STANnARO·SPI;C1FICATIONS.

FOA_RoroWORxS-MOC

SERIES 5000

ANCILLARY ROAOWORKS

SeCTION

5100, MARKERANOKILOMETRE;POSTS 5200 GUARDRAILS

5300 FENCING

5400 ROAD SIGNS

5500 ROAOMARxlNGS

5500 CATILE GRIDS AND AxLe WeiGHBRIDGES

5700 LANDSCAPlNG AND GRASSING

5800 FINISHING THERoAO AND ROAD RESERve AND TREATING 01.0 ROADS 5900 PAINTING

5000-2 5000-3 5000.7

5001)..13 5000-16

5000-20 5000-24

5000-33 5000-34

CONTENTSOFTHESTANDARD SPECIFlCAOONSFOR ROAD WORKS 2000:

ACKNOW/,EDGEMENTS CROSSECnON TERMINOLOGY

SERIES 1000 GENERAL

SERIl£S 2()OO DI?AWAGJii

SERIES 3000 EARmwonKsAND PAVEMENT LA YERS OF GIMVEL OR CRUSHED StoNE

SERIES 4000 DITUMINOUSLA YEllS AND SEALS .

SERIES5000ANClUARYROADWORKS

. SE'RJES 6000 SmuCnJRES

. SERJES7000 TOLERANCES, . TESTING AND QUAUTY CONmOL

,APPENDICES

PAGESOOO.,1

SERJES5000>ANCfLLARY ROADWORKS

SECTION '51 OO:MARKER·AND Kll.OMETREPOSTS

CONTENTS:

CLAUSE

PAGE

5101 SCOPE

5102 MATERiAlS 5103 FABRICATING

5104 SPACING THE MARKER AND KILOMETRE POSTS

5105.ERECTING

5106·. MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

5000·2 :>000·2 5000-2

5000"2 '5000-2 5000-2

5101 SCOPE

This Section cove:sthesupplyand erection of marker posts in positions and in accordance with the dimensions shown on the Drawings. or. as directed by tha Engineer.

5102 MATERIALS

(a) Concrete

Concrete work shall be camedoutin accordance with the provisions of SECTIO NS 620Q, 6300 and 6400 ..

(b) Paint

Paint for marker and kilometre. posts shall be nonreflectorised road-marking paint as specified in SECTION '5500. Paint for the recess in'the marikerposts shalibe Codit or a similar approved retro-reflective paint. .

5103 FABRICATING

MarkerandkUometre·posts . shall be fabricated to' the d.menstcna.snown on, the Drawings; A mixture of four parts' cfconcrets sand. toone part of Portland cement shailbe used. Thefonns shall be smooth and shall have accurate dimensions. The mixture shall be placed inthcfonTls 3ndvibrated on a vibrating table or by other ' 'approved means. The posts shall be reinforced as shown .on the Drawirigsand shall have anF3 surface finish as defined in CLf\uSi:6207.

The posts shall betrueto shape, .amooih. .and without any honeyqombingor other blemishes.

The recess near.me top of the mariker post shall be painted wllh the refleclive . paint specified, while the 'remainder of the exposed portion of the post shalL be .pajmed with white road-marking paint.

5104 :SPACING THE MARKER AND KILOMETREPQSTS

The 'marker posts shall·be spaced .as shown on' the Drawings. or as directed by the Engineer.

5105 ERECTING;

Marker posts shall.be: erected after the seal has been complet~,d. They shall be located at such spacing as the Engineer directswilh Iheiroutside edges in line with the shoulder breakpoint The edge on which the recess is located islheinncredge.The tops of the marker b10ckS shall be . at a constant height above the centreline ofthe road.

Holes shall, be excavated in 'the shoulder and '!he marker posts placed vertically and square to the road centre fine.

Backfiiling shall be compacted in 100 mm layers right from the bottom of the hole. Surplus excavated material shall be di~posed of as directed.

The .marken . posts shall be' painted' immediateiyafter having been placed.

Mariker posts shall be maintained and protected during the entire, construction period and any that are damaged· or broken . before the certificate ofecmpletton has been issued, shall be repaired or replaced, as may ,be required, at the Controctor'$ own cost.

5106 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

ITEM

51.01 MARKeR POsTS;

'Y!ill NUMBER (no)

.. The.unit of rneesurement ahallbethe number of marker posts. supplied, and 'erected in • accordance with the Specifications .,

The bid rate shall include full compensation lor supplying all materials and labour, making and transporting the marker posts, set!ingout, excavating and backfillil"lg. all . the holes and disposing. of. surpl us excavated material,' including ail haulage, placing and painting the marker posts and all me equipment, [he tools and incidentals necessary for completing and maintaining theW"rks described in this Section.

IreM

51.02 KllOMETl'\E POSTS

Y.tm:

NUMBER:(no)

The unil of measurement shall be the number of kilometre posts supplied and erected in accordance with the Specifications.

The bid rate shalf include full compensation for supplying all materials and labour, making' and transporting the kilometre posts, setting out, excavating and backfilling all the holes and disposing of. surplus exca~ated material, including all haulage, placing and palntmg the kilometre. posts and, all the equipment, tile toots and . incidentals necessary' for' completing and maintaining the Works described in this Sectioil.

Til!! UHlJED Ra>uai." OF T AiizNllA MiNISTRY Of I/i.~

PAGE 5000 -2

SERl~S 5000 • ANCllLtAA'fRoADDWORK$

SECTION 5200: .GUARDRAILS

the required!ength to be cut off from .the bottom of a post. provid8d th;d the Rlrpo"ed ",n;,a is subsequently thorougnly treated with creosote.

SERIES 5000: ANCILLARY ROADWORKS

CONTeNTS:

CLAUSE

PAGE

Timber posts ·shall nolexhibit excessive cracking at the ends, particularly cracks aligned at an angle to the. guardrail exceeding. 45". Posts wtllch, ·in the o;:linioo of the Engineer, exhibit: a . degree . of cracking. that would render. them tlnfit .ror service during a shorter than normal lite shall not be used.

5201 SCOPE

5202 MA T~RIALS 5203· CONSTRUCT10N 5204 REQUIReMENTs

5205 REMOVING, RENOVATING AND RE~ ERECTING THE EXlSTlNGGiJARORAlLS· 5206 MEASUREMENTANO PAYMENT

5000·3 5000-3 5000·3. 5000-4

(ii) Steel posts

Steel posts shall be of the type .and size shown on the Drawings or described in the Special Specifications.

(c) Reflective plates

V~shaped . reflective plates shall be manufactured from 1.5 mm thick. mild: steel plate. to tlle dimensions shown on , -. the Drawings ... Whe" .. suppli<:>d wilh gaivalli::oed guardrails, they shall also be galvanisM; and When supplied. with painted guardrails, they shall be finished In White baked enamel. The outer surfaces .shaU be costed with Arlgineering-grade relra-reflective· material which complies with· the provlslonscr. CKS 191 In the colours shown on the Drawings< Ho!es for fixing shall be drliled. before the refleCtive plates may begalvanised or painted;

5000-4 5000-4

5201 SCOPE

This. Section. covers the supplying, Installing and maintaining of metalguardrsils atlocationsand in accordance with the. details, dimensions. and de$ign sh<lWn on the Drawinlls or as directed by the Engineer.

5202· MATERIALS.

{al Guardrail.

G\.iardrallsshaU comp!ywith the requirementS .of AASHTO designation M180.98or equivalent

5203 CONSTRUCTION

TlledlmensioR.!> or guardrails and end unitsshal! be .in

.. accordance with the details shown on the Drawings.

Guardrailsshallbe.supplied together with allthe bolts, nuts, washers and fixing materials required,including the bolts forfixinglheguardrailstotheposts.

{i) Galvanising

Unless.specifled . otherwise in • the Special Specifications, all guarClraUs, . DOlts, nuts and washers shall be 9 alvanised with a . hot-dip (galvanised) zinc coating which cemplies. with the requirementsof.AASHTO designation M232MJ970r equivalent. GalvanisadgUlardrails ,.h~1I not be nestad when stacked for storage.

. (&). ·I!Tectlon

The holes forthe·timber posts shall be 01 sufficient size to permit the proper setting . of the posts and tcallow suffiCient . room for backfilling the hole and tamping the filling. Atleast1;0 m of a postshall be embedded in the ground .

. The holes for the timber posts shall be spaced tosuit the standard length aLthe guardrail supplied_ Where shown. on the Drawings or directed. by the Engineer, posts shall· beset at half the normal spacings .. The hole for the concrete bloc!< at the endota length of guardrail shall be neatly excavated and the· top 120. mm ahuttcred.

Postssha!1 have atop diameter of not less than 150 mm, Posts witha.top diameter up to 230 mmwill be acceptable. provided that posts With widely varying diameters shall. not be ·usadtogetherinthe . same

length of guardrail. . .

PostsshalibedriHed· and shaped as shown on the Drawings. and .. provided. Wlth.tI1e • necessary. bolts, nuts. washers and spacer blocks for fixing.

The posts. spacer bIOCks.(jf. applicable) and .. guardrails shal1.becompletely erected .andset true .to tine and level, so that the guardrails will be at the required height above the level of the completed road shoulder. Where jOinted.lheend of the guardrails which overlaps all. the side of the traffic shall point in the direction 'ofthetraffic movement The guardrail. shall· besuitabiy .brat:ed to prevent any movement 8/1d ad 00115 shaUbe lightened prior to any holes being backfilled;

After· the Engineer hassignifjed . hls: approval· of. the guardrails soerected,the holes shall be backfilled with a 12:1 soil eement mixture. The material shan be mixed with . the correct .qllantityof Water to • ensure • that. the mixture will be placed while at or near the .optimum moisture content.

{b) . Guardrallposts (i) Timber posts

Tirilberpostsshallbe supplied lnlellgthsasshown on the Drawings and shall comply with the requlrernents of :aABS 457 or.equlvalent,

Timber posts and spacer blocks shall be treated in accorclance . with SABS 05 or4quivalent with ;, copper- chrome-arsenic . compound for timber· pmscrvation, which· complies. with .. SABS .673 .. or equivalent, or with acroO$otcWhlch ·complieswilh SADS 536 or 51\05 539 or equivalent Tho

. " .preseMltive specined in the SpeclalSpecilications Shall be used. After the posts have been treated, (heyshal! not be sawn,dri!ledorshaped.

ThemixWre shall then .. be.placerland .: ttJor!lllghly rammed in !ayers not exceeding 100 mm.\ofseof!:ipaCted thickness. The approac:h ends; where the giiaii{r:a~.hl!i$(;' ... . to be bent .down andimOOorGd. eha!! be construeted as

shown on the Drawings; .

When the bacldilling. has been completed and the bracing removed,theposts shall be dgid and vertical • and the 91.18rdrail shall be . true to line and level and

. firmly. fixed to the . pOsts; EXcess . excavated. material shan be disposed of as directed by the Engineer.

Wherc,howevcr;ihe outtingof .. p03t:3. i3 unevoidablc after having been treated, the Engineer may pennit .

Steel posts 3hall be erected and tilted 888hown on the DrawIngs.

. SERES 5000 • AHClI..WAY ROADDWORKS

All guardrails shall be sa erected as to .have no

· proiectino ends which rn ight InteJfera with or endanger traffic. The edges and the centre of the.guardrai!$.shalJ

· touch .. either the apacer block .. or .·the post where no spacer blocks are used •. Guardrails. if specified; shall be provided with end units as shown on the Drawings.

· All spnces of guardrailS snalllJeatpost$, and guardrails shall makecontactoverthe entire area of the splice;

Reflective· plates shall be fiXed in. accordance With the detaiisshoWll on the Drawings, Th&J'Gfiactive curfa= sha1!be arranged.wiIh lhecoloursas shown on the .Drawings.

(b) Painting

The follOwing Instructionsshall apply where . guardrails are to be painted:

(I) Before being fixed, theguardraiisshall be ,cleaned, prirned end . peinted a$.$~ified ., In ClAuSE. 5905. Aftererection,all abraded or damaged 'sulfaces shall be repainted Bsspecified in CLAUSE 5908. Galvanised guardrails shall not be painted.

(ii}When existing guardrails are required to be repainted, they shall be thoroughly cleaned with wire brushes and descaled with suitable tools to remove aa.rustand loose and .oxidisedpant, Thev snau.men be washed oown and. all· exposed steel surfaces shall be given a coat of Zinc based primer;

(iiOThe .entireprepared surface shall then be, given a full coat of zinc based primer and ,lwocoats of paint as specified. in. CLAUSE 5908.

5204· REQUIREMENTS

The .comp!eted guardrail shan have a neal appearance, and shall, not .show any vislbla deviations' from line and . grade. The posts shall be straight and vertical .. The guardrails,shaiJ not be warped but shall be in a vertical plane parallel to the road centre ' line, except at , flsll!Id terminal seCtloos.The .palntedorgalvaniSect surface on the .guardrail' shall be smooth and conlinuousandfree from abrasions or scratches. Any damage to, the surface shall be repaired althe Contractor's expanse.

5205 REMOVINGj RENOVATING AND RE· ERECTING EXISTING GUARDRAILS

Every effort sfJould be made. to:reuseexistingguardrails rlllherthan die pose efthem and purchaSe MW units. WMere existing guarorailshave to be removed, or removed 'an d re-ereeted, or removed; renovl'ted, and re- , eiected,the three processes .of removal, rer')Vation and re-erectlon shall be earnedout as follows:

(a). RemovlngthO guardrails

All guardrails~. reflective plates and end units shall be loosened. Posts shall be carefully dug out a.nd the holes shall be filled and compacted in ·150 mm layers. IIams used fer: fixing, such as . bolts, nuts and washers, togethEtr with, the' reflective. plateS,shall bap!aced into bags, atterwl)lchafl the mBterialshall be transported to

, a atore approved· by .the. Englneer •. and. all storecl.in groups by type.

Where materialls intended. for re-use, it shall first be ' unpacked for inspection by the Erigineer for deciding WIlictJ material WIliDe, .suitable rcr re-use, Suitable material shall Ihen be stored. separately from material which is unsuitable for re-use.

(b) Renovatlng.the gu.rdraUs

Guardrails, and units andsteeJpmlts sultabl e for reuse shallbetakelhto the workshop forc1eaningand painting; ; Rust. and existing paint shall . be . completely . removed and minor indentations hammered out The

guardrails shall then be regalvanlsedor receivesurtace treatment and be. paintcd as de3Gribcd in CI.A~e 5905.

Timber posts suitable for re-use shall be. cleaned and treated with a timber 'preservative as described in SUaCLAU$E 5202(b).Bolts,nuts and washers .tobereused shall be cleaned and all rust removed; and shall

then be oiled. .

(c) R~rectlon

The .. guardrails: shall· 'be· erected in the posiuons as indicated, andaJl' the removed material suitable forreuse, and as much supplementary new material as may btl ,necessary shall. be used,' Re-erectionshatl be as specified for newguardrails,including fIXing the tetrareflective plates.

5206 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

!!SM.

52.01 GUARDRAILS ON TIMBER

POSTS:

(a) GAl.VANISEO (b) PAINTED

METRE{m) METRI;(m)

The .unit of measurement shall be, the melreorguardrall

as erected, excluding end units; .

The bid rates shall include full compensation, fOr fumi$hingall materials and labour and for BI)'!C1inoand painting .and .galvanising the guardrails, complete with posts, spacer blocks, bolts, nuts, washers and reinforcing plates, and, excavating. and ,backfilling. the post holes and removing any surplus excavated material.

l!§M

52.02 GUARDRAILS ON SH,I::L

POSTS:

(a) GALVANISED (b) PAINTED

METRE(m) METRE'(m}·

The unit of measurement shall be the metre of guardrail erected,exch.iding end Units.

The· old· rates snail inClude rou: compensation for furnishing all·. materials and labour and erecting and painting and galvanising the guardrail, • complete with posts" spacer blocks, bolts, nuts, washers and rninforcing pJales::andoxeavating ,andbaekfilling the post holes including concrete backfill, and removing any

surplus excavated maleriaL •

ITEM

52.03 EXTRA OVER ITEMS 52.01.

52.02 AND 52.11 FOR HORIZONTALLY CURVEO 'GUARORAlL$FACTORY BENT TO A RADIUS OF LESS THAN 45 m

Yt!!!

METRE (m)

The unit of measurement shall be the metre of curved guardrail erected anG msasureo In place;

TM bid rale extra over the ratesbid for ITEMS 52.01, 52,02 and 52.11 shall include full. compensation fur incidentals In respect of supplying and emoting QUl'VcO guardrails.

. i : I fi

:1

!

, I

t:

. i

5TAIIOARO SPECIFICATIONS fOR Ro~ Wi:lRKSo2QO:l

SERIESSOOO •• AAClLUARV ROIIDDWORJ(S

1m!

52,04 ENDUNfTS:

{al END SEC7iONS INCLUDING FOUNDATION IN THE GROUND WHeRE SINGLE GUARDRAIL SECTlONSARE USED (STATE LENGTH)

• (b). END seCTlONS INCLUDING FOUNDATION INTHE GROUND

Wl1eRE OOV6L.E aIJARDRAIL· SECTIONS ARE USED (STATE LENGTH OF END SECTION)

(c) CABLE STAYS COMPLETE WITH . ANCHOR BLOCK

NUMBER· (no)

ITEM

52.08 RENOVATING GUARDRAil

MATERIAL:

(a) GUARDRAILS INCLUDING END SECTI::lNS

(b)· POSTS lNCLIJOING BOLTS, W,A.SHERS AND NUTS

METRE(m)

NUMBER (no)

NUMBER (no)

tile unit of measurement for$UBITEM (a)sha!Jbe the metre of single guardrail, . whether straight -or bent renovated as Specified, the length of which shall. be measured ]n accordance with the measurements of the guardrail after dismantling. The unitofmeastirement for· SUBITEM {b) Shall be the numi>eroftreated posts.

The bid rates shall incllldefull compensation for the WOrk as specified in SUBCLAUSE 5205(b); includinglhe loa(iiiig tl':'lnspmtingto .9nd fromti!e workshops, offloading and storing of the material.

NUMBER (no)

The unit of measurement shall be the number of end units cfeach type erected.

The bid rates shall lnclude fultcompensatlon . for all labour; coastrucnonal plant and materials·· required for installing. the end units as .shown . on the •. Drawings, including posts and fittings and thebendingoftumed·

• down sections, excavatlens, concrete, backfilling,. the

• removal·. of surplus backfil!and· bituminous· sealing·. at posts where guardrail· la erected through a • bituminous surfaca.

Am!

52.09 RS-SRECTIONOF

GUARDRAILS WiTH RECOVERED MATERIAL:

(a) SINGLE GUARDRAil (b}DOUSLE GUARDRAil

METRE(m) METRE{m)

.!!5M

52.05 ADDITIONAL GUARDRAIL

(a) TIMBER (b) STEEL

NUMBER (no) NUMBER (no)

The unit otmeaserement shall be the metre of single or rJouhle guardraiJ r~cted with used ·matElrial. and measured between the points where they are joined to the end units.

£"06T6: .

The unit of measurement forsdditionalguardrailposts shall.be •. the .. number erected· OVer and above those en~cted in accordance With the . normal spacing. shown on the Drawings.

THe bid ratessnaH include full compensation for supplylngadditionaJ . posts, . excavating. the· necessary

· hOles, erecting the posts, and backfilling the holes.

The bid ratessha:1 include fun compensation for reerecting the guardrails a sspecified ·in .. SUBCLAUSE 5205(c), includir,g the loading, transporting betweerl any two points on .thesite and off-loading the material, and prOviding new fixing . material. Payment. shall be madesepare~oJy for any new material required, including . spacer blocks, but not forotherfixlng materials. Wherasecliqns are made. entirely from new malarial, payment Il'iereforeshallbe· made under the appropriate items for new Quardrails.

1!5M

52.06 REFLECTIVE PLATES

UNIT NUMSER(no)

!IS!!

52.10 RE-ERECTIONOF END UNITS

WITH RECOVERED MATERIAl:

(a) END WINGS

(b) TERMlNAL SECTIONS WITH SINGLE

GUARDRAILS .

(c) TeRMINAL SECTIONS·WITH·DOUBLE GUARDRAILS.

(d)TERMlNAL SECTIONS COMPLETE WITH ANCHOR BLOCK

NUMseR(no) NOMEiER(no).

The .. unit of. measurement shall. be the. number of reflective pJates Installed.

The . bid . rate shalJinclude full ·compensation· for supplying all materials end labour required • for manufapturing, painting and fixlngth e . reflective plates as speCified andes shown-on the Drawings.

NUMBER (no)

NUMBER (no)

1m!!

52.07 REMOVING EXISTING GUARDRAILS·

UNIT METRE (m)

The unit of measurement shaH be the number of end units erected with recovered and, in part, new mal eriaL

The ·bid rates shall include full compenSation for erecting the·· end units and .for providing. all anchors, fixing materials and anchor blocks. Apart from anchors, anchor blocks and .fixing materials payment will be made separately foral! new materials. End. unils.made completely from new materials shall be peidforin accordance with the appropnateratesfor·· neW end units.

ITEM UNIT

52.11 NSW MATERIAL RSQUIRED

FOR THE RE-ERECTIONOF GUARQ-; MILS WITH RECOIIEflCO MA1'ERIAL$:

The unit of measurement shall be the metre ofgllardrail removed, and the quantitystlalf be measured between the terminal points of the sections removed, including the and· unite, .. but . excluding tho. onohor • blockaand anchor cables, ifany, projtlCling beyond the end units.

The bid rate shall include ful! compensalionforthe work as described!n .SUBCLAUSE.52D5(a) •. including. loading. transporting te any· point: on the. Slle, . and· off-loading and stacldng1hematerial.

PAGESOOO-5

Sr"NDARD SPEClFICAT'ONS FOR ROAOWORJ<S.2000

SERIES 5006 '. ANCIl.UARY ROADDWORKS'

{a) GUARDRAILS (b) TIMBER POSTS (C) STEEL POSTS

(d) REfLlOCTlVE PLATES (e) ,SPACeR BLOCKS

METRE(rn) NUMBER (no) NUMBER (flO) 'NUMBER (no) 'NUMDEI'1.(no)

The unit' of measuremenl for SUBiTEM ,(a) shall ,be the metre of guardrail provided, measuredm accordance With the meaaurcmcntaofthe IOOGO guardrail. The unit of measurement for SUBITEMS (b), (c), (d) and {e) shall be the number ,of new timber posts, steel .posts, reflective plates and spacer blacks provided, respectively.

The bid rates shall indude full compensation for supplying the material' as . specified .. ITEM 52.03 .. shall also apply to horizontally bent guardrail factorybent to a raoius ortesa than 45.rn.

ITEM.

02.12 Dfl.ILLINGANO 61/1STINO

HOl.ES FOR GUARDRAIL POSTS

'!lli!!

NUMOE;!l (no)

The ur,it otrreasurement shall be' Lhe number of holes drilled and bleated with cxplo:;ivosinrookmaterial which cannotbetcrnoved by auge!".

The bid rate shall indude full compensation for all drilling, explosives, materials, labour and equipment and all incidentals to be' incurred for making. holes in rock materials.

PAGE 5000· 6

: ~

SERIES 51l00.ANC1LLlARY ROADDWORK~

SERIES 5000: ANCILLARYROADWORKS

Rolled steelsectionsshaU be provided with a protective col>tir>g of lar or other approved material.

SECTION 5300: FENCING

CONTENTS; clAuse

PAGE

(b) Bolts for stays

Bolts shall be galv3l'lised. steel bolts of the required lengll).and adiametar which shall not be Jess. than 12 mm. All the necessary bolts. nuts and washers. shall be supplied with each post

5301 SCOPE 5302. MATERIALS

5303 TYPES OF FENCING

5304 PROTECTING liVESTOCK 5~05. CLEARINGTKE FENCE LINE

5306 ERECTfNG$TRAIN1NG POSTS AND STANDAR0S .

5307. ERECT:NG fENCE WIRES

5308 ERECT:NGDIAMOND MESHOR W!RE

NETTiNG

5309 CLOSING OPENINGS UNDER fENCES 5310 EXISTING FENCES

5311 ERECTING GATES

5312 TEMPQRARYFSNCIN3.GATES Mo MOTOR GATES

1;)31 ~ GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 53.14MEIISIJREMENTAND PAYMENT

5000e7 5000,7 5:)00-'8 SOOO·8 SOOO-'8

(c)Wiro

:)000-8 5000-8

5000-9 SOOO-9 5000.,.9 5000"9

SOOO-9

0000'10 5000~10

(l) Barbed wire

Barbed .v.ire snail comply withlhe requirements of .SAt3SE75or equivalent and shall be one or more ofthe following types:

(1}Hj9h-ten$ile-gradesingle-strand3.~5 mm x 2.5

mm oval-shaped wire;wilh a .2.81 mm equivalent diameter and fully gaJvanised.

(2) HighCtensile-grade single·strandfully

galvanised (firstc<:lass.caating). 2.8mm x 1.9 mm in diameter, oval-shaped wire, with a 2.31 min ·oqLlivalent di"lhdter. .This.wlre shannotoe used within 500 mm above ground fevefwhere bush fires are common,

5301. SCOPE

T'lisSection covers the moving of exislingfe;)ces where necessary and erecting new fences along the boundaries of the read. reserve and where elsewhere ir.dicated on the Drawings or as ditectedby the Engineer.

ltshall also incllidethe· erection. and . later removal of .ternporary .tences. • Except when the. E!Jgh.eer·aHows otherwise, new and temporary .fences shall be erected . before construction en a partlcularsectlon of the read is commenced ·lJVith.or before. temporary bypasses are opened 10 traffic.

(3) Mlld-stee1ilrade doucre-strano unMJrecllonal twist .... 'ire.eachstrand 2.5 mmindiameler, for use al any height above ground. The wire shall be fully galvanised,

Barbs shall be manufactured ·trom2 rnm galvanised wire and shall be spacedatnol more than 152 mm.

(ii] Smoolhwire

Smooth Vilre Shall ccmpjywunme.requtrementsor SAOS 875 orequivalent and shall be of the types specified below:

This Section also covers the dismantling. ot existing . fences and lhe stacking of the fencing material,

(1} Straining wiresha:t .be 4rr>min diameter .and fully g;;Jlvanised.

5302 MATERIALS

(2) Fencing wire shall. be high·tensile-grade not less than 2.24 mm in diameter wire fully

galvanised. .

(a). Straining posts, stay!!, standards and droppers Straining posts. stays, standards .anddroppers shall be of the .type and size indicated onthe Drawings. Steel seclions shall comply withlher~uirementsof CKS82. or equivalent and timber posts withther¢quiremenl.sof SA13S4S7 or equivalent. Timber postssha!1 be' treated with a preservative in accordance with the requirements

;ofSUBCLAU$E 5202(b}, .

{3} Tying. wire shall be not less: than 2 . .5· mm . in diameter. rnlld-steel galvanised . Wire tor tying fencing wire 10 standarcs.and droppers and 1.6 rnrn mild~steelgaJvanised wire for tying netting.

. and mesh wire to the fencing wire.

Unlessotnerwise specifiedcrshown 00 the Drawings, lolle<.l steel. flOSu;shall be 15 or22kglm rai!$I!Il> "hov.n onlhe Drawings. Standards shall be 2.5 kg/m v, sections or timber standards according to SAIlS 457 or equivalent.

Droppers shall be 0.S6 kgfm Tidgl;)back..patlem droppen; or timber droppers according 10 SAGS 4ST or equivalent.

(d) Diamond mesh

Diamond mesh (chain,link fencing material) shall comply with the requtrementsvot SASS 1373 or equivalent, The width shall be as shown on ' the DraWingsalld the edge finish shall be both sides otinciledor barbed.

The nominal diameter· of the wire shall be 2.5mm and the mesh sizoshall be 64 rnmx 64 rnm. .

Tubular slfalnlngposts and Slays shall begalvanised in accordance with SAGS 763 or equivalent for. Class B 1 articles. orshalllJe pa;ntadas speci/icd in Section 5900 as may be required on the Drawings, and shall. have a wall. thickness. of <It !Aast '~95 mm UnlASsotherwise. shown on. the Drawings, all tubular ·posts . shall be pro\lidedwith· at least a 200 mrnx 200. mmfootplate and apressed-ste8lar cast·iron .cap. Tubular stays shall have a nominal bore of at least 50 mm.

The wire shall be tully galvanised. (e) Wire netting

Wire netting shall befvlly galvanised mild·steel wire with a minimum :diameter of:·1.ll. mm, willi 75.mm hexagonal mesh,

The widlhshaU be as shown OTI the, Drawings.· (1) Barbed-tape concertina wire

Barbed-tape concertina Wire shall. comply. with.the requirem en is of CKS592 Type A or equivalent. The high-tensile steel wire·· shall be heaVily gs!vaniseti (Clab:; A). and lilt. balbed tape ·anu concertina damps

PAGE SOGO • 7

STAUO~RO SP£CII'ICATIONS FORHoAO WORKS·2000

shall also be heavily galvanised (CJassZ600). The diameter of the .roIUshal[ be 950 mmor 700 mm according to requirements.

(g) Gates

Gates shall be· manufactured to t.ic dimenslons shown onthc Drawings.

Gates shall be complete in every respect, including hinges, washers.iboltsand locking chains attached to the. gate.

Gateposts shall not .be used, as. straining posts and shall be according to SABS457 or equivalent

(ti) Tiinberpostsfcirwlrci mats

TilT ber . posts, for, ho:ding . down wire, mats. wherelhe fence crosses streams shall comply with the requirements of SABS 457 or equivalent and shall be in ,aecord::moo .with ,the requirements of $u9CLAUSE

S202{b).

(I) Manufacturing tolerances f!;)r wire

The .a ctual diameter of wiro supplied shall nowhere: lie less than tho specified diameter minus the following tolerances:

Spgcified diameter 1.00 c 1.80 rnm 2:00· 2.80 mm 3.15-'4.00mm

Toierance O,05mm 0.08mm 0.10 mm

5303 TYPES :OF FENCING··

The folloWing types of fcncos shall be erected in accordancawilhlhe dimensions shown on the Drawings:

,.. Stock-proof fences

,Vermin-proof fences - Pedestrian fences

- Security fences

Where' exiSting. fences nave to be dismantled, and, reerected, they shall be erected either to the same de$ign as the original,butWilh such modifications as may be required by the Engineer, or lheyshall· be' erected up to onl;!< of the standard.; cpocificid abovo,Q.l1 ae otdcrod by

the Engineer. .

5304 PROTECTING LIVESTOCK

From tho' tlmoof. Qccupanc:v lip· to tho date of Taking Over Certificate being issued 10 lhOContractor; no shall lakoall measures neCessary. for preventing th a ingreSS of .vermln,·imd' for .Pl'Otecting and controlling,livcSlock ete, .. on the sections .of the, properticsaffecled . by. his operations;' He shall proVide . galos·, at the .posmons .in existing fences cut by him fOr gainingacccssand. shall ensurethat all gatesarokopt closed except when 1hey are-opened for admiUir:lghis traffic. NofonC1lS Shall be . cut without tho approval .of thaEngineor, and consultation with. the Owner of the fence. .

, Whero ailcrnative arrangements .cannot bemade, tho Engineer may direclthe Conlractorto erect tempOrary

, fencing· wherenecessaTYto ,. protcctlivostock. that' may belostor arccxposedlo vermin throughnisoperalions. Such fencing. shall, bo .of an adequate standard .. and shall be erectedahead of construction .operauons, The. foncing . "hall be : .maintained in a good oroer .Iluring construction operations and, on completion of tho work, it shallbaremoved from tho sno and arl slirfaGeS shall be restored. Tho Engineer may order lhat, any permanent fencing which is required be: erected ahead ofconstruclion operations; where practicable, instead of erecting temporary fencing.

SERlE'S SOClO· • ANCILUAAY, ROADDWORKS

5305 ,CLEARINGTHEFENCE LINE

The ·fence lioesllall bectearecovar a WIdth of at Jeast 1,0 m on each side of the centre lmeof the fence and surface irregularities shall be graDed sothat the Jence wiltfo!low the general contour of. tr.e.ground.Clearlng the line shall 'include the r ... moval of aIJ trees, scrub, stumps. isolated boulders or stones and other obstructions which will interfere with the construction of the. fence. Slumps within. the cleared. space .sMll be grubbed as described .inSEcncN 3100, The bottom of . the renee snatr be located at a unifonn distance above

. the ground line in .. accordance with tnereoulreme-ns shown on tho Drawings. AU material removedshallbe

, bum! or disposed of in disused borrow pits.

Any areas outside the road reservswherecleanng is notperm!lted by the Owner or is impracticable snail no! be cleared·ifso directed by the Engineer.

5306·· ERECTINGSTRAININGPQSTSAND STANDARDS

Straining, posts shall 'be, erected at all.terminal points, low. pOinlslas required), comers and bends in Ihe fencing and at all junctions Wi,:, other fences. Straining posts shall not, be spaced further apart than . shown on lheOrawings.Thelenglh of posts.abovepround shall be such that the correct ·c)earance between the lowest wire and tho groundcllilueobtained.

Strainir:g posts shall be accurately setlnholas and shaU beprovidod with. concrete bases to the dimensions

shownon thoDrawines. .

Holes shall be dug to the fullspecified depth. Where, on account of the presence of rock; the holes cannot be excavated by 'hand or by pneumatic . tools and the Contractor has to resort to the use of explosives, he will be paid separately for the drilling and, . blasting operations required.

All J'ltrllinino postsshatl be braced by means of:iteys or anchors, as shown on the Drawings or as directed by the Engineer. Tubular slays shall be bolted 10 the posts. Gate posts shall not be. used . as.strilining posts. but, at each gale· post a ,s1raining post shall be· elaced as shown on theDrawinqs.

Standai'ds shall befirmly plantedmto.thepround atthe spacings .showri on . the Drawings· or as directed by the I::ng1noo,. Thcapacing.of5tandaros' belweefl.liflY jwo successive . straining . posts shall be. uniform and not greater than' that shown on ,. the Drawings; In rod or hard material standards shall be either driven or-set in holes drilled into !he rock. The size of drilled holes shllil provide alight fitto the standards .' care Shall betaken when driving standards to •• prevent, their . buckling. or beingdamagad.

All straining posts and standards shall be accurately aligned· and. set • plumb, Where·· verandah-type security fencing· is. used, . the poslsshall· be. planted. with the overnang on the road side and.perpendicm[arto the dimclionnf 1ho fence. After ihestrainingpoclsarid standards· have 'been firmly set in, accordance withlhe foregoing requirements, fence wires shall be attached thereto at the spacings shown on the Drawings.

5307 ERECTING FENCE WIRES

Alffencing wire shall be tied to the sidcsofstanclards or postsuo. prevent ·Ihewiresrrom bolng. di$placed·· or hecommglooso.Tho wire shall be carefully . tensioned without saf1gin9 •. and true to line; care belng·cxerclsed· not to tension Ihe· wire to: suchan extent thai it will brcak,or. thatend.corner; straining or gate posts willbo· pulled out. or that it will be oasJly damaged during ·fires;

STmOAAD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD wO!u<s.200~

SERIES 5000 .- AN(l!lUAR)' RoADDWORKS

Each .strand of fencing wire shall be sectJrely tied in the OOlTCclpos;t;on hord. up to ooch3tandarn wi!hsoft galvanised. tying Wire. The tying ,wire for each strand shall pass through a hole or notch in the standard,while the ends of lhe .tyingwiresha!! be wound alleast four times around the fencing wire to prevent it from moving in a va rtical direction;

At end, corner;strairiingand gate posts thetencing wire shall be securely wrapped twice around the post and secured against slipping by tying the end t'ghtiyarOUfld the wire by means .of at least sixneatlightfwists.

Where high-tensile wire is used, two long twists may first be made. followed by the six tight, neat twists around the post toprevent the wire trombreakii1g at the first. twist When smooth wire is used; : the loose. end shall preferab.1y be bent over-and hooked into the notch between the fencing wire and the firsttwist.

$plices in the fenCing wireshall be permitted if made in the following manner, with a splicillgtoot The end of each wire atthe splice shall be taken atIeast 75 mm put thl:! spliCing· tool and wrapped around the other INirebynot less. than six . complete .turns- with the two separate wire ends being turned in . opposite directions. After th e splicing tool. has been removed, the space left by it in the spliced wire shail beclosed by pulling the wire ends 1ogether; Unused wire ends shall be cut close . so as to leave a neat splice.

The gaps between gate posts and the adjacent -G!ralnmg poata.<lhail be' fenced off with short lengths· of fencing wires.

Droppers shall be tied to each fence wire with soft tying wire· in' me. required position, as specified for standards to prevent slippage in a vertiealdirection. The. spacing of droppers between . any. two straining posts. shall be uniform. An:)horing .. to structures 'shalt be dona as

shown ·on the Drawings. .

Barbed-tape concertina wire shalf be attached to the fence as shown on ihe Drawings at maximum spaces of 1. Om belween.IYingpQints.l3arbed-tape concertina wire rolls $h311 b"u:pliMdby CI1~tI3I'pin(l for one full circle and tied .• at four evenly .spaced • points . along the circumference. Spliced ends shall coincldewith the posiliQns oflhe.slandards.

5308 ERECTING DIAMOND·. MESH ,ORWIRE NETTING.

Where ven'nln~proof, pedesbianor security fences are erected, or where instructed· by the Engineer •. wire netting ~r diamond·mesh shall be stretched against !he fence and properly .lied 10 the Jenelngwire as shown on the Drawlngs. The diamond mesh or wire netting shall be secured by ·soft tying wire at 1.2 m. centres along the top and bottom wires and at 3 m centres along each of the other fencing ~res, unlessollierwise shown on the Drawings.

In the case .ef vermln-oroctfencinc. . vermin shall·ba prevented from creeping ·under the fence by either one of the two methods. describl;l<lbeiow8sordei"ed by the Engineer:

(8) Dy foIdingbaGKthe bottom 1JO mm of the wire netting so that it lies flat on lhe.groundand by tightly . packing stones (having.a minimum dimension .of 200 mm) end to end on this .f1ap 10 secure it in positiM

(b}' By embedding the loweqao mmof the wlrenetling in the. ground and thoroughly ccmpactingtheearth . around itOll·both sides, to secure the netting;

5309 CLOSJNGOPENINGSUNDER FENCES

At ditChes, streams; drainage channels or other depressions where the fence cannot be. erected so. as to follow the general. ground contour,the Contractor shall close the 'opening under the fence with horizontal barbed wirOG at' 150 mrn Gp3cing.Str[ltohcdbctwcen additional. posts or. straining· posts .as shown on the Drawings or asdiracted.by the Engineer. In the case of pedestrian, verrni n-proo! and security fences Ihe opel1ing.shall be covered with strips of wire netting or diamond mesh 1000 mmwide •. fixed . to the' barbed wires.

