marketed and sold.

Objective 2: Create a virtual reality platform game


Create a simple platform game which is played from a first-person perspective, this will be
used with another similar game to judge how virtual reality affects immersion.
The game will be a 3D platformer with a first person view and will be played using a head
mounted display (HMD).
Environment
- Build an environment where a the user is comfortable
The environment should be comfortable for the user to be in for a sustained period of
time. A clear day in an outdoor environment rather than a scene simulating a hailstorm.
To further add to the levels of immersion making the virtual environment replicate real
life conditions can convince the brain that the virtual environment is real life. The
environment should replicate a giant field as the environment with platforms floating
above the ground.
- Add virtual walls to the edge of the scene to stop users falling out of the scene
Users should not be able to pass the virtual barriers of the scene and should be stopped
if any attempt is made to move out of the scene.

Movement
- Movement of characters should be fluid and realistic
While in the first person view users wearing the head mounted display should feel they
are moving at a realistic speed. Therefore, objects moving around them should move at
an appropriate speed and the movement while running around the scene should be fluid
and not janky.
- Jumping motion should be accurate and true to real life human capabilities
While jumping between platforms the user should be only able to jump a relative few
meters above the platforms while in the virtual environment.
- Jumping action should have a ceiling
A height should be set where the user cannot go above.

Tracking
- Users head movements should be fully tracked
The users movements should be accurately tracked and any action should be
represented by a change in the game.

Models
- The platform models should interact with the user as they would in real life
While landing from a jump and taking off the platform users should not clip into the
platforms, they should land slightly above it and take off from the same position.

Difficulty
-

Add challenging elements that challenge the user to think logically to complete a
task
The user should be challenged while they test the game in order for users to be
engaged in the experiment. This will, in turn, make results more reliable as the users
were engaged for the whole time and they would provide more accurate feedback.
-

The game should be simple therefore users who are not especially computer literate
can use
The participants will be from different areas of the university and there will be varying
levels of skill with a computer. All users need to be in mind while the application is being
developed and an experience that all participants can use and enjoy.
- Should be able to switch between the tracked and non-tracked cameras
Changing between cameras should be quick after the participant has completed the
game with one of the views.

Objective 3: Data collection


Develop questionnaires that can be evaluated to show a trend to show how certain factors
affect video game players level of immersion. One questionnaire will be completed by
participants of experiment and another one will be used by video game players relating to
how they feel immersed while playing video games.

Objective 4: Data analysis


This objective is to gather all the data collected during the experiment and use a data
analysis tool to find trends and relationships within the data. This data will then be evaluated
to find the factors that affect the level of presence the most.
The data collected from the questionnaires will be analyzed using Excel (Microsoft), Weka
(University of Waikato, 1997) and SPSS (IBM, 1968). Charts and graphs will be produced
with the collected data to support the findings of the experiment. The results of the analysis
will allow a supported conclusion to be made about how much virtual reality positively or
negatively affects the level of presence. The same methodology will be used when testing
the factors. The purpose is to support the overall aim and to prove or disprove the
hypothesis that high-quality graphics increase immersion in video games more than lowquality graphics.

Objective 5: Evaluation and conclusion


Evaluate all of the presented data and summarize the main factors that the level of
presence. Produce a report on the experiment findings with a final detailed explanation of
how much or little virtual reality affects the level of presence.

3. Background
3.1 Virtual Reality Definitions
Head-mounted display (HMD)
This is currently the most popular form of hardware delivering a virtual reality experience to
users. With the current generation of head-mounted displays, goggles or a type of helmet
are used to house the displays and virtual reality (VR) technologies. This is where the VR
experience is viewed.
Head tracking
Refers to the sensors that keep a track of the movements of the user's head and move the
images being displayed so that they match the position of the head.

Field of view (FOV)


The field of view is the extent of the observable world that is seen at any given moment.
Having a higher field of view is very important, up to a point, because it contributes to the
user having higher levels of immersion in a VR experience.
Latency
Latency is a time interval between the stimulation and response and in terms of virtual reality
it is the delay of a users input and the expected output.
Motion sickness
In terms of virtual reality, motion sickness is a conflict of sorts between what your brain and
body think they're doing. This is caused by the virtual environment and symptoms can
include nausea, vomiting, disorientation, and sweating. The level of motion sickness varies
from person to person and is especially triggered with fast-moving virtual environments and
low resolution.
Virtual environment
An interactive, virtual image display enhanced by special processing and by nonvisual
display modalities, such as auditory and haptic [touch], to convince users they are immersed
in a synthetic space. (Ellis SR., 1994)
Presence
The term used to describe and measure the level of immersion in an experience. Presence
refers to experiencing the computer-generated environment rather than the actual physical
location (Witmer, 1998).
Motion Parallax
This is where distant objects move with the observer and nearer objects to the user move in
the opposite sense.
Binocular Disparity
The difference in perspective of the views from two eyes of an observer resulting from
separate positions of the eyes.

3.2 Problem Context


To gain a further understanding of the project, the concepts around immersion and virtual
reality will be explained.

3.3 Virtual Reality Background and Technical Details


A brief history of virtual reality
Virtual reality has only recently become a talked about topic but the ideas for interacting with
computers with VR go as far back as 1920. Edward Link in 1929 created one of the worlds
first commercial flight simulators, called the link trainer (Edward Link, 1920). Though this
early example of virtual reality may not be thought of as a traditional virtual reality headset as
we know today, it showed that a virtual world can be created and can be used to safely train
pilots. This led to the idea of modern-day virtual reality headsets in the book Pygmalions
Spectacles (Weinbaum S.G., 1935). The story featured a pair of goggles that allowed the
wearer to see a fictional world through holographic displays and interact with the world
through touch.
Over the years, there were many machines that were created which demonstrated the
potential of virtual reality including the Sensorama (Morton Heilig, 1962) which displayed
stereoscopic 3D images with a wide angle view and attempted to add layers of sensory
stimuli to augment a simple cinema presentation (Turi, 2014). This is show in figure 3.1.

Figure 3.1
The Sensorama machine (Morton Heilig, 1962)

While there were machines being created for industries including film and aerospace, there
were no devices intended for the general public to buy and use. This changed when the
Virtual Boy (Nintendo, 1995), as shown in figure 3.2, was released which was a video game
console where users view the game in 3D by putting their eyes against a headset. This
device was a massive failure and was only on sale for a year before being discontinued in
1996 (Narcisse, 2010). It was seen to dissuade companies from trying to incorporate virtual
reality into video games.

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Figure 3.2
The Nintendo Virtual Boy (Nintendo, 1995)

There were no more significant attempts at consumer virtual reality headsets following this
for a number of years until a California State student called Palmer Luckey began
developing prototype virtual reality headsets. The 6th generation of prototypes was codenamed the Rift and this began attracting a lot of attention once the product was demoed at
the 2012 Electronic Entertainment Expo, with the help of the game developer John Cormack.
The Rift (Oculus, 2012) raised US$2.4 million through crowdfunding website Kickstarter
(Kickstarter, 2012) and multiple development kits later the consumer version is ready to be
shipped in March 2016. (Ewalt, 2015).
Virtual reality has had an increased impact on how people view immersion in recent times
and the success of the Oculus Rift (Oculus, 2014) encouraged more companies to begin
developing virtual reality headsets. The other main competitors are the HTC Vive and
PlayStation VR. With recent advances immersion can go as far as physically putting yourself
in the story and playing the game as it was real life with no barriers or outside distraction.
This would be harder to achieve while 6 feet away from a television in a living room.
Virtual reality consists of multiple technologies which work together to provide this unique
experience: stereoscopic displays, motion tracking software and development tools.
Display
This is the main technology behind all virtual reality experiences. Modern displays aim to
create a sense of depth for the user by creating a persistent three-dimensional visual
experience. The display takes advantage of stereoscopic display that can reach display
resolutions higher than 1080p. Currently the current generation of VR headsets that will be
released in the current year, Oculus Rift and HTC Vive, both have a resolution of 21601200
split between two displays.
The stereoscopic effect that is used to display the 3D image is one of the most important
parts of the HMD (Head mounted display) and is also the most expensive part of the
headset. This effect simulates parallax which is where depth is perceived based on the
positions of objects. Also, the human eye is a spherical shape rather than the typical square
screen and to simulate this effect the image is distorted using a technique called barrel
distortion.

