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June 1, 1954

J. H. BREISCH

2,579,786

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DUPLICATING MACHINED PARTS

Filed June 2, 1951

2 Shee'ts-Sheet 1

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70

INVENTOR.

JOHN H BRE/s cl-l

311%", ,am ‘Mif" . .,

19mg wk.

June 1. 1954 J.679. IN VEN TOR. (/OH/V H BRE/scH 91% I BY ‘If 4770/?NEY6 ' . H. BREISCH 2.786 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DUPLICATING MACHINE!) PARTS Filed June 2. 1951 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 //// ////’ 4/ <10 \\\\\\ \\\\ .

blades and the like. one end of which is opposite one another whereby one tool forms a journaled in one end of the block I5 and the backing for the blade portion being worked on opposite end of which is journaled in a bearing.679. must be precisely formed.Patented June 1. Lakewood. 90-133) 1 The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for duplicating machined pieces. l but showing certain parts of the apparatus in different posi tions. such as those used in jet engines. A pair of rotatable chucks 25. It will be seen that as the slide l6 reciprocates the yoke causes the chucks to 50 oscillate.636 3 Claims. simultaneously cutting opposite faces of the blades by cutting tools substantially diametrically 25 The slide I6 is reciprocated by suitable mecha nism including a shaft I8. not shown. such as turbine blades. and therefore quite expensive due to the contours A more speci?c object of the invention is the provision of a new and improved method of [0 has a hollow block formation 15 on which a slide It is adapted to be guided for longitudinal reciprocation. Ohio. the mechanism for oscillating the chucks comprises a yoke 21 the legs of which.786 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2. and controlling relative move not shown. Breisch. and it is the practice to manufacture these blades from forged or cast blanks which are machined to the pre cise dimensions and contours required. such as turbine It. (01. Inc. l is a perspective View of an apparatus for duplicating turbine blades. 26 is described more fully hereinafter and in some instances it may be desirable to omit the yoke 21 and to cause the chucks to remain sta tionary on their pivots. assignor to Lake Shore Industries. In its preferred form. The invention resides in certain constructions and combinations and arrangements of parts and further objects and advantages will be apparent can be rigidly attached thereto. Serial No. The ments between the blade and tools to machine the surfaces desired to the required contour and 30 shaft it extends through an opening through a portion 20 of the slide 16. the length of the link 30 can be adjusted. by the other tool. and has a reversely tion. as indicated by the double machining relatively thin blades which comprises arrow IT. part of which appa ratus is shown broken away. and Fig. and blades. 26 are journaled a pair of oppositely disposed cutting tools car ried on individual support members which are 40 on the slide [6 and are preferably arranged to be arranged to move toward and from opposite sides of the work blank. although the invention could The principal object of the present invention is the provision of a new and improved method 15 be embodied in apparatus for duplicating other articles having thin sections. the invention is embodied in an apparatus for duplicating turbine of the blades and the resilient character thereof. in which: Fig. An upper frame or plate 31. 229. Ohio. which is supported by legs or blocks H. Referring to the and apparatus for accurately machining rela drawings. a corporation of Ohio Application June 2.679. par ticularly relatively thin pieces. are pivotally connected to the respective chucks and and means to move ‘the work blank and tool 45 one end of which is pivotally connected to a link holding members relative to one another to cause the tools to progressively cut or machine con tinuous surfaces on opposite sides of the work blank and form a blade of predetermined thick ness and contour. . to control the cutting depth of the tools. 2 is a view similar to Fig. not shown. The purpose of oscillating the chucks 25. and heretofore 2 to those skilled in the art to which it relates from the following description of the preferred em bodiment described with reference to the accom panying drawings forming a part of this speci?cation. respectively. which styli engage opposite sides of a master blade or template supported in spaced which a template or a. and is driven by a pulley 19. accurate machining thereof has been difficult. and are controlied by a stylus on each of the The chuck 25 has suitable mechanism 33 by members. for similarly attaching a blank workpiece 36 thereto. The central portion of the plate methods used prior to this invention. The chuck 26 is also provided with suitable clamping means. In the preferred form of the inven wardly at one end of the slide. Still another object of the invention is the pro vision of a new and improved apparatus of the character referred to in which the cutting tool holder members are biased toward one another 30 which is attached to a post 3| secured to the plate H1. The ?nished blades are relatively thin. which projects down thickness. In the form shown. which has a support for a blank to be machined. The pulley I9 is blade being machined at any given time. oscillated as the slide I6 reciprocates. Preferably. 1951. to the required accuracy and with a con has four upright guide posts l2 adjacent the siderable reduction in cost over production 20 corners thereof. Cleveland.786 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DUPLICAT ING MACHINED PARTS John H. means to control move ment of the members to and from the work blank. so that the slide is caused provision of a new and improved apparatus to reciprocate slowly. having a rectangu lar opening 38 therethrough. master turbine blade 35 relation to the work blank and which has a con tour corresponding to that of the ?nished blade. driven by a belt 24 connected with a suitable Another object of the present invention is the power drive. the apparatus comprises a base plate tively thin blade~like pieces.. 1954 2. Turbine blades. the lines of pressure of the cutting tools threaded portion 2| vwhich cooperates with a part against the blade surfaces are maintained in a on the portion 29 to cause the slide to recipro plane substantially normal to the portions of the 35 cate when the shaft is rotated. is supported for .