In the case of larger .streams where damming of debris against the fence Would constitute a hazard; the opening below the bottom fencing wire shallbectosed. with loose..hangingwlre nets. For this purpose additional straining posts shall be planted on both sloes of the stream with a Cable consisting otat: least five strands of smooth 'encirig wire stretched between them. Onto this cable vertical strips.of diamond mesh hanging down to ground leve.lshall be fixed. The edges of the various strips of diamond mesh, shall· be tied· toe ach . other 50 that the enure rna! wllll)e ialsedby water flowingundemeath 10 leave a free stream area. These mats: at streams shall beerectedonty Whenins!rllcted by. the Engineer.lfit should be necessary to keep the bottoms . of lr.e m atsonthe ground .. the I:ngineer may order that fjmberposts or pipes tie fixed horizontallY' to thebollom ends or the diamond-mesh strips,

5310 EXISTING FENCES ..

Where anew fence·joinsan existing fence Whether in line or iatanangle •. Ihe new fence shall be erected with a new straining post pesmonedatthe tenninal point of the eXisting fence.

Existing fences thai require to.be taken down or moved toa . newlocalion • shall be' dismanUed .. Material not required for re-ereonon or unsuitable for re-useshall be :neatly stacked at approved locations in accorda"ce with thcEngineer's instructions. Fencing wlreand wire netting shall-be stacked clear of the ground. Payment will be made only for fences removed in accordance with the·writleninstructionof.the Engineer;

Where. fences require . moving , -the • Contractor. shall reuse all' the. material, declared to be . suitable. for this purpose. by the Engineer, plus such new· material, as may be. requirad . to .oreot. the fence. 3go;n •. io .: tho standard spocifiedfor. new· fences. The Engineer shall not be responsible for. anydelllYl> or costs .arising from the breaking of re-used wire during straining.

5311 ERECTINGGATES

Gates shall be erected at theposinons indIcated by the Engineer. The gates shall be hung. an gate .fittings in accordance' with the requirements shown on the Drawings .: GateS shall be so 'erected as to swing in a horizontal plane at right allgles to the gateposts. clear of the ground.in all positions .. In pedestrian and security fences the double. swing. gates shall leave a gap not excaading25'mm batwGG,,' th(llm wnenclosoo and 'Other gates shall not be further ·than 25· mmfrom the gate post when closed.

Gates shall be stock-proof to the same . extent· as the adjoining fence. The clearance belowtbe. gates shall not exceed 75 inm with the gates. closed. Where. the gate<:rosses a public road, itshaIJ be .fitted with a disc . or.omer. device easily visible at night, as instructed by ilia Engineer:

5312 TEMPORARY FENCING. GATES AND MOTORGATES

If requiroXl, the CurltradOl":shali erect telllpotary feoGing. gates and motor' gates in accordance with the

PAoGE5000 ~ 9

SERIes 5000 .' ANclLUARY ROAllDWORKS

Drawings, Special Specifications or the Engi{1eers instructions, The·lJlalerial. and erection ~hallbcin accordance with ·the provisions of this Section, but the materia" . need not necessarily. be new, Where· used materialsareoffl\!red,theyshaH. be in a: good· condition andapproved in advance by the Engineer;

When no longer required, the temporary fencing, gates and motor gates shaUbe ~ismantledand removed;

5313 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

. The.complet8d. fence shall be plumb,taul, true to line and ground .contour, with all posts, standards and stays

-. filTl1lyset.The heightofthe iqwertenclng wire above the ground at posts andstandards shall .1101 deviate by more. thall • 25·· mm from: that· shown on the. Drawings, Other fencing wires shall not deviate by. more than 10 mm from their prescribed vertiCal positions,

The Contractor shall, •• oncoinpletionof each. section of fence; remove. allcut-offsand other looSe . wire or netting soasnol 10 create a hazard to grazing animals ora lluisancetotheOwnerscfthc ground.

0) TIMBER POSTS TO BE FIXED TO THI::: 80TTOMOF wIRe MC$f1IN STREAMS (DIAMETER INDICATSD)

METRE(m)

The quantity of material uSed shall· be determined. by mQ3Elurin9 .thoquantitio$ of individual items of materia! used In the completed fence; The linear measurement o~thecompleted fence shall not apply. The appropriate

units of measurement are as follows: .

(i) Fencing wire (SUBITEMS53.02(a) and (b)

The unit of measurementshail bethekilometraof each type. of fencing· Wire measured between end posts. Tying wire and wire. used for. anchoring the posts shell notbe.measured :orpayment.

(ii} Diamond mesh and wirenettlng(SUBITEMS 53,02(c) and (d))

The unit of measurement shall be the SQuare metre of diamond mash or wire netting, the quantity of which· shall . be calculated according • to the prescribedwidlh. and the length betweenstraini~g posts or gate posts, or the length of strips used .for covering opellfngs uncer rences; Or the length used for covering fhegates.

(iii) Sarbed-tapeconcertina wire {SUSrrEM 53,02(e»).

Th& \mi~ of mus;urementshall .bethe ,kilometre of fence provided with barbed.lape concertina wire. of which • each .. concertina is opened to the maKimum effective open concertina 1 ength as specified in the

Drawings, ..

5314 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

!!S!!

53,01 CLEARING THE FENCE LINE,

2m WlDE StRIP;

. UNIT KILOMETRE. (km)

• The unit .otmeasurement for~leariri9 the fence tine shall· be the. kflometreof fence .linemeesured .alohg e .. chfence Hne ••

The bid rata shall be in full compensancn for clearing the fence . line •. asspecifiedi·. including. the removal. of trees, stones; and ,other obstructions and the disposal of all waste material resulting from clearing operations, as may. be directed .. rhe removal of trees .andsfumps withagh1hexceedlng1~O m shall.bepaidfor as specified in SECTION 3100.

(iv) Straining posts (SUBlTEM53.02(f))

The unit of measLirementshalibe . the. number of posts, as follows~

All straining posts erected in aceordancewith the m ~mumspecjfied . spacing or.sucnlesser: spacing as. authorised. by the . Engineer, all comer posts -. authorised by the Engineer, and all end posts, Gate posts for : new gates shall. not. be measured. for

payment.· . .

(v) . Standards· and dropp.ers(SUBITEMS·· 53.02(g) . and

(On '

The. unitaf measurement shall be the number of . standards.and droppers. erected to themruomum specified spacihg . or such lesser. :$paclng as al1thorisedbl' Ihe EnginP.er,

.!m!

53,02 SUPPLYING AND ERECTING

NEWfENCIN3 MATERIAlFOI'l NEWFENCES·AND FOR :>l}"f:'l-eMeNTlN':;M"Te~IA"IH EXISTlNG FENCESWHICII ME !3EINGREPA1RED OR REMOVED:

(a) BARBED WIRE (GRADE; SlZEAND iYPfO.·OF GA!.VANISING . ·INDICI\TED)

(b)SMOOTHWIRE{GRAOE;SIZEAND . TYPE OF p&VANISING INDICATED)

(c) OlAMorw MesH

(d)· WIRe NETTING

(0) 131\R1l~TAPE CONCERTINA WIRE.

(f) sTEEiANl)·TlM!3ER S"IlWNING PO.STs, INc:UlOINGANCHOnS (TYPE, SIZE ANOLENGTlII\ND wHlffi1ERGALVANISEo.

. TREAlEl ~ f'AlNTso

iNDICATED) .

KIL(lMETRE (km)

(vi) TimherpostSto he fixed to the bottom of wire mesh in strnams(SuBITEM53~02(i}}.

The. unit of measurement shall.· be the metre ot: timber post Of every diameter erected in accordance with the Drawings. snd.ihe Jnstructions of the Engineer.

The bid ratcforeach~training post, standard, dropper, each kilometre ot . fencing wire and barbed-tape concertina wire.' and. each square metre. of. diamond mesh or Wire netting ·aild for each metre,of timber post, shaUincllJdo full ,compensation for providing aUlhe materials, including· allconcrete, tying wire,· straining wire,· boItS,wash·ers and. nUts,· for excavating or;drilling holes· for ·standaids, . for erecting • the. posts. standards and dropper's and the completepulting up of thefence a5 spet;ili~ and as ::il1Qwo on the. DnrNing$. No separate .payment·. will·. be : made. in· .respect . of . stone. packing 8f1di0l" trenching in the case of wife netting •

Ttle bid mtEI.for posts shall include fuh~.on,~on for erecIlng 1:he.stays of the typeS shown On the Drav.ings,

.KILOMe1RE (kIll)

SQUARE METRE (m2) SQUARE ME'ITIE(m~ KILOMemE· (km)

NUMBER (no)

(g) . STEEl.: ANOmMBER.STANIlMOS (LENGlli AND TYi'EINOICATEO)

(h) $TEELNlDTlM8101:U)ROI'Pli1RS (LENGTH AND TYPeINDIC/l.TEO)

NUMBER (no) NUMm;R (nO)

ST ANOAAO SPECII'ICATIONS FOR RoAD WORKS-2000

SER$s50DO • ANCiLLIARYROADDWORKS .

ITEM .

53.03 NEW GATES:

(a) .SINGLE l:.EAF(SIZE AND TYPE ·INDICATED)

(b) DOUBUlLEAF (SIZE ANDTVPE INDICATED)

NUMBER (no)

NUMBER (no)

1m!

53.06 PROViDING TEMPORARY

FENCES ANDGA TES:

(a) STOCK-PROOF FENCE

(b) VERMIN·PROOF FENCE (c) PEDESTRIAN FENCE

(d) • TEMPORARV CATeS (TYPE: ANO SIZE INDICATED)

(e) . TEMPORARY MOTOR GATES

KILOMETRE (km) KILOMETRE (km) KILOMETRE (km) NUM~ell (no)

The unit of measurement shall be the . number of· new gates erected; • At .• p~estrian andsecLirity fences· the pair of gates shall be measured as one.

The . bid rates • shall . include full. compensation for procuring. and. furnishing all . material, . including· g~t~s, gateposts; hinges, bolts,disks, concrete~nd straining wire, and for erecting the gates Bs.speCified and as shown on the Drawings. ltshall not include compensation for any fencing wire or mesh fitted. onto the Qate;

NUMBER (no)

U!a!!

53,04 MOVING EXfSTINGFENCES

AND GATES:

(a) FENCES:·

(i) STOCK-PROOF FENCES (ii} VeRMIN-PROOF Fe;NC~S. ,(iii) PEOESTRIAN FENCES (iv) Se.CURITY.FENCES

(b) GATES

KilOMETRE (km)· KILOMeTRe (km) KILOMETRE (kin) KlLOMETRE (kill) NUMBER (no)

The unit of measurement for SUBITEMS53,06(a), (b) and (c)shaU bethekJlometre of each .type oftemporary fencing erected on the instructions of the Engineer.,

The . hid r;;lies· shall include. fullcompanBation . for providing. aU, . labour, new or . suitable second-hand material,putting. up the temporaryfenceaod when, no longer required,' dismantling· and . ~moving it from the site tc any new locality wtle~it is required.

The unit of measurement for SUBITEM 53;05(d) shall. be the number. • of temporary gates provided by the

Contractor. .

The ·bidrale· shall include· fulf . compensation for procuring, supplying and. ereclingnew orsecond-nand gates,their later removal, and replacing the fence.

The unit ofmeasurement forSUBITEM 53,06(e) shall be the number of temporary motor gates' provided by the

Contractor. .

The bid rate shalliliclude fullcomj)ensation f<irerecting the motor gates in accordance Wllhthe Drawings, by IJsing,neworsecond-hand .material.iand, ,if required, dismantling and removing·, the, niotorgates and again putting up· anv fencing· removart .from I he-posItions where the motor gates have been erected.

The unit of measuremeottor movingeldstingfences shall bethe. kilometre of. fence, ·thequanlityofwhich· shall. betaken as the length offehcewhich· hasbeen put up permanenUywith material obtained from fences which have, been dismantledetsewhere.Additionalnew, material used during the re-erectlon . of existing tences. shall be measured under I:rEM53.02. The unit of measurement for moving 9~te55haU ue the number of gates moved;

The bid rate for each kilometre of existing fence moved or for eacnexistlnOQate moved shall includa full compensation for dismantling the old fence, coiling at1d stacking the matertalunsuitable forre-use,movingall material,includlng posts and wire and agaiR putting up tile: fence or gate at the newposition and the provlsion of bindIng,. tying .aM $training' WIre .. New matenal used for.re-erection ofol(!fencesshall ~.paid for under ITEM 53·02.

General

Where new or second-hand material is used which has been proVided. by. lheEmployer, ' eg material :obtained from .·takingdownexislingJences,su~ material obtainedfTom . taking. down· the temporary fences or gates sMIl remain the. ProPerty ofthee:mployeL Material provided by th" Contractor: for .temporory fences will similarly become the Contractors property attar the temporary fences have been diSmantled.

Thill bid roM for each gate moved ~hall iroeh.idGfull compensation for taklng down the gate and re-erecting it Where ~Cluired, indudingall new boilS, nuts and other

• accessories required, butexduding new gate posts.

. FENCING TO STRUCTURES: .

!.!l!!!. NUMBER (no)

53.07 RlNGBOLTS FOR ANCHORING

!ID!.

53.05 . DISMI\NTLINGEXISTlNG FENCl:S

UNIT KILOMETRE(km)

The unit. of ·measurement··shall be the nuinber of ringboJtssupplied and llxedto the structure .:

The bid tate shall include full compensation for supplying and. fixing I1ngbOllS or the type shown on the Drawings to the structure; including, where necessary, 'drilling holes; 'anchorage, grouting ringboJtsin with

epoxy resln, and for allincldentals.

The unital measuremsntshallbe ·tl1ekilometre of existinllfenclngandgatas. taken down ·and dismantled on the instruction of the,Engineer.

The bid·. rateshaU includefuUcompensation. for taking down. existing fences and gates, coiling wires, . rolling netting into rolls, transJ3l)rtingthe material. to dll$ignated sites and stacking the malllrial.

. ITEM

53,08 DRILLING ANOSLASTlNG

'HOLES FORPOSTS,ANO ANCHORS:

Y!!!!

NUMBER {no)

The unit of measurement shall be the number 01holas for pests and anchors made by drilling ,andlorblasting where excavation by.hand or by pneumatic tools cannot be done economically.

PAGE5DOO-11

Sr"'D"'ROoSpeCIF'CA.!IO~ FOR ROADWORI<S-2OQO

SEl'UEII 5000 •. AtiCILlIARY ROADllWORKS

TIlt, bid. fate~hal1 Includefullccmpenaedcn for dri1ling and blasting. the holes and for another expenses in connection with providing, storing, transporting and using e>q>!osives.

P AGJi 5000· 12

SERIES 5000:ANCfLLARY ROADWORKS

CONTENTS:

CLAUSE

PAGE

of guarantee have been inspected by the Eng:neer alid accepted.

· At anytime the Engineer may request any testhe thinks

• necessary to ve1ify· the compliance . of the mat~r1al with

· theSpecificatlons.

All the tests shall be carried out In a specialised laboratory· previously approved by the Engineer, . thi s laboratory shall certify the results. of the tests in question.

SECTIO.N5400: ROAD\SIGNS

5401 SCOPE ~020EScR1PT10N 5403 MATE~rALS 5404 CONSTRUCTION

.5405 STORAGE AND HANDLING

5406 ERECTING ROAD SIGNS ·5407PRoTECT10NANbMAJt.ITENANCE 5408 DtSMANTLING,STORINGANDRE··

ERECTING ExiSTING ROAD. SIGNS 5409.MEASUREMENTANO.PAYMENT

·5000;13 5000-13 5000-13 5000013 5000·14 5000-14· 5000-14

5000-14 . 5000·14

All the above-mentlenedtestsehall beat.the expense

of theConlTactor; ..

5401 SCOPE

This Section covers the .: supply and. erection: of . pl!rmaneni ~nd· tamporary road • traffic. signs· aloo(lslde and over the carriageway, ramps and cross roads at intersections end.inlerchanges and at the locations indicated. on the Drawings or as directed by tM Engineer,

5404· CONSTRUCTION· ..•

Road sign .plates shall be manufactured from galvanised steel ~eet of l:It least 1.4 mmthiCkness, or from ;!Iluminium alloy sheet-of at least2.5 rnmthickness or sucbo(hermaterial thaUsapprovedby the Engineer.·

Sf9nplates manutacturedfromsneet materi~1 shall be stiffened. whr'lri the rnaxlmum dimension of the slgn. excaeos 600 mm .

5402· ·OESCRIPTION

This wor!< shall: consist .• offumishinga.rid • placing· road signs,· in accordance withthese.Specifitatlons,at the locations and ot me dlmenslp[lsshown on the Drawings or as directed by the Engineer.'

The stiffening of the Sign may be in the form ofa.flange at leas! 15· mmdeep on all edges or by means of mild ·st~lor aluminium sections, Materialfor fiXing such as. brackets. .socket • caps .: clipS ... screws. bolts -. nuts and waShers, snail becorrpsion resistant and to the Engineer's approvaL 8rass or copper will not be .allowed for use in contact with aluminium;

~efl~ve sheeting shall be . refl~iv9sheefino. high . intensity .• grade,SERIES3800. with . pressure· sensitive . adhesive . or ·Simiiar • • product. .• as .. approved· . by the ·Engineer. ReflectlveShelilling. shall comply with United States Federal SpecificatiOn L-S'-300C.

TheCOnttactor shall provide,atl'lisown . expense, . the sign manufactlirer'sspecificationsand certificate· for all materials he intends toadopt, Thecertiticate shall set forth the name or .brandof the materials to be furnished, the results of tests proving .1heproducts meet the requirements, and any other data AJ(luested by the Engineer •. The ·.certlficate . shaU· • beswom to. for • the manufaCtur~rby a parson havingl~aiautlloritytobirid thecompan)'.

The Contractor shaU also provide a guarantae by. the mai'll.r(acturerthat all; materials furnished shallconfonn· lutfrespecilicalionrequiremenk> and thatthO$ign~HI$ manufactured will maintain; their slructuralqualjty and . the symbols will maintain. their visibility. byda), and by night for a period of ten years. Any signthatfails.wilhin

. th9tperind sh911 he raplacad atno ·rosttofha Employer.

rne: colours. on .all. rcao Signs,. Witl1·theeXCeption .of black; will nonnally. berefiectorised;uniess· otherwise specified or ordered by the Engineer. Reflective sheeting shall be applied by a, mechanical (It vacuum/heat application method. The sign. plate shall becavered with clear lacquer of a make recommended

by the manufacturer of the reflective material: '

Before· painting. all . signs shall··. be . pre-treated by. an approved method, and al! frames; brackets, metal stakes, clips, ,screws, . nutsi bolts, and washers shall. be

corrosion-prnoted prior to pairiting, .

.: The ~ign&hall b(UIL.rpported. on 8 galvoni$ed ateeltube of not less than 50 mm .jnternal di~meter ard sI!ClJreiy bolted.to.lt, The ends ofthe bolts shall be hammered to prevent the nuts beingreffiClved.

Care shall be taken toprevenUhe forced rotation of the .

• sign round the .post A steel bar .of 16 mmdiameter x 4SOmm long.shall be welded in the middle horiZ()Otally to the foot or the post 10 prevent the rotation of the post In Its roenoauon. The lengttl 'of the post shall be such that it is at least 0.65 m in the ground when· the sign • is at its correct height.

Additional road sign pla1esshall be provided and mounted on thesuPpOrtoflheroadslgn,as difected by

the Engineer. .

Posts.shaUbe· thoroughlycle~med. free from grease, sCale. and rust and gwen atteast. one ooa1·01 . rust

lrihlbiting priming paint .

Posts and backs of signs,littings, etc. shall be painted .

g,.y. .

The foundations forroad signs shall be as sholNl1 on the Drawings or as directed by the Engineer. Concrete foundations shall be poured using forrnwork.

Aftertheconcre1e hassetsufficlently, ·the .spaces around the concrete fOUndation shall be refilled to the required elevatiOn with suitable material whiehshall be

5403.· ·.MATERIALS

Concrete ·forfoundations shalt be. Class 3011910 be executed. as specified in SeCTIONS 6100.and 6400 of

these SpecificatiOns:. .

Sign post .silai!consist ofSt961 pille conforming to the .:requiremenlS of.ASTM A 52 GradeS, tobe.galvanised inacoon:lance .with ASTM A 123.·

Sign plate shall consist of steel sheets .. confonning • to tnerequlremerrts of. ASTM •• A 3661JL<llurnifliumalloy sheetsconformlngtoASTMB 209, 6061-T6 aluminium, degreasedand alodin" treata~.

The· Contractor shall not place any purchaSe order ·for

• rQad signs until the manufacturerscertiHcate • and {ann

thoroughly tamped in layers of not more than 150 rnm thickness.

All road .signs shall be marked wlth the manufacturer's name or trade mark, and. year of make.

.. Mounting of the sign plate on the support shall be made by bracKets, :111 accordance wlttlthetypes proposec by the. comractor and, apprqved· by the. Engineer,before the ·actualmanufacture and erection. in ptace,

Signs shall be erected al a distance from the edge of thecarriageweY depending upon the design .standard of the road, as. directed by the Engineer,and at a height ln accordance with the SATCCRQad Traffic Signs Manual and as directed or shOwn.

The Contractor shall cut back trees and vegetation as maybemijcesslilry to ensure visibility of the signs.

All the structures must be such «1310 beer Il1e . stress causedbya wind blowing at 130 km/ll on the support and !Msigns ..

540SSTORAGE ANDHANOUNG

All road signs or parts of road signs shall.be transported and handled so as to prevent: any damage. and deformation.Allroad signs shall be stored in a vertical position ina weather-proof storeroom. There shall. be sufficient space between the road signs to permit free air . circulation ·andmoisture. evaporation; Contaet of roadsigl)s· with. treated tlmber,' diesel; dirt or water shall not be pennitted. When required, existing or : newiy erec;t.,d roadl5ignl5 sha1J be fully or paJtiallyc;ovorcd witl1 burlap or other approved adequately ventilated material to obsdureJ:lestinatiolls that aretemporarilylnapp!icable

or irreleVant. .

5406 ERECTING ROAD SIGNS

(a) . Position

Road signs shall be erected • in. the· positions. shown· on the Drawings or indicated by the Engineer.

.(b). Ex:cavatlonand backfilling .

Ellcavation$ . for the erection of road "ign::V$haJi be made according to.thedimensionsshownonthe Drawings. Where msexcavatlons are to be backfilled with soil,a12:1 • soil-cernent miXture. sliaff· be madelf required pythe ·Enaineer.

The soil or soil-cement mixture shallthen beC(lll1 pacted by tamping atoptimum moisture content in 1 OOmm thiok layers in the excavation.

Where pestsorstructures eretc be fixed in concrete. or where concrete .footings: are to be cast. the concrete, formwotk ·and reinforcement shall comply. with· !he requirements of SECTIONS. 6200,6300 and· 6400. The holes .shallbecompletely: filled with concrete up to the level shown on the Drawings or indlcatao by. !he Engineer.· The. upper surface of. the. concrete . shall be neaHy . finished with .·sufficiant Jail to . ensure •• proper

dmin·age, . .

(c) . Erection

~oadsignsshallbeereetedasshown 'ontl1e .Drawings or ~lIdirected by the Engineer. Di.lringerec;:tionthe structural steelwork shall be firmly bolted and protected to prevent buckling or damage during erection, or by the . equipment used for erection.

Pasts to . which . road • signs are . to .be . fixed shall be vertical :and. the undersides of road signs shall be . horizontal after having been erected.

Where. timber posts are used for erecting the signs, : all

· holes that are drilled in the timber shall be impregnated with.cransots.

· (d) Field welding

All welding done during. erection shall comply with th e

· requirements. for. welding during manufacture .

. (e) On-site painting

Allpaint!ng done after.the road sigils·havebeen erected shall comply With the requirements for painting during

m~mufacturll. .

All .: places where the .. paintwork . has been damaged during erectiOn shall· be repaired. by .lhe . Contractor at his own cost to thesalisfaction of the Engineer.

If) Time ohlrection

Road signs shall . be. erected. immediately: prior: to the road being opened to public traffic; uniessotheJWise directed by the Cngineer.

(g) General:

All destinations and route: numbers shown on the Drawings .shall besubjec'..·to amendment. and confirmation ot the details shall be obtained from the Engineer before any particular signs . are made: Such partlculars: maybs: available only . at a Jate: stage, for which aUowance shall be made by the Oontractorinhis programme,

5407 PROTECTION AND MAINTENANCE

The Contractor shall protect the .completed road$igris agairil5t.damage· until 1hey·have boon finally.acccpfed by the Employer,' and he shall maintain tile road'signs untll :thePerformance Certificate has been issued. Damage or defects caused by negligence or. faulty workmanship shall be rectified by the Contractor at his own cost to the satisfa ction ofthe·Engineer.

5408DJSMANTLING,STORING ANDREERECTING EXISTING ROAD SIGNS . Where ordered . by. the Engineer .: the Contractor .shall dismantle existing road signs; store them,anare-ereet

thematnew positions indicated. .

Where·· required by the . Engineer, the Signs .. shall be repainted or repaired and new materials shaH·be 1J3ed forpart or all of the supporting structure.

5409MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT

The. quantity lobe measured for payment shall be: -The actual number of road signs complete .Inplace. includingsuppoft • assembly· and concrete foundation, and :;occepto!!d, .

- The actual number of additional road sign. plates complete in plaoe,regardlesso! the sizes.

- Route directionsigns(D SEiries) are lobe measured as onesignpersite·wlth all names, route numbers anddiTeetiona!arrows shown on the one sign.

The Quantities, determined as provide(j. above, shall be paid for at the rate per unit of meuuremdntfor each of !he pay items Jisted below. that is .showninthe Bill of Quantities, which price and payment shall be full compensation. forfumishing .. and placing. all materials, for all labour; equipment. tools and incidentals necessary .. to complete the·. work· prescribed .in • this . section, including all necessary axcavation and backfilling .

.!.m!.

54.01 ROAD SIGN (STANDARD,

$TATE AREA FOR EACH TYPE)

Y.!:!!! NUMBER (no)

!ml.

54.02 AoDmONAL ROAD SIGN

PLATE

Yr!!!

NVMBER(no)

The unitofmeasurementshilll be the nllTlber ,of standard si,ze signs ,of. approved materials' as stated in

me Specifications. '

W

54'.03 ROUlI:, OIKl::Cl ION

SiGNS

,'y!!!

'SQUARJ:, McI:Ki: (m2)

The vOitof measurement shall be the square metre of completed road sign board of approved materials.

The .bid: rates shall include run compensation for providing theccmpleted road sign bOard. frame:" fixing brackets, ,ancle-irons;channel profiles. ; etciriCiudinc painting. galvanising 'if ·speclMd. ',reflective' iettering; symbols.' legends and bord~rs,attaching;. the road sign beardto the road sign support,' or to theeverhead road signstructllre. .or tcan over-bridge, :and for aU othar matenatsand wor1<manShlp,bracl«lts, ;1l011S,· nuts.: etc, fOl" the completion of the road sign boards as specified.,

.!I§!!

,54.04'. DISMANTllNG, STORING AND R!;"ERECTINGROAO SIGNS (INDICATE SURFACE AREA)

Y!:!!!

NUMBER (no)

Thauriit of measurement shall be the number of signs dismantled and stored' .end re-erectedin each size group. '

The bid rates shall include fun compensation for dismantling and storing the road signs and supporting structures,transporting the material to: a' new . location, re-erecnng· the road signs,. and· restOring thit loCation Vv11are theyweredlsmantleo.

Payment for excavations,and the new. material and concrete required for re-erecting!he road $ignsshall be .. made ,und~rtheappropiiatel!~m, Imdany repai~al'ld pain1ing which maybe necessary, shall be paid· for as "extra . work". No separate. payment shall be .made .tor new. bolta. and ; nuts'required • for such ; re-eraction, . the cost of whichsha II be .iricluded in the rates' bida!>ove .:

PAGE 5000 ;. 15

SERIES 5000: ANCILLARYROADWORKS

SECTION 5500: ROAD MARKINGS

CONTENTS: .CLAI.ISiE

5501 SCOPE 5502 MATERIALS

5503 WEATHER LIMITAtiONS

. 5504 MECKANICA~ EQU.!PMENTFoR

PAINTING

·5505 SURFACE PREPARATION

5506 SETTING OUTrK!; ROAO MARKINGS 5507 p'?PLYINGTHEPAINT ..

550S· APPLVING THE RaRO-REfLECTIVE

BEADS

5509 ROADSTUDS • 5510 TOLERANCES ·5511 GENERAL

5512 FAUL rvWORKMANSHIP ORMA"TERIAt.S

5513 Pfl.OTECTION .

5514 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

5000"16 500Q·16 5000.16 500~17

5000~17 5000.17 500~17 5000-17 500~17 5000-.17 500~.18

5501 SCOPE .

ThiS Section covers the permanent m~rkirig of the road

suliacewjth white,· red or yellow painted lines -or sYmbols and the supply and fixing. ofretro-reflective roadstuds as indicated on the Drawings or as specified

by the Engineer. .

All· road markings shall. be of the standard regulatory, .waming • and 'guidance markings ·as·. detailed on the Drawings and in accordance with the .SATCCRoad Traffic Signs Manual.

5502 MATERIALS

'(alPaln!

(I) Road-rriarkingpaint .

Road-marking paint snal[ comply witilthe requirements of Ti"alficpa:nt shallconforni to the requirements of AASHTOM248, Type F.

Glass beads shallconfornitothe requiR!ments of AASHTO M247, Type 1. $ABS731 or equivalent for Type 1, Type 2 orTypE[l4 as specified In the Special Specifications; The na..pick~p time of road mamng paint shall cornplyWiththe ClaSs 1 requirement in SASS 731·1 or equivalent.

The paint shall be delivered at the Site in sealed containers bearing the. name ·ofthe manufacturer and the type of paint. The viscosity of the paint shall be such that it can be applied without being thinned.

{ii) RQtro-~f!activ"road-marS<in9 paint

Retrc:i-reflective road-marking .. paint·. shall comply with ··the. requirements ·01· SUD CLAUSE ·5502{a)(i) above andCK8 .192 .:

(Iii) Thermo.,plastic road.marking material .

Where s~ifiedlntheSpeCiaISpecifications, hot-

· melt plastic road-marking material shall comply with .1I1e· requirements of 1383262 .. The· binder shaH be

· plosticised 3Y"thetic.resln emlthe material $hall be reflectorised by·· mixing in . 20% . by mass Class. A

· glass beads in accordance Willi os 6088.

(iv). Colour

The colours to be used shali be blight white, rador YQ]Jow.

The colour of the yellow and red paint shall be as specified in the SATCCRoad Traffic Signs Manual.

{v) Skid resistance

The skid resistance of.aJ! types of markihg material shall comply witil the requirements of SABS 731 c1 or equivalent

{b} Roadstuds .'

. Roadstuds shall.cOrnply with the requirements of SABS 1442 or equivalent and shall be of the size and type indicated on the. Drawings .otspecified in the Special

.. Specifications. The Contractor shall, prior to delivery, submit to the Engineeriorapproval. samples of. the type

of roadstuds he proposes to use. .

5503 :·.WcATHER LIMITATIONS

. Road-marking . paint, shall • not: be applied to· ·t:!damp surtace or lit ternperatures.lowertha.n IO.oCorwhen, in the opinion of the Engineer, the 'wind strength issu6h that it may adversely jlffe"tUll;l painting operatlons.

5504 MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT FOR .

PAINTING

The equipment shall . consist of an apparatus ror cleamng thesurlaces, a mechanical road-painting machine and. all additional·. hand-operated: equipment necessary for completing the wOrK. The mechanical mad-marlcina machine. shall be capable('j~· paintinQ at least two parallel Jines slmul:aneously . andsn a.Happly the paint. toa.unifonn film: thickness at the-rates of application specified; The machine shall be so designed that it will becapabJeofpaintingthll road mai'kings everywhere to aunifcrm width with sidesWltllin the tolerances. specified, . without.· the. paint running 'or splashing. The machine shall further be capable of painting lines of different widths by adjusting the spray jets onithe maohlne er: by mC'Elnsof additional equipment attached to the machine .:

Machines . which • applythe: beads .by means ·of. gravity only sllallnot be used. The beadssha1! be sprayed onto the pail'lt !ayer.by means of.a pressure sprayer,

The machine shall be provided withclear1y "islbl~ amberwaming fiashing·lights whicnshalJ always be in operation Wheil the machine ls 011 the wad.

5505SURFACEPREPARATlOjl,l

Road markings shall ba applied to bituminous surfaces only after suffiolent·timQhasclaPocd to.cnsuro that damage will not be caused to the painted surface by volatiles evaporating from the surfacing.

Before. the paint is applied, the surface shall be dean cand. dry and: completely free from any soil, grease, oil, acid or any other material which will be. detrlmentalto the bond between the paint and thersurface •. The surface • where the paint is . to be applied shall· be pruperly <..ie<llled·. by m_n.s uf . w<lleririg,. bruwnillg·o, compressed air if required.

5506 SETTING OUT THE ROAD MARKINGS

Tho lines, oymbols, figuros or mO<Mshall be) j)romorkod by means of paint spots aftha same colour as. that or. the finai lineS· and marks .. Thesepalnt .spots l)hall.be at: such intelVals to ensure that the mad markings can be accurately applied, . and in no case shall they be more than1.5mapart·Spots of. approximately 10 mil'. in diameter should be sufficient

The dimerisions and positiot'lS of road markings shall be as 5howrrol'l !he·Otawing.s or' as '3pecified in the

p~·SlJOO -16

SERIES'5000 ·ANOIlJ.JARYROADDWORKS'

appropriate statutory provisiQns and the SATCC Road Traffic Signs Manual, After spotting, the positiOns of the propcaed roeod marking:s:shafi be indicated 011 tile road. These premarldngs shall be approved by the Engineer prior to ar.ypall1ting operations being commenced.

Thepositlons and outlines of sP.ecial markfngsshall be produced· on the. finished. road. :nchalk aJld .silallbe approved by the. Engineer before li1eyare painted.

'Approved. templates may he used on tonditiontilat the ,positioning. of the marking is apprOVedbythe.Engineer befofepainting i" commenced.

The position of roadstuds shall be marked out on the road and shall be.approved by the Engineerbefore they are fixed in posittcri.

550TAPPLYING THE PAINT

The figures, Jeiters, !;Igns, symbols. broken or unbroken Jim~sorottierc marks shaJl be painted as shown on thil

Drawings or as.directed by the .Engineer. ..

Where. the painiis' applied' by. machine. flshall be apptied in one layer. Before the road·markingmachine i4 used on .411e ,. permanem . Work!j, the, satIsfaCtory operation of the machine shall. be demonstratadona SUitable site which Is not part oUhe permanent Works. Adjustmentstcthe machlncsha'l be foJ~owed by further testing. Orilywhen the rnaehlno hasbQE!ncorrectly adjusted and its use has been approved by the Engineer after testing, mat the machine be used on the permanent work The operatorshal! beexperiencedir. the use of the machine.

Afterthe' machine. has been sa1isfactorilyadjusted;lhe rate of • application shall bec:hecked ,and .1'Idjusted if necessarY, b.eforeapplication onalargescale is

commenced; . . '.

Where two lines are requ1redparallel to each other,the liJ"ies . ,shall be', appliee' .simultaneoLisly by. the ·.same machire. ·111e paint sl1all be stirred before application in accordance' with· the manufacturer's. instructions. Paint shall be applied Withoutthe addi1ion ofthinnens.

Where painting is done by hang, it shall be applied in two -laY\:r:5, and the second lii)'er "IIHII .(101' be appJlarl before the first layer hasdrled.1\s mostroali--marking paint reacts with tMbirumensurfaceofthe • road, the pslnt sha!lbeapplied withonostrok~ only of tile brush ol-roller.

Ordinary 'rQsd-markirig. p~lnt shan be applied ata nominaJ~t~of O.421itre/m2 or as directed bY. ,the Engineer while thermo-plasticroad"marking.paints shall be' applied at 'the. rsres Specified In the Special

. SP:ecific;alions. .

Unless o1helWisepresctibed by the Engineer, the road marting shaIlbecompletedbefo.rea particular. section of the road is 'Opened to. traffic i Each layer of paint shall be contini,rousovertheenlii"e area'being painted,

$508 A.PPLYING THE'RETRO-REFLECTIVE

. BEADS

Where .• retro-reflectlve, . paint , is'requlred, the .retro· refleClivebeads shall be applied by means bra suitabtG machine in one continuous operation, . immediately after the pain! has been.appiled,Therateofapplicationof the be8dssilall beO,S kgflilreofpaint or.such ofherrate as may be directed by the Engineer.

5,509 ROADSTUDS

Roadstuds 'shaD be ot: the . typ6indicated .on the Drawings or the Bin of Quantities and shall be fixed in the positions indicated.and·approved bytbeErigineer.

The road studs 'shall be fixed by means of an approved epoxy resin. in accordance with the . manufacturer's tnstrucnons, suojset to such amenements to the method as may be required by the Engineer. The studs shall be ' protected againstimpa:t . until the adhesive has hardened . Beforeflxin g the roadstuds, the surface shall b~ tj-Iorougl'lly cleflned $IS specifi~d in CLAUSE 5505.

Roadstuds must, be '. protected dUring painting of. any lines and application of any surface treatments;

5510 TOLERANCES

. Road markings shall' be painted to, an, accuracy within ··the.tolerances givenbeJow:

,(alWldth

The width of lines and other. markings shalf no! be Jess than' the specified Width, nor shall it exceed ' the specified Width by. more thant 0 mm.

(b) Position

The position .aflines, 'letters, figl.lres, .arrows, retroreflective roadstuds 'and other. markings shall not deviate from the true position by more thant 00 mm in 1M longitudinal and 20 mmin the transverse direction ..

(e}AlIgnmentof markings.

The alignment of the edges of longitlldir.aL !tnes shaH not deviate from the true "Iignment by.more lhan1 0

mmin15m; .. '

(d) Broken Hnes

The . length . of . seqments • of. broken ·IOngitudinal . lines shall .not devia~e by more than '150 mm from"the

5PE!cified iength. .

5511 GENERAL

The length of s.l;I9ments, and the gap between.segments in broken lines shall be as indicated on the Drawings. If these ·Ieng:hs are.alleredbythe.Erlgineer, the ranoot thalengthsof the painted sectlonlothe.iengthof the gap .b()tweenpai,.,todaection~. ~haU relnillnu,esame. lines shall not be painted more than 3 molllhs priorto the road being opened 10 public traffic.

Lines' on curves" whether broken or unbroken.shaf! not consist of chords but shall follow ihecorrectradlus.

Where' .' plastic .. ' road.marking material is . used; . the manufacturer shall produce an approved guaraniee as speclfledln tile Sp",<;i,,1 Spe<;;jf1cations.·Wheraspecjf1ed by th$En\jlne¢r, the . Contractor shall. remove existing painted markings from' the road, surface by means, 'of sand blasting or other approved method .. The .\lSS of black . paint or chemical paint remover. to obliterate existing markings will notbe permitted, except where it .lsordered by the Engirieer as a temporary measure.

5512,' FAULTY WORKMANSHIP OR MATERIALS

If any malerial ,which does not . comply with the requirements is dEiliverectto the Site,oT is used In the WorkS, or iL any work ofanunacceplablequality is carried. out; such • material' or work" shall. be • removed. replaCed or repaired as required ,by the Engineer at the Contractoi's • own cost. Rejected road marlcings and paint· which, has been' splashed or. dripped onto. the pavement, '. kOrbll, ::otructures orothCr such~urfaCet;., shall be removed by ~e' Contractor at his own. cost, in .anapproved manner so that· the markings or spilt paint wilt not'show up at all.