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Tracking software
In order to have an accurate and responsive experience while using an HMD, the user must
essentially be deceived into believing they are truly in a world that seems real. This is
achieved by fully tracking all of the users head movements and updating the virtual scene to
take into account the user's actions in real time.
This must be carried out at high speed with little to no latency, which means the users
actions should immediately cause an effect in the virtual environment.
With recent advances in technology and full body tracking systems including the Microsoft
Kinect (Microsoft, 2010), there are now ways to use virtual reality HMDs with other tracking
software. A prominent example of this is the use of a device called Leap Motion (Leap
Motion Inc., 2016), which provides additional tracking of the hands. This will enable users to
physically interact with the virtual environment they are in and will only add to the level of
presence.

Development tools
With all of the potential possibilities that virtual reality provides, developers require a place to
develop these awesome experiences and publish them for the world to use and enjoy.
These experiences are developed using the native software developer kits (SDK), game
engines and frameworks.
SDKs are device drivers are large libraries of software libraries that are used with the
computers operating system. They are mostly harder to develop with and are generally used
when a developer wants to develop applications and engines that are highly complex and
hard to understand and explain. Game engines are typically developed using just the native
software developer kit due to the high level of complexity and the high-level performance
that is required.
While applications can be developed exclusively using the SDK, most developers would
prefer to work within a game engine. This is because an engine can deal with all the lowlevel details including behaviors and physics. Oculus is currently one the most popular virtual
reality headsets, with forecasted sales of 3.6 million units in 2016 (Statista, 2016). Their
popularity is also aided by Facebook (Facebook, 2004), the biggest social media platform,
as they were recently subject to a US$2 billion takeover (Cheshire, 2014). This could also be
due to the support for cross-platform development, which is where an app developed for a
specific platform such as IOS 6(Apple, 2012) and can also be targeted to work for PCs also.
This allows the developer to have a larger audience for their applications, which increases
potential sales and success with little extra work. It is also easier to develop as both engines
come with built-in features such as built-in assets and models to use, also crucially they both
contain an integrated development environment (IDE). This is a powerful set of tools that
enable developers to add code and scripts to models and the environment in order to
manipulate it.
Discussion
The commercial success of virtual reality will be defined by whether there are enough people
that initially purchase a headset and whether virtual reality is accepted by developers and
create experiences for this medium of entertainment. The consumer version of the Oculus
Rift was recently made available for pre-order and there was one major point that got the
industry talking. It was made available for the price of US$599 or 499 excluding tax.
(Oculus, 2015). Many people have voiced their opinion that this is too much to pay for this
device, which is largely due to a miscommunication of how much it would cost at launch.
(Yeung, 2016).Although compared to older virtual reality headsets that cost thousands of
pounds to buy, the next generation of headsets are priced a lot cheaper and are more
technologically advanced than older models.
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Building a system for the Oculus Rift from scratch would cost upwards of around 800
(Oculus, 2015) as it requires the game to run at around 90fps with a high resolution, which
most PCs cannot currently do. Most people, however, will have a PC and will mostly require
an update to the graphics card, as this is the most important part of the PC to virtual reality
headsets. The minimum recommended specification for the graphics card is either the
NVidia GTX 970 (NVidia, 2014) or the AMD 290(Advanced Micro Devices, 2014) and this
would cost around 260 (Amazon.co.uk, 2016).

Limitations
Virtual reality in its current state has a lot of limitations as this technology has only recently
been pushed into the forefront of new and exciting technologies that developers want to use.
One of the main limitations is the state of current generation graphics cards as virtual reality
HMDs require a high frame rate to be played without lag and screen tearing.
Two of the main graphics card makers, NVidia, and AMD, have already released VR ready
graphics cards which are required for a fluid VR experience. Alongside this, they both
respectively have also released new tools including Gameworks VR (NVidia, 2015) and
Liquid VR (AMD). These tools are aimed at making developing and running virtual reality
applications a more fluid experience.
Another issue that was progressively being worked on with every developer kit of the
Oculus, HTC Vive, and PlayStation VR is the issue of cybersickness. This is where a virtual
environment causes the user to experience symptoms of motion sickness. Causes of this
including low resolution, fast movements in VR and mismatched motion between the users
actions and the virtual representation of that action.
There are physical limitations on the use of virtual reality and these include the field of view
and space and tracking volume. The limit of physical space is more of an issue for the HTC
Vive because it is designed to be a full room experience with trackers set around the room to
track the headsets wearers movements. The Oculus Rift is designed to be a sat down
experience first so this is less of an issue.
A high field of view (FOV) is essential to deliver an immersive experience and current VR
headsets have a field of view of around 100-120 degrees. (Oscillada, 2015). This means that
there are black bars at the edge of the user's view while using the headset, this could
potentially reduce the level of immersion as compared to real life where there are no black
bars around the eyes.
Virtual reality and immersion
With virtual reality headsets, in particular, they aim to block out any distractions with the
headset being closed. This will ensure that the user only focuses on the content that the
developer intended to be seen. Adding tracking of the headset makes a user feel like they
are actually present in the environment and can walk around and the world moves around
them like it would in real life.
A good measure of the impact of virtual reality on immersion levels are individual
experiences and the following quotes are individuals thoughts on virtual reality and
immersion from the past and present:
It was the most immersive experience, and frankly, the most fun Ive had with a VR headset
strapped on my head. I walked away from the demo a complete believer, not just in VR, but
also in HTC and Valve, and I cant wait to see whats next.
(Morritt, 2016)
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Being virtually killed by a virtual laser in a virtual space is just as effective as the real thing
because you are as dead as you think you are.
(Morritt, 2016)
Emotions - Happiness, anger, jealousy... is the mind experiencing "presence" in our
holographic existence.
(Morritt, 2016)
Virtual reality is the first step in a grand adventure into the landscape of the imagination.
(Basa, 2012)
Virtual reality promises a kind of transcendence of the limits of physical reality.
(Salmond and Ambrose, 2015)
The vital factor of virtual reality is immersion, the degree to which the user's senses are
limited to the simulation and screened from a real world.
(Khosrowpour, 1998)

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3.4 Immersion Background


Immersion has many different definitions and can be applied in different contexts and is not
usually measured in traditional ways. One definition of immersion is the degree to which an
individual feels absorbed by or engrossed in a particular experience (Witmer, 1998). Modern
day video games are often judged on how immersive they feel, which is usually a measure
of well you feel a part of the virtual world.

There have been many quotes about immersion as this is a topic that is particularly abstract
and hard to define and measure. For example:
Hotshot digital cinematography doesnt make a digital story immersive. What makes it
immersive is a world where no territory is off limits, anything you see is fair game, and all
your actions have consequences (Mcmahan, 2003).
However the following best describes the developers opinions about immersion:
The experience of being transported to an elaborately simulated place is pleasurable in
itself, regardless of the fantasy content. We refer to this experience as immersion.
Immersion is a metaphorical term derived from the physical experience of being submerged
in water.
We seek the same feeling from a psychologically immersive experience that we do from a
plunge in the ocean or swimming pool: the sensation of being surrounded by a completely
other reality, as different as water is from the air that takes over all of our attention. We enjoy
the movement out of our familiar world, the feeling of alertness that comes from being in this
new place and the delight that comes from learning to move within it (Harteveld, 2011).
This statement shows that a few elements of immersion is unquantifiable and is largely
based on the experience of the individual describing it. Simply, it can be described as being
submerged below the water level and fully underwater. In a way, this can be applied to other
sectors including computer science. The same as being submerged in water, users want to
be mentally inside a completely different world. This includes being part of the story,
engaging and forming bonds with characters and performing actions that the person believes
is having an effect on the virtual world. While being immersed there should be no outside
distractions just as you are underwater, the sound is muffled from the outside and images
are distorted which metaphorically and physically cuts your link to the outside world.
For many people immersion is an escape from their reality and allows them to be
somewhere with no link to their reality. This allows them to essentially be carefree for a
specific time as the outside world is forgotten for a brief moment in time. It could be
something as simple as being engrossed in a book for example in which a user creates a
fictional world which they are part of in their imagination.

To describe what it is to be immersed, it is important to discuss presence as this is a more


accurate way to describe being immersed.
Immersion is to make someone feel that they have left the real world and is now "present" in
the virtual environment. This is an essential part that all virtual environments aspire to
achieve and is the basis of all virtual environment design.
Thus, whereas immersion is a "technology-related", objective aspect of VEs, presence is a
psychological, perceptual and cognitive consequence of immersion. Presence is thought of
as the psychological perception of "being in" or "existing in" the VE in which one is
immersed (Mestre, 2005).
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3.4.1 Factors affecting immersion


The way you play can significantly affect immersion levels as they provide different
experiences and provoke different feelings. Two different scenarios of playing a first person
shooting game are:
1. Playing a first person shooter cooperatively with a group of your friends, while
ferociously defending and attacking an objective. While communicating where the
enemies are to each other and trying to win the game.
2.

