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Aug‘. 12, 1947.

I

2,425,543

F. LANDGRAF
APPARATUS FOR CARVING' PROPELLER BLADES

Filed Dec. 28, 1944

5 Sheets-Sheet 1

Li“

v 2. 28.Aug. LANDGRAF APPARATUS FOR CARVING PHOPELLER BLADES Filéd Dec.425.543 G. F. 12. 1944 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 . 1947.

12. 2.RAF APPARATUS FOR CARVING PROPELLER BLADES Filed Dec. 1947. 3mm “ “W961? 1W9’.‘ 1944 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 . 4%!0144414 ’ W4 .543 G. LANDG.425. ‘ I W/W. 28. F.Aug.

LANDGRAF APPARATUS FOR GARVING PROPELLER BLADES 5 Sheets-Sheet . F. 12. 1947.425. v 2.Aug.4“ //////////////// >7 .543 ' G.

Aug.425. APPARATUS FOR CAEVING PROPELLER BLADES Filed Dec. 28. F. 12. 1947.543 . 1944' _ 5 Sheets-Sheet s ' 1mm 880596 J? 5% "t M'IZWEMQ‘M .v ' G. LANDGRAF 2.

or indexed in counter direc tions to carve a blade opposed t'o'the model. is ‘actuated by with a single master model of one blade. In the drawings: } V Figure 1 is a side elevational view of the blade carving machine. will readily be seen. During the reciprocating feed strokes the the line 4-4 of ‘Figure 3. contour and 45 porting parallel ways 2 on which is s'l-idably aerodynamic characteristics. Serial No. tively engaged by the follower roll and ‘cutter and at the end of the carving operation the blank has ‘been reduced to the exact shape of the model. 55 means of. Serial No.126 6 Claims. 550. 90-1-34) 1 The present invention relates to machine tools and more especially to a machine tool for carv ing exactly corresponding blades for use in con tra-rotating propellers. Landgraf.‘ Be tween the feed strokes the model and blank are 2 .795. means for synchronizing axial ‘rotation of th work and master model in a propeller carving ma chine including a change gear system of i‘dlers connecting the respective spindles supporting the work piece and model whereby they may be either indexed in the same direction to carve a blade similar to the model. Md. Md. This principle is employed in a ma chine tool for shaping propeller blades disclosed in a co-pending application of Claude M. Skin 15 ner. it has been made the subject vof il lustration in the accompanying drawings in con"-' vnection with a blade carving machine of the type disclosed in the above-mentioned application Se rial No. ‘ The ‘propeller carving machine above refer-red oppositely rotating propeller also exactly corre to‘ consists essentiallyof'an elongated bed I sup‘ spond to the others in weight.. ‘In order to make the invention more clearly understood.425. 1947 UNITED STATES: PATENT OFFICE 2. 570. with the master model. ‘valve system or left hand blades may be formed in accordance indicated generally as 6 which. 1944.795. as'sig'nor to Koppers Company. Between work feed Figure 6 is a detail sectional view taken along strokes the blank and model are simultaneously the line 6-43 of Figure 5 s'hovvihg the adjustable indexed about their respective axes in the same means for mounting one of the idler gears to its direction with the result that corresponding in 30 supporting structure to eliminate back lash in crements of the model and blank are respec left hand blades a left hand model must be used. and to shape the train. (01. tached to the bed I and ‘carrying a piston which It is therefore one of the objects of this in has an operative connection through its v1. This table is reciprecated by‘a. 1944.543 APPARATUS FOR CARVING PROPELLER BLADES George F. reversing dogs ‘I and '8 carried ‘by the Another object of the invention is to ‘provide . that is. one right hand and the draulic feed system including a cylinder ll‘ at other left hand. Inc.") 50 vention to improve a propeller shaping machine with the table. a corporation of Delaware Application December 28. The fluid is controlled by a. wherein the template is a model of the blade to be formed. 550.2. Figure 8 is a view similar to FigureS but show ingt'a modi?ed arrangement of reverse gearing. 12. filed August 23. Figure ‘3 is a face view of the headstock of the machine shown in Figure 1 incorporating the change gear feature in accordance with this iin-. simultaneously indexed about their respective vention.543 Patented Aug. _ I Figure 2 is a transverse sectional view taken along the line 2-2 of Figure 1.. Hydraulic fluid ‘under pressure of the above character by the provision of a re is applied alternately to opposite faces of the ‘pis versible indexing mechanism whereby either right ton. Baltimore. V V Figure 10 is a diagrammatic View illustrating It is highly important in contra-rotating propel the method of carving a blade of opposite ‘pitch lers and particularly in automatic constant speed 40 than that of the model in accordance ‘with this types.. More particularly the in vention embraces the concept of machining either right‘ or left hand propeller blades in accordance with the contour of a single master model of one of the blades. the tem plate guiding the cutter to accordingly shape the work piece.HY” sponding master models. This master model and a blade blank are set up in the machine in axially parallel re— lationship and moved longitudinally along the 20 machine ways in reciprocating feed strokes. "Figure 7 is a fragmentalsectional View taken on the‘ line "l—~'l of Figure 5. Figure 9 is a side-elevational view of the gear arrangement ‘illustrated? in Figure 8. Tools have been devised for duplicating parts in which the work and a template are moved simultaneously with respect to a cutter. Cockeysville. ‘doing business as Bartlett Hayward Division. Figure 4 is a transverse sectional view ‘taken axes. that not only must the blades in one pro peller be all exactly similar but that those in the invention. The di'f?culty and mounted for reciprocating movement awork sup precision necessary to make two exactly corre port table 3. size. blank is carved by a rotary cutter whose feed is 25 along Figure 5 is a transverse sectional view taken controlled by the engagement of a follower roll along the line 5-5/of Figure 4. a right hand blade is shaped from a right hand model.425. It will be apparent that this machine produces corresponding blades.