respectively. which is supported by a bracket 7| attached ment on the work blank. 58 include yoke portions 59. 48 and when so moved causes a pawl carried thereby to rotate a ratchet wheel on the shaft 51 which shaft in turn rotates is attached to the chuck 26 in a position relative the screw 46 slightly in one direction through a worm and worm wheel drive. and normally the template. the work blank is rotated as it is translated relative to the cutting tools so that the tools engage the blank with the axes thereof As mentioned previously. 54 attached there cal plane containing the axes of the styli and to at opposite ends of the opening 38 and these cutting tools. 6'!’ and styli 6!. The weight of the members 51. When the template and work blank are in 58 have bushings in the ends of the legs thereof place. Two U-shaped cutting tool holding members 51. throughout the move blocks support a rod 55 extending therebetween. 2. As the slide approaches the ends of its strokes the ?nger 46 The axes of the styli preferably lie in a com mon plane normal to the direction of movement of the slide [6. belt 13 is discon nected from the pulley 64' and member 58 is raised upwardly and over center to the position shown in Fig. 58 lie in a common plane which is parallel to the direction of movement of the slide l6. The mechanism includes a spring pressed ?nger or slide 46 moved in opposite directions by wedge blocks 61. the spacing between the axes of work blank to be machined has been subjected to the styli 6i. The controlled so that the depth of the cuts into the cutting tool 6‘! is preferably shaped like the work blank is exactly that required to machine stylus 6| and is adapted to cut material from the the blank to a thickness corresponding to that blank workpiece 36 as the workpiece is translated of the template at corresponding areas. When by the slide l6 relative to the cutting tool. The screw 40 is that the members may swing freely on the rod. The template or master blade 35. The slightly to lower the plate 31 and bring the cut pulleys 54. This operation is con to the block 54. 53 moves the cutting tools toward The member 57 is also provided with a spindle one another until the stylus of each of these 63 having a drive pulley 6A thereon. the cutting tools 67.2. 26. By the construction described it will be seen invention shown. 26 are ro tion of the shaft 5| having a crank thereon to tated about their pivots as the slide 16 is recipro_ quickly move the frame plate 37 from the base cated so that the arcuate surfaces of the blades plate H). tween the axes of the chucks 25. rotated by rod 5| to bring plate 31 to a position The members 51. 6| ’ the members are disposed so that the yoke por. and having a chuck by which a cutting sion of the cutting stroke the screw 40 is rotated tool 6'!’ can be attached to the spindle. 1 for gaining access to the chucks 25. which is a precisely formed blade which is desired to be duplicated. and the force of one tool on the work piece is counteracted by the force of the opposite tool. driven by a transversely of the blank 36 and at the conclu pulley 64'. and in which the cutting tools 61. 58 are thus tool 61 is drivingly attached to the spindle. 26 and the tips of the stylus and tool carried by the respective members 51. This . 64' are driven by an electric motor ting tools in alignment with the next lower seg ‘In. as seen in Fig. 4B which are attached in spaced relation to a rod 50. By this arrange 30 to the cutting tools corresponding to the posi tion of blade 35 relative to the styli.679. Plate 31 is moved on the guides by a screw 46 which is rotatably the respective styli. 