Playing a first person shooter in a dark room playing on your own and no forms of
communication with other players online.

These two experiences are vastly different. According to the 2015 survey of sales,
demographic and usage data carried out by the Entertainment Software Association (ESA,
2015), around 44% of most frequent game players in the USA do not play with others. While
56% do play with others, which is still a large amount of people who play alone. The
percentage breakdown of the results is shown in figure 3.3.

Figure 3.3
ESA study of how games are played in the US (2005)

The level of difficulty can also have negative and positive effects on immersion as a level of
challenge should be expected while playing a game in order to maintain the engagement of
the content consumer. A caveat to this is that the age of the user can also impact the level of
challenge of a game.
Games designed to be enjoyed by 5 10-year-olds e.g. Peppa Pig: Paintbox (Entertainment
One, 2014) would have a lower difficulty than a first person shooting game e.g. Battlefield 4
(Electronic Arts, 2013), which requires quick reflexes and a mastery of the controls to
perform well. Easy games that you breeze through without any thought might not immerse
you as much as a game that requires you to think which in turn would make you stop more
and potentially appreciate the game more.
Developers, artists and content creators are all looking for ways to increase the level of
immersion that consumers feel when using their products and creations. For the more
creative arts focused creator, who just want people to enjoy their product, higher levels of
immersion potentially leads to consumers enjoying their product more. This fits especially
well with books and films. Other creators including triple-A developer studios (AAA), who aim
to have very high sales of games with large budgets and promotion, would want to increase
immersion levels to generate higher sales. Though there is a positive relationship between
the level of immersion and video game sales, it is not the only factor affecting sales.
Adding other methods to play a game can often increase the levels of immersion;
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Input peripherals
Adding more ways to control characters can positively affect the level of immersion video
game players feel as in some cases a controller is not the best way to naturally play specific
games. A steering wheel for racing games and a flight stick for flying games would provide a
more immersive experience because they are the control methods used in real life to control
these vehicles. Using these control methods when in the game world the brain can be
tricked into believing the person is actually controlling these vehicles in the virtual
environment.

Graphics
One of the biggest developments in the recent history of video games is the development of
video game graphics. The increase in the importance of graphics is clear to see in the list of
best-selling games in the USA 2015, which is one of the largest markets for video games.
1. Call of Duty: Black Ops III**
2. Madden NFL 16**
3. Fallout 4**
4. Star Wars Battlefront 2015**
5. Grand Theft Auto V**
6. NBA 2K16**
7. Minecraft**
8. Mortal Kombat X**
9. FIFA 16**
10. Call of Duty: Advanced Warfare**
** (includes CE, GOTY editions, bundles, etc. but not those bundled with hardware)
(Grubb, 2016)
All the video games that are mentioned have very high-quality graphics as expected of any
modern AAA video game. As most of these video games are a part of a franchise, direct
comparisons are able to be made and the graphical upgrade of each iteration can be clearly
seen. Looking at one of the best-selling franchises of all time, Grand Theft Auto (Rockstar,
1997), the first game was released in 1997 and the latest iteration was in 2013.
The first grand theft auto released in 1997 used a top down based camera view of the world
which always keeps the character in the view of the camera. In 1997, it was common for
games to be in 2D as the technology and knowledge were not widely available to develop
games in 3D. Figure 3.4 shows a top-down camera view of the original Grand Theft Auto.

17

The sounds were also standard with not much variation in explosion and weapon sounds
and there were no weather changes. (McLaughlin and Thomas, 2013)

Figure 3.4
Shows graphics of the original grand theft auto (1997)

Grand Theft Auto III was the first in the series to feature a third-person perspective in a fully
3D world. As shown in figure 3.5 and figure 3.6 the game also featured a full 24-hour cycle
which included different weather effects and included different night and day effects.
The main advancement was with the game engine, created by Criterion games, which
focused on a forward view perspective. Another flagship feature of this engine is the use of a
layer of detail which is how 3D objects that are closer are viewed in higher detail while
objects further away are viewed with less detail. This is essential especially with past
consoles as more detailed and dynamic worlds can be created and played with less powerful
hardware. (McLaughlin and Thomas, 2013)

Figure 3.5
Shows 3D graphics of the Grand Theft Auto III (2001)

Figure 3.6
Shows the rain effects in Grand Theft Auto III (2001)

The latest iteration of Grand Theft Auto was released in 2013 and is the most graphically
advanced in the series. This game featured multiple technical improvements including
increased draw distances, finer texture details, denser traffic, and enhanced resolutions. The
textures were notably smoother than the previous iteration Grand Theft Auto IV. This can be
seen in figures 3.7 and 3.8. This leads to a more realistic depiction of the city of Los
Angeles, which is where the game location is set. (McLaughlin and Thomas, 2013)

18

Figure 3.7
Shows the first person view in Grand Theft Auto V (2013)

Figure 3.8
Shows the world and visual effects in
Grand Theft Auto V (2013)

To further demonstrate the importance of video game graphics in this franchise's direction,
when the next generation of consoles was released a remastered version of Grand Theft
Auto 5 was created with increased graphics and a few new features. Figures 3.9 and 3.10
show the increase in graphics quality.

Figure 3.9
Shows the graphical differences between the PS4
and PS3 versions of Grand Theft Auto V (2014)

Figure 3.10
Shows the graphical differences between the PS4
and PS3 versions of Grand Theft Auto V (2014)

The increase in graphical quality has been a trend with each of the leading game franchises
resulting in an increase in graphical fidelity with each iteration. A recent survey conducted by
the Consumer Electronics Association also shows that graphical quality is an important part
of any modern game. The survey stated: 75% of gamers said that graphics do determine
whether or not they're likely to purchase a game (Usher, 2014).
Problems of immersion
Although recent advancements in immersion is a good thing, as the technology advances
and people become more immersed in games this can lead to a breakdown in society with
people becoming too attached to mobile devices. This problem is especially more prevalent
with the current generation of young people with easy access to technological advanced
mobile devices.

19

3.4.2 Project discussion


For this, a platform game will be created in order to test how virtual reality impacts the level
of immersion the user feels.
The game will be a virtual reality platforming game where the user will try and navigate a
series of platforms using a jumping mechanism. The platforms will be located in an
environment that simulates being on a large field on a sunny day. The game will have simple
mechanics that will be easy to pick up and play as some participants may not be familiar with
playing computer games. The platforms will also be suspended in the air and if the user falls
they will be reset to the beginning. The game will be able to be played with or without a head
mounted display (HMD).
Adding an element of virtual reality allow the developer to investigate how adding elements
of virtual reality can change how the level of presence changes with a headset. This game
will be developed using Unity (Unity Technologies, 2016) and the Oculus integration tools
which allow the headset to be quickly implemented in a Unity project. The developer chose
this platform because Unity has recently become free and has built-in integration with the
Oculus Rift which makes it easier for developers to develop games in this environment.
While the developer has no previous experience developing a virtual reality game, there are
resources that allow any developer to get started with virtual reality development. (Oculus
VR, 2016).
These game will be created using the Oculus Rift as the virtual reality HMD. This is due to
the fact that it currently actively supports Unity and combined with the integration tools it is
the most efficient way to develop these programs. In addition to the Oculus, the Unity game
engine and C# will be used. This is due to the developer having experience with this
language and it is also an efficient language to quickly develop small and simple games. The
Unity game engine is also the best choice for the developer to use as it has many inbuilt
functions that allow games to be developed efficiently and to a high level. Functions include
lifelike animation and accurate collision detection. The engine also allows the use of C#
scripts that can be written and affect the models and characters.

20

3.5 Comparison of Technologies


The technologies that were used for this experiment will be discussed and possible
alternative technology choices will be evaluated.

3.5.1 Development Platform


Objective 2 is to develop a platforming game and it was essential that it can be used with a
tracked head mounted display. The platforms considered were Visual Studio, Unity 3D** and
Unreal Engine.
Unity
Unity is a cross-platform game engine developed by Unity Technologies. It is used to
develop video games for multiple platforms including PC, mobile devices, and video game
consoles. The application would be developed with the use of C# scripting.
Unreal Engine
Unreal Engine (Epic Games, 2016) is a cross-platform game engine developed by Epic
Games. It is used to develop video games for multiple platforms including PC, mobile
devices, and video game consoles. The application would be developed with the C++
programming language.
Reasons for choice
The Unity platform was selected because the integration with the oculus developer kits was
more comprehensive at the time the selection was made. C# was also the preferred
language to use because of the developers past experience using this language. There were
tight time constraints while developing this game and the use of C# is sufficient for the
application requirements.