5513 PROTECTION

After the ,paint has been ". applied, ,the .read markings shall be protected against damage by 1raftjcor 'Other . ceuses; The .. Ci>ntractor.$haIL berespOosible for ereCllng., placing and removing aU warning boards.

PAGE5tIOO " 11 .

S'ERlE8"5QOO: : ... : .ANCll.UAR.'Y ROADDWORJC3

flags, cones, barricades and other protective measures which may be necessary in . terms of ;anystatulol)' prcvlalona and/or as mOly be. ·reoommandod in tho SATCCRoadTraffic Signs Manual,

!!5M

55.01 ROAO.MARKING PAINT:

(a). WKITI:;1.;NI;S ($RQKEN OR

UNElROKSN).{WIDTHOFLlNE INO.!CATEO)

(b) YELLOW LiNES(BROKE.N OR UNBROKEN) (WIDTH OF LINE INDICAfl::O)

(c) ;RE.o LINES (BROKEN OR UNBROKEN) (WIDTH OF LINE mOICATEO)

(d)· WHITE LETTERING "NO SYMBOLS

(e) YELLOW LETTERING AND • SYMElOt.S

(f) TRAFFIC-ISLAND MARKINGS V,NY COLOUR)

(9)· KERB MARKINGS (AN"( COLOUR)

UNIT

quantity·. paid for shall be the actual length of line painted •• in accordance with the instructions ot the Enginaor, exoluding thclongth of gaps in brokentlnce, The unit ·01 measurement for painting the lettering, symbols. or traffic-island· markings • s!iallbethe • square metre, and the quantity to be paid for shall be the actual surface ; area of lettering,. symbols or. traffio.island markings·completep.

The bid rate per. metre or per square metre as. the case may be for p!linting !he road markings shall include full corupensauon ror. plOGlU'n9 and ruilli>lhlng oil!. "H:li.e,;';Ii, including .the ·retro'refiective • beads,' and . thenecessary equiprnent, and tor painting, protecting and. maintenance. asspecffied, including. the .setting.oot of lettaring, symbols8nd traffic-island . markings, but excluding setting outand premarkingthe lines,

5514. MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

METRE(m)

·METRE(m)

METRE(m)

SQUARE METRE (m2)

SQUARE MeTRe. (III')

SQUARE METRE(m~ SQUARE METRE (m')

ITEM

55.03 . THERMO-PLASTIC ROAD-

MARKING MATERIAL (PARTICULARS STATED):

(a) WHITEUNES{BROKENOR

UNBROKEN) (WID1H OF UI'lE INDiCATEO)

(b) YELLOW UNES (BROKEN OR UNBROKEN) (WIDTH OF LINe; • INDICATEO)

(el· Reo LINES (SROKENOR UNBROKEN) (WiDTH OF LINE INDICATED)

(d) WHITE LETTERING AND SYMBOLS

METRE(m)

METRE(m)

The. unit ,ohneasuremen~ for painting the linesshall-be the metre of each specified. width of "ine. and the quantity paid for shall be the .":101l.131Ierlgthoflinc painted in accordance. with the. instructions of the Engineer,excluding the; length of gaps in broken lines.

TM. unit of rneasurernent: for paintingth e . lettering, symbols or traffio.island markings shall be. thesquare metre, andme quantity lobe paid for shall be the actual surface area of lettering, symbols or .traffic-island markihg~ completed.

METRE(m)

(e) YELLOW LETTERING AND . SYMBOLS.

(f) TRAFFICCISLAND MARKINGS (ANY COLOUR)

SQUARE METRE.(m2) SQUARE METRE (m2)

SQUARE· MeTRE (m2)

The bid rate perrnetre or per equarometreas the case maybe for painting the road markings shall include full compensation for procuring. and furniShing. a.ll •• material and . the necell.!lal)l • equipment. . and for painting. protecting and maintenance as specified, including. the setting-outoflettering, symb_ols and traffic-island markings,. but excluclingsetting out and premarking the lines.

The unit of measurement for painting the lines shall be the metro 01 each specified wldth of line and . the quantity· paid· for shall .: be . the actual length ·ofline paintedi ri .. accordance wlth· the instructions ·of . the Engineer, excluding. the length .of. gaps. in broken lines. Apj>lOved types oracousuc' lines, .whllre spl:!cin~d and approved by the Engineer, shall be measured as

continuous .for payment purposes. . .

(8) WHITE LINES (BROKEN OR UNBROKEN) (WIDTH OF LINE INDICATED)

(b) YeLLOW LINES (6ROKENOR UNBROKEN) (WIDTH OF LINE INDICATgD)

{c} REo LINes (BROKEN OR .

UNBROKEN) (wmnl OF Llf.!E INOJCATEO)

(d) WHITE LETTERING J\NOSYMBOLS

{e) YELLOW. LETTERING AND SYMBOLS·

METRE(m)

Thellni! . of measurement, fnr painlino· jhe· lett!3'ing; symbQlsor traffic-island . markings. shaU be the square metre,and the quantity to be paid forshaUbe the actual surface area 0 f lettering, symbols or. traffic-island markings .complcted .

The bid rate per metre or per square metre as lhecase maybe for painting ·the road markings shaliinclude full compensation for procuring . and furnishing all material; and the necessary equipment, and ·far painting, prolectingand maintenance .assp~ified, lncludingfue setting-outof lettering, symbols and traffic.oisland miiOOngs, but exC!uding·setting out.and premarkingthe

lines. ., .

~ .Ym!.

55;02 RETRO·RER.ecTlVE~OAO"

. MARKING PAiNT;

METRE(m}

MEmE{m)

SQUARE MEmE(m1 SQUARE METRE(m~

-

55.04 VARIATIONS IN RATE OF

IIPPUCATioN:

(8) . WI liTE PI\INT (b) . YELLOW PAINT (c) RI:D PI\INT

(d) REmO-REFLECTllIE BEADS

(e). PLAs1'IcnOAD-MARKlNGf'AlHTS {SPECIFY)

urns (I) llTRE{I) umE{11 KILOGAAMMES

(kg) UTRE{l1

ef) TMFFIC-ISlAND MARKINGS (ANY COLOUR)

SQUARE ME]RI::(mj

The unit of measurement for .painting the lines shall be themeba ofeachsped~ed width of line and the

STANDArul SPE{:IFlCATIONS FOR RO"11 WORll$-2QOO

SERlE!! !!i1lO1l .• A"CIlJ.IAAV RO.lDDWoIIKS

The unit of measurementfor variations in therolo of applying of tho. pai~1 and rctrc-reflectivebeads shallbe lhelitre and the kilogra~ rcsoectlvelv,

The unit of moasurementshall be the actual number of roadstuds removed.

Payment for varlatlons shall. be made. as specified.in. CLAUSE 1213_

!!EM

55.05 ROIIDSTU:)S (TYPE

5TIIT£:0)

!l!:llr

NUMBER (no)

TIle unit ()f measurementfer roat!Sludsshaiibe the actual number 01. approved roadsiuds placed.

The . bld , role. ~h::11 bclu:.1c full compcnsaton for procuring. and fumisl:ing ell the ·lloccssary matctlal, labour end cqulpmont.: ana fer fixing and maintenance asspeclllcd .. Dislinciionsha!l be made between various tvncs of rcadstuds,

ITEM

·55.0(3 S[1l';~C au f N~IlI'H[-

I\!fI!,Klt!G T!l[Ut!CS (EXCLUDING TRlJ"r-IC-ISLAfm MNlJ<:NOS, lEl1;;RINO NdJSYJ,l[)OLS)

.1!.!i!!.

l.iETI~C 1m)

Til:', uni\ or rncasercmcnt fer :;Ctli.1!l out tines ::;11 all.be tho metra .ct Jines set out cnd marked. Where two C~ three. lines. <ire to, be [m:n:cu . next to ci.achcttlcr, lile. setting-cut of J:nccsh<J!J;;o mcas urad only o nco,

Tile .lJld rate sl!a1Iinciud;;l fu:1 ccmponsaucn for coW n !) out and premni',.;]n\ltli:ll:ncsasslleClned, includln:J 0:1 m~~crjD.[s.

ITEM

.55.07 RG.-[$TAGUS: I:NG TIIEPA1NTING U::!TAT 1] Ie' El::) CF TliE O[rCCT U,\!!it:llY I"E":::::);·

'lllliI·

LUW'SU1.1

The l;id lump sum cha!.' include· fiJ!l ccmpcnsetlcn fer therc-cstabllshmcnt.on the site nml IorIatcrrcmovalof Oll'speCial equipment, personnel, etc, as maybc requircd fer repa:n:ing Ihc.·roau markings a! theend of th.emaintem:nc:: period. Tho· C cnlractor. wi!! be P<I:t.! ill 1M roles. fer repainting tho road markings.

The ro-csl<l;;fisllment. 'during tho 'construction period shall net bo . p<;tfu for specially, and 111!owllm:.o lhcrefor . shallbe rnado iJy tllC Contractor in his progrem:nc om.l his rules for pa:nUng.

[TEM uerr

55.fJ3 . REI.IOYALOr- CXISf1MG, 'l!;MPORN~YOR I'EHMIiNENf

.ROllI) t.IMI<INOllY:

(a). SAN1l:';lASTING

{tJ} OVe~l'J\INIINC lISA TEf,lPOR.\HY 1.1[ASURE

(c) MILLll{G

SCUi\l':;:

. t.:Em[(m1)

SQUAH!< .

t,jETHE{m2}

SQUJllm ·fJI:mc(m~

1M unit of measurement' shalll.Jo the sc;uaro metre of road marking removed.

!.!!iM .

55.C9 REMOVAL OF EXISTING

ROADSTlJOS·

UNIT NUI.llleR (no)

PAGE5COO- 1!)

STANIlARIl S?£CFIC~TI(jNS fOR.RoAO WORKS·2()OO

SERIES 5000- AtlCILLIARY RO,wDWORKS

SERIES 5000.' ANCILLARY ROADWORKS

and. unformed surfaces: shall have CiassU2 fmlsh· in accordance with CLAUSE 6209 ..

SECTION •. 5600: CATTLE. GRIDS AND AXLE. WEIGH-BRIDGES

CONTENTS:.

5604AXLEWEIGH;.BRIDGEs

CLAUSE

PAGE

(a) General

If specified or upon directionsofthe Engineer .. the Contractor shall ccnstruct. equip and .•• operate axle weigh.bridge· stations ·lnthe· number and at locations directed by the Eng'neer. Constructien. and .equipment shall bo. in accordance with t"leDrawing3 and ·Ihe provisions in this CLAUSE •. Operation ·.0:· the weighbridges, . if. required.ishall . be in accordance • with the manufacturers directions and practices laid dowri .in the latest issueofrelevantgulc'elinesfromthe Employer; or as directed by the Engineer.

TheContractorshalicanyoutthe·. necessary. setting and levelling . of the weigh-pads. and,after installation. the necessary dead-welgnttn"sltu lestlng and calibration of the weigh-p$ds;

Whercaxlc weighing is to be ~'lrried out during the time ofmnstructlon,lIm cnnstruotion and installation snail bl" in .. accordance with·. the. requlrements for .• transportable weighcbridges as detailed in SlJBCLAUS'e 5604(0).. .

: ;:>

5601 SCOPE

5602· MA TERlALS 5603 . CONSTRUCTION

5'604. Axl..EWEIGli-ORtOGES

5605· MEASURSMeNT AND P .... YMENT

5000-20 5000-20 500()"20. 500()"20. 500()"22

5601 SCOPE

Thi s Sectioll covers the constn,r.tion of c"llleQrids "nd axle . weigh-bridges in. conformlty . with the details, dimensions and design shown onthe Drawir.gs, and. at locations shown on the.Drewings,or asdirectedbythe

Engineer. .

A cattlegrid.lsBs(ructufaconstructedacress aroad which is designed to prevent thepsssage.Df cattle while· permitting other traffic to pass.

Axl~· weigh-bridges may be of a transportatileor

stationary type. .

Fencing and gates shall be in accordance with SECTION 5300.

(a)·. Concrete andstructural$tool· .

Cement, aggregate,water, rainfOrcementand structural steel shall comply with • the relevant requirements of

SE~IESSOOO. .

{blStatlonary aXlewelgh-brl(lge anc.aecesscnes (i) Layoutof.theweigh.bridgesile

Tne,'ayoul of •. theweigh-bridge . site . shall. be.: in

. aceordcncc . with ·lhc Drawings· or • in their absonoc . the latestJssue . of standard. drawings . from • the Employer or as directed by' the Engineer. The followir:g s11all be incorporated in the layout plans:

. scales houses . .

- weighbridge5and approaches

parking area and roads

- street lights .

- traffic: signs

- access plans

5602 MATERIALS

Admixtures sha!!· not: be used in. the concrete mix

· without the approval of the Engineer who may raqulre. tests to.be perfom)ed beforo.thcir 1.15C; Admixturos. if. allowed, shall comply v.ith thO' requirements of SECTION

6400. .

Concrete shalt be Class 30"g.and shall be asspecifled . in SeCTION 6400. Sle~1 reinforcement shall bees shown on the Drawings and as specifiedinSECTtONS300.

St~~uralsteel . shall be as shown on the Drawings, . Pall1lmg of structural stell! shall be. in -accordanco with

SECTION 5900 orcas directed by tho Enginee,. . .

• (b) Materlals.for earthworks and pavement layers Materials· for. earthworns . and pavemeot. layers shall conform with the relevant requirements. set out in SERIES 3000.

TM site sllallbe prCivided with supplies of 220 volts AC power, potable water-and sewage -.

.(ii) Construction of pit and approaches

Th~ pihand approaches shall be constructed ac~rding . to the Drawings. or ·asdirected by· the· Er'glneer. The .Contractot'settention is drawn to the highstandards of workmanship required in all parts of the operation in order-to futtH the reQuirelTlents.for a . stable . foundation built. to .. ·stringent geometric tolerances. TheCdntractor shall in his programme OfWOl1(s BIlOW SUffiCient tontingtlnciesfor ctlemu:al Sail. Stabilisation, adjustments. of mix design . for bituminous mixes and concrete as required. during. the course of .lhe Works. The COntractors attention is furthenT'lOl'a drawn to 1he . specified earth conductor system 10 .beinstalled below the foundations of·!he pit. . . .

(iii) The deck

The platform deck shall be .made of steel With surface havinghighrasistanceto wear,salt and moisture according to the . Drawings or as directed· by. the Engineer. The general dimensionS. of the dod< .&I'Q gWen;n TArlLE. 5604/1howeverui" Drawings· or directions . oftheEngi~ee;'may divert from· these anrlshall govern in the case of confliClingiliform alion.

5603 . CONSTRUCTION

(a). excavation of pits

Sxcavation .. shall be mad(llarge • enough to permit. oon~troetion of th@hase slah lolhe .dimenslons .inlhn Dra'Nings.. ExG.a\'lltionshall be made in accordance with the reqLiirements <Jf SECTlONG100:Al!excavalions Jor caUle·. grids and weigh-bridges. shaIJ . bo olassified as

prolJided in SERIES 3000. . .

(b) . Formwork and concreto finish

Formwork. and concreto. finish shan· confoim to Ute ·requiremcnts of SECTION 6200,FQrmcdsurfaccs shall

· havQ Class F2finio.h il1o.eoordonec with ClJ\vsEG207

PAGESOOO • 20

$rANOAAO SPeCifICATiONS FOR Ro""WORl(S·20()O

(vi) Type of scale and performance

The scale shall be of an eleCtronic type tflat.utilises IOQdcolls,giving digital ,output· l;ignafl> 'of a manufacturo ,. approved, by the Engineer .. The load cell shall. 'be', made of stainless • steet, have plug connections, 'and be . hermetically' sealed against water and dust inaccordaneowlth Ihe standards. of NEMA 6PIlP68. The minimum number of toad-cells for eachplatformsha1J be four, oneload-cellln each comer. The cells shall be installed with protection against lightning and voltage surges; The design :lila-if lJC such that replacement of load cells is possible without physical calibration of the .scaies. The, scale sttall meet the requirements given in TAGLE 560413,

TA8LE5604f1

NOMINAL REa UfREMENTSFOR TIlE DECK OF STATIONARY AXLE WEIGIIlJRfDGES

4!TietIes

Nominal requirements

I Totat length of

, latform

Total width of platform

Minimum load capacttyof.platform

deck '

1(}Otonnas

The scala 10 be adlusted to

Thickness of platform steel

eo tonnes

-, 15 mm or mom 15 the general requirement forplate thickness.

- A thinner plate may be used on approval of tho Enqineer provided the deck is designed wi!:'1 surfiCicntbracina 10 give tbcncccssary slHfncss of the suucture m accordanee wilhthc Drawings or latest guidelines from tho

,Emi'loycr,

TAJ3LE 5601/3

REQUIREDPGHfi:mMIINcE OF STATIONAHY AXLEW£fGII IJRlDG£ SCALeS

Roqulrements

System prop crtles

Load capacity for each load celI .,

,25 tonnes

Between, .JO"Cand' .~

"'60°C '

remperalurc·range for operation: ' ,

Accuracy:

,Complying with EN45501 i{OIi..M R 76)ofEU '

Safe overload;

150%

(vil) Type of. data indicator and performance

TIle dataindlcator shall be of an approved lndustaal .typc . cepablcvo! transrorring. dalflJorSlorage purposes nnd makingprinlcut!l. Tne ,reading of the scalcsshpll. beclactronic,and .Jha· data indicator shall have t1ieoPlionof a connection to a computer. The equipment shaH be able. to read axle loadS,or any axle cenfiguration within triple axle combinations or tandem axles, up to a magnitude .of 2.5 times tho legal limit for each axlo as' well .as for ' the combination. The,equiprrianL$houldalso be aWaLOClllcufalC gross vehiCio mass from the sum ofweiohedsingie axlos,tandem axles, trip'e axles or other multi:' axle .c:ombinatlons. '

,(iv)flccessaries fer weigh~brjuge oquipment CablesanUt::onnocter . boxes -bctwcon load cella and pr::Jcnssino U:1itssl,allbn: i:i accordance with

TflBLE5G04J2, '

TIim.E 560412 "

NbMINIiLHEQf;JIHEMENTS r..of? TIlE Df!CK OFSTA TIONARY JU(LE waci I DRiDGlIs

SY$tem eomponoJ:'lI

I ,Load eel! cables

Requirements

Shielded in stalnlcss stool

JuncLipn boxes

, Traffic lights

Slain! css steel

T(w sets rauilml grecnfor lWO directions \.jjth cord-connectors

and aCCcssorlcs '

. ThE> data· indicator !Shall booquippcd .•. 10· control traffic ·l~ghts . at, the weigh-bridge site. and remote

displays as ,required. ' ,

Thet!qu!pmenl shall be ~bleto: handle thcfolfowing minimum data for printouts:

- weighbridgc station

date' ,time

ucxet number

legllt axro load and gross vehiclo mass actualadeloadsttandem-tcads, triple loads and loads of other muJti,axlocombina1ions actual, gross vehicle mass

overload

nameof scales-operator

-', rcgislmtionnumhClr.ofvehicle starti"!]polnt

destinatiOn

typcoJload

" T\vo'sotsforweigh-brtdgeswith Digital remote .. fraffic in' two dimdions, wilhcorrJ '

display·' connectors and accessories

Un-interuptable ' oneset for promotion or load

PQwor Supply' calls,computer. printer and

device .. .: display ,

(v) .Earib conducl;or; protecfon from lighbling

Inorder to avoid a djrccthit from lightning,no radio tower or tall p~r polo shall· be attached to tho scales. neuse, Scales, houses, . ,tho, weigh.;bridgo and aU tab!acc:uipmcntshllllbecOnncc1cdto the samcapprovedcarlhconductor system. The system shall consist· of a steel rnatrlx 0/ sufficient dime/islons 10 aUow the earth~ductors from tha load ccHs, the platform, -theccrdaand tho scale house .. equipment to .be connected. Tho anchors shall be madc.ot approved steel relnforcemcnt grids instaUcd berovl the foundaUonsofUlccnUro weigh·, bridge pit am.! hOUl>o:;. iI3 doscr1betl onmo DraWingS or as directed. bythc' Engi(lccr. • The 'Conlroclor's attention is c!ra\\nto thc necessity for accurate electric Installations by competentllCIsof)ncl llCCOrding lrlapprnvodpl,ms IorIhc carth proLoctioB system. In nddiliOn lothcso measures, an, approv.ed UPS dC'Viccshaflboinslallcd tcensure cQnUnlWd weigh·bridgo, andcomputcr operalionin ,the caso of paworfailurc,

Tho equipment illiould be able tonrocess at.1east three copi.cs in one opcratlon.

(c) Transportable axla waigh..btldgo and

~CCC3S0riC3 '

(l) Layout and 'of !he conslruclionof site and approaches.

TIll( UNlrai nEPuIltJG OJ' TIoNZJ\HIA, MINISTRY OJ' WORKS

, P}.GESO()O·Z1

_:::sr:.:;""'::::o:;:A:::''';;:.' S::::P::.~~_IF:::'CA;::.:.:""~"':;;:S.:;:F"~R:..:R:::O:.::Ml;:_W::.OfIKS=:::.~.:::2000= ---, ~ _____:___:SERIES 5ODO •. AN.CILLlARYROAODWORK$

The.layoutof the weigh.bridgeslte shaUbea paved area in pEirfecllevel in accordance With the Drawings. or in their .acsence the. latest. issue of standard draWlngsfrom the Employer, .or. as directed by the Engineer. As a rule concrete pavements shall be used due . to the . sensitivity . of transportable weigh bridges with regards to deformation of the:surfCl<.;e.

(ii)' The platfoDn _ .

The. weighing. platfoll11sshall be. waterproof and made of aluminlum with ~. very ,. high resistance to bending. They shall. b&eaSY to. handle and be .of a manufacture approved by the Engineer. One weigh· bridge set shall consist of , two electronic wheeHoad

- .platformsoomplyingWlthlhe requirements given in the fcHOwing.

(1) Dimensiohsarilj weight.. •

The dim ens ions Of theplatfonn shall conform to the foUowit'9 approximatal"Gquir~mQrits:

- . Approx;heighl of the platforms: 20 inm

- Approx:length oHM platfonns:750 rnrn

- Approx.·wid:nofthG.platforms: 400mm

- . Weight of each parl~ less Utan20kg

(2) ACtivO' surface •

The .activesurface ·islho area wf1erethe wheel iSa!lowedto. activate thcwheci toadecalesand . ils. dimensions .shalLconfonn.tQttle fOllOWing

apprci~mate requirerr,ents: .

Length:approximate1y700 mm

- Width: approxirilateiy 400 mm

(3) ·Capacltyand accuracy

The capacity and accuracy ofeach platform unit shall be as giveninTAl3LE 5604/4,.

TA13LE 5604f4 .

CAPACITY AND ACCuRi\CY OFTRANSPORTADLE AXLE WEIGlilJRlDGE (iNtis

TABLE 560415

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE PROCESSiNG UNITS· .

System. Requirements J
properties
Power supply,AC: 230 volt -, 1
Power supply. DC: . 1.0.8 10 16 volt . I
Data transfer: . RS232
Display: LCD~dot·matrix or screen ..
. display" .,
-S"Cto 60~CoPGrating
Temperature temperature
range .2S"Clo SOaC storage· .
temperature
Keyboard: Membrane touch or kay board
Permissible IJP to 60%
humidity:.
Weight: Upto.20kg. {iv) Printer and the protocoHortieket print-cut The.system·for the printout shall be included. and capablccf makin" printouts in . accordance iNilhthe

foIlQwingrequirements:' .

- PBPorviidt~: 76 rnm.

- Characters per line: 2Gcharacters

Infomi(1tli:m to be printed: - Roads AuthOrity

site

datcandtlme sequenllal ttcket.number weight limia

wheel·load

axle-load

gross vehicle mass (GVM)

overload .

vehicle nLlIuber vehicle make

- drivcr'slicGnt.<:l rii.zmber

- drivcrsnamc

- Grivcrs'signaturc

- narnc.otsealesoperator

(v) Oporatlcn

All transportablo waigh·bridges .sha,] be operated in accordance with themanufacturer'sguidelinesEjnd bY . tho use of·' all necossary·· eccessorles'<and equtpment sucn as mats for approal,;hir.g the platformS,leveliing equipment, etc.

. ...

Requirements

¥".

(d) Orders

Do!oro pl:iclnga,,_y '.order. for· purchase .. of lhe. waigh. bridge equipment and apparatus the. Contracto(sha!l submitfo r tl\a approval of. the Engineer his programme of Works and Drawings showing all construction details, weigh~brid!lo.· fitting •. running· ofcol1l1ccting.cabl eS,mc fortha transportable 'Bxle weigh-brjdgQstalion.

5605 . MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

ITEM

56.01 CAl11.E GRIDS

UNIT NUMllER(noj.

• Systompropcrtlcs

Capacity on each ·whMload:

.

. 15lonnes

The unit of meascrementenau bo the numherofeatUe grids supplied, the type as indicated in the Drawings.

Tho bfd ratcshaU include J full compen$<ltionfor providing the lUateria!sand cOI'JstnJclingtbc eattlogrids, butsha!1 not indudc.compensation for eXcavating lhc in silu ma~crial.

Axlcload:

.30tOnnos

Division: . . 50k9

I · ·"-1"25kg('J~2.500kg)

1 ,j.50 kg (2.500·10,000

i . Aceaptance tolerance: ! .' . ... kg)

i ~I· 75:01 (10,OOO·15.()OD

Oporating tcmperaturo:rBctw~~o~20 Cant] .

...

(ill) The processing unit

The. processing unit shan bo remotefrom thc scale platforms, but ccnnectedfo them and ahallrncet ihe reqtdremcnts oivenin TIIJlLEB60415.

PAGE 5000·· .22

$1 ANDARO$PEClfICATIONSFOR ROAO Wt'J~K~"2OIln

3~ '000 ·ANClIL1.1AR"f ROIIllDWORK$

!.r.!l.! 56.02

EXCAVATION FORCATILJ;

cruoe on w.:, Gl HlglD 010:$;

(a) EXCAVI\TING. SOFT MATr.RlALTO Till: DIZPTI r REQUIRED FOR TilE CONSTRUCTION OFTllE CATTL!:

C."l1D 011 WEICII an.ecce

.(lJ)· EJ<Tnt.ovr::R $UBrn,r.\56,02{a) FOR EXCAVl\iJONINROCK

cuare. MEtm;(m~)

CU[l1C METHE{m3)

Tho unlrol measurement sncu.ec ineeucc.meiro 'of matcri;:lIexcavalod.

The bid ralesha'j include full,' compensation for .: excavating, kiadir.g, Iransp"ding and dcpositing . excavated matcnal fcr cattle .grids.

Paymen!forwClfghingsta:Jons will be made as follows:

The ,construction ,of tho lay,!.Jy, sll.:11 be measured. end palu torjn accordance w"iththe'provisions cl, the specification 'for the .rclcvanr i:emsof work such as c;::rlhworks, b<lscs,surfocing and iricidcnt~ls,. involved in uio constructicn of tho Icy-!;ys,

PClymenl for construction and. matntcnanco. of Ihe welgh-bridge statlon centre' rocm-cfflec willllc made at . the relevant Luni;> Sum price entered ill tho Oill of QU~rlli!ics.· \',hcn. the controlroom'offico. is. cOr.1,lcl~~ Cllu<lcccplcdbylho E:nginccr. fully furnisileJll.nd equip,')od .:

P<lymcnt Iorthc supply; h$lal!~!kn andmalntenancec! lhc Trnnepcrtchlc Twin Plulf(;;TIi Nolo WclSIH.lrtdt;e v:ill be made atthc.rc'ovara Lump Sum priceentered in .ho

[lmc~Qui.lnlWes. .

II,!;M

5G,03 INST,\LLATIONCFWEIGIl

llRIDGES;

(a) ·STA'nONAllYW£OICI! r;n1J)cc

{b}:· :inA~·:5Pc'BTf\!;L~ \·"O~C:CJ l.:m~:~ct!

This rotc ~hill! Il c fu!I compcnsaucn fer provitJ:hQcr.d i!"!~LJmr.!.i UlO \-;clr;IH.;ri~[ic ·lnClu:!Ing .1l1IcquiPr:1Clll, appurot~·Si ~ cxccvaucn, .concrcte ,&nj, f~'ncs: fer: p:ts, bcn:in!) plates, .. jun:licn . boxcs,prccis:cnloud cells, cables; readout un;tsi· clcc:ric<ll system in ccccrdanco \~ilh tho Spccilic.'lIiMS,Cl"lrltmJ.l'l:lr.el nnr.lcompl!torisacl termlnal, prcpar<ll:onof dd!QUQd ccnsirucncn cr<:ll':in[;s, setting rindlevcllingof \'!clgll"Ms <In:! pl~lfcmns,in-sllU tosting and ccllbmti(in 'llI'l'J'cny ether work and incidonlals necessary .10 complete 1110 .work in ·occorUllnCQwilh. tno Spec1!lc<lticns and the. instructions of thcEnnincer;

P.am::5011D· 23

SERIES '5000 -, ANCII.lIARY ROADDWOllKS

CONTENTS:' CLAUSE

PAGE

least ,six waek'sadvance notice of his requlrements to the Employer. Upon, receipt of the plants.!heContractor ' shall ensure that the plants are in aaoodcandillonand tree fromplan,tdiseases and he shall accept full ,responsibility for ,mainlalning the, plants in a good condition throughout the Contract and the Defects LiabilityPe:iod. The plants shall be fully maintained land watered (luring tntspenooane any tosses 'of plants on account of lack of care or disease ciur:ng the Contract and Defects liability' Period, shall be' replaced .at the Contractor's own cost.

Each plant shall .be handled and packed in the approved manner for that species or variety, and all the necessary precautions shall be taken Ito ensure that the plants will arrive at.the ,site of lh e Works in asuitable condition' for 'successful growth.' Trucks used for transporting plants'shall beeq\lippedwith covers to protect:he plants from windbulT1.CiJntainersshali be in a good, condition.

Plants supplied by the .Contractof$hall be healthy, correctly: shaped, and weH rooted-The . plants must be hardened off and be exposed . tel dircctsunlightfor. at least 6 mcmhsr nrior to . planting, in, the. road reserve. RootsshaJl. notsh6W any evfdenceof having .been restricted or defomuldat any litre. Plants shall grow well and shan be free from inseqt pests and diseases.

(~)Grcll;i; '5t;Jdlj; .. -. _.. . . .... _

Grass sods shall be e,i!hernurseryijrownor:bushsoos as desCribed' below.-£lolh types shall be harvested, delivered; plantadand watered within 36. hours unless <:ltherwis~ ·l!uthorisI'!dbythA ·Engineer. The .: grass sods shall be,freefromnoxiou$weedsand diseases. Sods obta.inedfrom a .nursery shall be mmotst SOil not less than 30 mm deep, arid sods taken from the bush.in

motstsoll notless than 50mm deep; .

(i) Nursery-grownsods .

These sods' shall beofthevarietyot grass specified in -. the SpeCial Specifi~tions, uryessthe_ useof an Qlt~a1iveha$ been ::;ipproved by tho Engineer, ,The

. grass ,shall. have been grOwn .sPflCi~cally tor _ sod purposes, mo·Nt1regularly and cared for to provide an approved unifermity.- to ·-the . satisfaction .. oflhe

Engineer.- ..

::..>:"

·SERIES 5000: ANCILLARY ROADWORKS

SECTION 5700: LANDSCAPING· ·ANO.GRASSING

5701$COPE 5702 MATERIi\lS

5703 .l.ANo SCAPINGAREAS·

5704. PREPARING AREAS FOR.GRAsSmG 5705· GRASSING ANO SPRIGGING·

5106 MAINTAINiNG THE GRflSS

5707 TReES, SHRUgS AND HeOG1NG PlANTS 570BGeNERAL

5109MEASlJRSMENTl\NO PAYMENT

, ,

·5000-24 ·!:OOO-24 500()"25 5000-25 ·5000·26 ·SOO()"27 500.0~28 5000-28 ·5000-29

5701 SCOPE

(8) SCope

This Section covers the landscaping .of' designated areas; the establishing of veg~la!ionforfunctionaland aesthetic .. purposes on cut and . (,11 .• slcpes; landscaped ereaaand sueh other areas whore itmayb0rei:iull'0~L

(b) DefinitIon .. .. . <,

Any declared noxious weeds; as well as anyexo~¢,tree, ahrub.harb .: graS$or water plant which, in the opinion of the Engineer. may • pose any problems in speCified areas at.' certain times, is regarded as being

undesirable, . . .

5702· ... MATERIALS

(3) Fertiliserll.ail-Improvement material

"010' typocfforti!iserlsoilcimprovOment, material. to be used shall be one or more of tOo foUowl"g types .and any. other .• tYPe of· .fertiiise~Jseil-;mprovei1lent· material specified· in the. Special· Specificatiens orprescri!>edby the .E:Mineer.

.(i) Soil·improvement materials such as dolomitic lime;

basic stag, gypsum,. superphosphate and

• agricul!urallime.

• {ill Fertilisers such as. limestone ammonium nitrate, ·2:3:2 (22) and 3:2:1 (25).

(ii) Bush sods

These-sods may be. obtained frem appmvedareas within. or near the Site Where .asuitable Iype·.;lnd .denstty .uf gra:;sand lype of .. oil are found;

(b) Grasscuttlngs . . ... .

Grass 'cuttings shall. be ,fresh cuWngs ot.an: approved

• type' of grass with $ufficierit rootmateriaJ to ensure good growth.

(c)Gi'asS5e9dS ... .. . ...

Only fresh . certified seed shall be used and the, types of seeds in the seed mixture shall be as ,sp~lfie~in the Special Specifications,·

· Mixing the various .typesot grass seeds for obtaining the prescribed grass-seed mixtu roShal! be done on tho Site ·jn thepresenceucf • tho .Engineer ... Storing and

.ldentifying the grass seeds and the grass-seed mixtures on tlleSite shaU betho responsibility of tho Contractor.

(d)· Trees, shrubs and hcdgcplants

Plants shall be ot the variety and size shown on tie Drawing50r if] lile Special 3pecificalicin:s.

(f)Ant1..orosloncompounds.. ... . .. . .

. Anti-erosion compounds .shallconsist ofan organiC or inQl'{lanic . material t6.· bind soil . particles together·. and· shall, bea proven product able 10 suppressdusLand formanencrustation3he applicati()n. rate shall. conform: to the manufacturer's r6C0mmendations.The materials used .shall be of such a, QuaUty. that grass seeds may germinate and penetrate the crust

The Contractor· shall supply tha . number olplants as $hown on tho Drawings or in tho. Special SpeciftcaLlons and/or ni!lof Ouantities, Tho Contractor shall give at

(g).TopsoU. ..

Topsoil shaY consistoffertileloamysoil; obtained from £lrOOO< wiU\. Q good soil. e<>VQrageof natu~1 vegetation,. preferably.· grasses. It shall be tree from ·deletenous matter such as ,large roots; stones, refuse, stiff or heavy clays and' the 'seeds of noxious weeds, which will adversely affect its suitabnity for grass. being, planted. .Topsoil stripped from areas infested with, weeds, shall be stockpiled separately.

Topsoil shall be obtained· from whereVer. Stlitable material OI;CUr5 either in thee road reserve orfTom nrenu where cuts andillis aratobe constructed. Topsoil $tripped from borrow areas may notberemovedfrom that sito fortopSoiJingofo1herareas. ,but must be used to rehabilitate the borrow pit itself. The Erigineershall

PAGE 5.000 .24

STANOAADSP.C'F'CAT'ONS I;OIIROADWORKS~2000

Saue<l $000 . - ruoCILUAHY Ro,oi)OWORKS

communicate his requirements to the Contractor regarding the quantity of topsoil which is necessary and the areas from which it shall be.selectad and ramf'lv~ by the Contractor. Unless o!herwlse specified, topson shaltbetaken from not deeper than400 mm from the 'surface. If the. Contractor ftiilsto conserve the lopsoi! as instructed, he shall obtain suitable substitute material

from other sources .. t his own cost. .

plus· ·01' minus100mm with. aU undulations following a smooth curve, The' above toieranceshallapply on Iylo ·areaswhcro the final cohtour:;aregivtln on tile . Drawings.

Where So specified., the Contractor shall procure and tumish.topsoll: [rom ., his. own sources outside the$lte. .after such S{)11"yS have been apprOVGd by tho

Engineer. .

During trimming, all stones in excess of1 00 mm in size and all. excess mater:alshaJi bererrioved.Areas which require grassing shall, be trimmed in .such a way that, after culfivation 'and the application of topsoil, the finished surface of the, area snail be ,approximately· 25 mm below.li1e top ofadjacerit kerbing,channe:lling or pavement,

Topsoil shall be stOckpiled in.separate toose heaps as tipped fromth.otruciksSl)oshaJi not be stockpiled in heaps exceeding 2 m in nciahtCareshall betaken to prevent thecompactiOl1of !he topsoiJ in any way. cspecially·by trucksbelng driven Oller such rr.ateriaL

~h)Manuro

Manure shall, unless anothertypo has been approved by _th3 Engineer, be pure kraal' manure frcofromsoiJ, woed eecdsorcthcr' undesirabfomalarial.lt shall not contain any particles thatwil! not pass through a SOmm scrocnandshaUbo approved by the Engineer hefaro

being dolivordd La the Sitc. ..

(e): Plant.rates

The EngineersMlI,be'entitled.to, pay for shaping. and tnmmingas described above on • the basis of , hourly plant rates. The motor grader . and bulldozer to be provided shall each have a fly'wheel power of not less tlian93W/, 1111 machines shall be in a gOodcondilion. Any labour .or other plant required shall be paid. tor as extraworxas specified in the Contract.

. 5104 ' .. PREPARING AREAS FOR GRASSING

The vanousareasto be grassed shan be prepared as f<Jllow.:;.

(i) Compost

Compostsha!!b~ 'well' decaycd,.frJab!eand free from weedseeds,.dustor any other undesirable l"l'alerials, H shaH not ccrnain any particles that will not pass through a50mmscreen and shaUboapprovcd py.!he.Engineer

before being calivarrid·lcilhoSlto . .

(a) Soil ripping

When;! soil lsfoo hard to be ploughed .wilh alight tractor. thr;l soil shall be ripped up to a dapth of 300 mm before it Is loosened by plough to a ceplhof 150 mm.

(b) Aroaswhich do ,ncitrequire topsoil,'

Whero tho. areas. tobo grassed ,. Consist, of qrganicallv suitaolematcrial, the topsoil shal!be loosened by ploughIng to a minimum depth of 150 mm. Afllobse stones cxcccding50 mm in size on areas lobe mowed by machineandfaUing withInihc road reserve and all stones oxcccding 150 mm in size inather. areas shall

be removed. .

5103 lANDSCAPIN,G AREAS

{a} Shaping .