. bed I .795. . parallel with 43. as indi-g cated at 65. I5 to thereby index the blade blank and model about their axes. The spindles I4 and I5 both extend rearwardly from. ‘ a ' ' ' ' ' however. ' ' > a For the major carving operations. with the gear 43 serving as a single V faces and edges of’ theib'lank. the gear 42 so" that back lash may also'be‘eliminated between the idlers and the gear 42. The headstock also carries the plate 36. The rolls 36 are mountedon cross slides 3| for lateral'adjust-V ment 'with'respect to the cutters for controlling the depth of cut made thereby.' Each of the tracks 22 and 23 support for rolling movement thereon a cut ter carriage'ZS. however. The headstock I2 comprises a base plate 34 to which issecured an upstanding frame consisting of a front plate 35. . particularly in finishing the lower spindle I 4' will produce a rotation of the ?at face of the blade. Smooth movement of the table is ac complished by feeding against a back pressure . on'opposite sides of 25 the bed I are aligned parallel tracks 22 and 23 respectively mounted on supports 24 and 25 se cured'to‘the. of movement of the post relative to the gears 4| and‘ 44. These rolls are adapted toengage and follow the contour of the model I9 to guide'the cutter feed during feed strokes of the table 2 ‘as the carriages 26 are moved inwardly of the ma chine by suitable means such as the weight ar rangements shown in Figure 2.425. It is to be notedthat ' the diameter of the idlers 43 and 44 is greater than the distance between the‘ peripheries of the 1 gears 4|v and 42 and that the slot 49 is made sum ciently longer than the movement necessary to ‘ bring the idlers into mesh with. 7 their respective sleeves and are respectively ?tted with spur gears» 4| and 42. by rotating the arm 45 to'mesh the end latch mechanisms. Passing transversely through the front and rear‘plates 35 and 36 and secured rotation of the spindles. To this other hand. of which’ this in-v vention constitutes an improvement is illustrated. carried on an arm 45 which is pivotally mounted on a slight extension 46 of the lower sleeve 38 and slowing down'the feed at the end of each stroke by the action of valves I4 which are par tially closed near the end of the strokes by cams to pivot about the axis of the lower spindle I4. axially aligned withgthe headstock spindles and each carrying a‘ center . for movement toward andaway from end the by worm’ a cam gear 65 60. in detail in Figures 3 to '7. alsojcarried by the cutter carriage. . The arm 45 abuts the rear face of the back ' plate 36 of the headstock and is provided with a lateral extension 41 elongated to form a hand lever 43 vby means of which the arm may be the ways 2 and each carrying a chuck. By virtue of this movement the gear 43 may be moved into close engagement'with both the gears 4| and 44 when it may then be locked into position by the nut 59. the extension 41 is provided with an arou-v ries spindles 2B and 2I. removing material from opposite 45 5.. One means for adjustably mounting the gear is shown in Figure 6 and consists of a stud or post 53 upon 30 which the gear is mounted for free ‘rotation by means of a ball bearing 54. - Preferably the gears should mesh and rotate without back lash and to this end the gear 43_ is mounted for adjustment toward the gears 4i and 44 with which'it' is in constant mesh. are provided to latch the cutter carriages interposed in the train and produce a‘ reverse ' in a retracted position away from the work. be and 33. The 70 shaft'62 