3.5.2 Survey and questionnaire


To satisfy objective 3, a suitable method had to be found to gather responses from
participants of the experiments and the general public. The technologies considered were
Google Forms and Visual studio.
Google Forms
Google Forms (Google, 2016) is part of the Google office suite and is a survey software
where questions can be set up with the appropriate type of response selected by the
designer.
Visual Studio
Visual Studio (Microsoft, 2016) is an integrated development environment which is used to
develop computer programs for multiple platforms including the PC. The application would
be developed with the C# programming language.
Reasons for choice
A prototype for the survey was made as a windows form application with visual studio and it
was not possible to use the survey to gather responses from people over the internet. The
only way it could be used was with the participants of the experiment, as they could easily
finish the survey after they finished the experiment. As this was the case Google Forms was
chosen as it is more astatically pleasing and can be deployed over the internet, through a
shareable internet link and be used in both required use cases.

21

4. Technical Development
4.1 Game Design
This game would be played by University Of Hull Students with varying levels of video game
experience. The platform game would have three levels of increasing difficulty with the third
level being the most difficult.

4.2 Game Environment Design


Initially, while designing the environment of the game multiple factors were considered
including ethical responsibility and suitability for the game genre. Participants were required
to feel as they were in a feasible environment that promotes realistic responses to the
scenario, which in this case participants are required to jump between platforms. Figure 4.1
shows an initial prototype of the environment with a water feature in the corner of the map.

Figure 4.1
Initial prototype of the environment

Figures 4.2 and 4.3 showcase the final design for the environment and it was designed to
add a sense of height as the platforms will be placed above the pool of water. There are also
multiple trees in the corner of the scene which potentially increases immersion by taking
advantage of motion parallax depth cue. There are also two times of day that a level can be
played on with the second level taking place in the night and the first and third level taking
place in the day.

22

Figure 4.2
Final design of the environment

Figure 4.3
Final design of the evening environment

23

4.3 Level Design


The levels were required to increase gradually in difficulty and provide a level of challenge in
order to fully engage the participants. Initially, shown in figure 4.4, the prototype designs
were based around simple platforms with a cube style being placed in increasingly
challenging positions with each level. This design was functional but did not have the
required level of challenge.

Figure 4.4
Initial top down view of platform layout and design

The final design was compared against objective 2 and is suitable for experienced video
game players and non-experienced video game players. Each level is based on a series of
objects that can be traversed by the participant. Figures 4.5, 4.6 and 4.7 showcase the final
platform designs.
The textured pebble platform can be stepped on and it provides realistic stone textures. The
texture was created with Blender (Blender Foundation, 2016) which is an open source 3D
Graphics software program. The image was then wrapped around a spherical 3D object and
imported into Unity. It is used as a non-moveable platform that is used at the start of levels 1
and 2.

Figure 4.5
Textured pebble platform

A rectangular platform was created that falls in a controlled manner, once it has been
stepped on. A script was created for this purpose where the platform falls to a specific point
then is removed from the scene.

24

Figure 4.6
Falling platform
using UnityEngine;
using System.Collections;
public class FallingPlat : MonoBehaviour {
bool isFalling = false;
float downSpeed = 1;
void OnTriggerEnter(Collider collider)
{
if (collider.gameObject.name == "FPSController")
{
isFalling = true;
Destroy(gameObject, 4);
}
}
void Update ()
{
if (isFalling)
{
downSpeed += Time.deltaTime;//takes into account how fast computer is and
incremently increases speed taking this into account.
transform.position = new Vector3(transform.position.x, transform.position.y downSpeed/30, transform.position.z);
}
}

The code above shows the C# script that enables the platform to fall once it has been
interacted with. The variable downspeed was created to allow easy manipulation of the
platform fall speed in the Unity environment. The platform uses an onTrigger Event, which
allows the code to run once an event occurs, to change the isFalling bool to true and allow
the platform to begin moving down. The speed is according to the delta time which is a more
accurate way to measure the time as this takes into account the speed of the computer.
The final platform is only found on the last level and can either shift from side to side, which
is indicated by the green box outlines, or up and down. A script was created that takes the
initial position and sets another two positions that the object will shift to after a set time. This
process is then repeated in a loop.

25

Figure 4.7
Shifting platform
using UnityEngine;
using System.Collections;
public class MovingPlatforms : MonoBehaviour {
public
public
public
public
public
public
public

Transform movingPlatform;
Transform position1;
Transform position2;
Vector3 newPosition;
string currentState;
float speed;
float resetTime;

// Use this for initialization


void Start()
{
ChangeTarget();
}
// Update is called once per frame
void FixedUpdate()
{
movingPlatform.position = Vector3.Lerp (movingPlatform.position, newPosition, speed *
Time.deltaTime);
}
void ChangeTarget()
{
if (currentState == "Moving To Position 1"){
currentState = "Moving To Position 2";
newPosition = position2.position;
}
else if (currentState == "Moving To Position 2") {
currentState = "Moving To Position 1";
newPosition = position1.position;
}
else if (currentState == "") {
currentState = "Moving To Position 2";
newPosition = position2.position;
}
Invoke("ChangeTarget", resetTime);
}
}

26

using UnityEngine;
using System.Collections;
public class HoldCharacter : MonoBehaviour {
//when collision made the moving platform is parent
void OnTriggerEnter (Collider cl) {
cl.transform.parent = gameObject.transform;
}
//when it leaves the relationship is removed
void OnTriggerExit(Collider cl) {
cl.transform.parent = null;
}
}

The code above shows the C# script that enables the platform to move between two defined
positions. Speed and resetTime variables are defined that allow the speed platforms move
and how long the gap between each movement is to be altered in the environment. A class
was also created to allow the player to become a child of the parent platforms. When a
player steps on a platform they move with the platform and when they step off the platform
the relationship is removed.
The end point of each level is a sphere that emits white particles. Once the player collides
with the sphere next level can be played.

The final layout, shown in figure 4.8, 5.9 and 5.10, of the three levels was based on video
game objectives and to fully satisfy the objective, participants of all video game experience
levels should be able to complete it.
The first level consists of platforms that do not move or shift in any direction. This serves an
introduction and prepares participants for the other more difficult levels.
The second level is broken down into two sections with the first section consisting of the
same non-moving platforms as the first level. The second section introduces the falling
platforms which have been placed at multiple levels and positions. At the end platform, there
is a large statue to give the users a sense of the scale in the virtual world, by showing how
small the player is.
The final level combines the newly introduced shifting platforms, which can move in any
direction including diagonally, with the aforementioned falling platforms.

Figure 4.8
The first level of the immersion in video game experiment

27

Figure 4.9
The second level of the immersion in video game experiment

Figure 4.10
The third level of the immersion in video game experiment

28

4.4 Experiment Design


An experiment was conducted with 26 participants to study the effect of Virtual Reality on the
level of presence felt while playing video games. Immersion here is associated and
measured through presence as discussed in Chapter 3.4.2.
H0: Null Hypothesis - Virtual reality headsets provide the same level of presence as a
traditional computer monitor.
H1: Alternative Hypothesis - Virtual reality headsets provide an increased level of presence
than a traditional computer monitor.

4.4.1 Participant Selection


26 participants were recruited through social media and email. The posts on social media
consisted of a brief introduction to the research topic and the dates of the experiment. If
interested participants were encouraged to reply via email and Facebook Messaging. Of the
26 participants 22 (85%) were male and 4 (15%) were female. The age range of the
participants was between 19 and 25 and the mean age was 21 years old.

4.4.2 Equipment
-

23 inch 1080p HD Samsung TV screen


Xbox 360 PC Gamepad
Oculus Rift Headset
Laptop
PC
Keyboard
Mouse
Stopwatch

4.4.3 Methodology
A controlled experiment was conducted with 26 participants to study the effect of Virtual
Reality on the level of presence felt while playing video games. All of the participants were
current University of Hull students.
The experiment took place in the Hull Immersive Visualization Environment (H.I.V.E) located
at the University of Hull. A corner of the room was set up for the experiment and another
section was set up for the questionnaire, this is where percipients used a laptop to answer a
questionnaire based on the experiment. The experiment followed a script that was
developed beforehand in order to keep the interactions with each participant the same each
time (see appendix A).
Upon arriving participants were invited to sit in front of the screen with the Oculus Rift
headset and Microsoft Xbox controller directly in front of them.
They were given an anonymous ID and the time and date were noted by the experimenter.
The participants were then asked details about themselves including their age, gender,
known vision defects and if they had any past experience with video games. They were then
required to sign a consent form before they were allowed to begin. Participants were then
read instructions related to the experiment and then began the experiment. The game was
played through twice, once with the Oculus Rift and another time with a 23 inch HDTV.