Areaswi!hi.'l'IM. road 'reserve .butoutsidc, Ihe road prism which roqu;roshaping by means of bulk oarthworkssuch as. contoured nreasatintercnanges ""d intcTScctionsalld rcstvarcas .W!licll rcqure earthwcrks shaJl.bo. excavated, fillet! anuccrnpactcd when . roqulred, and shaped to' tlle Correct. contours 10 withinatolerance.cf plus ormtnus 150mm~ Such L'Jerk shall be regarrlnd :0];. beinq .. <!arJ.hworks j:md measurement and payment. thereforo shall be made under . SECTION. 3600, except: thal.quantities maybo measured by means ofa Grid sys!cmot levels taken at 10 mintarvatsbefore.and anar shaping. or else it may ueaetermlncoby levellecJ crose-sccncns.

(c) Arcas whichrcqu!rc. topsoil

Where· areas: 'to be grassed consist of·. organically unsuhablo material, tho surface shall be rQughened 10 ensure npropcrbondbeiweon tho tcpsoil.and the subsoil. If required, the area shalt be' s(:8rifiod as describecl in p<lragraphs(a) or(b)abol'e.

Topsoil shall be . placed, on the prepared surfaces and trimmed to the uniform thlckness requirM. Tnetepso] shall be sca:ified, by means. of h"mdrakingorJight rotavatol"S, ancJ all stones remqvedasspecifiMfor areas notroquiring. topsoil in subparagraph (b) above:

Arcasillaccossiblo for tdpsonbeing .' placedarterlhe construction works have been. cmnnletedshall be covered ,.\'JIUl 'topsOil ·and protected, 'against erosion during constrceuon works. .

(d) FertilisIng

for all areas: to be planted, the Contractor shall have tho tep 150 mmor thqprcpamd surfacetested to detomline1hc quantity and type of !crtiliserwhichwil! be required for cstahlishlng proper growth. conditions for tha !lr;lSSi .The location ·oflho soil sample taken shall be indicated on plans by, the Contractor. The· Engineer slmlille .furnlshed Withlho·tast .rcsuJlSi.Only, after approval by tho Engineer of the nature and qu3l1tity 'Of tho fattilisor, nlay its, application proceed.' The fertilis.or ~hcill.bo cvonly'''ppliod"overalli5U1!acus where grass Is to be planted, and shall thence ·lhoroughly mixed with the soiltoadopth of100mmcith·ormechanically or manually •. Where hydroseoding ls: to be performed. the fertilisormay be mixcdWilli the colluloso 'fll.Jip ,anclwafer

used in hydroseeding. .

, (b) Trlmmhlg

Trimming. shali.consistof trimming tho exislingor previously shapod ground tooneven surf.,co wiU, the final IcveJsgcncraliyfol!owing' ,lhO . original surface, Trimming; shall normally be done by grader,or in more confined or: sleep .aroas. by bul:dozer.Wherc 'macilincr oporations arc notpracticablc,bcCause, of confined spacescr lltCCP slopcs,orwhcn 'approvcdby.lho Engiricor, trimming shlill be donc withhDnd tools.Whon trinimingis dono on $IOpesst.ccpor!han 1:3~thoridgcs shZlllbe mqcJcparolicHoUlcconLour,Sucll ridges shall bo <tpproXlmilh:;ly 100 mm . ,"VJ(.lc. , and" mo ·ccmrcs between ·lhe ,ridgC!'. approximalely· 40l) m:n. Trimming shall.!Je done where instructed by tile Englneer to areas

. inside tho .road·. roscrvo but' outside . !he road, prlsm,.ie normally outside 1hctQPs ofculs or tho to~sof fills e . uut trimming of rock outcrops .will nat be reQ'Jired.

Trimmctlsurf<lccsshall he Jeltslig!jUyrough to fadlitul!l a bcHorb;nding WlUl!opsoilor the natural ostablistiing

of vegctaUO:L .

Wilen ,. subsequent. !)rassing . is required·. or whoo· it· is 'or!icrod,lJylhaEngincer, areas pi"cviouslyshallcdsha!l btl trimmedas doserlbcd ohovoto.wilhlncto!oran:cof

(c) Gon!!rnl

/\ftcr an area has been prepared for' .gr;jssing, the gri.lssillg ~hall l.1ccompletedbc(oracrustlng . Where a

T'IEU"'rEOREPUBllC()FT~loI, M,MSffiVOF WOllKS

PAGE 50011. 25

SERIES 5000 .•. AIIClL~!AR'( RoADDWORKll .

crust has.been: formed before grasSing is done; . th.e Contractor. shall, at his own cost; loosenthecrust. by . ploughing. loa depth of .150 mm.

solely responsible fOr establishlng an, acceptable grass .: cover; and any approval by the . Engineer of seed or seed mixtures intended . for use by the Contractor shall

· notrelieve him oUhis responsibility.

'.A mulch shall be added to the'hydroseeding mixat.an approved rate.

Hydroseeding . shall·' then be carried out • with· an approved hydroseedingmachine at a tate' of application of not less than 38 kg of seed mixture per hectare, unless otherwise specified in the Special Specifications.

When the use of ann-erosioncompouridsls required and such compound is to be' applied. Simultaneously with thehydroseeding, .Jt shall be mixed with the

• hydr6seedir)g miXture before. application.

5705 GRASSING AND SPRIGGING

The method of establishing grllssshalidepend co the cir.cum~tancesrelatl"oto.each case, and the Engineer shall decide which method is to be. used. Provision' is, made for the folloWing methods:

- Phanting grass cuttings •

- Sodding

Hydrosaec!ing

- Topsoiling only, using •. wh.ere. available, topsoil selected for.the presence of natural grass 'seeds

- Grassing with an approved grassing machine Hand seeding

The use of. any other method specified in the Special Speciijcations ..

<a} Plantinggl'a$Scuttlnss .

The areas 10. be grassed shall, unless already wet; be thoroughly watered beforetile<cuttingsare planted to ensuretnatjhe soil will be uniformly wet to a depth of at laasl150 mm when the planting .Is done.

. An . apprOvedvari~ty of grass cuttingssha\lbe. eVe()ly planted by • hand or mechaniCally at a rate, of at least

'. 600 kg Of Cuttings per hectare.' Fresh cuttings only shall be usei;l.Any·gH:ls5 cultingsthat h.,vo boon.aUoWGcllo dry out shall be discardsd.lmmediiitelyafter having been planted, the,grasscultingsshaUbegiven a copious Watering, arld,whenslllficiently dry, ~hall be roll .. d witha.lighlagricultural roller .•.

(d). Topsollfngonly .,

Where, in thsopjnionof the. Engir.eer, the plantlng of grass orhy~rolleedin9 can be dispensed .:vith On acceunt.of favour;'lbleclimaticand other conditions, .he. m;'lyattempttoestablishgrass . by!op::;oiling or)ly; Topsoil.shaltbe selected for .the presence. of natural grass and seeds-and sha,1 De removed andplaced whenever. possible. at a iimethatwoulCl favour' the establishing of gl'llss. These areas shall be treated with an ' .. anti-eroslon compound,· if .so instructed by. the

Erigineer .. '. .

After tho topsoil has been placed il shall. be lightly rolled and weil. watered, and afterwards • watered and .mowrr whenever instructed bylheEngine¢r.

The .: Contractor will not. be'· held responsible' . for eslabJishingan acceptable grass cover as defined in. SUBCLAUSE 5706(b) when this procedure ls.followed, but • will be rosPOfisiplc for the •. consequences qf· My omlssionto water, weed ormow.the grllss·aS instructed by the Engineer.

Nopaymentforgrassing shalt bernado other than for placi"$toplloil.and for mrlwing and watering the nrass, Which will.bepaid foratthe bidralcs< and for any rcpl:mting ofgrass·onbaro patches, ,repairsqa.used by erosion, and similar work, which wil! be paid for as .eJdra . work asallowcdforintM Contract.

(c) .'. Grassirig wlthanspproved grassIng machine Gra..sin9 'shall be done with an approved grassplahter Whichpl;mts lhoseodsin rows spaced not-merethan 250 mm aport.. Thopl;mtor shan. plant tho seeds 3P1lroximataly 6 mni' deep, andshaU lightly compact the soil. The prescribed fertiliser may be distributed simultancOuslYW1'th.the grass' planting.

(f) • Hand seeding

II approved by lhoEngineer;sowing' may be.done by hand, . The seed shall be . spread uniformly ever the surfaces and then IighUyra~edihtothe Soil.

(g) .Otflcrmcthods

Whcnovcfsp.(X:iliedin. the Special Specifications, other

methodS of grnssing maybecmployed. .

· (h) The grassing of borrow pits, tempor.tl'Y· . · . '. byp:ilsses~ camp sitos. access roadsan.d

stockPitc.sitcs '. .. .'

Prior .to any grassing that maybe reqUired on . such areas, thcfmlstling..o!f ·ofUomJ\N pi~ w<lcscrtbed under' ClAUSE .3406, obliterating. tho bypasses . and accesa.rcads.astdescribed iii ClAu$ES 1514 aod5803 mspcclivc!yand the c!l3aring oft;8mp Sites as described in S¢CTlON 1300,. shall. have' bet1n camed . out as specified in the rclovantSccUons.

NotO: Wilh regard toSunCLAUsEs570~(c)and(fl,lhe areas to be grassed shaH be prepared· as' described iil

(til SOdding.. . '. . .

Areas to be grassed by SOdding shan. be given .a. layer of topsoil of atleast5C mm in thickness unless, INhere suitablo soil'is present, the Engirie:!r orders the topsoil lobeornitt~d. Tho . areas to .• be sodded shall be thoroughly Watered befo~hand so that it wili. be wettca depth of 3tleasl150 mmduringscdding. Tho surface sholl be roughono<.l·. ~li9hl!y .10 ensure a .. goad penc!ralion.of roots into .lhc soil. Sods 'sha!! be protected. against drying. out and' kept moist from the time: of haNesting·untillheyare finally placed.

ThefirSl row ofsodsshaU, Where possible, .DO laW in a straight lina, afld if .on. aslcpc, laying thq~qs shall start althe oottomof. the slope .• TIle sods shall be butted ligl1l1yagainsleaeh other,and care shall betaken nctto :;trel"h oroverlap !hc30d3. Whoroo.gootlfit cannot be obtained; '. any. intervening, spaces .: shall be. filled' with topsoil The next tow shall be similarly placedtighlJy against the bottom rowwithslaQ9crod .joints, and So on unHl .Ihricnliroaroa hasbeen, covered wiUlsods.On stacPsiopes, when instructcdbythc Engineer, the sods $haD bahcild in.posiUon by .. a sufficicninumbarof wooderi staJros. approximatcly300 mm.long by 20 mrn inthicknoss andU1CSO stak(lS shall. be knocked into the

su~iI to a depth <lr100mm~ .

The .Contr.lcWshallwatcr tncscds .directly after they have boon placad: 10 prevent .. un't!uedrying • out As oodding • i,.. complctCid, .aael! >:'CI"Ji!m. shaH IIp. lighUy rolled and thoroughly watered.

(c)Hydro~odin 9

. Where if lsspQi:ilicd that 11ydrosccding is to be carried out on topsoil, the thiclmas:s of til 0 lOPSOIiShall ue as spoclli~inthcSpcdal Specifications or osdirccICd by the Engineor.

TllOlype::; and inl~of~oQdE;tQ bQu~()dshall boas specified, in tho Special Spcci!ica\kmsor, if not so specified therein, sh3l1.be. agreed on byUIC Enginncr and ,fheCQntractor before any seed he may wish lQ usc Is orderod by the Coillractor. Tho •. ConlraclOrshall·· be

I f I

I I

J

t; ..

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS fOR ROAD WORKs-2000

CLAUSE 5704 and the areas shall.betho.roughly watered after completion of tha operation, Also if so instructed by the Engineer: an anti-erosion compoundsliall be applied.

. (I) Sprigging'

(i) Deseriptlcn

This. work shall consist of planting sprtgs in close con!onnity. WiUl these SPeciflcations, at'. the locations shown onlhoDrawings or.requlrod byl"e Engineer tcr tho prolection of slopes.aga:nst erosion.

(ii) Materials

(1) Sprigs .

Sprigs shall be healthy,· living stems .wilh attached tOOlsef percnnial·!urf-forrnjng gr<l5SCS harvested wilhout ad:1cr.ngsoii.<lndoblained from approved sources in thelocalilyeftl1o werkwhnro tho sod lsdcnso aml· well· rooted, Tile prcscncool weeds-or de:or,1ental rr.atcrials will be cause far rcjecl:c'n,

(2) ForUliser

Fertiliser shall. consist of an approvnd cornpound c(mlain:Il[l net toss lMn10% nilrogon, 1$% phosphoric acid and 10% petash 'or. similar approved composition.

0ii) Conslruction

(1) TopsoilinO ..

. .Whcro direeleti .. bylhe Engineer. tho fa~ .of slopes or benches sha'l be covered ivi:tlalaycr oftopsoH,as described ill Ci.l\uSE 5702([Jj.

If topsoills not availaulo irlthe project area or 'soil. and rnolcturo conditiono ore !jcncn::liy not favourable f NgrowthCr crass, pl,mUng. of gmss 'sttO~ld·. be tried on sma:1scclions . cf clay and sand slopes prlorto plonting of larocareas.

Allsurfaccs shall,lmmcdi1llely be;otcplanlin;J, be reduced to a fine tilth loa de;:llh of 150 mrn and frco from ·stoncs!J realer than 25 rnm,

{2} FertilisAtion .

FtrtilisaUonshalibe. carried out wi(h . an .cvcn distribution; The rate ofappiications.ha!l notuc lightor than 70kn 101000 square metres.

(iv) Spr!gg:no.

(1) IlaTVesting sprigs

ThoContraclor shall' oblaln the Engincor's approval of his scarce ofspngs and shall notiry the Englncor at lcasl5 days bQfore tho sprigs are to. 'be harvested.

Sprigs >111:11 ]'~V!l cried out or : !lroo!he1'l'liac. damagqddtlringnarvestillgcr delivery sllal! be

rejected, .

(2) Planting sprigs.. . . .

Planting of spng!l.shall prdcmbJy be carriedout atlhchCginning ·01 a rllinyscason. Not. more than24hour:$shnll elapse between harvesting

and planling sprigs. .

Sprigging shall not b!ldone <;luring: windy we;;llhcr •. orwilon L'll;) ground is dry. excessively wcl,or. otherwise untillal.lJO •. Inhe soil is not moistwhcn Ilicsprigs·aro being set. waler shall

be applied until the soil is mois(and in a workable' .condition. One, or more Of·; the following methods 311all.· be used, whit;ilever; is shown on the DraVllings or ordered by the

Engineer: ..

- Row S,'RlGGING: Furrows shall, be opened along Ihe aeoroximato contourof slopes at tho . spacing and depth indicated on 'the Drawings (IT as instructed by the Engineer. Sprigs sMllbo.pIaced at intervals not exceeding 150mm lnacontinuqusrow in UI[., open furrow. and shall be covered immediately.

- SPOT SPflIGGfNG: . Spot. sprlgging·shilll be, performed as 'specified under row sprigging, except that, instead . of planting. in continuous rows, sraupsof four sprigs or more 'shall be spaced 40Jmm apart lnthe rows.

- Alternativc methods ·of 'planting shaJlbe subject to the apptovalofthe Engineer,

(v} . Maintenance of sprigged areas

The. Contractor shall regularly water and malntaln sprigged areas in a satisfactory .eondlncnfor. the duration ottho Contract and unFliho end of fhe Dcfcc!s Liability Period.

5706 MAINTAINING .THEGRASS

(a) Watering. weeding. moWing aridroplanting

AI: seeded: and grassed .arcas •• shall be adoquatCly wQ;ctcdatregt;!lar and frequent intervalstoensure' the proper gcnninaticn of scods.nndgrowtholqraaauntil tho grass. has established an acceptable cover and theroaf'.cr until. the beginning or.the defedsliability period of th3 grass. Tho quantity of waterandlhe . frcquoricy ofwatcring shafJ bcsubloctro lheE(1ginecr's appreval. Wi!11 hydrciseedinglho· Mmmt:)M~mcnlof wateringrnay be postponed unliL 0 .tavourablc.ume of the ycar~. butwa tering shall in any case commence and con!inu\) .as seen as the . seeds have genninate:l· and growth has sta rted,

Tlm.Contractcr shaJ! further mew the gl1lss on,aJi areas where grass nas.: ric.:!n established whenever . so instructed by the .El1gineer,untiI1hec~.d aftho defects liab!lity ['-c,:ad Air grass (:uWngs shallbQ(:oJloofodand disposedofif so directed. by the Erigineer. Wecdsshall be controlled by approved means. I\ny.baro patches whcrc'llie gmss has not taken or where it has been damagudor hasdriedout shallbefccUltivaled. planted, sccccu or lIydrosecdcd at the conuactors own expense.

All • grassed ·afcas· shall have. an. acceptable coyer as defined below atholh the bcgir,ning and the end of tho Defects Liability Period.

(b). Acct!ptabl.e coyer

AnacceptalJle grass covershatl mean that !lotlcs.slna!'! 75% of tho. area grassed orhydroseeded·. shalt .. be covered \vi!h .grass· and that no. bare patches exceeding 0.25 m~ in any area of 1.0 m x1,O mshall OCCIJrJlnthe case of sodding; . acceptable cover shall mean Ihallhe cnliro.aro",:>h.dl lie covered wltf111ve grass axthoen{tof any pcricdnot less than three months after SOdding,

.: (c)Oefl!cts Uabmt~IPctlod

The DofectsUabiJity· Pnriod in. mspeclof gmss shall commence whenanacccplable grass eovor as defined in (b)abo.vo has beenestabllshcd.end shilll boone year. This means that the. Defects Uabilily Period in

PN;£SOOO·'; 'E1

SeRIES 500£1 • ANCILLIARVROAODWORI<S"

respect ofgTass, can commence earlier or.later than the Defects Liability Period for other ,parts of the Contract. Iftl",! Oeferil<: UabilitY·Period in respect of grass expires baiora the and of the defects liability period forthc other roadworks, tho Contractor shail ,further rncwtha ,grass onsuchareasas instructed by the Engincorup to the end of IheDCfecis LiabHity Period.. for tho other roadworks.' For mowmg •• ttlat IS 'executed ·afrer tno De'ecls liabilify Period in. respect of grass. has expired, the contractorsnan be paid tinder ITEM 57.07.

mm of crushed stone shalLbe placed.atthe bottom of the r.ole before it is filled with soil.

(a) • Positions of traes and shrubs

The tocalltles where trees and .shrubs. are to be planted arc as follows:

(c) Planting

l3efore trees, shrubsand hedgin!lplal)is areremoved from thllircontainers for planting, • they shall be well watered.

Directly aftor.having been: planted, each plant shall be woll watered witnaviow to settling. the. soil. After the scil has' settled, additional soil shall be added where necessary 10 brinalh~ mplaCAd soil in the· hole to Within 150mm of the ground surface, so 13$ to . ensure that 'sufficient water can be retained in ,the .hole around the plant .. All trcesshat be tied to a s.uitable creosotetreated timber.stake with a minimum diameter of 35 mm or other suitable stake as approved by tho Engineer and firmly planted in tho ground: The stake shall be 300 mmlonger than th~p!anled tree, and. its, maximum length shaJlbo1.5 m above ground level, Afto'r planting, thc> ground'lIurfaco around tho plant-shall be COlfored With straw or grass or any·othertypc of. mulch to

. mlnlmisccvaporauon.

5707 TREES; SHRUBS ·AND HEDGING PLANTS

(i) Trees andtshrubsisnan-bo planted at locations shown on tho Drawings.

(ii) Plants in the median shallbo planted in a line 1.5 rn fromthccen!reiineo!.thc median or as d:recledby the Engineer.

(iii) When the camageways arc at. different levels, the plants in tho median shall be planted 2 m from the ·cdge of the shoulder on the bighsidc of tho median oras diroctedbythc Enginccr.

(ill) Wherctho road, curves, the plants in tho. median shall be planted on tho inside 0' themedian .ccrnre kne.

(d}Malntenanea

DUring .tho .de(li!ctsliability period, which shall betwelve months after completionqf the actual plantir.g of trees, shrubs and hodges, the Contractor shall be responsible for watQring the trees, shrubs and hedges and keeping Ihe plantsfree from weeds and pests.

(v). Where the. carriagewaysarc atdifferent lovols as well as ana curve. the plants in the median shall be planted on U10higJI s:de, provided .Iheydo not impede on sight distance, 0 r asdircctcd by the

Engineer,: .

(vi) At freeway. crossings 'OVer roads or rlvers.. shrubs ·sha!J beplatltedinlhe positions. shown an thc DraWings~

Every hedge planttree or shrub,wnichis not healthyor shows unsatisfactory groWth . shalf be replaced by .the. Contractor' at : his own expense,.' wlthln '. one .• month' of . having been notified by the Engincer;in writing.

5708 ·GENERAL

(vii).Atthc . headwalls • of culverts orsimilarstructurcs,

. trees and/or ·shrubs shal!bo . planted .10. indicate tho positions ,ofth",s:~ . structures: . Tho' Inc;riit)m, far ph:mting the piantsshalL boas· shown on. tho Drawings or asdirectedby the Engimief;·

(vli1)Caro .shallbo taken nottoobscurc traffic. signs by. plants.

(ix).Trocs shallnot.bo planted closer than 10 mfrom the ycllo',vlineon the oUlside shoulder. .

(b) Preparing plant hOles.

'Unless ()thcrwi~ difcctcd. by the Engineer. holes shall be· spaj,c:edand prepared as 'follows:

(i) Nlholes shallbcsquarojn plan.

~i) Holes forhCd'go p1an1und shrubS shall ooatlaast 500 mmsquaro.byGOOmmdricp and1,5mfroni centro toccnec. A.ltcm;;tlivclyu 500.mlv wi<.lc· trencb 600mm deep may be dug. .

{iii) • Holes for trees shall be. at least 600 mm ·squaro. by 700mmdo~p

(a) . Tima ofplantrng

Gross, trees 'and shrubs shall be ,plantad as far as' is

. practicablo . during .. periods of • the' year. most likely.'. to produce'. best. gn;>wing. rC:lulls. The. Contractorsha!1 makecvcrycfforUo programme his operationslnsuch a manner that grass, treesand shrubs shall, as far as. is ..

possib!e,·bc.planteddurklg(l)is period; .

flV) Tho' holes Jor plants shilllbc, rofilled witnsclcclCd andapprovcd.topsoi1Ihoroughlymixcd,wiUl·manuTC or compest (ona hOapcdspadcfuladdcd to avery pl"n! holo) and.. depending· on SOiI·tcstropons,1hc required quarility~m(l type of fertiliser.

(v) Thcholos shallbothoroughly watered bcfcrcplllllts arc plSntccl. Whero the soil is poorly drainod, 150

[b]. Traffic on grassed areas

The • Contractor .. shall not .. plant . any· grass .. until • all operations. which may requireroad-bulldlnq, equipment. . lobe .taken over grassed areas have· be on completed; NO roatH1UlldinQ. equpmcnnuucas or water carts sh;;tll beallowod ontoareas which have been grasse.dand· only equipment .requlrodfor tho preparation of areas; appUcatiqll offertiliscr, .spreadlnq of . topsoil, . watering . and mowing wiUooa[tow~loopernl" on.aO?~s toha grassed. All dam~edaroas shall boremstated by the COntractor at his own expense.

(e) Erosion prevention

During· construction .lhc COritractot· shall • protect·. aU· areassUScCpljbIC to. erosion by installing aU the ncccssarytemporary andpermancnt drainage. works. as SOOJl as posSible and by taking sucirother measures as may be nccesSary .to. prevent the . surface walor horn boingconccntratcd ·11'1 slreamsandfrom scour1J;lQ. the slopes, banks or other areas.

Ani runnels or erosion channels developing during the

•. constructionpenodor during. thedcfects Iiabilty period shall· bo backfilled· and ··eompacted, .. and ·Ihe .• areas. restoredto a proper condition. The Contractor shall not allOW ·eroslon to develop on a large 'scale before cffeCllflg· repairs and all. croslon dam"9c shall be rcpaircdas·sOOfl as possible and in any case nottater thanlhrce months.bctoro the iormlnafionoftha Defects Uability Pariod.· Au topSoil or other material

PAGE 5000 ,28

s-rANOAAO'SPEelFlCAT>ONSFOR ROADWORKS-20GO

"

accumulated in side drains shall .be removed at. the same time. Topsoil washed away shall be replaced.

(d) Proprietary brand materials usedfdr erosion

prevention . .

Certain' proprietary brands of· nialeria!swhich . may be necessary .for erosion prevention tcenablenatural grass to-become ~ilbllshed.' 10 such case me specific brand shall be as described in' the Special Speclfications. The method of applying the material, the required surface preparation, the type of. material to be provided and the. method of payment, • shall. be' as, set out in. the Special Specifications ..

The bid rates shall indude . full compensation for trimminglhe . areas: to. the . specified .. finishing requirements,induding Ihe movingofasmaU quantity of material which would be inherent in thlsproeess and the rem Clvalof surplus material and stones. Payment shall, distinguish· between' machine Uimming which can rB::tS<lnably be dono by bulldozer 9r motor. gr<lder, illid hand trimming,

{ei)R(!sP9nsibility for establishing an acceptable

cover

Notwithstanding the fact that ;,he Engineerwilf determine the method .ofgrassingarld that thEitYPa of seed or grass used and the rate of appiication of the uedmay. bespecifiepor agreed on by the Engineer, and q,aHhe frequem;yufmtiwing will be as ordered by him, the Contractor. shall bersole'y . responsible for establishing. an acceptable grass cover and for the cost of replanting· grass .·orre-hydroseeding • where t • no acceptable . cover has. heen ,esfablish~d. Wh<ira however, in Ihe oplnton of the Ccntraetor; it!sdoubtfuL from. the outset if it wW be pOssi.ble to establish an acCeptable •. cover hemayinfoTmthe. Ei1gineerofhis reasons therefore,.andthe Engineer may, if he agrees, either adopt another method of grassing or: agree to accept Whatever cover can b&obtained, provided tnat: allraasonable efforts shall be made toestablisha good grass cover· by the proposed • method. Any such agreement shall be· 'lalla' onlyi! gi'leniny.'liting· by the Engineer. beforehand,

ITeM

57.03 PREPARING THE AREAS FOR

GRASSING:

(a) RIPPING

(b) PLOUGHING

(c) TOPSOtUNGWllHIN'THE ROAD RESERVE,WHERE HiE FOLLOW lNG MATERiALS'ARE USED:

(i) TOPSOIL OBTAINED FRDMWtTHrN THE ROAD RESERVE OR BORROW AREAS (FREE.HAUL 1.0km) .

Qi) TOPSOIL OBTAINED FROM OTHER SOUR.CES BYTHE CONTRACTOR (INCLUDING ALL HAUL)

(d). TOPSOILINGOFBORROW PITS BY USINGTOPSOlt ORTA:INEO."'ROiA BORROW AREAS OR FROM THE ROI\D RESERVE (FREE..riAUL 1.0km)

(e) PfU)v(OINGAND AP?LYINGCHEMICAL FeRTILISERS ANolOR SOiL.· lMPROVEMENTMATERlAl:

(i)l1ME

(ii)··SUPER"PHOSPHATE

(ill) ·LIMESTqNEAMMONIUMNITRATE (iv)2:3:2(22)

{V)3:2:1(2S} ..

shaped. No trimming .withinthe road prism. shall. be, measured for payment. .

llS! UNIT

57.02 US!NGMACHINESFOR

'TRIMM'NG OR SHAPING (ALTERNATlvr; TOSUBITEM 57.01{a)):

(a) BULLDOZER

(b) MOTOR GRAOe:R

HOUR(tJ) 1-!0UR(h)

The unit of measurement shall be the hour aclually worked by each rnachineintrimminqor shaping areas.

Standing time wilfnot be measured, .

The bid ralesshall include fuHcompensation JOT fuml$hing and using the maChines,including the cost of fuel. operators, remedy of any defects, transporting the machine to. and from the point whereitis lobe used. and for all other incidentals necessary fer. carryiilgout

the work) .

In the case of grassing by (Clpsoilln(1only, !he Contractor :willnot· be.heJddireclly' responsible. for establishing an acceptable grass cover, butwiU be held responsible for the consequences of supplying workmanship which does not conform to the SpecifiCations, or for lack of pro per care.

(t) Re-fertIU.fng

Should itbeeome. necessary, the Engineer may instruct the Contractor to undertake a Re.fertilising programme on grassed •• areas during the. twelvB. ·molith defects liability periOd .. PaytTlent for re-fertilisation will, be, made

under SUBITEM S7.03(e). .

HECTARE/ha) HECTARE (lla)

CUSICME1RE : (m3)

. CU61C; METRE (m3)

CUBICMETRE . (m3)

TONNE (I) TONNE(t) TONNE(t) TONNE{t) TONNE{t}

(vi)OTl-lFR FERTIUSE.RS ANDfoR sou.. TONNE (t) IMPROVEMENTMArERrALs IF REQUIREIY(TYPESTATED)

. (a)RJpplng ...

The unit. of measurement for ripping shall' be . the Metareof soll ripped,Only areas ripped·· on the written instructions of the Engineer shall be . measuredjor payment

The bid . rete shall include full compensation for ripping,

complete a.s specified. ' ..

Pfoughingfor loosening the soilwiil .be paid for under

S!)BllEM 57.03{b). . .. . .

,(b) Ploughing

The' unital measurement for loosening the t~oilby ,ploughingshaU be the hectare of soil loosened and. prepared inaccoi"dance .with the .specifications. Oilly

(1) STOCl(f>JUNG'TOPSOIL

5709 MEASUREMENT J\NDPAYMENT

hEM

57.01 TR!MMING:

(a) MACHNE TRIMMING

• {b) HAND TRJMMING

SQUARE MeTRE (m2). SQUAREMEmE (m2)

N<)tq:

All bulk: . eartti-rnOllingoperetionsas .• described under sl1apinginSuSct.AUsE 5703(a) sllaU be measured and paid for underSECTloN 3600.

The unit· of, measurement· for trimming shall· be the square metre of area trimmed on the instruction of the Engineer, including areas 'trimmedafterhaVirig· been

CUBIC METRE (m3)

Po\GE 5000 - 29

. SERIEs 5000 • AACILUARYRO~I)WORKS

areas loosened by ploughing on the written instructions oftha Engineer shall be measured for payment

The bid rate shau : include full compensation for loosening the. topso(1 by·. ploughing,removing· stones, and levelling and trimming the surface.

(1YPE OF GRASS AS lND1CATED) {b) SOODING SVUSINGTHE FO~t.OWIN~ TVPES· OF SODS:

(i} NURSERY SOO$ (TYPE OF GRASS SPECiFIED}

(ii) OUSHSODS

(cJ HYDROSEEOltiG:

(i) PROVIDING AN APFROVEO SEEDMIXTURE FOR

SQUARE METRE (m2)

SQ:JAREMETRE (m~)

(cjPlaclrtg the topSOil

The unlt of measurement shall· bethe cubic metre of topsoil.appliedatthespecified thickness orasdirected bylhcE",!!in~r measured incitu :afterthstopso;lhas been placed. The quantitysha!l becalcu!ated from the net • area .' of. the. topsoiled .aurface multiplied. by the averaqe. thickness .. of the. tepsoll. but before the grass sods. are placed. Any topsoil· placed in • excess 01 the average thickness specified. or prescribed .wlll not ~e measuredf9rpaymeJ')t·

Payment shall dist\ngulshbetween topsoil obtained r,u!IIde::iignated erees with;n Ihe· roedrellervo or borrowareas: endtopscil tobtalnedi by the Contractor . from. outside. sources .WI1enliufficient.· topsoil· is not . available from the designated areas mentioned .above, Paymant shall further .. distinguish between rtonsoll applied to. areas within the road. reserve such as slopes

and topsoil appUed at bcrrow areas. .

The bid rates shall include fL:lI compensation for excavatlng and jOacJing. tho topsoll,any royatues or compensation that may .be payable .10 ; the • case of topsoil .uj"lder·· SUElm.M ..• 57,03(c), ... transport .. (except overhaul),Off"loading, . placing .. a:nd· spreading. it 10 the requir9d ~ioJ,:riess:!avellin9· it off to: asmonth surf;'lce; for removing .. any stones . as specified and for roug helling thasurface to be topsoiled.

The free,hauidistance ohopsoil obtained (rom the road reserve or borrow areas shall .be· 1.0. krn, The bid rate for topsoil under SUBITSM .57.03(c) shaU also include full. compensa~ion fortransportir;g tholopsoiUolhe polntof

eventual use. . . -.

KILOGRAMME'

(kg)

HYDR03EEOJNG

(Ii) HYDROSEEOING

. (d) PLANTING GRASS SEED WITH AN I\PPROVED GRASS "PLANTING MACHINE

{e) HAND SOWING

('I}: . OTHER. METHODS (SPE.CIFY) (a)Plantll1g grass cuttings

The unit .of measurement for pl,m:ing. grass. cuttings· shall be the hectare .ofe.;:.t;jblished grass with an

acceptebte gra~s cover. . .

HECTARE (ha) HECTARE (ha)

(d),.(VOfD)

(o) Providing and applying fertiliser andJorsoll-

improvementmatcrial .

The unit of measurern ent for fertiliser shall be the tonne of each. type otfertiliser and/or sol[-improvement material ordered and applied, .

The bid rate .shall include -: full ccmoenseuon: for fumishingand planting tlle cuttings, watering ,weeding. and replanting· if ;. necessarv .: and. all • other incidentals whicll may be necessary for establishing an acceptable cover and maintaining the grass, except mowing.

(b) Sodding·

The unit 'of· measurement. for soddlng::ihall be U1e. square metre ·o;:overed with sods, which has an acceptable cover.

The bid. rates . shall include fun compensation for procuring ,excavating, loading, transporting;off-loadirg, placing and watering the sees, for replanting dead areas, for watering and weeding the grass, for supplyingahd placing timber stakes and for atlotner incidentals, except for mowing, which may ce necessary .forestablishing . an acceptable .cover, •. and maintaining the grass. . Payment shall distinguish between Durscry-grown sods and bush sods obtained from within tho road reserve Or borrowaroas,lnth" case of bush sods the bid price shall include levellingoff and trimming areas from which the sods ere taken. .

Thtlbld rates shall incluuGfull(;IJ[l)pensationfor fumishing. •. the . fertiliscr andlor. son-improvement material,transporting itto.lhe polnt 9f USO, spreading and mixing it Illto. the sc:arifiedsoil.or topsail,

irrespect;vooflho method of Arr.Hcalinn. .. ,

(c) Hydrosccding .

(i). Tho unit of measurement for providing seed shall be Ihokilogn:lm of seed of the .specified seed mlxtllrc,Themll::isoLaJlypulp added .shail not be measured.

The .bld rate shall· include full compensation for procuring and fumishing the seeds.

(ii) The. unitofmeasurcment ·forhydrosdeeding shall be the . hectare af . grass • .ostablishcd by hydrosecding. which has an acceptablecover.

The. ·bid. .rete .snau . includo 1ull.compensatlon·. for furnishing cellulose pulp and mixing it with seed and water and with any. anti-erosion compound if required, applying the mixture,watering, wel'!ding, rohydroce<ldi"'9 barn patl:hes, andforanyt'l~ WOrk. except mowing, which may be necessary for . establishing· an . acceptable rover and maintaining· the grass.

(d) Grassing with .anapprovcd grass planter ThcIJllitof measurementIor planting any grasssoods lJyuslngan . approved • pl;lntershallbo . the hectare. of

(f) Stockpiling tho top$oll

Tho unit of measurcmontshall be. the cubicmetre of topsoil stocKpiled on tho wrltlen .instructions of the Engineer whero. Ulis operation is unavojdab~edQspila proper·advancc planning.Onlymatcrial actually loaded; Ironspoitcd to .aridstockpHecJon sites designated rQr stockpilingwiU bcmcasurcd, .butnot anymaterlal rnerety' pushcd.Qr bll;>dedintoho3pS noxt to tho area from which it is taken. unless. i.' was dono with Iheprior approval of tho EnginCt;lf, and' the material was

stockpiled in an approved area. ..

Tho bid ratcshaU include full compensation Jar loading tne.topsoil, plaCIng it.illstockPilc 'and for any payments to privatI) Owncrsfor the usc ofstockPiio areas; .

ITEM·

57.04 GRhSSING:

(a) PLANTING OFGRhSS CUTT!NGS

II~CTI\R~.{ha)

PAGE 5000 " 30

· .. SERIES 5000: •.. i .ANClLL1MV ROADDWORICi

grass ,with " an acceptable cover,. wt'Iere' the seed ' has beenp!anted ,with an approved planter,

The bid 'rate, shall include '. full'compensation foi"all labour, material, equipment, weeding, and all incidentals which .may be necessary for planting the 9raSS seeds a ndestablishing an acceptable grass cover. The bid rate sl'laHalso include full compensation for watering, iheplanted areas until an acceptable 9raSS cover has been established, Payment, for the grass; seed will be separate under SUB ITEM 57,04(c).

·(e)· Hand-sowing ;

The. unltct measurement .for hand-sowing the. grass seeds shall be the square metre .ofgrass with an acceptable 'covering' on surfaces . 'instructed by the Engineer to be'hand-sown.

The bid rate shall include full compensation. for all labour, materials, equipment, weeding, and all im:;iderltals ...... hich milY be necessary for, planting the grass seeds and establishing. an acceptable grass covering. The bid lrate shalla(so include full compensation for watering ·,theplantetl ; areas 'until an' acceptable grass covering has been established. Payment forihegrassseoos shall be separate 'under SUB!TI'iM 5M4(0).

(f) Other methods

Whenever .omer methods of; grassing· are specmen in the,Speeial Specification~,. measurement and payment shall beas specltled,

(0) General ,

Half the, payments under ,·ITEM57.04will, become due when the grassing or ,hydroseeding has been done" and the remainder will· becomeduewhen satisfactory cover has been established,

monthly rainfall figure ls.Iess than 75% of the monthly average,the Contractor will be compensated under this item, fortheeam!). p<m)entage ofthifquantityof water. ueed for ..... atering as that tor the, monthly rainfall that fell sbortot theaveragli rainfall.

ITEM

57.07 MOW!NG THE GRASS:

UNIT HECTARE (ha)

The unifof measurement shallr.be the hecla-A measured each time when the grass has been cut on

the instrtlctions of the Engineer; ,

The bid rate shall include ,fuJi compensation for a II plant, equipm entand.lscci», i'equired' for every cutting of the grass ;and dispoSin g ofthe· grass cultings, ie payment. will be made every time the grass has been cut on the', instructlona of the Engineer,

!ill!

57.08 ANTI-EROSION

COMPOUND {SPECII'V)

Y.!ill:

KllOGRAMME' • (k(J)

Thaunit of measurement shaUbe the kilogrilm net mass of anti-erosion compoundusedwith the approval of the Engineer.

The bid ,rate" for each.', kilOgram' • ,of ,anti.erosion compound applied,' with the ' hydroseeding • Of by, itself shall include full compensation ". for furnishing", the rnatertal and mixing and applying It durl,rlghydroseedlng or by itself.

US!