is journalled in bearings 63 supported on p I > a bracket 64 which is hinged at one end. carrying a rotary cutter 2? driven ‘through a belt drive 28 by a high speed electric 'motor 29. both cutters With the gears in the position shown in Figure are employed. place between a washer=51 and a peripheral flange 35 58 on the post. with the spindles ' drive for rotating the spindles I4 and I5 may. such as are shown at 32 50 gear 44 with gear 42. rotation of'the operations.2. that is.provisi_on is made to retract upper spindle IS in the same direction. the following mechanism is provided for rotating the spindles I4 and. " chronized. carried and on supported a shaft 67 at and its opposite adapted ‘ ' to be rotated lby'a lever 68. During certain idler between the gears 4| and 42. As ‘seen in Figure 5. a rear plate 36 and side plates 31. Threaded on the stud 50 to engage the mechanism to be described in more detail later 20 extension 47 and clamp the idler arm into close for the synchronized rotation of the spindles I4 and I5 to index the work and model. by means of a nut v59 drawn up on the threaded extension. designated generally as I5 and I1 and adapted to hold respectivelythe _ moved to ?engage ‘either of the idlers 43 or 44 shank ends of a blade blank I8 and a model I9‘ of the blade to be carved. be described here brie?y asconsisting ' of a worm gear 60 keyed to the'spindle I4 and meshing with a worm 6I1on a cross shaft 62. Above ‘each cutter 2‘! is a follower roll 39 freely rotatable about an axis parallel with that of the cutter. or other suitable holding device.7 - frictional engagement with the backplateil? is a nut 52. The table 3 has mounted adjacent opposite ends thereof a headstock I2 and a tailstock i3.542 3 table 3. the second idler 44 will. the gear 43 is constantly meshed with the lower gear 4I while the idler gear 44 is constantly meshed with the idler gear I I carried by the table.?uid through valves 9 to e?ect either like or reversed rotation thereof are a pair of intermeshed idler gears 43 and 44. all rigidly se cured together. interr mediate the length thereof. All gears are accu 60 rately cut'and by means of this structure/rota: ' thereto are a pair of superposed sleeves 38 and tion of theitwo spindles may be absolutely syne 39'in*which are journalled in ball bearings re spectively for. for supporting the respective tip ends of the ate s1ot49 through which projects a threaded stud 50 secured to an ear 5I formed on the back blank and model.The. The tailstock I3 car with the upper gear 42. The mounting hole 56 is of somewhat larger diameter than the ex tension 55 and permits a limited amount. The headstock mechanism.by metering out the exhaust . Adapted to ‘be se lectively interposed between the gears 4| and 42.‘ On the ‘ one cutter to an inoperative position.the lower spindle I4 and'the upper Indexing of the‘ blankiand model-may be done spindle I5. 7 r In accordance with one embodiment of this in vention. In order to lock the idler supporting-arm 45 in either of its selected posi tions. parallel with the ways. transversely from the ways. I The headstock is bolted to the upper either manually or automatically as set forth in surface of the table 3 and is accurately aligned 65 the foregoing application SerialNo. The post is provided with a threaded extension 55 which extends through a hole 55 in-the arm 45 and is held'in. . ‘ In the headstock I2 there are journaled a pair 10 of superposed spindles i4 and I5. 550. i a thereon by means of keys 40. Extending.