29

While the participant played through the levels, the number of falls and the length of time to
complete the three levels was recorded for each display modality. There was a time limit of 5
minutes for each experience once the participant was comfortable to begin.
Once the participant had completed the experiment they were asked to complete a survey
on a separate laptop which included any feedback on the experiment in general.
The experiment uses a 2x design where the experiment factor was the test for the level of
presence and the experiment factor had two levels. The two levels were participants using
the HMD and using the TV screen. The experiment also used a within-subjects design,
which is where the participants take part in both test conditions and use the HMD and TV
screen. As there were a smaller number of participants, this method was used as fewer
participants are required when compared to a between-subjects design, which would require
participant being split into two groups and each group would only take part in one level of the
experiment factor. Using a within-subjects design will also reduce the error variance of the
results due to the fact that the same participants will take part in both experimental
conditions and any abnormalities will be factored into both sets of results (Greenwald, 2002).
An example of this is that a participant could experience visual disturbances while the
experiment is conducted, that produces abnormal results. With subject design will negate
any potential effects on the results and conclusions drawn from this because the abnormal
results will be present in both sets of data, essentially cancelling out each other.
Counterbalancing methods were used with this experiment to eliminate any potential order
effects. This stops participants becoming familiar with the experiment and changing the
potential results by changing the order participants play through the experiment. (Brooks,
2012).The participants were split into two random groups and one group used the HMD first
and the TV screen second while the other group started with the TV screen and then used
the HMD last.

4.4.3 Variables
Independent variable
The display modality which was either the TV screen or the Oculus Rift headset.
Dependent variable
Level of presence experienced
Constant conditions
- The same room
- Same Environment
- Same Chair
- Same Lighting conditions
- Same hardware
- Same tasks
- Display
- Controller
- Ingame conditions

30

4.4.4 Ethics
Participants were reassured before participating in the experiment that it could be stopped at
any time and any data collected would be anonymous and securely stored. The
experimenter also carried out a user test before the experiment began in order to remove
any potential unethical scenarios. An ethics form was also submitted and approved by the
University of Hull departmental ethics committee before the experiment was cleared to
begin.

4.4.5 Questionnaire Design


A questionnaire was completed by all participants and gathered information relating to the
individual's personal level of presence the individual felt while playing. Answers were rated
on the scale of 1-5 for each question. 1 being not at all and 5 being very much so. The
questionnaire was developed from another experimental report based on measuring and
defining the experience of immersion in games (Jennett et al., 2008). The questions in this
questionnaire were mainly based on participants feelings and focus during the experiment.
There were two parts to this questionnaire with the first series of questions based on the
experience using the Oculus Rift Headset and the second half related to the experience
using the LCD screen. Both sets of questions from each section are identical, this is because
they can be directly compared and the differences can be analyzed and evaluated.

31

5. Evaluation
Statistical analysis and evaluation of results from the conducted experiment and data
collected from an online survey regarding the perception of immersion.
To evaluate the data against the experiment hypothesis, statistical analysis of results was
conducted using Excel and the Data Analysis toolpak add-in.

5.1 Survey
The results from the Google Forms survey were downloaded in an excel file and the data
was studied and analyzed, as shown in figure 5.1. The results of the analysis were
visualized using graphs and charts in excel.

Figure 5.1
Survey responses in an Excel spreadsheet

There was a total of 32 respondents in the survey and the age range was between 18-21
and 45 or older. 56% of participants were aged 18-21 and is estimated that a majority of the
participants are current students of the University of Hull. This is supported by the age
breakdown and targeted advertising on social media.
Participants were asked to define immersion and of 32 respondents 31 gave a definition and
1 definition was removed as it was not a valid entry. Using eTable Utilities (Thinking In E,
2016) in Excel, the common words used to define immersion were examined and counted.
When defining immersion, based on phrase analysis, many respondents definitions were
based on the surroundings and relating immersion to the way they feel. The notion of being
in another place while being immersed was very strong and also the connection to a video
games story and characters was seen as an important factor in order to be immersed in a
video game.

32

Phrase analysis
you feel
you attention to around
where you are
losing track of time
fully in a
connection to characters
being in a
another world
and forget about
0

FREQUENCY
Figure 5.2
Bar chart showing the frequency of phrases used

Further analysis of the individual words consolidates the idea of transportation with the most
frequent words. Losing track of time was also identified to be a key factor of immersion with
losing, track and time being frequently used in definitions.
Word
world
being
time
feel
real
characters
losing
track
around
attention
Enjoyable
happening
where
forget
connection
going
issues

Frequency
5
5
4
4
4
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

Figure 5.3
Table showing the frequency of words used

Respondents were asked On average how many hours do you spend playing video games
a week? 28% played video games 1 to 3 hours a week which was closely followed by 25%
playing from 4 to 6 hours. This trend is supported by a 2015 study about the video game
industry which reported 42% of Americans played video games for 3 hours or more per
week. (ESA, 2015)
Respondents were also asked What Genre do you typically play? The most popular video
game genres were shooting games (22%) and sports games (20%).
33

What people play can have a major impact on the presence that an individual feels and
analysis of the phrases and words used to describe immersion show that there is a large
emphasis on attention and the game characters. So, games with an engaging story and
interesting gameplay mechanics will likely lead to a more immersive experience for video
game players. This is evident in the best-selling sports and shooting game franchises, FIFA
(EA Sports, 2016) and Call of Duty (Activision, Treyarch, 2016). FIFA (EA Sports, 2016) has
a mode where players can buy and trade football cards in order to build the best team and
compete against other players (Electronic Arts, 2016). While Call of Duty has a story mode
which changes with every game iteration and normally follows a protagonist who the player
forms an attachment to as they control them through dangerous scenarios. (Activision,
2016)
The final question was Do you normally play single player or multi-player? The analysis
shows that 56% of respondents played multiplayer games and 44% normally play single
player games.
How people play video games can have a positive or negative impact on their immersion
levels. The analysis of the words and phrases used to define immersion supports both single
and multi-player mediums because the immersion a player feels while playing a video game
is very personal and can vary. The phrase and word analysis of definitions by respondents
show a great emphasis on losing track of time and reality and this is a large part of
multiplayer games that tend to focus on communication between players. Analysis of the
results also shows that video game characters are a key part of the feeling of presence,
which supports the view that single player games can provide an equally immersive
experience.

What Genre do you typically play?


Action

2% 11%

Adventure

20%
12%
1%

9%

Moba
Mobile
None

12%

2%
2%

2%
18%

9%

Role Playing
Shooter
Shooter;Simulation

Figure 5.4
Table showing the genres respondents played

34

5.2 Experiment Results


Participants in the experiment were given an ID to keep their identities anonymous and
before the experiment began their details were taken and put into a spreadsheet. Once the
experiment had concluded the completion time and a number of falls were noted for both the
HMD and the LCD screen.

Figure 5.5
Experiment participants details in an Excel spreadsheet

There was a total of 26 participants in the experiment and the age range was between 19
and 25 with the average age being 21. 85% of participants were male and 15% were female.
65% of participants had no visual defects and 35% had some form of visual defect.
The total average of all the results was collected with the average number of falls using the
screen being 8.23 and the average number of falls using the HMD was 6.04. The results
take into account the counterbalancing methods that were used in this experiment to
eliminate any potential order effects. The order of the screen and HMD was switched at the
mid-point of the experiment and the results show the game was more difficult to navigate
with the screen than with the HMD.

35

HMD and Screen Falls


NUMBER OF FALLS

20
15
10
5
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
PARTICIPANT
Screen Falls

HMD Falls

Figure 5.6
Experiment participants details in an Excel spreadsheet

The completion time between display modalities was closer, with the HMD having a better
average at 4.20 seconds and the screen had a completion time of 4.47. While the difference
was minimal, this result is supported with the questionnaire all the participants completed
after the experiment, which showed that 97% of participants believed that the Oculus Rift
was more immersive.

HMD and Screen completion times


COMPLETION TIMES

6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
PARTICIPANT
Screen Completion Time

HMD Completion time

Figure 5.7
Experiment participants details in an Excel spreadsheet

In terms of counterbalancing, the order in which participants completed the experiment had
the predicted effect on results, with the display modality that was used first having longer
completion times and more falls.

36

Figure 5.8
Experiment results split to show order of execution in an Excel spreadsheet

37

5.3 Questionnaire Results


Responses to the questionnaire were completed by participants after the experiment
concluded using Google forms and this data was transferred into an Excel spreadsheet.