57.05· WATl!RlNGTHEGRASSWIIEN

ESTABLISHED, BY TCPSOILING ONl..Y;

.l!!!!! KJLDIJTR:E (kl)

!m!,

57.09 TREES AND SHRUBS: {a) PROVID:NGTHETREESAND

SHRUBS (TYPES!NDICATEO)

NUMaER(noj

The unit et.measerement for watering areaswhichhavo beentopsoued on, me mstrucuonor the EnglneerlJul which . have not been hydroseeded or planted. with grass,' shall be, the .kilolitre of water . applied On the, instructions " of·, the ,Engineer. andcaldulated fremilie numh~rof tank loadsapplirnlc multipliAd by the capacity of the tank used in each case.

Unit of measurementshah be titenumber of each species or varietyoftree and shrub furnished and established.

The bidnaleshaH include . full compensation for furnishing the plants atthepolnto! final use including siJbstltutes.for plantswhjch may become ' diseased or die. '

The bid rate ,Shall include full compensation ; for procuring, transporting and applying the water as specified.

(b) PLANTING AND ESTABLISHING: (i) TREES

(li)SHRUDS

NUMBER (no) NUMBER (no)

Am!

57.06 WflTERINGTHEALRSADY

PLANTED GRASS,' TREES AND SHRUBS Pl.ANTED OU RINGJ'ERIOOS OF DROUGHT lEXf'ERrENCEO DURING THE GROWING SEASON:

UNrr Kll.OUmE (kl) ,

Theul'iit of measurement sha!1 be the number of each type; planted and established.

The bid rates", shall, inClude fulicompimsation' for excavating .the holes ,to thespeoified • dimensions, furnishing. lopsoil,woodenstakes crushed stone. manure andcompost and mixing thoO"\tr;>gether with any fertiliser required for plantinll and refillingeacb hole with the .topsoil mixture and other soil, for watering the plants· until the. end of the defe6tsliabililyperiod, fUrnishing' andplantino substitutes .for piantsthat have died and for maintaining the plants, as specified until the, end of the defects,tiabilily penod.. including any . other incidentalS which may be,necessaiy ,for properly executingilie work Where the Ernpl()yer furnishes the plants,' me anove rates- snail aiso InclUde 1'lJjl compensation fortakihg delivery. of the plants, maintaining them as required, transporting them to paint of final' use, ' and . for 'providing subStitutes, for pJanls which dle;or bAcomAdisaasAdduring ~tnl"l'l!lf!l'

The .unit of measurement (orwall3ling the grass,. trees 81ldshrubs shall be ti1ekllolitrc of water used.:

The bid ratsshallim:lude full compensation for obtaining. transporting and applying the water,

The<Contractershalikeepacareful record of the quantity of water, used by mm for watenng me grass, trees and shrubs,. planted and shall submit such inronnation to the Engineer on a dally basis. When there .ara ;titnesduring the normal growing season; as "pecified .Jn: the SpeCial 'Specification$, when th~

PAGE 5000·31

,SERIES 5000: ANCILLARY ROADWORKS

SECTION 5800: FINISHING THE ROAD AND ROAD RESERVE AND TREATINC.OLDROADS

·CONTENTS:

CLAUSE.

PAGS

5801 SCOPE

5802 FINISHINGTHEROAbAND ROAD RESERVE

5803 TREATING Ol.D ROADS

5804 MEASUREMENT ANDPi\YMENT

5000-33 5000·33 5000-33 5000-33

5801 SCOPE

This secucoccvers the final finishing and deaningup of theroadandroad 'reserve aftor construction, and scarifying. and .trcaUng old.· roads.andtompora!)i diversions, .

The Contractor shallnolc that this Soction docs not cever the finishing which has lobe dono. under SECTIONS 3 tOO, 3400,. 3600 and SC::CTION 5700.

5802 FINISHING THE ROAD AND ROAD RESERVE

Aller complAlinofha saal or surfacing. or gravel surface on gravel roads, the mad and road reserve·shall be cleared of all excess earth; stones, boulders, debris' and other waste material resulting from the construction of the Works and disposed ih an approved waste site, AI! finishing and clearing (lot previously done or COmpleted in accordance with lhe' Sections listed in CLIIUSE. 5801 above shall be completed. This.specil1catlon,hbWevcr, does not intend thClfinishing, dearing and maintenance which must .ba dona as provided for in other Sadions of these Specifications, to be posiponed. lintil '1he ·final finishing operations provided for in this Section.

Culvert inlets and • outlets, culvert barrels, and open drains shall boclearodof . all dobris; soil, silt and other material. The surfacing shall be cleared of all dirt, mud and foreignobjocts, Dragging, pushing or scraping material across tho finished surracing shall nat be

permitted, . .

NI junCtions, . intelSections,' islands; korbing and other olemeotsmaking 'lip, the completed. Works.· shall bo neatly finished off,

The COntractor shall ensure . that, all declared noxious .weeds have been removed from the. road-reserve.end borrow-pltareas, All noxious woeds shall. bebumt to preventthe: spread: of tho seed and cut slumps or coppice shall be sprayed with asuitablo herbicide.

All soil, stones, bouldersend indigonous plantmateriat (<!'SuJting fr6m1hofinlshin(l ofICmtinn~ shallbe disposed of at lecaticnsnotvtsiblo from the road, !;Indwherothcy will. not pollute water sources. orcroetca hazard for livCSiock orwildlifc(c.g.·oId bOm:)wpits),AII other waste suches drums, cxccssstccl..nttcr, ctcwhich cannot bo sold or recycled shall. bO dumped In an nppravC<l waste site. Tho Contractor himsclf shall mako his o~ arrangements. with the Owners of properties on which such '. materials are to bedeposited .• DisposalshaU be corned out intI noat and unifom) mannor .. MY borrow pits used for material disposal shall bofinishedoff as described ·.lnCLAUSE 3406. Any other aroas. used for material disposal shall beshaped so as to blend with the surrounding. area and to permit tho rc.cstablishment

of vegetation. Should the Engineer require landscaping ane grassing to beperfonned, it shall. be done in accordance with S!;CTIQN 570.0..

·5803 .' TREATING OLD ROADS

· All . old roads, . temporary diversions, haul roads and construction roads, shalt in so far as Is practicable, be leVelled with· the .0riginaJ· .ground. Surfaces. shall be scarified and broken up to. a depth cf 150 rnrn for

· prol1'lOting plant growth; The old roads: shall be rehabilitated as Shown in the Drawings oras directed by

· the· Engineer and snanbe revegel.aled· in acccrdance with SECTION 5700,

· Where required by the Engineer, in order-to prevent soil erosion, banks,' dykes "Or ditches shall be constructed over the old road to dimensions ordered by the Engineer, Allroads:and temporary diversionstrealedas above, shall be left in aneat and tidy state. .

5804 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

fIN ISH INGTHE ROAD AN[)

ROAD RESERVE:

(a) DUAL CARRIAGEWN( ROAD (b) .. SINGLE CARJ~IA.GEWAY ROAD

KILOMETRE (km) KILOMETRE (krn)

The unit of measurement shall be the kilomefra of road

· measured along the centre line. No separate measurement shaH be made of ramps at interchanges.

The bid rates shall include full compensation for clearing~trimming. disposing of material, tidylngand all other work to be done for finishing off· the road. and road reserve as specified,

· Any .landscapinq and. grassing. shall he • measured and paid for under SECTION 5700.

ITEM

58.02 TREIITMENT OFOl.D ROADS

AND TEMPORARY DIVERSIONS

UNIT KILOMETRE (km)

Tho unit of measurement shall. bo the kilometre of old road.or temporary diversion treated.

MY Jandscapingand grassing shall bomeasured and paid for under SEcTION 5700.

The censtructlon of banks, ,. dykes or ditches shall . be measured alld'paid for under SeCTION 2100.

The bid rate sh allinciudofuH compensatioriJor levelling and scarifying any surfaces and tidVing old roads' and diversions as specified •.

No payment will be made in regard to. treating haul roads and. construction roads,'. for which the COntractor shall makc.allowancc in fils rates for. constructing ·lhe rotevant items,' of WOI1< ror Which such roads are necessary.

PAGE 5IlDO - 33

. $ERIes sooo- ANCILLIARY RQAilDWORKS .

acceptable method so. as to render the 'requiredcoating of paint.

done at the fabricator's. works but. where this. is not feasitile.1he Engineer may pennit the application of the flnlStllng coats. on the site. In WhICh case. an undercoat shall be applied at the fabricator's works. prior to the members being despatched to the Works.

If spray methods are used. the operator shall be thoroughly exp.erie:lcsd.· Runs, sags,' thin, areas in, the paint coat, skips. or where air bubbles have formed or the paint has delaminated. Shall be considered as being

. unsatiSfactory; . and ·Ihe Contractor wilt 'be required .to repaint the surface by brush.

. A walerlrap·and anair-regulating valve acceptable to . the Engineer.llhall be furni:.hed "",I.' installed all the

equipment used for spray-painting, .

Unless .olhe/WL~" "f'ACifoF'!d. til" 'Iltot"ction. described ·in SUBCLAUSES 5907(c), (d}and (a) shalf be.appljeoto aU . steelwork. Corrosion protection of steeliNorkexposed to aggressive or severe .condltions shall COmply wilh the requirements of the Special Specifications,

(b) Surface preparation

Mechanical mixersshafl be used for mixing . paint property when no ready-mixed paints are used. Prior to application, ·the . paint Shall be remixed for' a • sufficient lel19th of time to mix the pigment. and vehicle thoroughly. Paint shall. be constantly kept well stirred to keep the pigments in suspension during its application,

• AU "kin:, in th" paint .~hall be rernoveuu y screeulnq. If it cannot be removed effectively. the. paint andpaintwork already compteted may be condemned. at the discretion ofille Engineer,

Paintsna'lnot be applied when the temperature. of the surface tobe painted· is not at least 3JCaoove' 'dew point or when Ihetem perature of the steel is. below SoC 'Or above3SoC, unleSsolhelWise. prescribed by the ·Engilleer.

Paint shaJlriot be' applied infeg or mist. when it is r;;.lningor when rain is expected. or when the relative humidity is above 90%.

(iJNew structures

After all cutting . drilling; welding and punching have been completed, it shall be ascertained that all sharp edges. have been uniformly rounded off and smoothed down, All phYSically adhering eomanunamsehattba removed and the surface ·shall then be abrasive-blasted to Sa 2% finish in accordance· with Ihe Swedish' Standard SIS 05/59/DO . or . equlvatent. The proMe· limit of. the surfaCQ fil'l;sh shall bo between 30 I'fIl<l."d6D].lm. The abraslve-btastinq profile shall bemeasured in accordance. with. SABS . Method· 772 or equivalent and shslleomply with SASS Code of Practice 064 or equivalent.

No. abrasive-blastinq snanbe done during. rainy weatheror when corrosive air conoltions prevail.

5905 PROTECTING THE WORKS DURING PAINTING OPERATIONS

The. Contractor shall. protect . all·· paris of· the. structure agalnstdisliguremunt by spatters, splashes' andlor smircbesof paint or of paint materials. The Contractor shall be responsible for any' damage' to or paint on or contamination 10 vehicles. persons or . oroperty, inCluding. 'plants. ana arumals, as .a resun 01 his operations. anohe will be required 10 provide protective measures at his owncost toprevent such damage.'

Unless tho applJo ... tion of. <l primer ·follows within four hours of abrasive blastirigand before.anyoxidafion of the prepared surtacetakes place, the abrasiveblasted surface ,shall·' snmediately aflerabrssive blasting be given one coat ora wash primer,

(ii) Existing structures

The 'surface preparation of existing structures shah be carried out on 'site in accordance wilh .SABS 064 or oquivol<:nl.

Any· um:i::;hlly ·pgint stains shall be' mmoVQd by tho Contractor al his own cost.

(c) Primer

The prepared surface shall be. given two coals of a zincchromate primer in accordance with SABS679: Type 1. Gradel! or equivalent. The first coat shall be apPlied within 12 hours in the case of wash.;prinied surfaces and .withiri four hours, • but. before. any oxidation of .the sunace takes place. in the case ofabrasive-blasted 3urfa~3.that have not been wash-f'flmw.· A fast-l.1rying zinc chromate inaccoroance wilh SABS679.Type If; Grade II or.equivaleot,may be used as primer, In all cases the dry-film Ihickness·.shall notbeless than 30 urn oer coat.

If passing trafficcroates sulficient dust to harrnor spoil the appearance of . painted surfaces. the·' Contractor SMIt :spnnkle tile adiacentroacs and. shoulders with water at his own cost, 'for asufflclent distance on each ·sideof the location whore Ihepainting is being dona. to keep ,the dust away from freiihlypainteClsurfaces,The Contractor' shall· at .his:. own cost, also. fumich andpcct DRIVIiSLOWLYsigns. and. take olher'necessary precautionsto prevent dust. and dirt from .adhering onto freshly painted surfaces.

WhensteeJ has 10 be welded after the pnmer. has been applie<l. the steelshau belef! unpainted for a distance of75 mm from the weld joint unless a weldable type of paint. has been used .. The· welds shaUbe .treated in accordance with the .instructionsof CLAUSES 5903 and 5S07.

5906PREPARINGSURFACESFORPAlNnNG Before paint ·is .appliad to any surface. the appropriate. s.P9Cifiedsutface· preparation' shall -bacamed out in accordance with the paint manufacturers ~mfn·~n·dal~Qn::;.

(a) General

This Section inciudesthe painting ·ofsteeJ guard rail· posts. steel road sign supports and steel. sign face frames. where required.

(d) Undercoat

Where the~J'lishiflg coats are to be.applied on the.site, the' primed' surfaces . shall. be' given one coaiof a universal undercoat ' .: with .. a .. suitable'coIouT in the fabricator's shop before despatch. The undercoat shall be appued as soon as tile pnmecoat has'dlied sufflcienlly. The dry-film thickness silallnot be Jesslhan 25iJm"

5907 PAINTING STRUCTURAlSTEEL

The. surface preparation. priming and application of an undercoat shall be carried out uTidercover at the fabricator's works. Where' Possible, all painting shaff· be

( .. ) FInishing ".,at

Twolinishing coats of high-<Jloss structural pain1(SABS 684, Type AOT equivalent) of the speCified COlour shaU be applied to leave a dry-film thickness of not.less than 25 um per coat.

SERlI!S!lOGO •• ANcIU.IARY Ro.v:lOlllORKS

Where the finishing coats; are applied on the.site, the undercoat shall be . lightly • sanded; and the members wasnea . ano creaneu. of all <;ontllm;nanb. Th~ fil'$t flnishirigcoat shall be applied as soon as thestruclUral members are dry.

Where specified in the Special S~ifications, the secondfiriishingGOa\ shall consist of a micaceous ironor~igmente1:lstructuraj paint of the specified colour to a .' dry-film thickness of not less than· 30).tin.tJnless otherwisespecified,thesecondfinishing coat shaH be applied within 48. nours Of; tne appncanon • of tha flrst finishing coat.

The dry-film thickness of the total paint system shall no! be less than 110j.Ull when noundereoat tsused and not lass than 135 j.UTI when an undercoat ls.used, Where ihe second finishing coat is an iron-ore. pigmented paint, these thicknesses shan ··be .increased by5~m~

(f) Matilig surfaces

When malingsurfaces are brought together, both surfaces shall already have been covered with an the speclfledcoata Of paint; hut, where t~is ie il11poGeibls, each·surfaceshall be given a copious c6atingof primer and thesurfacesdr .. wn up while the paint is still wet.:

{g) . Back·to·back m&mberSand areasnet easily

acceuible

Back-to-back members and ereasnot easily accessible shall.be fully coaled With all the specified coats of paint up 10 and including the finishing coats before erection.

(h). Damaged areas

Damaged areas shall be treated as • follows:

Sand down to brightmelaland clean. Spot prime with two coats and sand. down lightly when. hard.. Rinse off with water and allow·lo dry. Apply two finishing coats.

(i) Structural steel to be embedded below.ground

., nose parts or atrueturat-steel members to be embedded insoil and all bases 10 a height of 500 rnm. shall be given two coats of an epoxy-tar prime Instead of the zmc-cbromate pOOle specified for ethersurfeces.

5908· • PAINTING GUARORAILS

(a) General

This Section covers lhe painting .of guardrails,should. it be prescribed. The painting· of .steel guardrail posts is covered in SUBCLAUSE 5907 and the treatm entoftimber guardrail posts is covered in.$uBCLAUSE52Q2 (b).

(b). Surface preparation and priming

All dirt, loose m~t scale and loose corrosionproc!ucls shall be removed by hand or power tools and all rust and mill scale by pickling, after which the surface shall berinsed,A neutralising 'nnseshall also be applied, or the surface shall be phosphated.

(clPrlmlng

Apply.ooo Coals or <.:inc.chromate primer to Q ;a'y.film thickness of netless than 20 jim per coat.

After the· prime coats . have hardened, theguara ·.'3ils maybe transpnrted to the site.

(d) Storage on the site

The primed' guardrails shall; be . stored off lhe ground undercover and. protected. against rain and. weather until erection. GuardrailS snail be5tallt;ed individually and not nested 'so as to prevent . corrosion during storage. The finishing .coatsshall be applied as soon as possible and the. primed .surtaces shall; not. be allowed

. to corrode .35 • a .. result of. prolonged· exposure . 10 • the weather. Any. guardrails showing • signs of rust before the applir.:.tion ·of the finishing coats shall be. rubbed down .withsteel wool or fine sandpaper until all rust Is removed; . and. it. shall. then be recoated with· a zinc. chromate primer.

te) FiniShing

Before the first finishing coat Is. applied, the guardrails shall be thOroughly washed down to remove all traces ofsa!t and/or other air..iJOme corrosive materials and all dirt or other contarnmants.

As soon as the rinsed guard rails are dry, a finishing coat of aluminium paint in accordance with SABS802 or equivalent or a whitahigh-gIO$s enamel in accon:lance . with ·SABS· 684 or. el:luiv8lenl shall be applied to adry-filmthlckness ofnollessthan25 um, Within' 48. hour$tI'Iis shaUbe'followedbya second coat as <lescribed before.

The guard rails shall preferably be.given both finishing coats before erection, but, where lhisisimpossibJe, the Engineer maypennit the finishing· coats to . be. applied after the guard rails have been ereci:ed,pl'Ovidedihat all mating$urfaces and spots. which are not easily accessibleshaJl . be. painted with. the finishing .. coats beroretheguard rallsmaybe erected.

The tou.! dry-filmthiekno$S of all coate of ths paint shall not be.less.than90'J.L!TI.·AlIdamaged·spots.shall be treated as specified in SUBCLAUSE 5907{h).

5909 PAINTING CONCRETE

(a) Surface preparation

The. surface .ofthe . concrete to .. be painted shall be cleaned of all dust, loose partlcles,lailance;impurities and other . deleteriOUS materials, and . then washed, and allowed to dry.'

Unl~s the Gurfooe is to· be cOvered. With abituminl'lus, paint, all cracks,holes and. caVities Shall be filled with grout or an acrylicfiUer.

(b) . Sealmgand. priming

The surface shall beseali3d with an· approved Clear sealerwhich;cOlllplies.wilh OKS 564 orequiv81entand Ihen primed with a primer consisting of an undercoat diluted to 50%.

(c) . .lJndercoatand finishing

Anundercoatshall be applied after priming, followed by two finishing coats of the prEl$Cfibed paint.

(d) Bituminous paint

The surfaceshallba prepared in accordailcewiththe requiremenlsof.SuBCLAUSe 5909(a). 8efore il dries out, a primer shall be applied in accordance. with 'the instruction!i'of ille fabricator of the bituminous painl

After the primer has been applied, two coats of bituminoos paint shall. be applied a! the rate of 0.75 litre/m~coal. No paint coat shall be applied unless the previous coat has dried out completely, and no paint shall be applied 10 the paintwork .(0(50 long as any moisture oecurs on the surface.

5910 PAINTINGGALVANISED SURFACES GaMmlse<l surtaoes shall be painted as specified in this Section for steel surfaces, except that the Suiface preparation Bnd priming shaU be as follows:

(a) ·Slirfa(:iI preparati on

Freshly galvanised surfaces shall be thoroughly scrubbed down with an approved • galvanised-iron

P~5000.36

ST"'""ARP SPSCIFICATIONS fOR ROAD WORKS"2000

. $=10$.5000 - ANCIL.UARVROADDWO .... "

cleaner to remove . all traces of the resin protective coating ..

The surface shall be washed down and scrubbed .10 remove all traces of grease, oil, dirt, etc.

(bY Prirning

Two c oall;icr"'''''o;;ium~plumbate. primer sllall beappJlea to adry-f,lm thickness of. at least 25 !!JT1.

The undercoat shall follow within<:ne week of the primer.

5911 MEASURING PAINT THICKNESSES

The dry~filn'I tn lckness . of. paint shall be determined in accordance with SASS· Method 141 or equivalent.

At least 90% .of aU thickness measurements shall comply with the minimum' specifiedrequlrements, The thickness shall not inany.case be less than 70% of the

specmed thicKness; .. .

5912 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

.!!§M

59.01 PflINTING: (a) (DESCRHlE

STRUCTURE/ARTICLE)

(b) ,DESCRIBE STRUCTURE/ARTiCLE)

(e) (DESCRIBE STRUCTURE/ARTICLE)

(d) {DESCRIBE STRUCTURE/ARTICLE)

. SQUARE METRE

(m') .

NUMllER(no)

METRE(m)

TONNE(t)

The unit otmeasurement snail be the .square metre of surface painted. Only the. surface covered by theftna; finishing coatshall be. measured.

The uniloF measurement may also be .the number of structures orartlclespaintcd.vora metro lengl~ oftho structure s-or articles painted,. or a tonne 01 thc structures or articles painted, .. the quantities are

• calculated as speoifllZld in ITEMG7.01. .

The bid rates shall includl!fQII compensation for surface preparation i applying all the coats of paint, repairing arty damaged 'surfsCes, and all materials and construction plant r.ecessaryfor.completing the work.

THe UIliTEDREPoSLlC OF T MIlANI-'. MIIlISTJr( OF WORKS

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD WORKS-2()OO

SERIES 6000 • STRUCTURES

SERIES 6000

STRUCTURES

SECTION

PAGE

6100 6200

FOUNDATIONS FOR SmUCTURES FALSEWORK, FORMWORK ANO CONCRETE FINISH

STEEL REINFORCEMENTS FOR STRUCTURES

CONCRETE FOR l'lTnLICTlJRI"!':

PRESTRESSING

No-FINES CONCRETE, JOINTS, [3EARINGS, [30L T GROUPS FOR ELECTRIFICATION, PARAPETS AND DRAINAGE FOR STRUCTURES STRUCTURAL STEELWORK CONSTRUCTION TOLERANCES FOR STRUCTURES

6DO()"2 6000·20 600Q·27 6000.30 6000-38

6300

6.:100 6500 6600

6700 6800

6000-48 6000-59

6000-63

CONTENTS OF TilE STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD WORKS 2000:

-"t.

ACKNOWLEDGeMENTS CROSSECTION TERMINOLOGY

SeRIES 1000 GENERAL

SERIES 2000 DRAINAGE

ecmca :;000 r!IIRTIIWOR/{S liND {'II VCMENT LA '(ERS OF ORl1VJ;1. OR CRUSI fED STONE

SERIES 4000 BITUMINOUS LA YERS AND SEALS

SERIES 5000 ANCiLLARY ROADWORKS

SERIES 6000 STRUCTURES

SEn/ES 7000 TOL5RANCES; Tr:.STlNcANfjQUALlTY CONmoL

ApPENDICES

TIlE UNIT"" Rr:rUBUC Of' TANZM<Ir.., M,NISTRY OF WOf<KS

PAGE 6000 -1

STANDARD SPECIFICA-"ION"S FOR ROADWQRK~ 2000

SERIES 6000: STRUCTURES

Si:RiES SOnG _ STRUCTURES

SECTION 6100: FOUNDATIONS FOR STRUCTURES

CONTENTS:

CLAUSE

PAGE

6101 SCOPE 6102 MATERIALS 6103 GENERAL

6104 ACCESS AND DRAINAGE 6105 EXCAVATION

6106 FOUNDING

6107 UTILISATION OF EXCAVATED MATERIAL 6108 t'3ACKFILL AND FILL NEAR STRUCTURES 6109 FOUNDATION FILL

611 OGRO\!TING OF ROCK FISSIIRFS 6111 FOUNDATION bOWELS

6112 FOUNDATION liNING

6113 FOUNDATION PILING

6114 CAISSONS

6115 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

6000-2 6000-2 5000-2 6000-3 6000-3 6000-4 6000-4 6000-4 6000-5 6000-5 6000-5 6000-5 6000-6

6000-11 5000-13

6101 SCOPE

This Section covers all foundation work which, for tho purposes of these Specifications, shall compriso those clements of construction below the level of the bottom curface of the footing", tho pite-capping slabs or the caisson cover slabs, collectively hereinafter referred to as base or bases, which shall include all the associated temporary works. Foundations for prefabricated culverts arc not included but are specified in SECTION 2200.

6102 MATERIALS

(a) General

Material used in the permanent foundation work shall comply with the requirements specified for the particular material in SERIES 6000.

(b) Rock (for rock fill)

Stones shall be hard, angular, natural or quarry stones of such quality that they will not disintegrate on exposure to water or weathering. The stones, shall be free from soil, clay or organic material. NClther tho breadth nor thickness of a, single stono .shall be less Ihan one-third its length. Not more than 10% of the total volume of rock fill shall consist of stones with a mass of tess than O.G times the epeciflcd rncec and not moro than 10% of the total volume of rock fill shall consist of stones with a mass of more than 5 times tho specified mass. AI least 50% of the total volume of rock fill shall consist of, stones the mass of which exceeds tho specified mass.

(c) Crushed stone ".,' .:

Crushed stone used for the construction of crushedstone fill shall onginate from sound unweathered rod, approved by the Engineer.

(d) Granularfill, .'

Granular motorial used for constructing ,!hl'! compacted granular fill shall be approved granular material of at least gravel subbase quality.

{e) Sand fill ,. ,',

Sand used for filling the caissons shall bo clean, hard' sand free from lumps of clay or organic or other deleterious matter.

THE UNITEO REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF WORKS

(f) Structural stee!

Steel in the stee! piles shall eomply with the raquirernente of BS 4360 or SASS 1431 or equivalent. BS EN 10113 and BSEN 10155 for the grade of sleel specified on the Drawings. I and H sections shall comply with the requirements of BS 4:Part 1.

Fabricated Sections shall comply with the details shown on the Drawings and the requirements of SECTION 6700.

(g) Permanent pilc casing"

Permanent pile casings shall be sufficiently rigid so as not to deform permanently or damage during handling and construction. The casings shall be sufficiently dense to prevent the fluid components of the concrete from leaking during the placing of the concrete or thereafter. Where steel casings contribute to the strength of the pile, the casings shall have' a minimum wall thickness of 4.5 mm and shall comply with the requirements of ASTM A 252-68. Welded juifll::i "hall comply with the requirements of SECTION 6700.

(h) Driven pile casings

Driven pilo casings shan havI'ls"ffir.ir-mt strength to permit their being driven and net being distorted by the driving of adjacent piles, and they shall be sufficiently watertight to prevent water leaking through the casing walls during the placing of concrete.

(i) Grouting

(i) Cement grout

Cement grout shall meet the appropriate requirements of SUI3CLAUSE 6503(g).

(ii) Proprietary-brand grout

Proprietary-brand grout shall be prepared and used strictly in accordance with the instructions of the manufacturer.

6103 GENERAL

(a) Subsurface data

The provieione of CLAUCC 1216 oholl opplY,in regard to any information supplied regarding any subsurface conditions likely to be encountered.

If it is found during the course of excavating, foundingpile or caisson wO.rk that the soil or founding conditions differ greatly from those shown on the Drawings, the Contractor shall immediately notify the Engineer.

The Engineer shall, as often as he may deem necessary during the course of excavation, be entitled to call on the Contractor to conduct additional foundation investigations and/or tests at or below the respective founding levels in view of establishing safe bearing pressures and founding depths.

(b) Channel preservation

The flow of the stream and the conservation of marine and freshwater llto shall be maintained at all times. Access to cofferdams, artificial islands and piling platforms shall· be effected without. unnecess~rily disrupting the flow of the stream at the pomt of crossing, unlese othorwlce specified.

Precautions shall be taken by the Contractor to maintain watorquality standards. Water contaminated

with silt shall be settled in ponds before being pumped into streams. Water contaminated with chemicals shall be purified before being returned to the stream or disposed of in an appropriate manner as directed by the Engineer, Precautions shall be taken by the Contractor to ensure that the natural pi I, electrical conductivity and

PAGE 6000 - 2

STANDAl1D SPECifiCATIONS FOR ROADWD:.::RK_::S:_:-2:::_OOO::.:_ ------------:::SE:=R~IE::S~6~a~O~O_:-_:S~T~"~U~CT~I~U.=""::

other indicators as prescribed of the water are not raised or lowered.

Excavations beyond the 5 m limit shall be measured and paid for under the appropriate Items of SECTIONS 2100 and 3600.

On completion of the work, surplus excavated materials including materials excavated from caisson compartments and holes for piles, materials used in cofferdams and other temporary works, as well as insitu motorial, shall be removed and disposed of by the Contractor to the level of the original bed or such elevation as agreed 10 by the Engineer or required for stream channelisation.

(bJ Surface levels agreed on for excavations

Prior to commencing with any excavation, the Contractor shall notify the Engineer in good time to ensure that levels be taken Of the undisturbed ground surface for determining the ground surface from where the excavation can be measured, and this ground surface shall be agreed on by the Engineer and the C:onfr8clor.

6104 ACCESS AND DRAINAGE

(a) General

This Clause covers the provision of access, Including the construction of cofferdams. and draining the excavations. Where it is unnecessary to provide access in terms of SUBCLAUSE 6104(b), the Contractor shall be paid ccparatcly for dreining the excevetions.

(0) Excavation

Where in the opinion of the Engineer the casting of concrete against the excavated earth faces is not permissible, or where formwork has to be provided, the extremities of the excavation, for purposes of measurement and payment, shall be deemed to be the vertical planes paralle! to and 0.5 m outside the partmotor of the member for which formwork is 10 be provided.

After completion of the permanent works, all temporary works shall be completely removed, tho ground levelled and the site left neat. Where this is impracticable. such portions as have not. been removed, shall be dealt with in accordance with the Engineer's instructions.

Where suitable, stable material is encountered during excavating, that part of the trench or foundation pit shall be excavated to the neal dimensions of the base unless otherwise directed by the Engineer. Over-excavation (overbrook) in hard material shall be backfilled with the same class of concreto as that in the base or with mass concrete fill lOS 5"n"c;ir1eu or as directed by the Engineer,

(b) Access

Where temporary banks or artificial ISlands are constructed in view of affording access to the location where structural members. piles or caissons are to be constructed, the banks or islands shall be adequately compac:tAri in ViAW of s~lppor!ina any plant and material without any undue settling which mayhave a harmful effect on the end product.

Where blasting is required, the Contractor shall complete the entire foundation excavation before he commences with th" construction of anI' petm"",mt concreto work, unless otherwise approved by the Engineer.

The Contractor may use any material deemed by him to be suitable for constructing the islands. but no separate payment will be made fer any obstructions, hard or unsuitable material occurrinq in the material used for constructing temporary banks qrartifici~1 i.slands.

Designing and constructing any cofferdams shall comply with the requirements cif OS 8004. Before starting with construction, the Contractor shall submit dr;lwings to the Engineer, which show details of the

cofferdams and the method of ~onstructiO!'l..·· .

(c) Drainage

The Contractor shall apply SUitable, effective drainage methods for preventing 111\0; iIl9"'''''' of water Into

excavations and to keep thorn dry. .

The drainage measures, with tho exception of pumping, shan be maintained un!.i! tho b"'''kfillino bas beon completed. Between the various construction staqes pumping may be interrupted in consultation with the Engineer.

Boulders, logs or any other unsuitable material excavated shan be spoiled.

When hard material suitable for founding is encountered at lhe founding level, it shali be cut and trimmed to '" firm surface, either level, "topped or serrated, as may be required.

Where, in the opinion of the Engineer, unsuitable material is encountered at feunding level, such material shall be removed and replaced with foundation fi!! in accordance with CLAUSE 6109 and as directed by the

Engineer. .

(d) ChlS,.;ne"ti"", of excavated material

For payment purposes distinctlon shall be made between common excavation in soft material and rock excavation. All excavation for the foundations of structures shall be classified in accordancA with fhA CLAUSE 3603, Which definitions are summarised as follows:

Anydraining or pumping of water Shall be done in a manner that will preclude the concrete or materials or any part thereof from being carried away.

(i) Rock excavation:

Rock excavation shan be excavation in material which requires drilling and blasting or the use of hydraulic or pneumatic jackhammers to be loosened and to be loaded for transportation.

(ii) Common excavation:

Common excavation shall be excavation in all material other than rock as defined above.

6105 EXCAVATION

(a) General

This work "'h",11 in"'"rlC! " .. cav~:;on::: not provided for elsewhere in those Specifications, which are required for founding the structures as well as fer the excavating required in respect of the demolition, extension or modification of existing bridges and culverts. .

Excavation required for divq,ting, channelling or widening streams within 5 m of concrete structures shall be measured and paid for under ITEM (l1.02.

(e) !3lasting

Whero blasting is permitted, it shall be carried out in accordance with the requirements of CLAUSE 1222.

(f) OatcY;er".tion of foundation """"V"t;o"S

Whem soft material, or hard material which quickly deteriorates when exposed, is found at foundation level, the excavation shall be excavated to the final slope and 10'1101 immediately before the screed is placed.

THE UNITED REPUllUC o,,'T ANZANIA. M,NISTRY OF WORKS

PAGESOOO - 3

STANDARD SPE=CIFICATIONS FOR ROAD WORKS-2000

SERIES 6GOO - STRUCTURES

Where the bottoms or sides of excavations, in which bases are to be cast, are softened on account of negligence on the part of the Contractor in allowing storm or other water to enter the excavations, the softened material shall be removed and replaced with foundation fill as directed by the Engineer, at the Contractor's expense.

(g) The safety of excavations

The Contractor shall take the necessary precautions to safeguard the stability and safety of the excavations and adjacent structures.

The personal safety of no person shall bo jeopardised neither shall any situation be allowed to ariso which may result in damage of whatsoever nature.

Precautionary measures taken. by tho Contractor shall comply with the appropriate legal provisions.

(11) Inspection

No eon crete shall be placed before the excavation has been properly cleaned by (he Contractor and inspected and approved by the Engineer.

(il Excavation by hand

Where circumstances prevent. tho use of mechanical excavators and material can be removed only by hand lmplorncrus, t!le Engineer shall authorise the supplementary payment to the Contractor for SUCh worn at the bid rates for excavatlon by hard should he be salisfledtha:t the Contractor had been unable to prevent the necessity for excavation by hand by proper planning :lnu precautionary rnoa suros , Tho supplementary mIn for excavatio» by handshall not apply to minor finishing or clearing jobs in excavations which are otherwise being done by mass excavation plant.

6106 FOUNDING

In consequence of possible variations of the antlclpated founding conditions, tho dimensions and founding levels specified or shown on the Drawings may have to be varlod during construction.

The Engineer has full and absolute power to order such variations and to specify the actual founding level for ceoh foundotion fill, base or caiascn during construction.

The Contractor shall not be entitled to any additional payment in consequence of any such variation in tho dimensions or founding depths over and above that provided tor in CLAUSE 6115, irrespectivo of tho stage of construction at which tho instruction to alter the dimensions or founding depths is given. However, jf in consequence of such order to alter tho Contractor is compelled to substitute other machines and equipment for machines and . equipment for successfully completing the work: the Engineer may reimburse the Contractor at a fair price fer incidentals incurred, provided that the original machines and equipment had been suitable for tho work required prior to the order to

alter having been issued.· . ..

No bases, caissons or piles shall ue rounocu unless authorised by the Engineer. Each founding level shall be accurately measured and recorded and aqrccd on. The term "Ioundlnqlcve]' used in these Spccmcalio~s shall bc xfoornod 10 have tho ·fQl!.owing meanino" rn respect Of:

(i) Foundation fill

The surface of the in situ matorlal that has been prepared to receive foundallon !ill.

(ii) Oases. .

The underside of the base.

(iii) Piles

The underside of the underream, bulbous base or rock socket; the tip of the pile shoe or lower pile end, as may be relevant.

(iv) Caissons

The underside of the cutting edge.

6107 UTILISATION OF EXCAVATED MATERIAL Excavated material and material recovered from temporary works shall, if suitable, be utilised for backfill. Material uneuitablc for Usc 00 backfill or in oxccec of the required quantity, shall be spoiled or utilised as directed by the Engineer.

Excavated material no! used for backfill or not taken to spoil but used in the construction of embankments or other parts of the work, as directed by the Engineer, will be paid for under foundation excavation as well as under the relevant item for ihe purpose for which it is used.

The froo haul distance on excavated material and imported material for backfill shall be t.okm.

Excavated and stockpiled material shall be so dumped as not to endanger the uncompleted structure either by direct pressure or indirectly by overloading the fills contiguous to tho structure, or in any other way.

6108 BACKFILL AND FILL NEAR STRUCTURES

(a) Genera! .

When backfill and fill are placed, tho following precautionary measures shall be taken:

(i) Tho material shall be placed simultaneously, in so far as is possible to approximately the same elevation on both sides of an abutment, pier, or wall where appropriate. If conditions require the backfill or fill to bo placed appreciably higher on one side than on tho other the additional material on the higher side shall not be placed until authorised by the Enginoer, and preferably not until the concrete has been In place for 14 days, UI until tests show that the concrete has attained sufficient strength to safely withstand any pressure extended by the backfill or fill or by the method of construction.

(Ii) The material behind abutments directly restrained at. the top by the superstructure eg portal type of structures, shall be placed . as shown on the Drawings or as directed by the Engineer.

(iii) The material behind the portal walls of portal structures shall not be placed until the top slab has been placed and cured, unless otherwise authorised by the Engineer.

(b) Backfill . .

Excavatod areas around structures shall be backfilled with aoprovcd material in horizontal layers not exceeding 150 mm in thickness after compaction to the level of the original ground surface. Each layer shall be moistened or dried to the optimum moisture content for the material and then compacted to a density of not less than PO % uf OS-Ileavy density for sons and gravcl3, and not less than 100% of OS-Heavy density for cohosionloss sands, or the density of the surrounding soil whichever shall be the less, except that, in the road prism, Iho material shall be compacted to 11 density of not less than 83% of OS-Heavy density.

TilE UNITED R[PunuC OF TANZANIA. MINISTRY OF WooKS

PIIGE600D·4

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD WORKS-2000

SERIES 6000 • STRVCTURES

(c) Fill

Before the space between the structure and the approach fill, or between the structure and the faces of the ourrounding exoavation is backfilled, the elope of the approach fill, or the faces of the excavation shall be shaped by benching Of serrations to prevent wedge action from occurring between the structure and the approach fill or the excavation faces.

The distance between the exposed face of the structure and the toe of the approach fill or the excavation face shall not under any circumstances be !ess than the 11";yh! or uie exposed face of the structure.