67' cut away the weight of the member 51 urges the stylus 6! to excess material of the work blank and the weight engage with the far side of the template 35. In the pre tinued automatically until the entire area of the ferred form. as do the axes of the cutting tools. and the spacing between the opposed tool tips will be equal to that between supported in a bearing block 4| on the plate 10 and which threadingly receives a nut 42 which is attached to a bar 43 secured to the plate 3‘! by brackets 45. Motor 10 is then 35 and the work blank 36 supported by the chucks energized to drive the cutting tools and at the 25. respectively. 58 urge the cutting tools 61. The in spindle has a suitable chuck 66 by which a cutting ward movements of the members 51.786 vertical movement above the plate l0 and it has openings adjacent to the corners thereof through which the guide posts [2 extend to guide the plate 4 the tips of the cutting tools 61. The forged or cast blank or workpiece 36 having the general form of the master blade 35 but oversized is engaged and moved to the rear by one or the other of the blocks 41. 61' and any given time will correspond to the areas of the master blade 35 aligned with or engaged by the tips of relative to the base plate I0. 60 the slide I6 has moved through one of its strokes Member 58 is likewise provided with a stylus the cutting tools will have cut a narrow segment 6|’ and a cutting tool spindle 63’. are maintained substantially normal to the verti The plate 31 has blocks 53. respectively. 61' against opposite surfaces of the work blank 36._/ engage the upper edges of the work blank and tions thereof lie on opposite sides of the template template blade. respectively. of members 51. screw 40 is rotated in one direction or the other the plate 31 is moved toward or from the base plate I0. one end of which rod is slidably supported in suitable guides on the plate l0 and the other end of which is attached to the slide 15. 6!’ and the axes of the cutting tools 61. 40 ment thereof by the slide l6. ment the plate 31 is lowered by slight increments It will be seen that the template blade 35 has or steps at the end of each stroke of the slide H5. It will be seen that when the the opposed tips of the styli. is equal to the spacing be the cutting tools. The mem same time the drive for the rod [8 is started. the member 58 is lowered and the belt '13 which are pivotally journaled on the rod 55 so connected with the spindle 64'. The screw 40 is rotated step by step to lower the plate 3'! by a suitable power and ratchet mechanism actuated in timed relation with the reciprocation of the slide I6. As ber 51 has a chuck 60 by which a suitable stylus the slide [6 slowly moves the work blade and 6| can be attached thereto. 13. 61'. 26. an arcuate cross section. and the yoke 2'! is of The screw 40 can be manually rotated by rota such dimensions that the chucks 25. in the form of the lying in the plane substantially normal to the that the areas of the workpiece 36 engaged by 75 arcuate iormation of the ?nished blade. and the members engages the template blade. through belts 12. To operate the apparatus. is attached to the chuck 25 while the slide is at one end of its stroke and is positioned with the outer end of the blade upwardly and with the arcuate portion thereof substantially normal to the plane of the axes of the styli.