Figure 5.9
Questionnaire results in an Excel spreadsheet

The data was then highlighted to show the difference between the Oculus Rift and TV
screen data. The questionnaire consisted of 30 questions with 14 questions relating to the
experience with the Oculus Rift and another 14 of the same questions applying to the
experience using the TV screen. The last two questions were ambiguous and applied to both
experiences. Questions were then split into three categories in order to evaluate and
compare the results as a group.
The three groups were attention and focus, presence and performance. The attention group
consists of questions 1, 2, 4, 6, 15, 16, 18 and 20. It focuses on how engaged the participant
was, whether they were distracted and whether they were fully focused on completing the
experiment. The presence group consists of questions 5, 7, 8, 9,19,21,22 and 23. This group
is associated with the environment in the video game and whether the participant felt like
they were actually present in the experiment and interacting with the environment. The last
group is related to the performance while playing the video game during the experiment and
consists of questions 3, 10, 11, 12, 13, 17, 24, 25, 26 and 27. This group will show how well
the participant thought they did and how challenging they found the experiment. Question
14, 28 and 29 were removed due to containing qualitative data that could not be analyzed
with the other data. Question 30 was also omitted as it could not be used to compare against
each of the display modalities as it was asked as the last question.
In order to test for a statistically significant difference between the responses relating to the
Oculus Rift experience and the TV screen experience, multiple paired-samples t-test were
conducted to compare the Immersion level in LCD and HMD conditions. This is where the
mean of two sets of data are analyzed and it is then determined whether the sets of data are
statistically different from each other. The results from the t-test were then used with bar
charts and error bars, created using descriptive statistics in Excel, in order to view the overall
distribution of the data.
Quantitative responses were collected from both parts of the questionnaire and split into two
equal groups; Oculus and TV.
38

A paired-samples t-test was conducted to compare the Immersion level in LCD and HMD
conditions. A dependent t-test was carried out as there were 2 experimental conditions and a
within-subjects design was used in the experiment. In order to use this test, the difference
between conditions must be normally distributed. The differences were calculated and the
frequency of each number was calculated. The data was used to create a bar chart which
visually shows the data was normally distributed and validates the results from the t-test.
The t-test will be reported using the APA style.

Distribution
140
120

FREQUENCY

100
80
60
40
20
0
-4

-3

-2

-1

BIN
Figure 5.10
Visually determine the data is normally distributed

There was a statically significant difference in the scores for IV level 1 (M=3.89, SD=1.070)
and IV level 2 (M=3.31, SD=1.256) conditions; t(674)= 6.524711, p = 0.000000000134.
Given the p-value is significantly lower than 0.05 it can be concluded that the display
modality does have an effect on the level of presence.
t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances
Oculus
TV
Variable 1
Variable 2
Mean
3.893491
3.307692
Variance
1.145892
1.578635
Observations
338
338
Pooled Variance
1.362264
Hypothesized Mean Difference
df
674
t Stat
6.524711
P(T<=t) one-tail
6.69E-11
t Critical one-tail
1.647118
P(T<=t) two-tail
1.34E-10
t Critical two-tail
1.96349
Figure 5.11
T-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances for all the quantitative results collected

39

Attention and focus: Questions 1, 2, 4, 6, 15, 16, 18, 20.


There was a significant difference in the scores for IV level 1 (M=3.89, SD=1.070) and IV
level 2 (M=3.31, SD=1.256) conditions; t (206) = -4.1209137, p = 0.000000000134.
Given the p-value is significantly lower than 0.05 it can be concluded that the display
modality does have an effect on the level of immersion. This offers more support the
alternative hypothesis as there is a less than 5% chance the difference was by random
chance or error. Participants felt that they were not fully focused on the events in the game
when using the TV screen. This is attributed to the closed off display of the HMD which
forces users to pay attention to the in-game environment as the 360 degrees tracking does
not allow external distractions.
t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances
Oculus
Variable 1
Mean
3.403846154
Variance
1.349887976
Observations
104
Pooled Variance
1.270864451
Hypothesized Mean
Difference
0
df
206
t Stat
-4.1209137
P(T<=t) one-tail
2.73346E-05
t Critical one-tail
1.652284144
P(T<=t) two-tail
5.46692E-05
t Critical two-tail
1.971546669

TV
Variable 2
4.0480769
1.1918409
104

Figure 5.12
T-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances for the attention and focus group

The error bars of the standard error of the mean do not overlap which supports the earlier
findings but cannot be used to categorically state the difference is statically significant.

Mean & Standard Error


4.5

ATTENTION & FOCUS LEVEL

4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
Oculus

TV

Figure 5.13
Mean value with standard error bars

40

Presence: Questions 5, 7, 8, 9, 19, 21, 22, 23


There was a significant difference in the scores for IV level 1 (M=3.65, SD=1.031) and IV
level 2 (M=2.87, SD=1.276) conditions; t (206) = 4.897381633, p = 0.00000194.
From the p-value (two-tail) difference of p = 0.00000194, in can be concluded that
participants had an increased level of presence when using the Oculus Rift than while using
the TV screen. This supports the theory that we seek the same feeling from a
psychologically immersive experience that we do from a plunge in the ocean or swimming
pool as suggested by Harteveld.

t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances


Oculus
TV
Variable 1
Variable 2
Mean
3.653846154 2.865384615
Variance
1.063480209
1.6321882
Observations
104
104
Pooled Variance
1.347834205
Hypothesized Mean
Difference
0
df
206
t Stat
4.897381633
P(T<=t) one-tail
9.80269E-07
t Critical one-tail
1.652284144
P(T<=t) two-tail
1.96054E-06
t Critical two-tail
1.971546669
Figure 5.14
T-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances for the presence group

Figure 5.15 shows there is a difference in the level of presence felt by participants and the
error bars represent a 95% confidence level. The confidence level error bar overlaps slightly
which shows the difference may or may not be significant, as a 25% overlap can still be
significant.

41

Mean & CL
4.5
4

PRESENCE LEVEL

3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
Oculus

TV

Figure 5.15
Confidence level for the mean

42

Performance: Questions 3, 10, 11, 12, 13, 17, 24, 25, 26, 27
There was not a significant difference in the scores for IV level 1 (M=3.85, SD=1.112) and IV
level 2 (M=3.58, SD=1.290) conditions; t (206) = 1.611685327, p = 0.108561476
From the p-value (two-tail) difference of p = 0.108561476, in can be concluded that the
display modality had no effect on participants. This is due to the p-value being a higher value
than 0.05. This shows that the level of difficulty does not greatly affect the difficulty the
participants felt while playing the game.
t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances
Oculus
Variable 1
Mean
3.846153846
Variance
1.238237491
Observations
104
Pooled Variance
1.451082898
Hypothesized Mean
Difference
0
df
206
t Stat
1.611685327
P(T<=t) one-tail
0.054280738
t Critical one-tail
1.652284144
P(T<=t) two-tail
0.108561476
t Critical two-tail
1.971546669

TV
Variable 2
3.576923077
1.663928305
104

Figure 5.16
T-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances for the performance group

Figure 5.17 shows the performance of participants was similar to both display the Oculus
and the TV screen. The error bar shows the difference is not statistically significant as they
overlap with each other

Mean & Standard Error


4.5
4

PERFORMANCE

3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
Oculus

TV

Figure 5.17
Error bars confirm non-statistically significant difference

43

Questions 14, 28 and 29


This asked participants whether they would play the game with each display modality and
which experience did they feel was the most immersive. This saw favorable results for the
Oculus Rift compared to the TV. 62% of participant said that they would play the game again
on the TV while 97% of people said they would play the game again using the Oculus Rift.
Question 29 also followed this trend with 97% of participants stating that the Oculus Rift
experience was more immersive.

Which experience
was more immersive?
3%

97%

Oculus Rift

TV Screen

Figure 5.18
Pie chart detailing the result of question 29

Questions 30: How much did you want to win the game?
Participants were asked how much they wanted to win the game in order to gauge how
engaged the participants were with the experiment. The average score was 4.65, with 1
being the lowest and 5 the highest. This showed the game was fairly competitive and
actively engaged in the experiment and was not bored which can have a negative effect on
the level of presence.
Feedback
At the end of the questionnaire, there was a section where participants could add comments
regarding the experiment and 13 participants offered feedback. 6 comments stated they
enjoyed the experience of using the oculus with comments such as: Can I do it again?
Oculus Rift is class, and definitely feels like you're more 'in the game'!! and Amazing
experience as it was my first time using virtual reality. 2 comments stated that it was easier
to navigate the levels using the Oculus. There were 2 comments stating the Oculus made
them experience symptoms of cybersickness, which is common as the Oculus developer kit
was used and has a lower than ideal resolution.