(d) Fill within restricted area

That. part of the fill within a horizontal distance of 3 m from the vertical and inclined concrete faces of the structure and that part between the pillars of the spillthrough abutments or that part shown on t~e Drawings, shall be termed ''fill within restricted area".

Fill wltnlil the restricted area shall comply with the requirements of SECTION 3600 except that it shall be compacted to a density of not less than 93% of asHeavy density. In order to achieve the specified density the Contraotor chall, whore nccccaary, import malerial of suitable quality.

Unless otheiwise directed by. the Engineer, only mechanical . compaction equipment that is pushed or drawn by himd shall be used to achieve the required density within a horizontal distance of 3 m from any concrete structure. FiU in spacee belo'tl concrete soffits thai are 'inaccessible former;:h<!nical compaction equipment 511<111 b"'f'um;tluColed by methods specmec or approved by the Engineer.

Payment in accordance with ITEM 61.05 for the construction of fill within resmcted ilreas shall be made only when specifically provided for in the Bill of Quantities.

6109 FOUNDATION FILL . .

If it is found during the course of excavation that the material at the indicated founding depth does not have the required bearing capacity as. specified ,. on . the Drawings, the excavations shall be extended at the discretion of the Enyineer untll satisfactory fOUnding material is encountered. The Engineer may order the Contractor to make up the difference in levels with foundation fill.

Where the foundation. fill consists of rock or crushed stone it shall be constructed in accordance with the requir~mentsof the Special Specifications or as directed by the Engineer. Foundation fill consisting of granUlar material shall be constructed. in layers not exceeding 150mm in thickness after compaction. Each layer shall be moistened or dried to the optimum moisture content for the material and compacted to a density of not lessthan 95%.of p$~Heavy(jensity for soils and gravelf; •. and not less than 100%OScHeavy density for coheslonloss sands. Mass concreto fill to be used shall be of the class or mix of concrete fill as specified or dli--ected by tho Engin.eer.

Unless otherwise specifiedor directed by the e;ngineer, the foundation IiII constructed from rock, crushed stone or compacted granular materia! shall be defined by a prism with vert;""" sides. TII~. base of nl~ pnsrn lies .In the founding plane. and coincides with the base of a prismoid with frapezlum-shaped inclined sides which extend downwards and outwards at an angle of 60u with the horizontal Irorn each outer,odot'! of Ih" IJnrl""'ide of the footing down to the founqing level. The upper plarie of the prism lies in the plane of the underside of tho footing.

A concrete screed which complies with the requirements shown on the Drawings shall be placed underneath all bases except where mass concrete fil! is U5t;U or where autnorrseo tly the Engineer that this need not be done.

Where mass concrete fill is constructed under a base it shall be constructed accurately to the final level" of the underside of the base.

6110 GROUTING OF ROCK FISSURES

Where specified. fissures in the tack below and armmrl the bases shall be sealed by pressure grouting with a neat cement or sand-cement grout or with a proprietary brand grout as specified.

The cement water ratio of the grout shall be approved in advance by the Engineer.

The extent of the fissuring shall be established by mp.an" of water testing under pressure.

Holes of at least 40 mm in diameter shall be drilled at places indicated by the Engineer and grout shall then be pumped into these holes under suitable pressures. c.;routing shall be done in 3 m stages to the maximum depth ordered. Care shall be taken to avoid further fracturing of the rock strata by excessive grouting pressures.

Grouting . of the rock fissures shall be done by specialised operators with adequate experience in this class of work.

6111 FOUNDATION DOVVELS

Where required, foundation dowels of specified material, diameter and length shall be installed at the positions and to the dimensions shown on the Drawings or as directed by the Engineer. After exposing, clearing and trimming the rock formation, holes with specified diameters. and depths shall be drilled in the rock. After the holes have been cleared and prewetted, they shall be ·fillod with grout. Within 15 minutes of having been filled with grout, the dowets shall be carefully driven into the holes. The cement and water in the grout shall be mixed in the ratio of 50kg of cement to 20 litres of water, and an approved expanding additive which complies with the requirements of SUBCLAUSE; 6402(e) shall be added.

The dowe!s shall comply with the requirements of CLAUSE 6305.

6112 FOUNDATION LINING

Where specified or directed by the Engineer, foundation I;nlngo shell be installed as described hereafter. The Engineer shall have the right to order the use of linings against the sides of excavations and the undersides of bases and slabs in lieu of tcrmwork and concrete blinding.

All surfaces. to be lined shall. be covered with an approved sheeting to provide a clean impervious layer. The material shall be of sufficient strength to provide a durable working surface and to support the concrete and reinforcement without tearing. The joints of the material between strips shall have a 150 mm overlap and the lining shall be held firmly in position by nails, pegs, etc:

Polyethylene sheeting with a thickness of 0.150 mrn is generally considered to be adequate for. use below bridge approach slabs and bases.

TilE UNITED REPUBUCOFTAt-IZANIA. MINISTRY OF WORKS·

PAGE 6000 - 5

STANDARD SPECIFICATlONS FOR ROAD WORKS"2000

S"~IES 6000 - STRUCTU~ES

6113 FOUNDATION PILING

pile-capping slab dimensions and reinforcement as a result of the layout of the piles, all as applicable.

(a) Gen .. ral

This Clause covers the construction of bearing piles of concrete or steel or a combination of these materials.

Nu work of whatsoever nature shall bc commenced on the piling until the Drawings have been submitted to and have been approved by the Engineer, in writing.

After approval of the Drawings, no departure therefrom shall be made without authorisation by the Engineer.

(b) Piling layout

The piling layout, the minimum pile size and/or b",,,ning capacity and type together with the steel reinforcement and class of concrete required shall be as detailed and specified on the Drawings unless otherwise specified in the Spedal Spccificotionc.

Final working drawings shall comply with the provisions of CLAUSE 1221.

(c) Alternative designs for piling and piling layouts (i) Submission

The priced Bill of Quantities submitted for alternative designs shall be compiled strictly in accordance with the relevant measurement and payment "",~uses of theae Speciftcati.onc.

Where the alternative piles fail in regard to the load test specified in Subclause 6113(u), the Contractor shall be responsible for the cost of the work required for improving the piles and pile layout so as to comply with the design requirements.

(iii) Basis of payment

. Where the quantities in the Bill of Quantities referred to in SUBCLAUSE 6113(c), on ttie one part, differ from the number of piles and the average pile length given in the aubmiaelon for the alternative pile design, on the other part, the Engineer shall accept the sum in the Bill of Quantities, correct the quantities, and adjust the rates for the applicable pay items accordingly.

Where pay items defined in these Specifications have been omitted, it shall mean either that the item$ do nnt apply. or that where the Engineer requires work falling under such items to be done, it shall be done without any cost to the Employer. The inclusion of 'rate-only" items will not be permitted.

Where pay items not defined in tnese Specifil'aliull5 are used, the measurement and payment requirements for such items shall be specified in detail by the Contractor. In the absence of such definition", or in the cas" of any amhiollity. the interpretation of the Engineer shall be final and

binding. .

(d) Deiails to be furnished by the Contractor

In all cases where the choice of the type of pile to be used is left to the Contractor, full particulars, specifications, calcurauons and drawinY5 of the piles proposed for use by the Contractor shall be submitted with the bid. The Contractor shall submit the follOWing information to the Engineer, two weeks before any piles are driven or holes are formed:

Except in piling-only Contracts or where otherwise provided in the Special Specifications, the Contractor shall price the Bill of Quantities for the original design irrespective of whether or not an alternative design is offered.

(i) How the piles and casings will be installed or the holes will be formed;

(ii) Design

The critical design-load combinations acting upon the underside and the centre of gravity of the pilec<lpping slab. the maximum permissible set of the pile-capping slab, and the tecbnical data required for designing alternative piles and or piling layouts will be indicated on the Drawings. Alternative designs shall comply with the provisions of CLAUSE 1212 and. the prescnpuons set out below,

(ii) How the piles and casings will be installed or the holes wil! be made through identified obstructions;

(iii) The mass of the hammer;

(iv) The set during the last ten blows;

(v) The expected size of the bulbous base, underream. rock socket. etc. if any;

For atternativc designs submitted the Contractor shall submit with his bid a detailed description of ttle method of analysis used in the <1"sign of the piles and the pilegroup layouts. The average length of pile and/or of the piles per group on which the quantities in the Bill of Quantities for the alternative designs are based shall be stated in each case. The type of pile offered shall be defined in terms of size, materials, working and breaking load.

The Contractor shall be responsible for and shall \Jttal the cost for rcdc3igning, drafting and submitting the detail drawings for any structural element affected by the alternative pile design. Any economy or incidental caused by constructing such "Iement as compared to the original design shall be for the account of the Contractor.

(vi) How concrete or grout is to be placed and compacted in the case of cast in situ piles;

(VII) How reinforcing steel is to \J", placed and held in place during placing and compacting the concrete in cast in situ piles;

The Contractor shall, as specified in CLAUSE 1212 for alternative desiqns, submit to tho Engineer at least three rnontns prior to wUlk tJeing commenced, drawings detailing the piling-group layout and piles, incorporating such amendments to his original design as may be required by the Enginoer, and draWings detailing the arnnndments required to the

(viii) Details of permanent casing, if any;

(ix) Ttie mix design for the concrete together with an adequate quantity of cement and aggregate to enable the Engineer to conduct the necessary tests.

(0) Pile-installation frames and equipment

The pilo-installation frames and equipment used for driving the piles or forming the holes or for other methods of sinking thc pllce choll be in a good working condition and to the prior approval of the Engineer and shall comply with the relevant legal provisions.

The Contractor shall supply the necessary equipment, gear and instruments required for the prescribed investigations and inspections.

THE UNITED REpuoLiC Of TANZANIA. MINISTRY DF WORKS

PAGE 6000 - 6

~S~TM~DAR~D_S_PE~C~lF~JCA~T~IO~N~S~FO~R~R~o~A_DW __ O_RK_S_~2_000~ ~ ~SE=R=IE=S~6~O~O~O - STRUCTURES

The installation frames shall be so designed as to ensure that piles can be installed in their proper positions and true to line and slope.

40 times the bar diameter if no dimension has been given.

(f) Piling platforms

Piling platforms shall include (he prepared in situ material or artificial islands or any structure (excluding the piling equipment) constructed Ior o"inino """",,,,s to the position where the pile is to be installed and for carrying out the piling operations.

Splicing the reinforcing may be ordered, and the Contractor shall keep available on the site sufficient steel reinforcing so that an additional length of pile minforcing can be assembled whenever necessary.

Structural piling platforms shall be rigid, and floating barges used for piling operations shall afford sufficient stability to enable piles to be properly installed.

The assembly of this additional reinforcing shall be carried out expeditiously and before any concreting of any specific pile commences. If splices have to be provided, the longitudinal bars shall overlap for a distance of 40 bar diameters, or as required by the Engineer.

On completion of the piling, the Contractor shall remove all the artificial, constructed platforms and reinstate the site to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

(ii) The concreting of piles

The concreting of the piles shall no! be commenced before the Engineer has givell his permission therefor.

(g) Setting out

The Contractor shall set out tho pile positions and shall stake these positions with a durable marker. Where the level from which the piling is undertaken is above the underside of the pile capping slab, duo allowance shall be made for the offset of raking piles so that the pile at tho undcrelde of tho plle-cepplnq slab will be in the

correct position. .

Except in self-supporting pile holes. a temporary or permanent casing shall be installed for the full depth of the hole to prevent lumps of material from falling from the sides of the hole into the concrete. Where concrete is to be placed under the drilling ITlUU, UIU 1t:lIlpu[<:uy uasing may be omitted, except at the top end of the hole.

(h) Ground surface for foundati~n piling

De foro starting any pilillg work, the Contractor shall notify the Engineer in good time to ensure that levels of the ground surface be taken in order that an average qround surface from which tho piling is to be measured can be established and aqrocd on by the Engineer and the Contractor. Where foundation piling at a site is preceded by excavation Of the construction of fill, the surface from which the piling is to be done shall be formed as near as possible to the underside of the pile-

capping slab as directed by the Engineer. ..

The COil crate shall be so proportioned as to be of sufficient strength, htll sh .. n h" ",,,ffici,,ntly workable to enable it being properly placed, and, where selfcompacting concrete is not used, it shall be thoroughly compacted by approved means. Extraction of the temporary casing during placement of the concrete shall be such that no damage is caused to the pile and the advancing concrete level is at all times kept considerably abovo the temporary casing's trailing edge. Concreto shall {Jellerally be placed in the dry, but where this is impracticable, il shall be placed by tremle.'

(i) Cast in situ concrete piles (i) Reinforcement

Reinforcement shall not be placed in the pile holes until immediately before concreting. Gefore the reinforcement is placed in position, nil mud, water, and any loose or eoft material shall be removed

from the 1101e. .

The requirements of SUBCLAUSE 13407(c) together with tile following requirements shall apply when concreto is placed under water by trernlo:

(1) Tho cement content shall be not less than 400 kg/ri.,. and the slump shan be well til,,! 111<:: concrete of tile specified strength and desired density can be obtained.

Steol reinforcing shall be accurately maintained in position without damage bcing done to the sides of the halo or the reinforcing itself. Spacers shall be used to keep the reinforcing steel at tho required distance from the inside face of the pile casing and wal.1 of. the pile hole but shall not cause zones through whictl aggressive grourill water may penetrate to the reinforcement.

(2) Tho hopper and tremie shall be a closed unit which cannot be penetrated by water.

(3) Tho trernie shall be at least 150min in diameter for 20mm aggregate . and larger for larger aggregates.

Pile reinforcement will not be shown in the bending schedules. Only the number, diameter and type of bars and their arranqcmcnt will be shown en the Drawings. Tho Contracter, wilh the permission. of tho Engineer, may roptaco tho bars shown on the DrClwings with bars wilh difforent diameters and spacing and of dirrerent types, on a basis of equivalent strength.

(4) The concrete shall be so placed as to prevent the mixing of water and concrete. The tremie sllall at all times penetrate into the concrete.

(5) Placing the concreto in that part of the pile below the water level in the casing shall be done in one operation, and the same method of placing the concrete shall be maintained throughout.

The reinforcement shall be assembled ill cages, which 3hpll be 311fficicntly robust to prevent their permanent deformation during handling. In the case of cast in situ piles, tho inner sides of the cages shall bo kepr open in viow of the unrestricted pJacillq of concrete therein.

The longitudimil bars shallproject above the cut-off point by the tlistance shown Oil the Drawings,sr ~Y

(6) All tremies shall be scrupulously cleaned before and efter use.

(7) !3eforo placing the concrete in the water, the

. Contractor shall ensure that no silt or other materials have collected at the bottom of the hole, and whore drilling mud is used, the Contractor shall ensure that no drilling mud suspension with a relative density exceeding 1:3 has collected at the boltom of the hole.

TilE UNIT~D REPUBLIC OFTANZA~IA, MINlsmv OF WORKS

PJlGE6000·7

STANOARDSPECIFlCATIONSFORROADWORKS~2_QO_O_~ ~ S=:E::R:.::'ES::....:6:.:0.::00:...._._:S:.:T.:,:R.::UC::T:..:U:::R:::,ES

Concrete shall be placed in a manner that prevents segregation.

thickness caused by abrasion and corrosion during the service life of the pile.

Ol Precast concrete piles

Sleel plies snait be used only wliere permitted by the Engineer.

(i) Genera!

The pil03 shell be of reinforced or prss'"essGd concrete and shall be manufactured, handled, stored and installed in accordance with [3S 3004, unless otherwise specified.

(Il Drivi nO' thfl "H",,,,

(I) Pile-installation frames

Piles and pile casings shall be driven with a gravity hammer, a rapid-action power hammer or by other approved means. Prestressed-concrete piles snau be driven with a hammer with a mass of at least equal to that of the pile. Other piles shall preferably be driven by a hammer with similar mass characteristics. The hammer shall not, during driving operations, damage any permanent component of the pile. Pile driving leaders shall be constructed in such a manner as to afford freedom of movement of the hammer and shall be held in position to ensure adequate support for the pile or pile casing during installation. Inclined leaders shall be used for installing raking piles.

(ii) Manufacture

The piles may be manufactured in a factory or a casting yard on tho site of the Works. The Contractor shall ensure that the factory or casting yard will at all reasonable times be accessible for inspection by the Engineer.

The relevant requirements of SECTION 6400 shall apply to thn r.nnr.rete work.

Transverse reinforcement shall comply with the requirements of 88 8004.

The piles sha!! be cast on a rigid nortzonrat platform in approved moulds. Particular care shall be taken to keep the reinforcement,· coupler sockets and pile shoes accurately in position. Adequate provision shall be mode for lifting tho piles.

Tho head" of precast concrete piles "flail be protected with packing of resilient material, care being taken to ensure that it is evenly spread and held in place. A helmet shall be placed over the packing. and a doilY of hardwood or other material not thicker than the diameter of the pile shall be placed on top.

Each pile shall be clearly marked with the date of casting, a reference number, and from the tip of the pile at 1.0m intervals, with distance marks.

Piles shall be cured for a period sufficient to develop the strength required 10 withstand, without damage to the pile. the stresses caused by handling, transporting, storing and driving. The piles shall not be driven before the concrete in the pile has attained the specified strength.

(ii) Water jotting

I he Contractor may employ water jetting to install piles in granular material. Jetting shall be discontinued before the leading end of the pile reaches a depth of 80% of the anticipated final depth or a depth as agreed on with the Engineer. After jetting, piles or their casings shall be driven to the required depth, level or set.

(iii) Handling. transport and storage

Care shall be taken at all stages of lifting, handling and transporting to ensure that the piles are not damaged or cracked.

(iii) Installation sequence

Unless otherwise specified or oroereo the sequence for installing the piles shall be left to the Contractor. However, the sequence for driving ihe piles in a group shall be programmed to minimise the creation of conoolidatod blocks of ground into which piles cannot be driven or which cause fictitious penetration values. Piling shall general1y commence at the centro of the group and be progressively extended to the perimeter piles unless otherwise agreed on by the Engineer.

Piles shall be stored on firm. ground Wlliei} will not settle unequally under the weight of the stack of piles. The piles shalt be placed on timber supports which are truly level and spaced so as to avoid undue bending 111 the piles. Thp. supports in the stack shall be located vertically above one another.

(iv) Lengthening of precast piles

Piles shall be lengtl1ened where required by such means and methods as approved by tho Engineer. Care shall be taken 10 ensure that the additional length of pile joined is truly axially in line with the original pile within the tolerance requirements for straightness set out in 8UI3CLi\IjSE 6803(a). Driving shall not be resumed until the pllo extension and any bonding aqent used has attained the required strength.

(k) Steel piles

Hollow steel piles may be filled with cast in situ concrete and, provided thai adequate connections arc provided between the steel and the concreto with a view to transferring tile 10<lU, tim concrete may be doemed to assist in carrying the load.

The installation of piles shall be undertaken in such a manner that structural damage, distortion or pm;iliUl Ling defects will not be caused 10 previously

installed piles or casings. .

(iv) I-leaving of piles

In seils in which the installation of piles may cause previously installed piles to heave,accurate level marks shall be placed on each pile immediately after installation and all piles that have heaved shall be red riven to the required resistance, unless rednvlng tests on neighbOUring piles hay" shown this to be unnecessary. Piles shall not be concreted neither shall any pile-capping slab be constructed until the piles within a heave-influence zone have boon rodrivon as required.

Wherever steel piles arc used, they shall be given a protective e"alina of bitumen. coal-tar pitch or svnthotic resins to the satisfaction of tho Engineer or as specified. The· cross-sectional area of the steel shall be adapted to the aggressiveness of the subsurface conditions to compensate for possible reduction in the pile wall

(v) Bulbous bases

Where required, bulbous (enlarged) bases shall be formed after the driven casing has reached the required depth. The base shall be formed by progressively displacing the surrounding subsoil with concrete placed by the repeated action of a gravity hammer. The size of the base will depend

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF WORKS

PAGE 6000 ·8

onthe C()mpressibility of the surroundinq subsoil but shall in no case have a diameter of less than 1.5 times the diameter of the pile,

(vi} p,il.in~ aligrklient

Where the. inclination of a. precast concrete pile d~\iiat.es frolll. the correct slope. during installation; thepileshali not be forced into the correct position. The slope of the guiding frame shall be adjustedso ii~ t(} coincide with the a.ctual inclination of the pile tOpreciude the bending. of the pile. . Where the vertic.ality or the inclination of the installed pile falls oUtside the specified tolerances; the pile WIll be Classified as being defective.

has been completed for approval to be given by the Engineer for casting the pile.

(n) Rock ,sockets

Where .. required, rock sockets to th~. required dimensions shall be formed in rock formations of adequate strength, quality and thlckness for transmitting the specified load.

(0) Obstructions

(iii) ALigerlng arid boring

(ii 6tiger and bore pile holes

the.augering . and .. ' boring of pile holes sha.il be carrl~d out as expeditiously as local conditions permit. taking due account of services or other restrictions on the site.

(I) Definitions

(1) Identified obstructions

Identified obstructions shall mean any obstruction described on the Drawings or iii the SpeCial Specifications and. for. whi.ch . proVision fpr . payment has been made in the .. Bill . of Quantities iri respect of penetrating the obstructions.

H~les sh~!1 be cleaned after augering and boring to obtain a clean and levei ouriaec.

(2) Unidentified obstructions

Where provision has been made. in theSm of Quantities in terms of ITEM 61.21 for penetrating identified obstrucfiorie and obstructlcrie not described are encountered, such obsfructloris shall be classified as unidentified obstructions arid the penetration of such dbsiructions shall bepaid for under ITEM 61.22 subject lathe condition that the rate of penetration. drops to below that achieved for identified obstructions when the same method and effort are used, or subject to additional methods and effort. oyer and .abo:,e those. required f(}r Ide~tI1ied obstructions being required for penetrating the obstruction.

Wh~fe ihdicated by the Engineer, suitable casing shall. be. histalied In those parts of the augered h()ieswhere th~ sides are in danger of caving in before the concreting has been completed.

DiHirig extraction of the casi~g, care shall be taken to avoid lifting the concrete and damaging the pile.

The use.of water for augering and boring holes i!~all ..• n(}t be permitted unle.ss approVed. by the ~ngjriijilr. Surface Watei' shall not. be aliowed to

enter the hole. .

. (ii) Wiiclerreamirig

Where r~qUired,. th.e holesshali be enlarge~ .. or beiied ou! to form an uiiclerream. The earth excavated snail be removed III a manner Which will

hot damage the wails of the hole. .

The shape of the underrearri sllali be a lruricated coh .. 8f Whioh the base d,ameter depends on trie Dea~ng capaCity of the. founding material,. but it sh~n. benot less thantw1ce the shaft diameter. The ti~se . .an~l~ of the cone between the. inclined face and horizontal plane shail be not iess than 600,

r=qn sil.fet)i .. measures. shoal! be enforced to protect workmen working at the bottom of the pile hole.

(iii) ~ul~oU~ b~sel'

~Lil.~ov.s?ases shall comply With the reqUirements of SUBCLAUSE 6113(1),

(iv) i~spei::tiflg preformed hol~s ~qulplT1entforinspectlng the pile. shafts shall be provided arid operated in accordance with the latest amendment or edition of the Code of Practice ~ei~ilng t!;j the Safb!y of Men Working in Small [j er venical and Near Vertical Shafts for Civil E... .c, .firig'purposes, obtainable from tho South Afrlcarilnstitbtion of Civil Engineers, or similar document.

or

Wnefe no provision has been m;;idein the Bill of Quantities for penetrating identified obstructions and obstructions are encountered and, after resorting to the methods. speci~~d .. in th~ submission in terms of SUBCLAUSE 611. 3(d); it is found to be impossible to form the holes in the proper positions and at the proper inclinations and doptho, and the Contrflcto~hasto rceort to additional methods for forming the pile holes successfully, such obstructions. shall be classified as unidentified obstructions.

(ii) Classltlcatlon of materials

For piling, only the following classification of materials shall apply to the identification and description of obstructions.

(1) Matrix .. ' '.

The '. matrix shall comprise that part of .the materia! which will pass through a sieve with.50 rnm x 50 mm openings.

i~rj1ediat~IY before. the reinforcement . is to. be iristalled()r the concrete placed, the Engineershall oe informed thereof with a view to inspecting the pilEl hoies. When piles are to be underreamed, the ~xca~atio.f1 shall be inspected twice by the r::hginE;!er; firstly ioascertain ihai suitable founding in~terialhas been obtained before underreaming ma¥ start, and, secondly, after the underream ing

(2) Coarse gravel

Coarse gravel shall comprise that part of the material (stones, pebbles, cobqles, etc) which Will pass through a ZOO mm X ZOO mm opemng, but will not pass through a 50 mm x 50 mm opening. The gravel shall be obtained from material with at least a Class R2 hardness as defined in TAUtE 6113/1 at the erid of this Section.

(3) Boulders

Boulders shall mean any rock mass. with a hardness of at least Class R2 which will pass through a square opening with dime.nsions equal to the maximum stze boulder specified in

PAGE 6000·9

STANMR() SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD WORKS-2000

SERIES 6000 • STRUCTURES

the Sill of Quantities but will not pass through a 200 mm x 200 mm opening.

(ii) A description of subsurface material, the presence of ground water and the quality of material on Which the pile is founded,

<iii) The quality of the materials used in the construction or manufacture of the pile, as well as of the permanent casing if used. The method of placing and compacting the concrete in cast in situ piles.

(Iv) The method of founding of the piles e.g, bulbous bases, underreams, rock sockets, etc, and their dimensions.

(4) RocK rormauon

A rock tormation shall be any rock mass with a hardness of at least Class R2 which will not pass through a square opening with dimensions equal to IhA rnaxirnurn size boulder specified in the Bill of Quantities.

Where a boulder is cut through and part of it is left imbedded in the wall of the hole, such boulder obstruction shall be ctassmeo as rock formation,

(v) The maximum working load of the pile.

(vi) The length of the pile and the accuracy of installation in respect of position and inclination,

For the identification of rock in terms of this Clause, the classification in TABLE 6113/1 (at the end of the Section) shall apply.

(iii) Driven displacement and prefabricated piles

Where obstructions make it difficult to install driven displacement and prefabricated piles in the positions and at the inclinations showri and to the proper lengths by the methods specified in the submission in terms of SUBCLAUSE 6113(d), the ContraGtol shall resort to additional methods which are suitable for the type of pile. If the successful installation of a pile proves to. be impossible after such methods have been tried, the Engineer may order an additional pile or pUes to beinstalled.

(vii) Nom inal dimensions and type of pile.

{viii} length and details of any temporary and permanent casings used.

(r) Stripping the pile heads

Precast piles shall be installed to a level of at least 1.0 m above the cut-off '",vel. anli ",,~t in situ piles shall be cast to a level of at least 150 mm above the cui-off le\/el. The excess concrete shall be so stripped off that only sound concrete will project into the pile-capping slab.

All SUch work and additional piles shall be paid for in accordance with the bid rates where applicable, or where 'they do nol apply, under ITEM 61.23,

(Iv) Auger and bore pile holes

Where identified or unidentified obstructions are encountered when shaping holes for piles, payment for penetrating the obstructions shall be made against the appropriate pay items.

(pI Determining pile lengths

The design of the piles and pile groups, and the quantities in the Bill of Quantities are based on me subsurface data shown on the Drawinqs,

Before a pile head is stripped, the cut-off plane shall be marked by cutting a 20 mm deep. groove with a grinding-machine along the full circumference of the pile. Heavy concrete demolishing equipment may not be used for the stripping of pile heads. All loose aggregate shall be removed from the cut-off plane,

The concrete shall be so stripped off that the pile below the cut-off leve! wll\ not be damaged, or, should defective concrete be found in the completed pile, the damaged or defective concrete shall be cut away by the Contractor at his own cost and replaced with new concrete wdl bonded to th" old concrete, or the pOle shall be replaced as directed by the Engineer,

The Engineer will determine the depth of piles as work proceeds.

The main reinforcement of the piles shall extend at least 40 limes the diameters of the reinforcing bar beyond the cut-ofi level into the pile-capping slab. This reinforcement shall be left straight unless otherwise directed by the Engineer.

Where variations in the subsurface conditions occur as regards the malerial and height of the water lab Ie, the Engineer shall be informed immediately.

If the Contractor is not satisfied that the piles will be capable of carrying the specified loads at the depth determined by the Engineer he may, in consultation with the Engi" e er, lengthen the pilee to reach a suitable founding depth, Where the Engineer and lhe Contractor cannot agree on the founding depth, the Engineer may require the Contractor to:

I he cut-orr level for piles shall be the level shown on the DraWings.

(s) Construction of pile·capping slab

Th" Contractor shall not construct IhA pile-cappihg slab before the Engineer has confirmed, in writing, that all the relevant load tests have been completed and the piles have been accepted,

(i) undertake additional foundation investigations and/or core drilling in accordance with Subclauses 6103{a) and 6113(t) respectively. and/or

(t) Core drilling

The Engineer may instruct core drilling to be done with a view to obtaining cores of the founding formation and/or of the concrete in the completed structural member. In the case of piling, the core drilling may precede the piling or may be done through the completed pile, as specified, or as instructed by the Engineer.

(ii) instal! one or more test piles and conduct a toad test in accordance with Subclause 6113(u). The Engineer will prescribe tho positions for each test pile, Test piles shall comply with the specified requirements for piling.

(q) Piling data

The following data on each pile installed shall be recorded in a form prescribed by the Engineer.

(i) The effort used for driving the pile and the resistance to penetration at founding level.

The Contractor shall supply the necessary construction plant on the site for drilling under the above conditions. The plant and techniques used shall be suitable for ensuring 1000/. core recovery. The diameters, depths and lengths of Hie Gores shall agree with tho specifications or the instructions of the Engineer_

niE UNITEb REPUBLIC OF TANMNIA, MINISTRV OF WORKS·

PAGE 6000· 10

STANoAAo SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD WORKS-2DOO

SERIES 6()OO - STRUCTURES

The Contractor shall keep accurate records of the drilling, which, together with the cores, shall be handed over to the Engineer. The cores shall be placed in the correct sequence in a cleariy idontfflcd wooden core box with a lid.

(iv) Altering the design to fit in with the new conditions caused by the defective pile(s).

[u] Load test (i) General

The Engineer may order certain selected piles to be load tested. The procedure for loading tests shall comply with the requirements of $!;CTION 7100. During the period of testing, driving of other piles which may affect tho testing shall cease.

(w) St'lnding timo in re e pect of pilc-instnlfotiori

frames

Standing time shall only be paid for pile installation frames standing during normal working hours as laid down in the General Conditions on Contract for such periods during which ihe pile installation work has come to a standstill following an action by the Employer. '

As soon as the pile installation frames have come to a standstill, the Contractor shall inform' the Engineer, In writing that he Intends to claim standing time, and shall also furnish:

No working pite shall be used as an anchor pile. Where anchor piles or earth anchors are required for providing reaction, they shall be so placed as to have a minimal effect on the test results.

(i) full particulars of the action which gave rise to the claim

(ii) a list of pile-installation' frames in respect of, which standing time will be claimed, complete with date anu urne.

The Contra!;tor shall provide the cornpteto {OS ling assembly, tho necessary plant, equipment, instrum ents and labour for carrying out the test and for determining accurately the settlement of the pllns under oach increase or decrease of the load. The test assembly, plant, equipment and instruments used shall go subject to tho approval of

the Engineor. '

Within two days of having completed the tests, the Contractor shall supply tho Enginesr with tho test results and neatly plotted load against settlement, load against lime, and settlement against lime grapro;l.

The period in respect of which a claim is lodged shall become operative from the moment when the notice has been handed oyer, to tno Enginoer and oholl continuo until the restriction has been removed and norma) procedure may be resumed,

(x) Nuctcarin.egritY

Integrity tests using both the nuclear. and neutron method shall be performed on all bored piles, The purpose of these tests is to prove that the technique used in constructing the piles is satisfactory. by checking for necking of concrete In ll!" pile "hans, checking concrete cover to reinforcement and by checking for honeycombing, grout loss and segregation of aggregates.

(ii) Loading

The maximum test load applied shall be equal to twice the specified Viorkinglqaq or the. ultlmato test

load, whichever shall bo the, smaller. ".,' ,

The maximum working load shall .be half of 'tho maximum tost load or the lest load which corresponds . willi Illeallowable settlement, whichever shall be the smaller.TliC alloWflb[e settlement shall be as specified on the Drawings.

6114 CAISSONS

(iii) Ultimalo lost load . " ,

Tho ultimate test load in the compression-load test shall .ec the load where settlement suddenly increases dlsproponlonatoly to the load applied.

(a) General, '

Caissons shall, for the purposes of these Specifications, be hollow concreto vessels which arc wholly or partly constructed at a higher level and lowored by internal excavation or kenlledge to the desired founding level to form structural bearing members. catesons may be of circular, rectangular or any other shape and may contain one or more excavation compartments, all as detailed on the Drawings.

The ultimate test lead in the tension-load tost shall be the toad whore the upward movement suddenly increases disproportionately to the load applied or the load producing a permanent rise of 10 mm at the lop of the pllo, whichever ;0 the omctlcr,

Unless otherwise specified hereafter, the provisions of ns 8004 shall apply in regard to, tho construction of caissons.

(v) Defectiv(! piles

The test pilc and the piles represented by the test pile shall be classified as defective if shown in terms of SECTION 6100 to have a maximum working load of less than the specilied workino load, or to exhibit excessive settlement Defective piles shall also include piles damaged beyond repair, piles with structural defects, or pllus wllh.;11 du nut comply willi tho tctoraucu requlrements of SECTION 6300.

If required, the defective piles shall bo corrected by tho C:nntr>lr.fnr "I hi" own nnst, Ily "f'r!yi"O rmn nr tho following methods approved by the Enginoer:

(i) Extractirig t~q pile and rcplacingit with a ncwpilo. (ii) Installing a new pile adjacent to the defective pilo.

(b) Construction and sinking

A firm horizontal base shall be prepared on which the cutting edge of the caisson shall be laic! truly horizontally. Tho level of the baso shall be determined and shall bo agreed on by the Engineer and the Contractor and shall servo as the ground surface from which the excavation inside the caisson will be measured.

Successive stages of the caisson shall be of convenient height, or as directed by the Engineer, and shall be lined up accuratelywith the preceding stages.

All prcoaet clements shall have properly constructed joints in accordance with the Drawi~gs to ensure that

they fit snugly together. ' ,

(iii) Lengthening the pile to the correct length if defective in length oniy. "

For in situ phase construction. all construction joints in the walls shall be reinforced and the joints shall be

made as spccilied in CLAUSf; 6408. '

THe UNlTtO RePUBLIC OF T ANlANlA, M'NISTRY OF WORKS

PAGE 6000 - 11

STANDARD SpeCIFICATIONS FOR ROAD WORKS-WOO

SERIES 6000 - STIlJJCTURES

The lowest element of every caisson, which contains the cutting edges, shall be cured for at least four days or shall have reached a strength of at least 50% of the speclfled strength before oinking is cornmencad, Subsequent elements shall be cast in sufficient good time to ensure adequate strength for safely resisting the applied forces.

No concrete shall be placed in Ihe wedge or the seal before the Engineer has inspected and approved the foundation, For this purpose the Contractor shall adequately rlewater the caisson to enable the Engineer to conduct the inspection.

During constructing and sinking, the caissons shall be maintained truly vertically and kept in their correct positions.

I n the event of a caisson not being vertical or in its correct position when it has reached the required depth, or in the event of a caisson being cracked dunng the sinking process, the Contractor shall at his own cost carry out the necessary remedial work to the satlsfaction of the Engineer.

The posltlon and inclination of each ceieeon shall be determined accurately by measurement after every 2m. of sinking, or after sinking through the depth of one element, whichever distance is the smaller.

(d) Data

The Contractor shall provide the Engineer with a complete record of the types of material excavated during Sinking, together with the level at which each type of the material was found.· In addition, a log showing the rate of sinking shall be kept by the Contractor and furnished to the Engineer.

With a view to eliminating excess friction, the Contractor may use bentonite or a simHar lubric&,1t or a water-jet system.

Excavation msjce caisson compartments shall, unless otherwise specified herein, comply with the provisions of CLAUSE 6105.

(e) Filling the caissons

In multi compartrr.ented caissons, the excavation in any DOC compartment shall not be taken deeper than 0.6m below that in any other compartment, except where necessary for correcting deviations.

Cutting edges shall be freqL!cntly inspected or probed to locate obstacles, which shall be removed immediately.

The Contractor shall supply all grabs, pumps, diving gear and other plant required fer ainkingand founding all caissons and shall allow the Engineer to use the diving suit and equipment for inspection purposes.

(i) Concrete seal

The seal shall be constructed of mass concrete of the class specified and shall be placed in accordance with the dimensions and levels shown on the Drawings or as prescribed by the Engineer.

The Contractor shall employ a competent diver to carry out work under water and shall make provision in the rates bid for therespectlve items for this' cost.

If this seal cannot be plated in the ury anu has to be placed under water, the method of placing this concrete shall be approved by the Engineer. The Contractor shall cease placing the concrete under water .when sufficlant ,.,nilc:r<'!le has been placed to seal the foundation effectively.

After' the· concrete has been placed,' the concrete seal and the head of water over it shall remain undisturbed for a period of at least seven days after which the caisscn shall be dewatered by pumping for inspection. If more water is still leaking into the caisson, the process of sealing as specified herein shall. be continued until the water leva! within the caisson does not rise at a rate exceeding 10 mm per hom.

Where the caisson strlkes a hard inclined layer and worK has. to be cameo out below uio I;,,!tillg edge, SUGh work shall be measured and'pakl for tinder the relevant items of CLAUSE 6115, and, where no applicable items exist, such work shall be paid for as extra work.

Should the. Contractor .. WiSh to apply the pneumatic caisson method (with"a compressed air chamber) for construction,.he.!>.~~11 furnish the Engineer with full details of the plantfequipment and method for approval.

(c) Founding

The material at the founding level, if sloping and/or irregular, shall in so far as is possible be cut to as nearly level" eurfcec as possiblo until the entlro cutting edge' is evenly and firmly supported on the material. Subject to the approval of the Engineer, blasting may be used for this purpose. If blasling should be resorted to, only light charges may be used and the caisson shall be protected against damage by suitable cushioning being provided.

The relevant requirements of SUBCLAUSES 6407(c) and 6113(1) shall apply for placing the concrete under water. For concrete placed under water by methods other than by tremie, the cement content shall be 20% mpte ..than the quantity required for ",[uim" y concrete of the serne mix but shall be not less than 450 kg/inS of concrete.

Should the sloping surface be of hard rock which cannot be Gut Of broken. by any ""fe. and fccoible means, the foundation shall be built up by means of a solid wedge of concreto which fills the entire space between the bedrock surface and [he horizontal plane through the cutting edge. This concreto shall be of the same class as that specified on tho Drawings or in tho Bill of Quantities for the concroto soal.

(ii) Filling

Subsequent to inspection of the caisson compartments above the concrete seal, the compartments shall be filled with sand, The sand shall be sufficiently wetted to obviate bulking.