means for opposite surfaces of the blank at diametrically yieldably urging said combination tracer and opposite points. means for re ciprocating said slide. means actuated by said relative axis generally normal to the path of movement linear movement between said template and of said slide and adapted to carry a milling type blank holders and said combination tracer and 45 cutting tool. 26. a pair of combination tracer and tool carriers. a rotatable template holder. 1946 Landgraf ________ __ Aug. a blank holder rotatably supported by said slide for rotation about an axis offset from but parallel to the axis of rotation of said template holder. a slide supported on said base for linear movement relative thereto. a template holder rotatably supported by said slide for rotation about an axis normal to the path of movement of said slide. a slide supported on said frame for linear movement relative thereto. 12. means for rotating said tool holders. means for yieldably urging said tracer and tool carriers towards said template and blank holders with the tracers adapted to engage op posite surfaces of the template at substantially diametrically opposite points and the end milling type cutting tools opposite surfaces of the blank at diametrically opposite points. each of said combination tracer and tool carriers comprising a tool holder rotatably carried thereby for rotation about an axis generally normal to the path of movement of said slide and adapted to carrying a milling type cutting tool.425. and means for producing stepped relative movement between said slide and said combination tracer and tool carriers longitudinally of the axis of rotation of said template and blank holders in timed rela tion to the reciprocation of said slide. at diametrically opposite points. such as impeller blades for turbines. a blank holder rotatably supported by said slide for rotation about an axis offset from but parallel to the axis of rotation of said template holder. 1935 Great Britain ____ __ Jan. points and the end milling type cutting tools means for rotating said tool holders. a base.204. In apparatus for machining turbine blades. I claim: 1. 1938 Germany __________ __ Oct. 2.076 711. In apparatus for machining metal turbine 70 blades.102 479. means for movably supporting said combination tracer and tool carriers at opposite sides of said template and blank holders. means for producing relative linear movement between said template and blank hold 6 slide. the chucks 25. 26 would be ?xed relative to their axes. and means for producing stepped relative movement between References Gited in the ?le of this patent said template and tool holders and said combina 65 UNITED STATES PATENTS tion tracer and tool carriers longitudinally of the axis of rotation of said template and blank Number Name Date holders in timed relation to relative linear move ment between said template and blank holders and said combination tracer and tool carriers. 1941 . 1947 FOREIGN PATENTS Number 430. While the preferred form of the in vention has been described in considerable de tail. each of said combination said template and blank holders and the direc tracer and tool carriers comprising a tool holder tion of movement of said combination tracer and rotatably carried thereby for rotation about an tool carriers. means for rotating said tool holders. It is apparent that the objects enumerated as well as others have been obtained and that I have provided a machine for duplicating intri cately blade-like shaped parts. a template holder rotatably supported by said slide for rotation about an axis normal to the path of movement of said 75 2. and means for producing stepped tool carriers towards said template and blank relative movement between said slide and said holders with the tracers adapted to engage oppo combination tracer and tool carriers longitudi site surfaces of the template at substantially dia nally of the axis of rotation of said template and _> metrically opposite points and the end milling 60 blank holders in timed relation to the reciproca~ type cutting tools opposite surfaces of the blank tion of said slide. Having thus described my invention.679. a pair of combination tracer and tool carriers. it will be apparent that the invention is not limited to the construction shown and it is my intention to cover hereby all adaptations. a blank holder ro tatable about an axis oiTset from but parallel to the axis of rotation of said template holder. 1940 2. In the event ?at blades are to be formed.854 Country Date Great Britain ____ __ June 13. The cutting tools and styli being opposite one another prevent de?ec tion of the thin material engaged thereby so that although the material may be relatively resilient. means actuated by reciprocation of said slide for simultaneously rotating said template and blank ers and said combination tracer and tool carriers holders in timed relation. 3.786 5 minimizes distortion of the work blank and thereby provides maximum accuracy in the for mation of the blade. means for supporting said combination tracer and tool carriers at opposite sides of said tem plate and blank holders for movement normal to the axes of rotation of said template and blank holders. a pair of combination in a direction normal to the axes of rotation of 40 tracer and tool carriers. each of said combination tracer tracers and tool holders at opposite sides of said and tool carriers comprising a tool holder rotat~ template and blank holders. so that the blades can be formed automatically and inexpensively and with the high degree of accuracy and precision re quired for such pieces. the work blank is machined with a high degree of accuracy. modi ?cations and changes therein which come with in the practice of those skilled in the art to which the invention relates and the scope of the ap~ pended claims. means for yieldably ably carried thereby for rotation about an axis urging said tracer and tool carriers towards said generally normal to said relative linear move template and blank holders with the tracers ment between said template and blank holders adapted to engage opposite surfaces of the tem and said combination tracer and tool carriers and plate at substantially diametrically opposite adapted to carry a milling type cutting tool. In apparatus for machining turbine blades. means actuated by reciprocation of said slide for simultaneously rotating said template and blank holders in timed relation. means for re ciprocating said slide.2. 3.108 2.397.543 Hanna et a1 _______ __ Mar. tool carriers for simultaneously rotating said means for pivotally supporting said combination template and blank holders in timed relation to tracer and tool carriers with their respective said movement. a frame. 31.696 Ratie ____________ __ June 18.