increment of the. The tip end of the ‘blank is also turned‘ ‘the worm gear ‘69 by rocking the ‘cam 165 and down to correct size and tapered vtol?t a fem-ale permitting the bracket 64 to move aboutits‘hinge center inthe tailstock.54'Q 7On'e5end of the worm shaft ‘82 carries a hand vwheeltii while the opposite end has splined‘there 6 :mateiiais.s'hankto givecorrec't :twist'to the ‘blank which-i5 drone of its notches. '\will'be described. 'it is desirable that the spindles The next voperation is to (saw these glaminated ‘M and IE be permitted to rotate independently of pieces roughly to ‘the plan form of the blade. model. "Theclear holes in the blocks may be are . attached to the'head' :the machine'with its shank secured in the-‘upper ‘stock 'frame. the vfeed of the cutter carriages is varied inac rcordan'ce "with the contour of the model and :a cutis made on the blank by the cutter 30 inac cordance with the shape of the model. 1''65 away ‘from the 'worm ‘gear. ~justmenttoward-each other in grooves>83 and 84 The follower rolls 30 are adjusted ‘with respect ‘ formed in the back plate 3G and are secured in to the cutters ‘21 by means of their slidesto give Padjust'ed position by cap screws 85 which vpass 50 the desired depth of ‘cutand the machine isgput *throughrclear holes ‘in the blocks and are‘thread in operation to reciprocate the table onitsways led ‘into plates J86 which "form the base of the relative to the cutter heads. and is located on its slide block so that it will ifI‘he'above cyclic operation is repeated until the ‘meshwith bothof the gears ‘M and 342‘when in blank’has been rotated through-afull 180°. by means of ‘a suitable shift rod 110".cut headstock frame encloses the gears during opera will "principally remove the angular cornersfrom ‘itioniof-the machine. that ‘ position. ‘The blanks thus formed are sliding the gear TE! out ‘of mesh with 'the gear laminated zpieces.rigidity :to take ‘the strains imposed on it. zstock center 29. encloses the gearing. leaves the worm ‘1'6! 'fre'e'to ‘be rotated-by the "hand stepped in ‘longitudinal cross-section from ithe ‘wheel v(ill. This ‘motor is started at the ends of =o‘f’the blade .1810.of :the ‘slide blocks in their grooves and eliminate backlash both between the idlers and *their matingspindle gears. 'Access may be had to the screws 85 for removal and positioning of the . :Slightly '11. actuated by a lhla‘nk tapers ‘in steps from the shank-to the tip. or adjustment.'.are centeredrin allathe and the ‘nismandbe controlled by the master model. somewhat larger in diameter ‘than the . Thelmaster ‘model .425. chuck-1H and the'tip heldby the tailstockrcenter A somewhat simpler arrangement of headstock '21.screw shanks to permit .in Preferably a guard 115'. the blank and model'are both simultaneously rotated about their axesby means of the indexing mechanism above set forth 'bloek'identical with the block 8| whichis posi and on v‘the return stroke a second cutwill be "tioned'in the groove-83 when the single idler'is 65 made onsthe blank also in accordance with the fused.6l may be disengaged from chuck. 'Thus.