The first 2 m of filling above the concrete seal shall be lowered gently into position. The sand may then be poured from the top and compacted sufficiently to prevent settlement while the. cover stab concrete is being placed,

The rock or hard material on which the structure is to be founded shall be completely uncovered. Tim (",ullding surface shall be cleared of all loose material before lnspectlon by the Engineer immediately prior to casting

the concrete seal. .

The top of the sand fill within the caisson shall be finished off to the level specified below the underside of the caisson cover slab.

(f)Stripping

Where the walls of the caisson have been overbuilt, the concrete shall be stripped to the required level without damage bcing done. to the concrete below the cut-off level. The. 10ngitL!dinal reinforcement of the caisson shall project above the cut-off level by a distance of at least 40 times the bar diameter.

'j(:

THE UN1TED R!'I'UBLIC OF TANZANIA. MINISTRY OF WORKS

PAGE 6000 - 12

STANDARD SPECIFICATiONS FOR ROAD WORKS-2000

SERIES 6000 - STRIJCTURES

(g) Concrete screed below the caisson cover slabs A concrete screed of the specified thickness and class of concrete shall be provided to the level shown on the Drawings over the area covered by the cover slab, including the area within the caissons on lop of the sand filling, except where the underside of the cover slab is being formed with form work.

vertical sides, as described in CLAUSE 6109 or as prescribed by the Engineer.

In no cacc oholl any of the followitlg exoeveticne be included in the measurement for payment:

(I) The volume of excavation in excess of the above mentioned limits.

(h) General

Water quality and marine life shall not be adversely affected in any way during operations.

(ii) The volume included within the excavated road prism, contiguous channels, ditches, etc, for which payment is provided elsewhere in the sP",,,;n(;(llions.

6115 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

ITEM 61.01

ADDITIONAL

UNIT PROVISIONAL

The bid rates shall include full compensation for excavation in each class of material,. the spoiling or stOCkpiling of materials, the hauling of excavated material for the free-haul. distance of 1.0km, any additional excavation the Contractor may require for additional working space outside the authorised limits, trimming and cleaning the bottoms and. sides of excavations, arld strutting, shoring and safeguarding the excavations.'

FOUNDATION INVESTIGATIONS: SUM

A provisional sum shall be provided in the Bill of Ouantltles 1.0 cover the cost or this work.

The work authorised by tho Engineer shalJ be paid for in accordance with the provisions of the Conditions of Contract

If after a foundation excavation has been completed, cleaned and trimmcd reedy for concrete ecrccding, the Engineer orders further excavations to be made on account of changed dimensions and/or founding conditions, an extra over payment (SUBITEM 61.02(c)) on the additional excavation measured for payment shall be payable in full compensation for any incidentals to the Contractor over and above the normal excavation costs.

ITEM

61.02 EXCAVATtON:

(a) COMMON EXCAVATION IN SOFT MATERIAL SITUATED WITI UN THE FOLLOWING SUCCESSIVE DEPTH RANGES:

(il 0 m UP TO 2 m

(ii) 2 m uPTo4 m

. (iii)' FUR1I-ui:R INCREMENTS o~ 2 in (b)EXTRJ\-bVERS~BIT~M.61.0.2(a) ,FOR EXCAVATION IN ROCK IRRESPECTIVE OFDEPTri

CUBIC METRE (m') CUBIC METRE (m3i CUBIC METRE. (m') CUBIC METRE (m')

ITEM

61.03 ACCESS AND DRAINAGE: (a) ACCESS

lUMP SUM

The limits for the successive depth ranges shall be measured down from the surfaco levels described in SCOTtON 6100 to the founding level "Slreed on.

The bid lump sum shall include full compensation for providing access, which, inter. alia, shall include constructing temporary banks, artificial islands andlor cofferoams, their protection, safeguarding and maintenance draining and keeping dry the working areas and draining the excavations within the access, and any incidentals in respect ctwork to be done below standing water.

In the case of excavations that arc required for diverting, channelling or widening streams, tho successive depth ranges for those portions of the excavations that arc within 5 m of a concrete structure shall be measured from the surface levels agreed on to the invert level of the channel or stream.

75% of the lump sum will be paid when the access has been constructed. The remaining 25% wi!! be paid after the access has been removed.

(b) DRAINAGE, WHERE NO LUMP SUM ACCESS I lAS BEEN PROVIDED

LUMP SUM

The unit or measurement snail be the cubic metre of material, measured in the original position before excavation. Thequantity of excavation for each depth range shall be calculated from the neat outlines of the base or floor and the depth of excavation completed within eaeh range.

Payment will be made for this work by way of a lump sum for each structure Or series of structures appearing separately in the 13i11 of Quantities. The lump sum shall be paid on a pro rata basis as the work progresses.

Irrespective of the lotal depth of the excavation, the quantity of material within oach depth range shall be measured and paid for separately.

At the concreto faces for which formwork has to be provided, addltional excavation shall be measured to 0.5 IT1 Qutsidq,the concrete perimeter to make provlslon

for awoi'kinl;l space" .. . . .

Where foundation fiU is constructed in an excavation, the Quantity of excavated material measured for payment shall be thematerlai..cxcavated betWeen the (jvetagE:;groundlevel, as described. in SUGCu\USE 6105(bj,andthe fo~ndirig .Icvel,from a prism with

The bid lump sum shall include full compensation for draining by pumping or in any other way and for any other work necessary for keeping the excavation dry or for wqrking in the dry.

ITEM

61.04 [3ACKFILL TO

EXCAVATIONS UTILISING:

(a) MATERIAL FROM THE EXCAVATIONS.

(b) IMP'ClRTEDMATERIAL (c) SOIL CEMENT

CUBIC METRE (m") CUBIC METRE (m3)

THE UNITED REP,UBLic OF TAr..tzANIA. MINISTRY -OF WORKS

PAGE 6000 - 13

STANDARD Sl'ecIFKlIIT!ONS FOR ROAD WORKS-2000

SERIES 6000 ~ STRUCTURES

The unit of measurement shall be the cubic metre of backfill material measured in the excavation, excluding the volume occupied by the structure. The quantity meaeured ehall be calculated from within tho noat outlines defined for the excavation under ITEM 61.02 and the height to which the backfilling is constructed. The volume occupied by the structure shall be subtracted when calculating tho volume of backfilling.

Tlie height shall be determined by the upper surface of the road prism or the reference ground surface (SUBCLAUSE 6105(b)), whichever is the lewer.

The bid rates shall include full compensation for fumishing and placing all materials within the entire excavation, transporting tho material and preparing, processing, shaping, watering, mixing and compacting the material to the specified densities.

ITEM

61.10 DRILLING OF HOLES (DIAMETER

AND TYPE OF DRILLING INDICATED)

UNIT METRE (m)

The unit of measurement shall be the metre of. hole drined.

The bid rotc sholl include full componoation for drilling and clearing the holes as specified. equipment moving and setting up in position, drilling and clearing the holes as specified. Where no provision has been made for payment in the .13i11 of Quantities under ITEM 61.09, the bid rate shall also include full compensation for work falling under that item.

No overhaul shall be paid"

ITEM

61.11 GROUTING (TYPE OF GROUT

AND FOR WHICH PURPOSE IT IS REQUIRED INDICATED)

UNrT KILOGRAMME (kg)

!md 61.08

FOUNDATION FILL·

the unit of measurement for grouting shall be the kilogram of cement or proprietary brand of grout as may be applicable used in the grouting operation.

CQNSISTING OF: (a) ROCK FILL

(b) CRU~HED STONE FILL (c) COMPACTED GRANULAR

MAT~RIAL

(d) MASS CONCRETE (CLASS INDICATED)

(e) CONCRETE SCREED '(THICKNESS . AND ClASS OF CONCRETE

INDICATED) .

CUI3IC METRE (m') CUBIC METRE (m3) CUBIC METRE (m 3)

CUBIC METRE (m3)

The bid rate shall include full compensation for providirig the equipment and all the material, and mixing arid pumpirig' the grout into the prepared holes in accordance with tho instructions of the Engineer, and also for the water-pressure tests.

ITEM

61.12 DOWEL BARS (TYPE,

DIAMETER AND LENGTH OF DOWEL BARS TOGETliER WITH TYPE OF GROUT, INDICATED)

!lli!!

KILOGRAMME (kg)

The. unit of measurement shall be the cubic metre of approved material placed and compacted below the bases as specified or where directed by the Engineer.

The quantitY of foundation fill to bo measured for payment shall be the material contained within the prism specified in CLAUSE 6109 or shall otherwise be the quantity to tho .outlines shown on the Drawings or as directed by the Engineer.

The unit of measurement for the dowel bars shall be the kilogram of bars provided and secured in position. The bid rate shall include full compensation for supplying all the material and po:;;itjonlng and grouting the dowol bars as specified.

The 010 rates shall include full compensatlon for procuring, furnishing, transporting, plaCing arid compacting the material,

ITEM

61.13 F OUNDA TlONLINING

(TYPE OF MATERIAL AND THICKNESS INDICATED)

UNIT SQUARE METRE (m2)

No overhaul shall h" p,-,j<L

ITEM

61fl!l ESTABLISHMENT ON TilE SITE

FOR THE DRILLING OF i IOLES (TYPE OF DRILLING INDICATED)

UNIT LUMP SUM

Tho unit of measurement for foundation lining shall be the square metre of concrete surface lined.

The bid rate shall include full compensation for procuring, furnishing and placing all material and for all labour and incidentals required for completing the work as specified.

The bid lump sum shall include full compensation fer establishment on the site, mi.wing 10 individual hele positions and Hie subsequent removal of' all special plant for drillIng the holes and additional plant for canying out operations, the cost of which does not vary willi the actual amount or wu, k 10 be done.

ITEM 61.14

ESTA!JLlSHMENT ON THE SITE

UNIT LUMP SUM

FORPrUNG

This work will be paid for by way of a lump sum, 75% of which will become payable when all the equipment is on the site and tho fir!'.! halo bas been drilled. Tho remaining 25% will become payable after all the holes have been drilled and the equipment has been removed from the site.

The bid lump sum shall include full compensation for generally levelling the piling site, establishing on the site and subsequently removing all structural platforms, rafts, and all special constructional plant and I>.fjll;pmAnt for foundation piling and for carrying out operations, the cost of which does not vary with tho actual amount of piling done.

This work will be paid for by way of a lump sum, 1.>0% of which will become payable when all equipment is on the site and the first pile has been installed. The second instalment of 25% of the lump sum will be payable after

PAGE 6000· 14

_,!

THE UNITED REPUBltc of TANZIINI!'-. MIN.ISTRY Of WORKS

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD WORKS-2000

SERIES 6000 • STRUCTURES

half the total number of piles have been installed, and the final instalment of 25% after all the piles have been completed and the equipment has been removed from the site.

RANGES:

(a) Om UPTO 10m

(b) EXCEEDING 10m, UPTO 15 m (e) FURTHER INCREMENTS OF 5 m

METRE (m) METRE (m) METRE(m)

ITEM

61.15 MOVING TO, AND SETTING UP

THE EQUIPMENT AT EACH POSITION FOR INSTALLING THE PILES

UNIT NUMBER (no)

The limits for the successive depth ranges shall be measured down from the average ground surface SECTION 6100 to the agreed founding level.

The unit of meocurement eholl be the number of positions to which the installation equipment has to be moved and set up in position. The quantity measured shall be the number of piles installed plus the number of piles red riven on the instruction of the Engineer, plus any piles provided in addition for load tests, which do not form part of a specific pile group.

The bid rate shall include full compensation for all costs involved in moving and setting up any equipment.

The unit of measurement shall be the metre of hole plus the depth of bulbous base formed as mall be applicable. The depth of the bulbous base shall be deemed to be equal to the diameter of a sphere, the volume of which shall be equal to the quantity of compacted concrete in the bulbous base. Irrespective of the total depth of the hole, the quantity within each depth range shall be measured and paid for separately. The bid rates shall include full compensation for supplying, driving and subsequently extracting the temporary casing.

ITEM UNIT

61.16 AUOERED OR BORED HOLf';~ FOR

PILES WITH A DIAMETER OF (DIAMETER INDICATED) THROUGH MATERIAL SITUATED WITHIN THE FOLLOWING SUCCESSIVE DEPTH RANGES:

(a) AUGERED HOLES:

(i) 0 m UP TO 10 m METRE (m)

(ii) EXCEEDING 10 m, UP TO 15 m METRE; (m)

(iii) FURTHER INCREMENTS OF 5 m METRE (m)

(b) BORED HOLES:

(i) ,0 m UPTO 10 m METRE (m)

ITEM UNIT

1111B MANIII=ACTlIRING, SUPPLVINGAND METRE

DELIVERING PREFABRICATED PILES (m)

(TYPE AND SIZE INDICATED).

The unit of measurement shall be the metre of accepted prefabricated pile delivered on the site in accordance with the Engineer's written instructions.

The bid rate shall include full compensation for supplying all the materials, manUfacturing, transporting and delivering to the point of use and handling the prefabricated piles.

(ii) EXCEEDING 10m, UP TO 15 m (iii) FURTHER INCREMENTS OF 5 m

METRE(m) METRE(m)

ITEM

61.19 INSTALLATION OF

PREFABRICATED PILES (TYPE AND SIZE INDICATIOD) THROUGH MATERIAL SITUATED WITHIN THE FOLLOWING SUCCESSIVE DEPTH RANGES:

(a) 0 m UPTO 10 m

(b) E;>;C)';EDING 10 m, UP TO 15 HI (c) FURTHER INCREMENTS OF 5 m

METRE (m) METRE (m) METRE (m)

The limits for the successive depth ranges shall be measured . down from the average ground surface (SUBC;LAUSE 6113(h» to . the . agreed founding level (CLAUSE 6106).

The unit of mcaaurcmcnt shall be the metre of hole, including the depth of the bulbous base formed, as may be applicable. The depth of the bulbous base shall be deemed to be equal to the diameter of a sphere, the volume of which shall be equal to the qUantity of compacted concrete in the bulbous base.

The limits for the successive depth ranges shall be measured down from the average ground surface SECTION 6100 to the founding depth agreed on.

Irrespective of the total depth of the hole, the quantity within each depth range Sh311 be measured and paid for

separately. '

The bid rales for forming augered holes shall include full compensation for augering and disposing of surplus material resulting from th~ hole having been formed.

The bid rates for forming bored' holes shall include full compensation for boring. supplying, installing and extracting the, driven temporary casing as well as for disposing. Of SUrplus material resulting from the hole

having been formed. .

The unit of measurement shall be the metre of prefabricated pile installed. That part of the prefabricated pile projecting above the average ground surface shall not be measured and paid for.

Irrespective of the total length of pile installed, the quantity installed within each depth range shall be measured and paid for separately.

The bid rates shall include ful! compensation for hui,;lillg and driving the pile.

iTEM

61_17 DRIVING THE TEMPORARY

CASING FOR DRIVEN DISPLACEMENT PILING SYSTEMS FOR FORMING HOLES I=OR PILES WITH A DIAMETER OF (DIAMETER INDICATED) THROUGH MATERIAL SITUATEO WITHIN THE FOLLOWING SUCCESSIVE DEPTH

ITEM

01.20 EXTRA OVER ITEM 61.19,

IRRESPECTIVE OF THE DEPTH TO FORM AUGERED AND BORED PILE HOLES THROUGH IDENTIFIED OBSTRUCTIONS CONSISTING 01='

(a) COARSE GRAVEL WITH A MAXIMUM CONTENT OF LESS THAN (MAXiMUM PERCENTAGE INDICATED)

METRE(m)

THE UNITED REPi:JBLlC Of TANZANiP.. MINISTR;Y OF w~s

PAGE 6000 - 15

STANDARD SPECifiCATIONS FOR ROAl) WORKS-2000

SERIES 6000 - STRUCTURES

METRE(m)

The unit of measurement shall be the number of pile holes underreamed. The bid rate shall include full compensation for all work to be done in forming the unuerreams,

(b) BOULDERS (DESCRIPTION OF AND MAXIMUM SIZE INDICATED)

(c) ROCK FORMATION (DESCRIPTION AND CLASS OF ROCK INDICATED)

METRE{m)

The unit of measurement shall be the metre of pile hole formed through the identified obstruction, measured from the depth at which the Identified onsuucuon IS encountered to the depth at which norma! auger drilling or boring can be resumed or another type of identified

. obstruction is encountered.

The bid rates shall include full compensation for all additional work and incidentals required for forming the pile hole through.the identified obstruction.

Where' obstructions other than those provided for in ITEM 61.19 can be identified, they shall be described on the Drawings and/or in the Special Specifications. Provision therefor shall be made in the Gill of Quantities under extenelone 10 ITEM 01.19.

ITEM

61.21 FORMINC AUCER",O AND

GORED PILE fiOLES TllROUGl1 UNIDENTIFIED OBSTRUCTIONS

ITEM

61.25 rORMING THE CULCOUS CASES

FOR PILES OF (DIAMETER INDICATED)

UNIT NUMBER (no)

The unit of measurement shall be the number of bulbouo bacco formed.

The bid rate shall include fun compensation for all work to be done in forming the bulbous bases but shall exclude the concrete work.

ITEM

61.26 SOCKETING PILES INTO ROCK

FORMATION (CLASS OF ROCK AND LENGTII OF SOCKET INDICATED)

UNIT NUMBER (no)

UNIT f'ROVIOIONAL SUM

The unit of measurement shall be the. number of sockets, tile length of Which shall be not less than the specified length, formed in rock, the hardness of which shall be not less than that of the specified class of rock.

A provisional sum shall be s!lowod in tho Oill of Quantities for covering the cost of this work.

Tho bid rate shall include full oompcneotlon for 011 work to be done for socketing into the rock formation.

Payment for the work authorised by the Engineer shall be in accordance with the provisions of the Conditions of Contract.

ITEM

61.22 DRIVING TEMPORARY

CASINGS FOR DRIVEN DISPLACEMENT PILING SYSTEMS OR INSTALLING PREFABRICATED PilES THflOUCI-! !D5NT1F![;;O on UNIDENTIFIED OllSTRUCTIONS

!ru. 61.27

UNIT METRE (m)

INSTALLING AND REMOVING

UNIT PROVISIONAL SUM

TEMPORARY CASINGS IN AUGERED IIOlES FOR PILES OF (DIAMETER INDICATED)

The unit of measurement shall be the metre of temporary casing instal!edas directed by the Engineer or shown on the Drawings. Only the installed temporary castnq below the average ground surface (SUIlCLAUSE 6113(h» shall be measured for payment.

A provisional sum shall be allowed in tho Dill of Qwmlili"" for eov<>rin9 tho cost of this work.

The bid rate shall include full compensation for supplying, installing and removing tho ternporery casings.

The method of payment for the work authorisod by the Engineer shall bo in accordance with the provisions of . the Condilions of Contract.

ITEM

61.23 EXTRA OVER ITEMS 61.1 G,

61.17 AND 61.19 FOR RAKING PILES:

(a) IloLES FOR PILES OF (OIAMt:;TER AND HAKE INDICATED)

(b) TEMPORARY CASING FOR DRIVEN DISPLACEMENT PILE SYSTEMS (DIAMETER AND RAKE INDICATED)

(e) PREFAl3RICATED PILES (TYPE, SIZE AND RATE INDICATED)

ITEM

61.28 iNSTALLING PERMANENT PILE

CASING FOR PILES OF (DIAMETER INDICATED)

UNIT METRE (m)

METRE(m)

The unit of measurement shall be the metre of permanent casing installed as instructed by the Engineer or shown on the Drawings. The bid rate shall includo full compensation fcr supplying and installing permanent pile casing.

METRE (m)

METRE(m}

ITEM

61.29 S ! t:l=L 1(l=IN~()!,C;t:Mt:N I IN

CAST IN SITU PILES:

(a) MILD-STEEL BARS

(b) IIIGH-YIELD-STRESS-STEEL BARS (TYF'EINDICATED)

TONNE (t) TONNE (t)

The bid rates shall include full compensation fer all additional work and incidentals for forming the pile: holes or for driving and later cxtraclinq the temporary casing, or far installing prefabricated piles to the rake shown.

ITEM

61.24 fORMING UNDERREAMS FOR

PILES OF (DIAMETER INDICATED)

!!!!!!

NUMBER (no)

The unit of measurement for steel bars shall be the tonne of reinforcement in place in accordance with the Orawings or as authorised.

PAGE 6000· 16

STANOAROSPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAOWORKS-2000

SERIES 6000 - STRUCTURES

Ties and other steel used for keeping the reinforcing steel in position shall be measured as steel reinforcing under the appropriate Subitem.

The bid rates shall include full compensation for supplying, delivering, cuffing, bending, welding, trial welds, placing and fixing the steel reinforcing, including all lying wires. spacers and waste,

removing all the special plant and equipment required for conducting the load tests on piles. This cost does not vary with the number of load tests to be conducted.

Payment for this work shall be made by way of a lump sum, 100% of which will be paid after the testing assembly has been completely assembled and the first load t .. st has b .... n started.

ITEM

61.30 CAST IN SITU CONCRETI" IN

PILES, UNDERREAMS, BULBOUS BASES AND SOCKETS (CLASS OF CONCRETE INDICATED)

Y!:m:

l":LJRtC METRE ems)

ITEM 61.35

LOAD TESTS ON PilES

UNIT NUMBER (no)

(COMPRESSLONfTJ;NSLON TEST, DIAMETER! SIZE, SPECIFIED WORKING LOAD INDICATED)

The unit of measurement shall be the cubic metre of concrete placed in the cast in situ piles underreams, bulbous bases and sockets. The quantity shall be calculated from the nominal pile diameter and length of pile from the founding level to the specmso cutting-orr leve!, plus the additional quantity of concreto in the underream and bulbous base as may be relevant.

The unit of measurement shall be the number of load tests conducted on the instruction of the Engineer, for each specified working load.

Test piles, but not anchor piles and anchors, shall be measured as specmec above for permanent plies. Anchor piles and anchors shall be deemed to form part of the testing equipment under this item.

The bid rate shall include> full compensation for supplying and storing all material, providing all plant, mixing, transporting, placing and compacting the concrete, curing tho concrete and repairing defective concrete. Payment shall tlistinguish between the different classes of concrete,

The bid rate shall Include full ocmpcncotlcn for instaUins the anchor piles and anchors where necessary; conducting load tests, and processing and submitting the results.

ITEM

61.31 EXTRA OVER ITEM 61.30 FOR

CONCRETE CAST UNDER WATER

UNIT

CUBIC METRE (m3)

!ill! 61.36

ESTABLISHMENT ON THE SITE

UNIT LUMP SUM

FOR CORE DRILLING

The unit of measurement shall be the cubic metro of concrete cast under water, the quantity being calculated as for ITEM 61.30.

The bid lump sum shall include full compensation for the establishment on the site and subsequently removing all the equipment required for conducting the core drilling. This cost does not vary with the quantity of work to be done. This work shall be paid for by way of a lump sum, 100% of which will become payable when the equipment has been set up at the first locatien and drilling hac otartod.

The bid rate shall include full compensation for all additional work, incidenlals and extra cement roquircd for placing the concrete under water.

!IEM 61.32

SPLICING/COUPLING

UNIT NUMBER (no)

!ill!

61 .37 MOVLNG THE; EQUIPMENT TO AND

ASSEMBLING IT AT EACII LOCATION WIIERE CORES ARE TO l>E DRILLED

NUMDCR

(no)

PREFA[JRICATED PilES FOR LENGTI-IENING(SIZE OF PILE INDICATED)

The unit ·ofmeasul"e.mrihl.s,la!l ·be the .. Oll;nber of splices/couplings in prefabricated piles for each size of pile. The bid rate shall include full compensation for all work required for splicing/coupling the piles in

accordance with the specilicalions. .

The unit of moasuromont shall bo tho number of locations to which tho core-drilling equipment is to be moved and at which it has to be assembled.

The bid rate shall include full compensation for the cost of moving and assembling the equipment.

lID!

61.33 STRIPPING/CunINi3 ri IE PILE

I lEADS {TYPE AND DIAMETER/SIZE OF PilE INDICATED}

UNIT NUM£3ER (no)

!ill!

61.38 DRILLING TilE CORES

(DIAMETER INDICATED) IN:

(a) CONCRETE

(b) FOUNDING FORMATION:

(i) IRRESPECTIVE OF IIARDNESS (ii) WITH A IlARDNESS OF (HARDNESS INDICATED)

METRE{m)

Tho. unit of mcaeurcment :;hull uc uie number of noaos of each type and diameter/size of pile stripped/cut.

The bid rate shall include full compensation for providing ",II toots nnrl ,;fripping/cuttinO the pile heads.

METRE{m) METRE(m)

!IEM

M.:M ESTAGLlSIlMENT ON TIfE 81T[,

FOR TilE LOAD TESTING OF PilES

LUMPSUM

Tho unlt of .. measurement shall be tho metre of hole drillod. The bid rate shall include full compensation for drllling, rQC9vering and packing tho cores, keeping the drilling .. ocords, providing core boxes, providing and installing the casings, and backfilling the holes with grout.

Tho bid lump sum shall include fut! compensatien for the. establlshrnon! on the site and subsequently

PAG!! 6000 - 17

STANDARO SPECIFICA'noNS FOR RDAD WDRKS-2000

SERIES 60liD • STRUCTURES

ITEM

61.39 FORMWORKFOR CAISSONS

(CLASS OFF'INISH INDIC"TED)

The unit of measurement shall be the number of caissons provided with cutting edges, irrespective of the material they have been constructed of.

The bid rate shall include full compensation for manufacturing, supplying, delivering and installing the complete cutting edge as well as for joining the cutting edge to the caisson unit. Where the cutting edge is of concrete and forms part of the bottom element, the bid rate shall include full compensation for all additional work required for completing the element.

UNIT SQUARE METRE (m2)

The unit of measurement shall be the square metre of formwork, and only the area of formwork in contact with the finished face of the concreto shall be measured. Formwork for construction joints shall be measured for payment under Class F1 surface finish but shall be measured only for construction joints shown on the Drawings or as prescribed by the Engineer_

The bid rate shall include full compensation for

supplying all the materials, orecting the falsework and formwork, constructing the forms, forming the grooves, fillets, chamfers, stopends tor construction joints, treating the forms, all accessories, and stripping and removing the formwork after completion of the work. Payment for formwork shall be made only after the formwork has been stripped and the surface nntsn approved.

~

61.43 SINKING (DIAMETERfSIZE

INDICATED) CAISSONS THROUGH MATERIAL SITUATED WITHIN THE FQLLOWING SUCCESSIVE DEPTH RANGES:

(a) OmUPTD5m

(b) EXCEEDING b m AND UP TO 10 rn (c) FURTHER INCREMENTS OF 5 m

METRE (m) METRE (!l!) METRE (m)

ITEM

61.40 STEEL REINFORCEMENT FOR

CAISSONS:

(a) MILO-STEEl BARS

(b) I-!IGII-YIELD-STRF!;S_STEEl GARS (TYPE INDICATED)

The limits of the successive depth ranges shall be measured down from the firm horizontal base (SUBCLAUSE 6114(b)) to tho agreed founding level (CLAUSE 6106).

TONNE (t) TONNE (t)

The unit of measurement shall be the metre of cnleeon sunk.

The unit of measurement for steel bars shall bo the tonne of reinfcrcement in placein accordance with the Drawings or as may have boon authorised.

Ties and other steel used for positioning the reinforcing steel Shall be measured as steel reinforcing under the appropriate subitem.

Tho. bid rates shall include full compensation for supplying, delivering, cutting, bonding, welding. trial wdd,ng joints, pladng and fixinG tho "1,,,,1, including all lying wiro, spacers and waste,

Irrespoctivo of tho length of caisson sunk, the quantity for naoh depth range shall be measured and paid for separately.

The bid rates shall include full compensation for locating and holding in position, dewatering, pumping, kent1edgc and lubricating the sides of the caisson, and for all work in connection with the sinking of the caisson which is not paid for elsewhere.

ITEM UNIT

61 -44 EXCAVATION FOR CAISSONS;

(a) EXC"VATING SOFT MATERIAL

SITUATED WITt liN TtiE FOLlOWING SUCCESSIVE DEPTH RANGES:

(i) 0 m UP, TO 2m

ITEM

61.41 CAST IN SITU CONCRETE IN

CAISSONS "NO CONCRETE SEALS (CLASS OF CONCRETE INDICATED)

UNIT

cumc METRE (m3)

The unit of measurement for cast in situ concroto shall bo the cubic metre of concreto in place. Concrete quantities in the caissons shall be calculated from the dimensions shown on tho Drawings or authorised by the Engineer, and the length or the caisson rlUm the founding level to the specified cut-off level. The quantity of concrete in the concrete soal shall be calculated in accordance with the dimensions shown on tho Drawings or authorised by the Engineer,

Tho bid rato shall include full compensation for procuring and furnishing all tho materials, sloring tho material, providing all plant, mixing, transporting, placing and compacting tho concreto, all sealing, curing tho concreto and repairing dclcctlvo concreto. Payment shall distinguish between the different classes of concreto.

(ii) EXCEEDING 2 m, UP TO 4 m

CUBIC METRE (m3) CUBIC METRE (m3) CUBIC METRE (m")

{iii} FURTIIER INCREMENTS OF 2 m DEPTIIS

(b) EXTR/\ OVEn SU9lT~M 61.44(,,) I'OR EXCAVATION IN ROCK MATERIAL IRRESPECTIVE OF DEPTII

CIJFlIr. METRE (rrr')

The limits for tho successive depth rangos shall be measured down from the firm horizontal base (SUI3CLAUSE G114(b)} to the excavated level inside tho caisson,

Tho unit of measurement shall 00 the cubtc metro of material, measured in tho original position before excavation. The quantity of excavation for oach depth rango shall bo calculated from tho gross area Of tho caisson in plan and the dopthcf excavation compl"tod within each depth rango.

ITEM

61.42 CUTIING EDGE FOR

(DI/\M·ETCR!3IZC INDICATED) CAISSONS

UNIT NUMllER(no)

trrospccuvo of the total depth of excavation, the quantity of material within each depth range shall be measured and paid for separately. Tho bid rates shall include full compensation for excavation in tho classified material. spoiling or stockpiling the material, hauling the excavated materia! for the free-haul distance of 1;0 km,

PAGE 6000 - 1 B

... -~---. --- ..•. ~~~~~.

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS fOR ROAD WORKS.2000

SERIES 6000 • STRUCTURES

trimming Ihe bottom of the excavation, dewatering, pumping and removing the material leaking into Ihe caisson before sealing.

ITEM

61.47 NUCLEAR INTEGRITY TESTING

ON RrlRFn PI! F.<:;~

!:!§! 61.45

FILLING THE CAISSONS

UNIT

CUBIC METRE (rn")

(a) CONSTRUCTING 5 m LONG CAlIiJRATION PILES OF(INDICATE DIAMETER)

(b) lNOTALUNG 65 mm INTeRNAL DIAMETER STEEL DUCTS IN THE PILES

(C) PERFORMING INTEGRITY TESTS USING: (i) THE NUCLEAR METHOD

(ii) THE NEUTRON METHOD

NUMBER (no)

METRE (m)

The unit of measurement shall be the cubic metre of sand placed above the concrete seal in the caisson com partments,

The bid rate shall include full compensation for supplying and placing the sand, transporting the material and compacting the material as specified.

NUMBER (no) NUMBER (no)

ITEM

61.46 STRIPPING TtiE (SIZE OF

CAISSON INDICI\TEO) CAISSON HEADS

UNIT NUMBER (no)

The unit of measurement for SUBITEM (a) shall be the number of calibration piles constructed. The unil of measurement for Subitem (b) shall be the metre of 65 rnm lnternaldiameter steel duct installed. The unit of measurement for SUBITEM (c) shall be the number of integrity tests performed by each method.

No overhaul shall be paid.

The bid rate shall include full compensation for cutting away, trimming and disposing of tho concreto rcmovod.

The bid rates shall include full compensation for procuring and furnishing all materials, constructional plant, equipment, labour and incidentals for forming the bored holes, constructing the calibration piles, installing tho steel ducts, and performing the prescribed integrity tests, complete as specified.

rno unu or measurement shall be the number ot caissons of each size stripped.

TADLE 611311

ROCK CLASSIFICATION

," Description of hardness
Unconfined
Class Description Field indicator tests compression
strength (MPa)
R1 Very sofl rock Material crumbles under firm (moderctc) blows with the sharp 1 to 3
end of gao!agicul plck and can be peeled off with a knife, it is
lao hard 10 cut a triaxialsample by hand. SPT refusal.
f<2 SoIl rock Can just be acrapcd and pee led with a knife, firm blows of the 3 to 10
,. _Rick point leave indentations 2 mm to t! mm in specimens.
R3 Medium hard rock Cannot be scraped or peeled with a knife; hand-held specimen 10 to 25
can be broken wilh the hammer end of a geological pick with. a
sin<1lc firm blow.
R4 Hard rock Point load tests shall be conducted for distinguishing between 25 to 70
R5 Very hard rock these categories. These results may be Verified by means of 70 to 200
R6 Extremely hard rock uniaxial compressive-strength tests. > 200 Classification after Core Logging Committee, Soulh African sccuon, Association of Engineering Geologists: "A guide to Core Logging for Rock Engineering" Gullelin of the Association of Engineering Geologists, Vol. XV, No.3, 1978.

THE UNITCD [1cpuouc OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF WOIlKS

PAGE (iOOO - 19

ST AN[)ARD. SPECIFICA nONS FOR ROAD WORKs-2000

-- . .

SERIES 6000: STRUCTURES

SERIES 6000 - STRUCTURES

SECTION 6200: FALSe;WORK, FORMWORK AND CONCRETE FINISH

CONTENTS:

CLAUSE

PAGE

6201 SCOPE 6202 MATERIALS 6203 GENERAl,. 6204 DESIGN

6205 CONSTRUCTION

6206 REMOVING THE FALSEWORK AND FORMWORK

6207 FORMED SURFACES, CLASSES OF FINISH

6208 REMEDIAL TREATMENT OF FORMED SURFACES

. 6209 UNFORMED SURFACES: CLASSES OF FINISH

6210 MEASUREMENT ANti PAYMENT

6000-20 6000-20 6000-20 6000-21 6000-21

6000-23

6000-24 6000-24

6000-25 6000-25

0201 SCOPE

This Section covers the design, supply and erection of all falsework and formwork used in the construction of permanent work. This Section also describes tho classes of surface finishes on fonned and unformed concrete surfaces.

6202 MATERIALS

(a) General

The materials used in the construction of falsework and formwork shall be suitable for the purpose for Which they arc , e -qulled and be of euch quality ee to produce the specified standard of work. Tho typo, grado and condition of tho material shall be subject to the Engineer's approval.

(b) Falsework

Thetimber sfructura] steel and scaffolding used sh.alt be free from defects that may prejudice the stability of the falsewcrk. Thejacks, devices, clamps and fittings shall all be in a gOOd )/IOrking order omJ ot adequate design

and strength, .

(c) Formwork

(i) . Tongue~and-groClvo bO<lrdi~g

Tongue and-grooveboarding shall be of suitably dried timber which will not warp, distort or cause dtscotouratlon . of the concrete. The widths of the boards shall be as specified on tho Drawings or in the [li!! of. Quantitios or as prescribed by the Engineer. [loards shall be supplied in lengths not "honer than 3 rn.

(il) Steel fonns to exposed surfaces

For classes F2 and F3 surface finish tho individual panels shall be assembled sufficiently rigidly and so clamped as not to deform or kick during handling or under tho pressure of the wet concreto.

The surfaces of forms which arc to be in contact with the concrete shall be ulean, free from deposits . or adhering matter, ridges or spatter which will impart irregularilles and blemish.es to tho concreto

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, M,NISTRY OF WORKS

surface, and shall also be free from indentations and warps.

(iii) Void fonners

Void formcrn· uacd in permonent work shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer.

Where void fonners of a special design are required, details thereof will be specified.

Void fonners shall be manufactured from material which will not leak, tear or be damaged during the course of construction and shall be of such tight construction as to prevent undue loss of the mortar component of the concrete through leakage. The units shall be sufficiently rigid so as not to defonn during handling or under the pressure of the wet concrete.

For mild-steel spiral-lock-formed void formers, the metal thickness shall be as fellows, unless otherwise specified:

(1) Unbraced void formers

0.6 rnrn for diameters of up to 600 mm.

0.3 mm for diameters exceeding 600 mm and

up to sao mrn, .

1_0 mmfor diameters exceeding 800 mm and

up to 1000 rnrn. .

(2) [lr<lced void formers

Q.6 rnrn for diameters of LIP to 800 mm.

0.8 mm for diameters e)(ceeding 800 mm and upto 1000 rnrn,

1_0 mni for diameters exceeding 1000 mm and up to 1200 mm,

1_2 mm for diameters exceeding 1200 mm.

The thickness specified for braced void formers shall apply to fanners intemally braced with timber or equivalent braces. The braces shall be at spacings not exceeding 2 m and not further than 1 <0 m from the end of each unit. Timber cross braces shall consist of members with crossseCtiona;i dfrnenslons 01 af leaat 50 mrn x 50 mrn,

All hollow void-fonner units shall be provided with a 12 mm diameter drainage hole at each end.

(iv) Chamfer and recess fillets

Timber fillets used for forming chamfers and recesses on exposed surfaces. shall be made from riew material unless otherwise authorised.

(v) Jack rods for slidIng femiwork

The jack rods, base plates and couplers shall be strong enough to carry the design load under all operetinq conditions without buckling, distorting or causing damage to the concrete. Jack rods which are to. remain pennanently embedded in the concrete shall comply with the requirements of CLAUSES 6303 and 6305. Under no circumstances shall bent rods be used in lhe work.

Tho jack rods used shall have a diameter of at least 25mm.

6203 GENERAL

Notwithstanding approval given by the Engineer for the design and drawings prepared by the Contractor for the falsework and formwork, and tho acceptance of Inn falseworkand Iormwork as constructed, the Contractor shall be solely responsible for the safety and adequacy of the falsework and fonnwork and shall indemnify and keeo indemnified the Employer and Engineer against any losses claims or damage to persons or property whatsoever which may arise out of or in consequence of the design, construction, use and maintenance of lhe falsework and fonnwork and against ail claims,

PAGE SOOG - 20

.!

sr AHOARO SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD WORKS·2000

SERIES 6000 - STRUCTURES

demands, proceedings, damages, costs, charges and expenses whatsoever in respect thereof or in relation thereto.

concrete cast in one operation and the method of placing and compaction.

For Works on, over, under or adjacent to any railway line which is controlled by a Rail Authority, the Contractor shall comply, inter alia, with the require merits for the prcperction end eubmieeion of drawings for falsework and formwork, and the submission of certificates for the proper construction thereof, all in accordance with the relevant Rail Authoritv Specification.

(ii) Sliding formwork

The Contractor shall be responsible for the design of the sliding formwork. Prior to fabrication or bringing the sliding formwork and any additional equipment to the site, the Contractor shall submit drawings of the complete sliding- formwork assembly to the Engineer for approval. The drawings shall show full details of the forms, jacking frames, access ladders, hanging platforms, safely rails and curing skirts as well as details of the jacks and jack layouts.