44

6. Discussion
The survey conducted established 56% of respondents were aged 18-21 and this can have
a large impact on how immersion is perceived, as this can change as video game players
get older. The phrase analysis of the respondents definition of immersion showed the most
frequent phrases were based on location including where you are and being in a. The
phrase you feel was also frequently used which relates the way you feel about the level of
immersion. Word analysis of the responses also indicated that losing track of time and the
world were commonly associated with immersion among respondents. The average number
of hours a week playing video games was reported to be 1 to 3 hours a week (ESA, 2015).
This trend was seen with 28% of respondents playing video games between 1 to 3 hours a
week.
Of the 26 participants in the experiment, 85% were male and this is an indication of how the
video game industry has been viewed in recent times. A more balanced gender split could
add a new perspective to the effects of virtual reality on the level of presence in video
games. The overall average of the completion times and the number of falls for both display
modalities show that using the HMD resulted in fewer falls and faster completion times
during the experiment. The number of falls while using the HMD saw a dramatic increase
with the order being changed to use the HMD first and screen second. The number of falls
increased by 108% which shows how important counterbalancing was. Once the game was
played through once it was easier to navigate the second time and this results in faster
completion times and fewer falls. Overall, taking into account counterbalancing, the HMD
was easier to navigate the levels with compared to the TV screen because the total HMD
completion times and the number of falls were consistently lower than the screen results.
The results of the analysis on questions with quantitative data proved that participants felt
the Oculus Rift provided a more immersive experience than a TV screen. There was also a
less than 5% chance the difference was by random chance or error which further validates
these results. This supports the alternative hypothesis and shows a significant statistical
difference between display modalities.
Of the three groups of questions analysis of the data, collected from the experiment
participants, has shown that two of the groups reject the null hypothesis and support the
alternative hypothesis. The presence and attention and focus groups show a statistically
significant difference between the two display modalities. With the p-value (two- tail) of
0.000000000134 and 0.00000194, the values are significantly lower than the value of 0.05
which is the criteria of a statistically significant difference between conditions.
The performance group did not show a significant difference between conditions but the
HMD did have slightly better results regarding participant performance. Although there was
no significant statistical difference, experiment results show that the average number of falls
using the screen was 8 while the HMD was 6 and the completion time for the TV screen was
27 seconds longer on average than the HMD. This indicates there is not a significant
relationship between the choice of display and the performance in the game.
97% of participants stated the Oculus Rift was the more immersive experience and this can
be attributed to the fact that virtual reality is a new technology market and not yet widely
available to the public due to pricing and availability. Most participants stated that it was their
first time experiencing virtual reality and this explains why the majority would rather play the
game again using the HMD, rather than using the TV screen which all the participant have
used before.

45

6.1 Project achievements


This was a successful research project as both the aim and objectives were met.:
Determine what immersion is in video games and investigate how virtual reality affects
immersion in video games.
Objective 1 was met as a comprehensive report of finding from research about immersion
and virtual reality was presented. They were also bot linked to video games and factors that
affect the immersion levels were also identified.
A fully functional 3D platform game was created using Unity with a first person perspective.
HMD support could also be turned on and off and the game could be played using an HMD
or a computer monitor. This satisfies objective 2 although the collisions between the player
and the environment could have been improved in order to provide a more realistic
experience.
Google forms were successfully used to record the responses of the questionnaire and the
survey.
Excel was used to analyze the data as this allowed an ordered way of storing the results and
an accurate method of analyzing the data. Data analysis using SPSS and Weka could have
potentially lead to a deeper understanding of the results or validation of the results. This
satisfies objectives 3 and 4.
A controlled experiment was carried out independently with 26 participants and there were
no significant issues. Appointments were made and participants were recruited by the
experimenter.
After the results had been analyzed supported collisions were made which rejects the null
hypothesis and supports the alternative hypothesis created. This meets the requirements of
objective 5.
The initial time plan was followed but an updated version was created at the beginning of
semester two because multiple tasks had an increased duration in the first months of the
project. This was largely due to the experimenters lack of experience developing virtual
environments in Unity. The update time plan allowed all deliverables to be submitted ahead
of time and allowed for continued research into the concepts of virtual reality and immersion.

46

6.2 Further Work


If a similar experiment was conducted the number of participants would be increased in
order to further validate the data and the percentage of females would also be raised. When
conducting the experiment the location will be more secluded as on an occasion students
walked past the experiment area and were loudly talking.
In addition to this report in the future, a research could be conducted investigating how the
quality of graphics affects the level of presence. This could be combined with the conducted
research and enable experiences that generate a ground-breaking level of presence.
The game that was used during the experiments could be improved on possibly by adding
different enemies and comparing whether a significantly higher difficulty affects the level of
presence.
Another data collection method would most likely be carried out if the experiment was
repeated, this is due to occasional screen glitches with Google forms. They were not
significant but occasionally temporarily did not allow any responses to be made.

47

7. Conclusion
The topic of immersion has been researched extensively and is a difficult research topic as
there is no universal method of measuring or even defining it. This is due to Immersion being
a person experience between the video game and the player. Analysing immersion, in
general, gave a broad introduction to the research topic and offered a different perspective
on factors that can affect the level of immersion. It was also determined that presence is a
more specific term relating to immersion and can be measured. Video games were
introduced into the research and it was determined that there were many factors that affect
the level of presence felt while playing including the quality of the graphics. An experiment
was then conducted using a simple platform game where participants tested the impact of
virtual reality on presence levels. This was done by running the same game twice but once
with an Oculus Rift headset and another time with a standard TV screen. The results of this
experiment showed that participants were noticeably more accurate with the Oculus Rift,
with participants recording fewer falls per level and a slightly quicker completion time. All
participants experienced a level of immersion while playing and a majority of participants
expressed an interest in using the Oculus Rift in the future.
Analysis of the data collected from the survey, questionnaire and the experiment found that
the alternate hypothesis Virtual reality headsets provide an increased level of presence than
a traditional computer monitor was accepted. This disproved the null hypothesis that Virtual
reality provides the same level of presence as a traditional computer monitor.
The results of the report would suggest to the industry that virtual reality is an area of
significant interest and is worth putting resources towards. There are also multiple other
areas worth researching regarding immersion in video games with video game narratives
and graphics seen to be areas which can also positively impact presence levels in video
games.
The overall aim of the project was met; as it was scientifically determined what immersion is
relating to video games and the effects of virtual reality on the level of presence in video
games was investigated and determined.
It was possible to measure scientifically immersion level when playing a video game, which
has led to a better understanding of the immersive state. It was also possible to determine
that immersion is improved using virtual reality, which can help increase the number of
virtual reality experiences being developed.

48

8. Acknowledgements
I would like to thank Dr. Septavera Sharvia and Jan Springer for the support and guidance
given to me throughout the duration of this project. I would also like to thank the participants
of my experiment.

49

Appendix A:

Experiment Script
Participant Instructions

For this experiment, you will attempt to navigate multiple platforms in order to reach the
end of the level.

This will take place in a virtual world and in order to reach the next level you must reach
the large circle at the end with fireworks around

When stepped on the platforms will either fall or stay still. Other platforms will
sporadically shift in different directions without being touched.

Try to stay on the platforms and avoid falling.

You will complete the experiment twice, once while wearing an Oculus Rift HMD and
once while using an LCD monitor.

The entire experiment procedure will take approximately 10 minutes to complete

Please note that at any time you are free to stop the experiment and withdraw your
participation from the experiment

Once the experiment is finished I will ask you about any issues or feelings you have
about the experiment and to complete a questionnaire.

Are there any questions?

HMD Followed By Screen


HMD Condition

Ask participant to take a seat and offer to adjust it


Set the experiment to HMD mode
Give the HMD to the participant assisting them to put it on and adjust it as
necessary. Ask them if they are comfortable and ready to begin.
Start the experiment, remember to tap a key on the keyboard to remove the HMD
warning notice
Watch the participants performance, make a note of the number of falls and at the
end note the completion time.

No. Falls:

Completion time:

50

Screen Followed By HMD


HMD Condition

Put the HMD aside


Set the apparatus to Non-HMD mode
Start the experiment
Watch the participants performance, if they go off-road keep count the number of
trials they miss and record it below.
Once they have cleared the last set of barriers, press k on the keyboard to reveal
their result and record it below.
Do not inform the participant of their result until the end of the experiment

No. Falls:

Completion time:

(Elner, 2015)

51

Appendix B:

Immersion in video games survey

1) What is your Age?


2) On average how many hours do you spend playing video games a week?
3) What Genre do you typically play?
4) Do you normally play single player or multi-player?
5) How would you describe being immersed in a video game?