| 9 ‘ . as ‘ it is obvious that it lations are repeated throughlanother . rectangular in plan. . ‘This single idler is of sufficient diameter corresponding. To 25 ‘shank . notched indexing plate ‘15 ‘on the spindle Il‘4 ‘The 'tip . ltheire‘ar‘vplate -36 of the headstock frame to'mesh ‘Considering this -master model to 'be ~. which longer and wider than ‘the blade ‘to . sufficient ‘move 55 v‘merit . ‘detachably secured to-‘the the blank by'th'e opposed cutters. ‘through apertures 81 drilled-through the gears Ytolre'gister with the screws. ‘This master model is machined ‘from {metal igearing which is suitable where similar *blades'are or othersuitablematerialperferablyof somewhat produced in quantity is shown in ‘Figures ‘8 and 9.be .turned cylindrical to fit the headstock this end the worm . such as v20 shank "end ‘to the tip on Opposite surfaces and machining the twisted ?at races of the ‘blades. ‘I elongated or ~‘drilled . The ~follower rolls are then backed "While the machine is-not limited to -'carving o'ffiwith respect-to the cutters and the ‘above oper wooden propellerlblades. iis. (fixed therein :as the bonding material sets.urged'inwardlyxtoward the blank andgmodel.9.At~.the end :of the feed stroke. vasithe itable moves ‘the blank ‘and model. either the automaticor manual indexing :mecha after which they .-a model respectively with ‘the spindle gears 41 and '42 to of *a right :hand blade and the headstock ige'aring "give reverse rotation of the spindles ‘I14 and arranged ‘to give :like rotation of the :spindlesatl "while to e?ect like rotation ‘of the spindles a 40 and +5 by vinterposing a single idlerbetween the single idler 18 ir'eplaces‘the pair and operatively gears 41 rand-4'2. such 'as ‘plastic or aluminum. Again.full ‘.end :of :the blank :is twisted relative ‘to the when the indexing plate has rotated'the distance .thea'fo‘llower rolls-'30 with the master -model»l9. a right‘hand blank isgpositioned connects the gears Al and 42 as indicated by between the lower chuck 16 and the lower‘tail dotted lines'in Figure 8. The high speed shaft of the reducer formed are ‘usually made by bonding together ‘is coupled to the shaftof a small electric {motor several relatively thin strips ‘of wood havinga 13 mounted on the bracket 64 as shown in Figures width somewhat‘ in excess of the ?nished width ‘8 and 4.and=of different‘lengthsthe longest the ‘feed strokes of the table by a Starting swlitch strips being'the-cen'ter laminati‘ons and theshort (not shown) closed by movement "of the table 10 =es‘t :at the shank end of the ‘blade :50 that the and stopped by a limit switch 14. 'withagear "H on the slow ‘speed shaft/of a ‘speed ‘The ‘blanks from which the wooden blades and reducer 7-2.° _. the motor drive ‘maybe disconnectedb-y opposite twists. of "may be used ‘to pro?le blades composed-of other 75 .when a out has been made completely around 1A suitable‘ guard 88. If it is desired to index the work and model 15 Blanks ‘for ‘right :and left hand blades are given manually. "Thesing'le idler gear 18 is mounted-on a slide the inward'movementzis limited by engagement of . The master model and-blank "The reversing idlers 1B vand 111 are respectively are adjusted :to the ‘same ‘relative angular posi ‘mounted "for free ‘rotation on studs 19 and 8. as :having taflongitudinaltwist. larger width and thickness than the dimensions 35 In this embodiment of the invention a ‘pair of of the blade ‘in orderato provide apiecebf :su?i iidler-gears 16 and 1-1 are detachably mounted on ‘cient . a ‘brief description ‘will ‘be given of the operations em‘ ‘ployed infthe-formingorwooden‘blades for contra= ‘on -a sliding gear 10 which is adapted to mesh rotating propellers by way of example.of the blade is ‘set :up . the ‘blank.0 45 tions in their respective chucks such as shown carried-by separate slide blocks'8l and 82. for certain operations. This'?rst .idlers.formed. These :in ‘Figure 2 and the chucks ‘fixed to immovably slide blocks are respectively ?tted for lateral'ad ‘ clamp the‘blank and model in these‘positions. As the cutter heads igr‘oo've's.

blank and model in opposite directions to carve’ . and fo'rifnesha » that is. 1 . said idler gearing including'a single idler gear adapt ed to be'meshed with both spindle gears for index and the engaged cutter will produce a correspond ingly flat face on the'work. without departing from‘ the spirit of the invention or from the scope of the appended claims. by the provision of the gearing arrangement con. ' claim: ‘ .to the master model ~ shown in the diagrammatic view in FigurelO. ?nish so ing off the'tip. tively with the spindle gears for indexingfthe.cut . The twist of the master model is also re While there has been shown and described a produced in the work.‘ and movable journalling . ' v ' the roughing cuts in‘ width so that a'substantially By means of the foregoing.ro bladeroughly to shape but leaves a seriesof ?ats tated in a clockwise direction as indicated'by the extending the length of the blade. the blade and model will be rotated in ac rotatable to index themodel. apparatus and preferred procedural ever. The onlyother operations necessary to complete ‘the blade is removal of the plug at the tip. which is cylindri 20 stituting this invention. tool. ?rst idler gear with the otherspindlegear to in deX the Workand model in'the same direction to i ' ‘ carve blades similar to the model. right hand model. will not leave the rear face of the blade . between. of the character described for carving either. and operational steps. an additional cut isnecessary-v . and selectable - sure of the follower roll on the ?at face thereof ' idler gearing for coupling said spindle gears. the single idler gear lB-is replaced by‘the pair of idler gears '16 ' and'll.7 ~The shank end of the blade. l4 and I5 freely rotatable but geared together -I through the intermediate idler gear 43. between the chuck l6 and the tailstock centerZ? ' in the position’ with respect . the apparatus and the steps _ ' perfectly flat and to machine this twisted ?at face. The follower rolls are adjusted to end oftheoperation. with a master model of 'a'single blade. is gradually merged into the curvature of the blades may be producedfrom a single master leading and trailing edges and the camber ofthe model. the blank and model in the'same directionto ' .. how. will have a size and contour similar to theright These ?nishing cuts reduce the ?ats formed by hand blade but for opposite rotation. a first idler gear.75 used for roughing is. 44 with the gear 42 and then looking the gear in '_ » this position by tightening the'nut 52. with the ?at side of the'blank ingthegsecondidler gear withgsaid other spindle " facing the ?at side of the model. in con stant mesh with one of said spindle‘gears. in accordance ing. The roughing cuts its axis in a direction opposite from that of the are usually made by indexing about 10° or 15° for master model. said mech» this retracted position. . the improvement cordance with the twistof the model by the pres ' comprising a‘gear on each spindle. blade. a sec ond idler gear in constant mesh with the-?rst’ ' One of the left hand blanks is set up 70 idler gear. When this operation hasbeen performed the ?nished blade’ may then be removed and replaced with another blank.2. In an indexing mechanism for _a "machine ter adjacent the cambered face of the blade is then moved away from the face of the work by tool'of the character described for'carvingeithe'r ' rightor left hand propeller blades in accordance moving its'carriage outwardly and latching it in with a master model of a single blade. in the After roughing and ?nishing cuts have been ‘made and without changing the follower roll ad 'justment'the indexing drive is disconnected in order of the steps and the design and arrange the manner above set forth by moving the cam 66' to allow: the worm 6! to become disengaged from the worm gear 60.7 carve blades similar . replaced 10 ments of the model and blank willbe respectively by one which will rotate the index spindles engaged by the follower rolls and cutter as the through‘ smaller increments. . and a pair of meshed idler gears adapted to be meshed respec. pro duce blades for rotation corresponding to that of the master model which is in this'case right hand. As a result. Thus. spindle 60 right orjleft hand propeller blades in accordance ‘v gearslll and“. the relative direction of-ro 2. V > V ‘. In the 7 case of the second embodiment. The .i prising mechanism for transmitting rotation from one spindle to the other spindle and "includinga gear on each spindle. These operationa'which operations are'then performed in the exact man may be considered roughing cuts.543 ‘rotation of the'work. by those skilled in the art. ' . for the purpose of illustrating the principles in volved in the inventive concept and'many changes may be made. means'for at least one idler gear carried by the support for adjusting the said idler gear relative to other of said gears to reduce back lash there. and lightly sanding the blade preparatory to lacquering. for instance. however. give a light cutand the machine put in operation been machined down'to the same size as the afore and the ?nishing cuts are made completely 15 mentioned right hand blank.to the model. blades opposed to the model a common support ' for said idler gears. although the model Tomake the ?nishing cuts on the blade.425. ' > The above described operations. In an indexing mechanism for a machine tation of the spindles Ill and I5 is reversed by . and means for selectively meshingthe . the left-hand blade around the blade'in the manner above described. for example. one or model and blank are. The cutting: 75 gear for indexing the workv andjmodel. at the two degrees. When the work is then 40' anism having a work carrying spindle rotatable fed with respect to the opposite or engaged cut to index the work and a model carrying spindle ter. The indexing cuts. interposing both idler gears between the. that is. both right and left hand cal. which leaves the spindles ment of the several parts. will be indexed about blade but slightly oversize. In other words. . ‘ ' r _ 1In the case of the ?rst described embodiment of the invention. arrows in Figure 10.7 preferred.'if the model is each feed stroke of thework which forms the rotated counter-clockwise the blank‘ willbe . however. said mech anism having a work carrying spindle rotatable to r 7.in oppof ' . rotated. of manufacturing propeller blades disclosedrare . with the results that one blade absolutely upper? surface and the ?at rear'surface of the corresponds in shape and size to another blade. - ~ 1. (index the work and a model carrying spindle re» tatable to index the model. considering the blank has . ‘the improvement com:. V ' ' ‘ with this invention. corresponding incre indexing plate . it will be seen that ' ?nished curve isproduced on the blade. The blank. are continued nerdescribed with reference to the righthand until the blank has assumed the shape of the blade. To produce a blade for left hand rotation from the same. this is brought about by'rloosen ingthe nut 52 and rocking the idler gearsup porting arm ?iabout its pivot to engage the gear. . the and the blank are opposite.