52

Appendix C:

Experiment online questionnaire

Your Experience of the Game


Please answer the following questions by circling the relevant number.
With 1 being not at all and 5 being very much so.
Oculus Rift
The Following Questions are about your experience with the Oculus Rift headset.
Remember that these questions are asking you about how you felt at the end of the game.
1. To what extent did the game hold your attention?
Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 N/A Very much so
2. To what extent did you feel you were focused on the game?
Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 N/A Very much so
3. How much effort did you put into playing the game?
Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 N/A Very much so
4. To what extent did you lose track of time?
Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 N/A Very much so
5. To what extent did you feel consciously aware of being in the real world whilst
playing?
Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 N/A Very much so
6. To what extent did you notice events taking place around you?
Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 N/A Very much so
7. To what extent did you feel that you were interacting with the game environment?
Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 N/A Very much so
8. To what extent did you feel as though you were separated from your real-world
environment?
Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 N/A Very much so
9. To what extent was your sense of being in the game environment stronger than your
sense of being in the real world?
Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 N/A Very much so
10. To what extent did you find the game challenging?
Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 N/A Very much so

53

11. How well do you think you performed in the game?"


Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 N/A Very much so
12. To what extent did you enjoy the graphics and the imagery?
Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 N/A Very much so
13. How much would you say you enjoyed playing the game?
Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 N/A Very much so
14. Would you like to play the game again with the Oculus Rift?
Yes

No

LCD Screen
The Following Questions are about your experience playing with just the controller and the
screen.
15. To what extent did the game hold your attention?
Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 N/A Very much so
16. To what extent did you feel you were focused on the game?
Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 N/A Very much so
17. How much effort did you put into playing the game?
Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 N/A Very much so
18. To what extent did you lose track of time?
Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 N/A Very much so
19. To what extent did you feel consciously aware of being in the real world whilst
playing?
Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 N/A Very much so
20. To what extent did you notice events taking place around you?
Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 N/A Very much so
21. To what extent did you feel that you were interacting with the game environment?
Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 N/A Very much so
22. To what extent did you feel as though you were separated from your real-world
environment?
Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 N/A Very much so

54

23. To what extent was your sense of being in the game environment stronger than your
sense of being in the real world?
Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 N/A Very much so
24. To what extent did you find the game challenging?
Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 N/A Very much so
25. How well do you think you performed in the game?
Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 N/A Very much so
26. To what extent did you enjoy the graphics and the imagery?
Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 N/A Very much so
27. How much would you say you enjoyed playing the game?"
Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 N/A Very much so
28. Would you like to play the game again with the TV screen?
Yes

No

29. Which Experience felt more immersive the Oculus Rift headset or the standard TV
screen?
Oculus Rift

TV Screen

30. How much did you want to win the game?


Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 N/A Very much so
(Jennett et al., 2008)

55

Appendix D:
Risk

Severity
(L/M/H)

Risk Analysis
Likelihoo
d

Significance
(Sev. x Like.)

How to
Avoid

How to
Recover

(L/M/H)

Data loss

HM

Keep
Backups

Reinstate
from
backups

Loss of
backups

HL

Multiple
Backups

Use
alternate

Lack of VR
concept
knowledge

MM

Use online
resources
and check
out books
from the
library to
further
understandi
ng

Have a
backup
demo ready

Unable to
finish one of
the games

MM

Use backup
demo

Users
damaging
VR headset
while testing

ML

Loss of
multiple
backups
User having
a medical
condition

ML

Have a
contingency
plan in
place where
an alternate
testing
method can
be used
Take
precaution
and explain
how to use
any devices
thoroughly
Backup
using SVN

HL

Asking
questions
before user
takes part in
any test

Explain how
to use
devices

Reinstate
from most
recent save
Use alternate
testers

56

Time plan

Appendix E:

Time plan key


(k) indicates key part of the time plan that is critical to the success of the project.
D This is deliverable and indicates the task has been completed with something to show.
Each field is worth 7 days and for each task, the corresponding section that is highlighted
shows that the task will be carried out during that week. Sections that are a decimal of a
number, I.e. 7.2, contribute to the completion of the task with the whole number where there
is a deliverable.
Initial semester 1 time plan:
University Calendar Weeks
#

Task Name

1
2
3

Research
Research
Initial
report(k)
Ethics
checklist
Practice VR
programming
Create game
1 (k)
User
interface
Environment
Game
mechanics
Graphics
and
gameplay
Sound
Level of
immersion
Create game
2 (k)
User
interface
VR elements
(k)
Environment

4
5
6
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
7
7.1
7.2

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

D
D

7.3
7.4 Game

mechanics

7.5 Graphics
7.6

and
gameplay
Sound

7.7 Level of
8
9

immersion
Interim
report(k)
Interim
Design user
report (k)

57

10
11

Conduct
user tests(k)
Final
Report(k)

Updated semester 2 time plan:


University Calendar Weeks
#

Task Name

1
2
5

Research
Research
Practice VR
programming
Create game
1 (k)
User
interface
Environment
Game
mechanics
Graphics
and
gameplay
Sound
Level of
immersion
Create game
2 (k)
User
interface
VR elements
(k)
Environment

6
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
7
7.1
7.2

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

7.3
7.4 Game

mechanics

7.5 Graphics
7.6

and
gameplay
Sound

7.7 Level of
8
9
10
11

immersion
Interim
report(k)
Design user
test (k)
Conduct
user tests(k)
Final
Report(k)

D
D
D
D

58

Appendix F:

Testing

ID

Part Tested

Test Steps

Expected Result

Online
Questionnaire

Questionnaire link
should open and all input
boxes should be
clickable. Responses
should be saved

Online Survey

Game Testing

Load
Questionnaire
Answer all
questions
Press submit
Check
responses
were saved
Load survey
Answer all
questions
Press submit
Check
responses
were saved
Run through
three levels
multiple times
and check
mechanics
work correctly

Oculus Rift
headset

Find correct
(IPD)
distances and
check whether
the tracking
remains
consistent

Actual
Result
Pass

Survey link should open


and all input boxes
should be clickable.
Responses should be
saved

Pass

The game should run


without any crashes or
exceptions. Player
character should have
natural movement and
when the player dies the
character should reset at
the start.
Tracking should never
be lost and the actions of
the player should be
represented in the game
accurately.

Pass

Pass

59

Appendix G:

Consent Form

Oluwafemi Adedayo Ogunjimi, BSc Computer Science


Department of Computer Science, University of Hull
Introduction/Purpose
You are invited to voluntarily complete a survey/questionnaire on Immersion in video games.
This research is being conducted by Oluwafemi Adedayo Ogunjimi at the Department of
Computer Science. In total, we will have approximately 20 participants in this study.

Procedure
For this experiment, you will play a platforming game on a PC using a gamepad. You will be
playing the game from two different perspectives. The first perspective is with an Oculus Rift
head mounted display on and the other perspective is using a standard computer monitor.
Both perspectives utilize a first-person view. You will be in a virtual space with a day or night
sky above and a grass floor below, the environment will simulate a clear day with no wind or
precipitation. There will be coloured platforms that can either move, fall or stay still when
stepped on and you will have to run and jump through the platforms in order to reach the last
checkpoint and advance to the next level
You will play the game for around 10 minutes (in total) and then after filling out a
questionnaire relating to the level of immersion. For each question consists of a scale from
1-5.
It will take approximately 3 minutes to complete the questionnaire.
The purpose of this study is to provide a discussion and analysis around the topic of
immersion and virtual reality in video games. This research will include concepts and
discussions based on immersion and its relationship to video games.

Voluntary Participation
You are free to choose whether or not to complete the study. You may stop the procedure at
any time without loss of any benefits of participation and any information obtained from you
will not be used.

Anonymity/Confidentiality
Any information concerning you and your participation in this study will be kept private and
confidential. Upon receipt, your questionnaire will be coded and the information linking
codes and identities will be kept in a locked filing cabinet and will only be looked at by
researchers under the strict supervision of Oluwafemi Adedayo Ogunjimi If information
about you is published it will be in a form such that you cannot be recognized. Data for the
study will be used in scientific reports, but no names or identifying information will be
included in these reports.

Contacts
The researcher will be happy to answer any questions that you might have about taking part
in this study. If complaints or problems concerning this research project should arise, they
should be reported in the first instance to Oluwafemi Adedayo Ogunjimi at Department of
Computer Science, The University of Hull 07909442382 or to the of the Chair of Ethics
Committee, Department of Computer Science, The University of Hull on 01482 466948
Thank you for your effort and honesty in completing the survey/questionnaire today.
Oluwafemi Adedayo Ogunjimi

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