1907 means for securing said arm in either of the said 1. the improvement compris and means for adjustably positioning each of the ing a gear on each spindle. interchangeable idler systems for operatively con 3. 21. and means for moving the arm to one position to 6. one of said idler sys tool of the character described for carving either tems comprising a single gear adapted to connect 10 right or left hand propeller blades in accord said spindle gears to index the work and model ance with a master model of a single blade. 10. a ?rst idler gear idler gear carried by the support for adjusting mounted on said arm and in constant mesh with the said idler gear relative to other of said gears the gear on the spindle about which the arm 20 to reduce back lash therebetween. the improvement 15 in opposite directions to carve blades opposed to comprising a gear on each spindle.048 Reed ___'_________ __ Feb. said mech» rections to carve blades opposed to the model. a second idler gear on the arm and in constant mesh with the ?rst idler gear. 1928 positions movable journalling means for at least FOREIGN PATENTS one idler gear carried by said arm for adjusting the said idler gear relative to other of said gears 60 Number Country Date to reduce the back lash therebetween. 1931 rections to carve blades opposed to the model. 1905 the second idler gear with said other spindle gear 55 1.926 Black __________ __ Mar.927 France __________ __ Sept. said in the same direction for carving blades similar mechanism having a work carrying spindle ro to the model and the other idler system compris tatable to index the work and a model carrying ing a pair of meshed gears adapted to connect spindle rotatable to index the model. 1933 for indexing the work and model in opposite di 1. a second REFERENCES CITED idler gear on the arm and in constant mesh with The following references are of record in the the ?rst idler gear. means for moving the arm to 50 ?le of this patent: one position to mesh the first idler gear with the other spindle gear for indexing the work and UNITED STATES PATENTS model in the same direction to carve blades simi Number Name Date lar to the model and to a second position to mesh 806.798.425. In an indexing mechanism for a machine tool of the character described for carving either right or left hand propeller blades in accordance with mesh the ?rstidler gear with the other spindle a master model of a single blade. and movable journalling means for at least one idler gear carried by the support for adjusting the said idler gear relative 10 tool of the character described for carving either right or left hand propeller blades in accordance with a master model of a single blade. and a pair of between. LANDGRAF. said arm and in constant mesh with the gear on the spindle about which the arm moves. In an indexing mechanism for a machine and the other idler system comprising a pair of tool of the character described for carving either meshed gears adapted to connect said spindle right or left hand propeller blades in accordance gears to index the work and model in opposite di with a master model of a single blade. a pair of interchange tions to carve blades opposed to the model mov able idler systems for operatively connecting the able journalling means for at least one idler gear spindle gears. port for the spindles. anism having a work carrying spindle rotatable and independent detachable means for journal 40 to index the work and a model carrying spindle ling each of the idler gears to the support each rotatable to index the model. an arm mounted on gear supports relative to the spindle gears to re said support for movement about the axis of one 45 duce back lash in the gearing. 29. the improvement compris indexing the work and model in opposite direc ing a gear on each spindle.893. 28. mounted on said support for movement about the and movable journalling means for at least one axis of one of said spindles. and a com said spindle gears to index the work and model mon support for the spindles.957 Parten __________ __ Jan. said mech anism having a work carrying spindle rotatable to index the work and a model carrying spindle rotatable to index the model. the improvement to other of said gears to reduce back lash there comprising a gear on each spindle. a ?rst idler gear mounted on GEORGE F. 31. one of said idler systems compris carried by said arm for adjusting the said idler ing a single gear adapted to connect said spindle gear relative to other of said gears to reduce the gears to index the work and model in the same back lash therebetween.2.543 site directions to carve blades opposed to the model said means including a common support for said idler gears. moves. and 842. an arm the model a common support for said idler gears.075 Fawcus __________ __ Nov. and a common sup-' ond idler gear with said other spindle gear for port for the spindles. of said spindles.660.697 Phillips __________ __ Jan. direction for carving blades similar to the model 35 4. In an indexing mechanism for a machine necting the spindle gears. said mechanism gear for indexing the work and model in the 25 having a work carrying spindle rotatable to in same direction to carve blades similar to the dex the work and a model carrying spindle ro model and to a second position to mesh the sec tatable to index the model. 1920 5. and a common sup of said means including a support for the gear. 1. 506. In an indexing mechanism for a machine .