After having constructed the falsework and formwork, and prior to placing the reinforcing steel and/or the Concrete, the Contractor shall inspect the falsework and formwork. Dimensions shall be checked, unevenness of surface shall be corrected, and special attention paid, 10 the adequacy and tightness of all bolts, ties arid bracings as well as to the soundness of the foundations

The Contractor shall be required to submit to the Engineer, before slide casting commences, an instruction mafwal in which the sJiciing techniques, jacking procedure, methods of keeping the formwork level, the procedure to be adopted to flff!Vp,nt honding of tha r:onr:n'!te to the forms and a method for releasing the forms in the event of bonding, the instrumentation and monitoring of the slide casting and correcting for verticality, twisting and levelness are described in detail.

The Contractor shall give the Engineer at least24 hours notice of his intention to place the concrete to enable the Engineer to inspect all aspects of the completed work. However, before notifYing the Engineer, the Contractor shall satisfy himself that the work complies

in all respects with the Specifications. .

Tho fonnwork panels shall be. inclined to give a small taper, the forms being slightly wider at the bottom than at the top.

Concrete ooctiono with dimonsion of smaller than 200 rnrn shal.1 not be formed wilhsliding formwork unless

authorised by the Engineer. ... .

The taper shall be so designed as to produce specified concrete thickness at the mid-lift level of the form.

(a) General

The Contractor's design and drawings of the falsework and formwork shall comply amongst others with all statutory requirements.

The spacing of the jacks with their jack rods shall be so designed that the dead load of the slidingformwork assembly, the frictional load. and the mass of materials, personnel and equipment will be evenly distributed and within the design capacity of the jacks used.

6204 OESIGN

The Engineer may, require the Contractor to submit to him fer conelderation and opprcvol the dcoign and drawings of the falsework and formwork for. any structure. The Contractor shall submit his design criteria and calculations and detail drawings of the falsework and formWOrk to tho Engineer at least 14 days before the Engineer's approval is required.

6205 CONSTRUCTION

(a) Falscwork

Falsework shall be erected in accordance with the approved drawings incorporating such modifications as required by the Engineer.

(b) Falsework

The Contractor shall make his own assessment of the auowatno bearing pressure on the Ioundatlon materlal and shall design the footings and falsework to prevent overloading, differential settlement and unacceptable ()veralisettlern.enLln ass()ssing the .all()wable bearinq pressure, d,,;; aecounfsfwll 1.1,., l;>k;,,;, n(ih" (,ff"d nf y.oeUinfj on the foundation material.

In designing the Ialsework, cognisance shall. also be taken of the redistribution of load which may 'occur on account of the effect of temperature, wind force, tho prestressing of curveu. and Skqwcd· structures, stage

construction, floeding and debris. . .

The Contractor shall take precautions to prevent deterioration of the foundations during the course of constructlon.

The falsework shall incorporate features which will permit adjustment to the alignment of the formwork to nautrallse the elected seUlement and deflection under load.

(b) Formwork

(c) Formwork

0) General

The formwork for bridge decks shall be erected to levels calculated from the information given on the plans for roadworks and bridges. The levels shall be adapted to make provision for the specified prccarnber as well as for the expected deflection and 'settlement of the fully loaded falsework and tormwork. The levels shall be set out and checked at intervals not exceeding 2.5 m.

Porticulorattenlion "han· 100' given to providing transverse and diagonal bracing as well as rib stiffeners on cross bearers.

(i) General . . . . . ..

Fermwork shall be so designed as to be sufficiently rigid .to ensure tnat tilt) . :;Pt;r.;in\:u diIllCIl~i<.Jnal tolerances can be achieved undor the combined action of self-weight, dead load and imposed loads as well 'as the additional. loads resulting from the rate of cor>r:mfino. thn I:;ynr thickness of tho

Fer constructing the formwork. the Contractor may, subject to the provisions of CLAUSE 6202, use any material suitable for and compatiblc·with the cleas of surface finish and dimensional tolerances specified for the particular member.

THE UWTE.D REPUBLIC OF TANZANlII., MINISTRY OF WORKS

PAGE GOIlO - 21

ST ANDARO SPECIFICATIO~ FOR ROAD WORKS·Woo

SERIES 600(1 - STRUCTURES

Formwork shall be sufficiently rigid to maintain the forms in their correct position, shape and profile and shall be of such tight construction that the concrete can be placed and compacted without undue loss or leakage of the mortar component of the concrete.

construction of the formwork shall permit its complete removal to form the open joint.

No solvent shall be used to remove tormwork unless approved by the Engineer.

The joints between contiguous formwork elements "hall be of " tight fit and, whore ncccoaary, tho joints shall be caulked, taped or packed with a sealing gasket, all at no extra payment if undue leakage occurs or can be expected. Paper, .cloth or similar material shall not be used for this purpose.

(iv) Openings and wall chases

Openings and wall ehasoc shalt be provided only where indicated on the Drawings or as authorised by the Engineer. Frames for openings shall be rigid and firmly secured in position to prevent their moving. Temporary holes shall be so formed that they will not create an irregular pattern in relation to the rest of the exposed formed concrete surface.

The form work construction shall permit accurate erection and easy stripping without shock. disturbance or damage to the cast concrete. Where necessary. the formwork assembly shall permit the removal or release of side forms independently of

the soffit forms. .

(v) Sliding formwork

(1) Plant and equipment

Unless otherwise specified in the Special Specifications. hoisting eouiornent for slidin;:! form work, which operates stepwise with upward movoments of between 10 mm and 100 mm will be acceptable. However. the use of linked hydraulic or pneumatic jacks is preferable, which are reversible and driven by an electrically operated pump, and which can hoist at a steady rate. The jacks shall have independent controls for regulating verticality and I<>velness. The jacking system shall ensur", that the sliding-formwork assembly can be hoisted evenly.

Mp.t",1 supports. ties. hangers and accessories embedded in the concreto shall be removed to a depth of not less than the cover specified for the reinforcement. No wire ties shall be used.

All oxtemat comers shall be chamfered by nllet strips being fixed into the Gomers of tho formwork to form 25 mm x 25 mm chamfers. Re-entrant angles need not be chamfered unless specified.

Where polystyrene or similar material, susceptiblo to damage is used, it shall be lined with a hard surface on the side to be concreted. The hard material shall be sufficiently resilient to ensure that the required quality of work can be achieved.

The use of hoisting systems which operate without jack rods shall be subject to. the approval of the Engineer.

Where it is specified, all formwork tics shall be provided with recoverable truncated cones between sleeve ends and formwork faces to ensure that sleeve ends are not oxplosed on concreto surfaces. The cones shall have a minimum depth of 15 mm.

All equipment shall be thoroughly tested and inspected before installation and shall be maintained in a good working order throughout the entire sliding operation.

(ii) Formwork to enclosed surfaces

The formwork and boards shall be so arranged as to form a uniform and regular pattern in line with and perpendicular to the main axis of the member, unless otherwise approved or I.lirected by the Engineer.

The Contractor shall keep adequate back-up plant, equipment and quantities of materials on the site to ensure that the slide casting can proceed without interruption.

(2) tnstrumentauon and fIlufliturill\j

The Contractor shall supply and install suitable instrumentation on tho sliding platform and foundations and against the sides of the slmctllm for monitoring the height. verticality. levelness and twisting at regular distances. The equipment used, its utilisation and the frequency of recording any readings shall be approved by the Engineer. The Contractor shall be rosponsnne tor all monitonng wor!<.. and snan ensure that records of all readings and measurements taken are filed systematically and are at all times available to the Engineer and the· person in control of the sliding operation.

Joints between contiguous members shall, after caulking, taping or scaling; be treated to prevent btcmtehoe, stains and unduo marks from beina imparted to the concreto surface.

Bolt and tie positions shall be so arranged that they cenform to the symmetry of iho formwork panels or boards. Bolt and rivet heads which will be in contact with the formed surface shall be of the countersunk type and shall be treated to prevent marks from forming on the concrete surface.

The form work at construction joints shall be braced 10 prevent steps from forming in tho concreto surfaces at the joints between successive stages of construction. Where moulding or recess strips are specified, they shall be neatly butted or mitred.

(iii) Formwork for open joints

The requirements for Iormwork for open joints shall. unless otherwise spectnoo, apply only to cases where the distance between opposite concreto surfaces is equal to or less than 150 mm.

Unless otherwise specified, the verticality of the structure shall be controlled with laser alignment apparatus or optical plummets and the levelness of the sliding forms with a waterlevel system with reference control points placed at strategic locations.

I leight and verticality shall be monitored at intervals not exceeding four hours. The readings shall be plotted immediately on graphs. When tho structure is more than 10mm out of vcrtical, the Engineer shall be notified immediately.

Formwork for open joints shall bo constructed to produce a Class F1 surface finish to concealed surfaces or a Class F2 or F3 surface finish corresponding to tho in-plane surface finish of the bordering concrete surfaces. The material used and

THE UNiTED RePUBLIC OF TANZANIA. MINISTRY OF WOOKS

PAGE 6000 - 22

SERIES 6MB • STRUCTU,RES

(3) Supervision

During the entire period of the sliding operation o competent person who is fully acquainted with the sliding technique and the Contractor's methods of construction shall be in attendance on the sliding platfonm and in control of the sliding operations.

(4) Construction

The jacking frame shall be constructed with adequate clearance between lhe underside of the GIUSS members and top of the formwork to allow the horizontal reinforcement and embedded items to be correctly installed. A control procedure shall be agreed on by the Contractor and the Engineer to ensure that all the reinforcement is placed. At all times there shall be horizontal reinforcement above the levelof the top of the formwork panel,

them slightly every 10 minutes; or alternatively, where reversible jacks are used, by lowering the forms hy 10 mm to 25 rnm. Wherever intenruptions occur, emergency construction joints shall be formed and treated in accordance with CLAUSE 6408. Before concreting is restarted, the form shall be adjusted to tit snugly onto tile naroened concrete so as to prevent steps from being formed on the exposed concrete surface. When slide casting is recommenced, care shall be token to prevent the frash concrete from being lifted off from the old concrete.

Where the jack rods arc to be recovered, adequate' precautions shall, be taken in respect of their removal without damage being caused

to the concrete. '

Where jack rods occur afopenings or wall chases,ac!equate later;;!1 support shall be provided to prevent their buckling. Eql.lipment <lIld material. shall 'be ;;0 distributed on the working 'platforms that the load will be evenly distributed over the jacks. '

Guard, plates shall be, provided at thetops of the forms to the outside w.;lIlS to prevent the concrete from falling dqwn the outside.

The framework, forms 'and platforms shall be regUlarly cleared and uio accumulatton thereon of redundant concrete prevented.

The Contractor shall take all precautions to prevent contamination of lh", concreto hy leaking oil or ether causes.

(Vi) Permanent formwork

Void formers shall be secured in position at regular intervals to prevent displacement and distortion during concreting. The void formers shall be suppprtedon precast ccincrete blocks or rigid welded steel cradles, all subject to approval by the E"gi"e", r , Tile tie" 5"'Guring the void formere ahell be attached to the formwerk and cross bearers of the falsework. The void formers shall not be tied to or supported on the reinforcement.

Fibre-cement plates shall be supported so that the plate spans in the direction paralle! to the orientation of the asbestos fibres.

Guides shall be provroec to ensure tnat the vertical rainforcement qan becorrectly placed and the specified concrete cover over the reinforcement maintained.

(Vii) preparing the rormwork

The surfaces of forms which are to be in contact with fresh (wet) concrete shall be treated to ensure non-adhesion of the concrete to the forms and easy release from the concrete during the strippina of th"

fcirmwork. '

Release agents shall be applied ,strictly in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, and every precaution shall be taken to avoid the contamination of the reinforcement prestressing tendons and anchorages. In the selection of release agents,' due regard shall be given to the necessity for li'taiilta,kiif'1g a uniform colour and cppocroncc throughout on the exposed concrete surfaces,

Beforo the concrete is placed, all dirt and foreign matter shall be removed from the forms and the forms shall be ihoroughly wetted with water.

(5) The sliding process

The Contractor shall give tho Engineer 24 hours' notice of hls intcotlon to commence wnn slide casting. Permission to commence with the sliding shall not be given by the Engineer before tho~:icljng-fomw!ork assembly is fully operative ,md tho complelostocl(Of all materials required for the slide s'a~ting as well as back-up plant ant! equipment arc cn the site.

The Contractor shall 'cnsure that the rato of sliding is such that the COlier-SiC at (he bottom Of tile form;vork has cbf6hied i;umcicnt strcngth to supportilsGH and plllocJ::;\','!l:CI1 [Daype pl?cccl on the' COrlcrctc aU!lc'lin)o, ond that the concrete ,does not allilorc to tim' sklus uf tho

forms. ' ,

6206 REMOVING THE FALSEWORK AND FORMWORK

Falsework and formwork shall not bo removed before the concrete has attained sufficient strength to support its own mass and any loads which may be imposed on it. This condition shall be assumed to require the formwork to remain in place atter the concrete has been placed, for tho appropriate minimum period of time given in T !\[llES G206/1 to 6206/3, unless the Contractor can prove, (0 the satisfaction of the Engineer, (hat shorter periods arc sufficient to fulfil this condition. In such case tho Iorrnwork maybe removed after the shorter periods of time agreed on by the Engineer.

The ~lklc~Casti~gc~emlip:l Sll2.:1 be continuous, with,:>":'t ",ny intq':r:,pt;on~, until 111" J!,!IlhnjChl qf the structure has, been reached, mid chall bc 9C<lr()drind organi~Pdso . as to'maintain an a\lt';)ragcNteof sli(jinU cf~50 rnrn perhour,

(6) Interruptions " '

VVhen, LtlG s,IidingoperNlonscregeliweq, f()r more than 4S minuteS,tlle Contractor shall pr()yent, adhqsion of...thc selting ,conF~etc to, tI)() fp"m'!1ork panels br Gool~b ,th", f9m.o or n19.';'in!'j

PAGE 6000·23

RTAIIlOAi:ln ~r._Ir:i~r.:ATIliNS. FDR ROAD WORKS-20M

SI'RII"S &nDO _ ST"""TUR"S

TABLE 620611

REMOVING FALSEWORK AND FRAMEWORK - ORDINARY PORTLAND CEMENT

Falsework and formwork Days
for: Normal Cold
weather weather
Beam sides, walls and 1 1.5
unloaded columns
Soffits of slabs and beams
- Spans up to 3 m 4 7
- Spans 3 m to 6 m 10 17
- Spans 6 m to 12 m 14 24
-' Spans over 12 m 21 30
... TABLE 620612

REMOVING FALSEWORK AND FRAMEWORK - RAPID HARDENING ORDINARY PORTLAND CE:MENT

Falsework and formwork Days
for: Normal Cold 0)
weather weather
-Beam sides, walls and 0.5 1
unloaded columns
Soffits of slabs and beams
- Spans up to 3 m 2 4
- Spans 3 m to 6 m 5 10
- Spans 6 m to12 m 10 18
- Soans over 12 m 18 28
'j Shorter periods may be used for sections thicker
than 300 mm on approval 01 the Engineer. TABLE 620613

REMOVING FALSEWORK AND FRAMEWORK - CEMENTS WITH MORE THAN 15% BLAST FURNACE SLAG OR FL YASH

I Falsework a. nd formwork

f-orl

Days

. ,

C Id

... , orrnar 0
. weather weather
Beam sides, wal.!sand. 2 4
_ unloaded .columns .:
Soffits of slabs and beams
- Spans up to 3 m 6 10
- Spans 3 m to 6 m 14 24
- Spans 6 mto 12 m 21 28
.- spans over 12 m 28 36 Falsework and formwork shall be carefully removed without. e)(posing the . cast concrete to damage, disturbance o:r shock.

Weather may be regarded as being 'normal" when atmospheric temperatures adjacent to the concrete, as measured by a maximum-and-minimum thermometer, do not fall below 15°C, and-as "cold" when temperatures, similarly measured, fall below soC. When the minimum temperatures fall between these values, the length of the period after which the formwork may be removed, shell be between the periods specified fer normal and cold weather.

Any period during which the temperature remains below 20e shall be disregarded In calculating the minimum time which shall elapse before the forms are removed.

Of) continuously reinforced concrete . structures the falseWork . and supporting formwork shall not be removeo before trie concrete of the last pour has reached the appropriate minimum age given in TABLE 620611 or the appropriate minimum strength. Where the strucfure . is .. constructed. in st?ges,the false\oli0rk and

supporting formWork shallbe removed as specified or authorised.

On prestressed-concrete structures the falsework and supporting formwork shall be removed after the full prestressing face relating to the particular stage of construction has been applied, unless otherwise specified or authorised.

6207 FORMED SURFACES,CLASSESOF FINISH

(a) General

In addition to complying with the tolerances specified in CLAUSE 6803, the surface finish on formed concrete surfaces shall also comply with the following requirements.

(b) Class F1 surface finish

After repair work has been done to surface defects in accordance with SUBCLAUSE 6208(b), no further treatment of the. as-stripped finish will be required. This finish is required on concealed formed surfaces.

{c} CIII.l5,,1"2 <!urfll.ce finish

This finish shall be equivalent to that obtained from the .use of square-edged timber panels and boards wrought to the correct thickness, or shutter boards or steel forms arranged in a regular pattern. This finish is intended to be left as struck but surface defects shall be remedied in accordance with SUBCLAUSE 6208(b). Although minor surface blemishes and slight discolourations will be permitted, . iarge blemishes and severe stains and cllscolouratlon shall be repaired where so clrected by the E,ngineer.

(d) Class F3 surface finish

This finish shllil be that obtained by first prOducing a Class F2 surface finish with joint marks whieh form an approved regular pattern to frt in with the appearance of the structure. All projections shall then be removed, irregu1<lrities repaired and the surface rubbed or treated to form a smooth.finishof uniform texture, appearance,' and colour. This surface rflnlsh is . required oil alr'-' exposed. formed surfaces unless a Class F2 finish is specified.

Unless specified to the contrary, steel forms may be used to form surfaces with a Class F3 surface finish.

(e) Board surface finish

This finish shall be that obtained by using tongue-andgroove timber boarding arranged in an approved regular pattern. The finish is intended to be left as struck but surface defects shall be remedied in accordance with SUBCLAUSE 6208(b) and large fine trimmed where direct~ by the Engineer:

(f) Protecting the surfaces

The Contractor shall ensure that permanently enclosed concrete surfaces are. protected from rust marks, spillage and stains of all kinds arid other damage during construction.

6208 REMEDIAL TREATMENT OF FORMED SURFACES

(a) General

Agreement shall be reached between the Engineer and the Contractor regarding any remedial treatment to be given after the surfaces have been inspected immediately oftor the formwork has been removed, which treatment shall be carried out without delay. No surfaces may be treated before inspection by the Engineer.

TOiE UNITED REPUBl'COF TANZAN'A. M'N'STRYOFWORKS'

PAGE 6000 - 24

0- .

STANDARD -SPECIFICATiON:S FOR ROAD WORKs-2000

SERIES 6000 - STRUCTURES

(b) Repairs to surface defects

Surface defects such as small areas of honeycombing, cavities produced by form ties. large isolated blowholes: broken comer edges, etc, shall be repaired with mortar having a cement and sand ratio equal to that of the concrete being repaired.

For me repair of large or deep areas of honeycombing and defects, special approved methods and techniques, such as pneumatically applied mortar pressure grouting, epoxy bonding agents, etc, may be used.

Where, in the opinion of the Engineer, the extent of the honeycombing or defects is of such a degree that doubt exists about the effectiveness of repair work, the Contractor shall at his own cost perform a load test in accordance with SUBCLAUSE 6414(b) to prove that the structural safety of the repaired member has not been prejudiced. failing Which, ttJ.esti-ucture shall be reb~i!t in

part or in full at the Contractor's cost.· ..

Where the concrete has been damaged by adhesion to the formwork panel, the cracked and loose concrete shall be removed; or where the fresh concrete has lifted off at. construction joints. the. crack s1:1all be scraped out immediately on both sides of the wall to a depth. of at least 50 mm. Tho. cavities so formed shall then be repaired as described above.

(c) RUbbing the surtaces

If the finish of exposed fomied surfaces does not complywith the requirements fer uniformity of texture, appearanceand colour, the Contractor shall, when So instructed by the Engineer, rub down Ih.,. exposed surfaces of the entire structure or of any part of it as specified bel(l\.v.

The surface shall be saturated with water for at least on~ 110ur, Ini!i<J1 rubbing shall be done with a rnedtumcoarse carborundum stone, where ;;J: small amount of mortar, h,wing a sand and. cement ratio equal to that of the. concrete. being repaired .isused .. on the surface, Rub~jfig' ~ha,H be Gonti!lued, wf~i!_, an fOiiii_ "marka, projectionsand irr691.11arities have been removed and a uniform surface has been obtained. The paste produced by the rubbing shall be lof! in place. The final rubbing shall be carried out with a fine carborundum stone and. water, This rubbing shaUco~tinue until the entire. surface is of a smooth, even texture and is \.1·niform in ·coIQur. The surface shall then ··be washed with. a brush to remove surplus paste and powder.

Where the concrete surfaces formed by sliding formWorkrequire treatment to achieve the surface finish specified for the member, lhe Concrete shall, as soon as the curiac",,· under t!:le fonnv"ork. are exposed, 09 floated with rubber-lined floats to the desired finish,

6209 UNFORMED SURFACES: CLASSES OF FINISH

(a) Class U1 surface finish (rough)

This surface finish is required on thoso portions of bridgo decks or culvert decks which are to receive bituminous or concrete surfacing or. which aro 10 be covered by backfilling material.

Where tne pial,;jll\J and l,;ulllpac;!ing of the concreto have been completed as specified ·in CLAUSE G407, the top surface shall be scroeded erf with a template to the required cross-section and tamped wilh a tamping hn"rd In r.nmp"r.t the surface Iharcugh!y and to bring mortar to the surface, so as to leave the surface slightly rough but generally at the required elevation.

(b) Class U2 surface finish {floated}

This surface finish is required on sidewalks, the tops of wing walls and retaining walls. exposed concrete shoulders and unsurfaced areas on bridge decks, and the inverts of box culverts.

The surface shall first be given a Class U1 surface finish ana after me concrete nas narneneo sufficiently, it shall be wood-floated to a uniform surface free from trowel marks. For non-skid surfaces such as on sidewalk's and bridge decks, the surface shall then be giv"n a broom finish. The corrugations so produced shall be approximately 1.0 mm deep, uniform of appearance and width and shall be perpendicular to the centre line of the pavement.

(c) Class U3 surface finish (smoothly finished)

This surface finish shall be required at bearing areas and the tops of concrete railings. The surface shall first be given a Class U1 surface finish, and after the concrete has hardened sufficiently, it shall be floated with a steel float to a smooth surface to within the dimensional tolerances specified in SUBCLAUSE 6803(h).

Rubbing with carborundum stone after the concrete has hardened shall be all()wed but under no circumstances will plastering of the surface be permitted.

6210 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

ITEM

62_01 FORMWORK TO PROVIDE [CLASS

OF FINISH INDICATED AS F1, F2. F3 OR BOARD) SURFACE FINISH TO (DESCRIPTION OF MEMBER TO WHICH APPLICABLE)

ITEM

6;1'.02. VERTICAL FORMWORK TO

PROVIDE (CLASS OF FIN!S!:lINDICATED . AS 1"1, F2, 1"3 OR BOARD) SURFACE FINISH TO (DESCRIPTION OF MEMBER TO WHICH APPLICABLE)

ITEM

02.03 IloRIZO(HAL FORMWORK. TO

PROVIDE (CLASS OF FINISH INDICATED AS F1, F2, F3 OR BOARD) SURFACE FINISH TO (DESCRIPTION OF MEMBER TO WHICH APPLICABLE)

ITEM

62.04 INCLINED FORMWORK TO

PROVIQE (CLASS OF FINISH INDICATED AS 1"1,1"2, F3 OR BOARD) SURFACE FINISII TO (DESCRIPTION OF MEMBER TO WIIlC!1 APPLlCA13LE)

.\mIT

SQUARE METRE (m2)

UNIT :OUUAt<1;:

METRE (m')

SQUARe METRE (rn")

UNIT SQUARE METRE (m2)

The unit of measurement shall be the square metre, and only the actual area of formwork in contact with the finished face of the concrete shan be measured. r=onnwork. for llicidifferontclasses of finish shall be measured sepami6ly; Formwork for construction joints shall be measured for paymontunder ClassF1 surface finish, !Jut cmly forinworkfor mandatory construction joint3' shull be rnccocrcd for payment.

The bid rates shall include full compensation for procuring and furnishing all materials required, erecting the. falsework and Iormwork, constructing the forms,

TUE,UNiTEO REPUBLIC OF TANlmlA, MINISTRY OF WORKS

PAGE 6000 - 25

STANDARD SPECifiCATIONS FOR ROAD WORKS'2OOQ

$ERU;:S 6000 • STRUCTURES

forming the grooves, fillets, chamfers and stop-ends for construction joints, treating and preparing the forms. all bolts, . nuts, ties. struts and stays. stripping and removing the formwork: aner completion of the work. all labour. equipment and incidentals, and rubbing and surface treatment. Payment of 80% of the amount due for formwork Will be made when the formwork has been .... moved, and payment of the .... maining 20% will be made on approval of the concrete surface finish.

iTEM

62.08 TRANSPORTING TO AND SETTING

LIP THF sr InlMG FORMWORK ASSI:MBL v AT (DESCRIPTION OF EACH STRUCTURE)

UNIT NUMBER (no)

The unit of measurement shall be the number of structures to which the complete sliding-formwork assembly has to be transported and set up in position ready to be commissioned.

Note: Vertical and horizontal formwork shall be the formwork of which inclination of the finishing surface in relation to the horizontal level shall be larger and smaller than 40° respectively. Inclined formwork shall be the form work described as such in the Bill of Quantities.

. ITEM

62.05 PERMANENT FORMWORK

(OEOCl1If'TION or MCMocn TO WI nC11 APPLICABLE)

The bid rate shall include full compensation for all costs Involved In dismantling, transporting and erecting of the complete sliding-formwork assembly.

UN!T SQUARE MCTRE (m2)

1m!

62.09 FORMING THE CONCRETE BY

SLIDING FORMWORK FOR (DESCRIPTION OF EACH STRUCTURE AND CLASS OF SURFACE FINISH TO EXPOSED SURFACES INDICATED)

UNIT METRE(m)

UNIT SQUARE METRE (m2)

The unit of measurement shall be the metre height of each structure formed by sliding formwork. The Quantity measured shall be the actual height of each structure formed by the sllding technique;

The bid rate shall include full compensation for sliding, Instrumentation and monltonng, the maintenance of the complete sliding-folinwork assembly, plant and equipment. supplying, installing and recovering the jack rods. floating, repairing and treating the concrete surfaces, forming the emergency· construction joints, and all labour, equipment and incidentals.

The unit of measurement shall be the square metre of concrete area formed with permanent formwork

The bid rates shall include full compensation for procuring and furnishing all the materials required, installing the formwork, and labour, equipment and incidentals.

ITEM

62.06 FORMWORK TO FORM OPEN

JOINTS (DESCRIPTION OF MEMBER TO WHICH APPLICABLE, AND LOCATION)

The unit of measurement shall be the. square metre of concrete area formed .

. Surfaces formed prior to the construction of the final eurfeeo for ccmp'!ctir:g toe jO!=1t~ shaH be meeeured under ITEMS 62.01, 62.02, 62.03 or 62.04, as may be applicable.

The bid rate shall include· full compensation for procuring and furnishing. aU the materials required. constructing the fonnwork and subsequently removing all the material within the joint space, as well as labour, eqUipment and incidentals. Payment for foimwork to open joints shall be made only after the forms ·and fillel material have been completely removed and approval

of the surface finish has been obtained. .

ITEM

62.07 ESTABLISHMENT ON THE SITE FOR

SLIDING FORMWORK OPERATIONS

UNIT LUMP SUM

The bid lump sum shan include full compensation for the' establishment oil the site and the subsequent removal of the complete. s!lding·formwork assembly. special plant and equipment, and incidentals for the sliding work, the cost of which does not vary with the actual amount of sliding work done,

This work will be paid for by way of a lump sum. 75% of which will become payable whtm the ::>liding-fofTTlwork assembly, plant and equipment have been fully installed at the first structural member on the site. and the remaining 25% will become payable after all Sliding work has been completed and the said items have been removed from the site.

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF T AtlZANIA, MINISTRY OF· WORKS

P I,._GE 6000 • 26

STANDAADSPEC!FlCATIONS FOR ROADWORKS-2000

SERIES 6000; STRUCTURES

SERlES 6000 • STRUCTUR"'''

SECTION 6300: STEEL REINFORCEMENTFORSTRUCTURES

CONTENTS:

CLAUSE

PAGE

6301 SCOPE 6302 MATeRIALs

6303 STORING THE MATERIALS

6304 BENDING THE REINFORCING STEEL 6305 SURFACE CONDITION

6306 PLACING AND FIXING

6307 COVER AND SUPPORTS

6308 LAPS AND JOINTS

6309 WELDING

6310 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

6000-27 (lOOO-27 6000-27 6000-27 6000-27 6000·27 6000-27 6000-28 6000-28 6000-28

6301 SCOPE

This Section covers the furnishing and placing of reinforcing steel in concrete structures.

6302 MATERIALS

(a) Steel bars

Steel reinforcing bars shall comply with the requirements of BS 4449 or equivalent on the approval of the Engineer unless where otherwise noted on the Drawings. For each consignment of steel reinforcement delivered on the site, the Contractor shall submit a certificate issued by a recognised testing authority to confirm that the steel complies with the specified requirements.

(b) Welded steel fabric

Welded steel fabric shall comply with the requirements of AASHTO M55 or equivalent on approval of the Engineer. The grade of wire shall be W4 in accordance with AASHTO M32 or equivalent on approval of the Engineer unless where otherwise noted on the DraWings. The grid Shall be 100 mm x 100 mm unless where otherwise noted on the Drawings.

(c) Mechanical couplers

A.II mQchanical couplers used shall be subject to the approval of.· the Engineer. The tensile properties determined on a test sample which consists of reinforcing bars butt-jointed by a mechanical coupler shall comply with requirements as given in the Special Specifications.

6303 STORING THE MATERIALS

Reinforcing steel shall be stacked off the ground and, in aggressive environments, shall be stored under cover.

6304 BENDING THE REINFORCING STEEL Reinforcement shall be cut or cut and bent to the dimensions shown on the bending schedules cllld in accordance with [3S 4466 or as prescribed by the Engineer.

No . flame-cutting of high-tensilG steet bars shall be permitted except when authorised.

All bars with less than 32 mm in diameter shall be bent cold and bending shall be done slowly, a steady, even pressure being exerted without Jerking or impact,

If approved, the hot bending of bars of at least 32 mm in diameter will be permitted, provided that the bars do not depend .on cold working for their strength. When hot

bending is approved, the bars shall be heated slowly to a cherry-red heat (not exceeding 840°C) and shall be allowed to cool slowly in air after bending. Quenching with water shall not be permitted.

Already bent reinforcing bars shall not be re-bent at the same spot without authorisation.

6305 SURFACE CONDITION

When the concrete is placed around the reinforcing steel and/or dowels, the reinforcing steel and/or dowels shall be clean, free from mud, oil, grease, paint, loose rust, loose mill scale or any other substance which could have an adverse chemical effect on the steel or concrete, or which could reduce the strength of bond.

6306 PLACING AND FIXING

Reinforcement shall be positioned as shown on the Drawings and shall be firmly secured in position within the tolerance given in SUBCLAUSE 6803(f) by being tied with 1.6 mm or 1.25 mm diameter annealed wire or by suitable clips being used, or, where authorised, by tack welding. Any cover and spacer blocks required to support the reinforcement shall be as small as may be conelstent with their use and shall be of an approved material and design.

The concrete cover over the projecting ends of ties or clamps shall comply with the specifications for concrete cover over reinforcement detailed in TABLE 630611 at the end of the Section.

Where protruding bars are exposed to the elements for an Indefinite period, the bars shall be adequately protected against corrosion and damage and shall be properly cleaned before being permanently encased in concrete.

In members which are formed with sliding formwork, spacer ladders. for placing and. fixing. the wall reinforcement shall be used at spacings indicated on the Drawings or as prescribed by the Engineer. The spacer ladders shall consist of two bars 3_7 m in length with ties 4 mm in diameter welded to them to resemble a ladder. The ties shall be spaced at multiples of the horizontal bar spacing in the wall, and shall be used to secure tho horizontal reinforcement. The laps ·;n the horizontal reinforcement shall be staggered to ensure that no part of two laps in any four consecutive layers lie in the same vertical plane.

6307 COVER AND SUPPORTS

The term "cover" in this context shall mean the minimum thickness of concrete between the surface of the reinforcement and the face of the concrete.

The minimum cover shall be as shown on the Drawings. Where no cover is indicated, the minimum cover provided shall be at least equal to the appropriate values shown in TABLE 6306/1 at the end of the Section.

The cover shall be increased by the expected depth of any surface treatment. e.c, when concrete is bush hammered or when rebates are provided.

Additional cover as prescribed by the Engineer shall be provided if porous aggregates are used.

The cover blocks or spacers required for ensuring that the specified cover is obtained shall be of a material, shape and design acceptable to the Engineer.

Concrete. spacer blocks shall be made with 5 mm maximum sized aggregate and shall be of the same strength and material source as those of the surrounding concrete. The blocks shall be formed in

THE UNITED REFUBUC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF WORKS

PAGE 6000 - 27

STANDARD SPECifICATIONS FOR ROAD WOf<KS-2()OO

SERIES 6000 - STRUCTURES

specially manufactured moulds and the concrete compacted on a vibratory table, and cured under water for a period of at least 14 days, all to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

The unit of measurement for weldeci steel fabric shall be the tonne of welded steel fabric in place, the quantity of which shall be calculated from the area of the mesh useo m accordance with the DraWIngs or as authorised.

Ties, "stools and other steel" used for positionlnq the reinforcing steel shall be measured as steel reinforcement under the appropriate Subitem.

Ties cast into spacer blocks shall not extend deeper into the spacer block than half the depth of the spacer block,

The Contractor shall provide stools as shown on the Drawings, or where they are not detailed on the Drawings, wherever the Engineer requires them to be installed. The stools shall be suitably robust, and fixed securely 50 that they can not swivel or move. The stools shall have sufficient strength to perform the required functions, taking into account amongst others temporary loads such as the weight of workmen and wet concrete, and forces caused by vibrators and other methods of compacting the concrete.

The bid rates shall include full compensation for supplying, delivering, cutting, bending, welding, trial weld joints, placing and fixing the steel reinforcement, including all tying wire, spacers and waste.

6308 LAPS AND JOINTS

laps, joints, splices and mechanical couplings shall be applied" only by the specified methods" and at the positions shown on the Drawings or as authorised.

6309 WELDING

Reinforcement shall be welded only where shown on the Drawings or as authorised.

Flash butt welding shall be done only With the combination of flashing, heating, upsetting and annealing to the satisfaction of the Engineer, and only those machines Which control this cycle of operations automatically shall ba used.

Metal"arc . welding of reinforcement shall be done in accordance with BS 5135, and with the recommendations of the reinforcement manufacturers, subject to approval by the Engineer and the satisfactory performance of trial joints. Hot·rolied. hi~h-yield-stress steel shall be preheated to between 240 C and 280°C and low-hydrogen electrodes only may be used.

Trial welding joints shall be made on the site in "circumstances similar to those which will govern during the mCiking of production welding joints by the person who will be responsible for the production welding

jolnts, ."

Other methods of welding CD resistance welding, may be used subject to. approval by the Engineer and to their satisfactory performance In trial joints.

Weided joints shall be" fun-strength welds and their strength ". shall be assessed by destruction tests on samplessalectGd by the Engineer_

6310 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

!.ISM

63.01 STEEL REINFORCEMENT FOR:

(a) (DESCRIPTION OF PORTION OF

OTJ<UCTUI<ETO WHICH I\PPLlCI\OLE):

(i) MILD STEEL BARS

(ii) HIGII·YIELD-STRESS-ST[:EL GARS (TYPE INDICATED)

(iii) WELDED STEEL FA!3RIC

(b) ETC FOR OTHER STRUCTURES OR PARTS OF STRUCTURES"

TONNE(t) TONNE (t)

TONNE (tl TONNE (t)

The unit of measurement for stool bars shall be the tonne of reinforCing steel in place in accordance with the Drawings or as authorised.

TH"E UNIT"-DHEPUBLIC Of TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF WORKS

PAGE 6000 - 28

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS fOR ROADWORKS-2000

SERIES 6000 • STRUCTURU

TABLE 630611

MINIMUM CONCRETE COVER OVER REINFORCEMENT

Condition of exposure Description of members/surface to which the Min cover
cover applies _(mm) ,
Class of concrete
20 25 30 40 50
1. MODERATE:: 1.1 Surfaces protected by th" "llp"rstructure. viz.
Concrete surfaces above the sides of beams and the undersides of
ground level and protected slabs and other surfaces not likely to be
against alternately wet and moistened by condensation 50 45 40 35 25
dry conditions caused by
water, rain and sea-water 1.2 Surfaces protected by a waterproof cover or
spray permanent formwork not likely to be
subjected to weathering or corrosion 50 45 40 35 25
1.3 Enclosed eurfcocc 50 45 40 35 25
1 _4. Structures/members permanently submerged 50 45 40 35 25
1 .5 Railway structures:
(I) Surfaces of precast elements not in
contact with soil NA NA NA 3D 30
(ii) Surfaces protected by permanent
rormworknot likely to be subjected to
weathering or corrosion NA 30 30 30 30
(iii) Surfaces in contact with ballast NA 55 50 50 45
(iv} All other surfaces NA 50 40 40 35
......
2. SEVERE: 2.1 All exposed surfaces NA 50 45 40 35
Concrete surfaces 2.2 Surfaces on which condensation takes place NA 50 45 40 35
exposed to hard rain and 2_3 Surfaces in contact with soil NA 50 45 40 35
alternately wet and dry 2.4 Surfaces permanently under running water NA 50 45 40 35
conditions 2.5 Rililway structures:
(I) Surfaces of precast elements not in
contact with soil NA NA NA 30 30
(ii) .o,urfa~e5 protected by permanent
formwork not likely to be subjected to
weathering or corrosion NA 30 30 30 30
(iii) Surfaces in contact with ballast NA 55 50 50 45
(iv) AJI other surfaces NA 50 40 40 35
2.0 Cast in situ piles:
(i) Wet cast against casing 50 50 50 50 50
(Ii) Wet cast against soil 75 75 75 75 75
(III) Dry cast aqalnst :;uil 75 75 75 76 76
3. VERY SEVERE: 3.1 All exposed surfaces of structures within
Conorete surfaces 30km from the se:;t NA NA NA 60 50
exposed to aggressive 3.2 Surfaces in' rivers polluted by industries
water, sea-water spray or a NA NA NA 60 50
saline atmosphere
3.3 Cast in situ piles, wet cast against casings NA NA NA 80 80
4. EXTREME: 4.1 Surfaces in contact with sea water or
Concrete surfaces industrially polluted water NA NA NA 65 65
exposed to the abrasive
action of sea water or very 4.2 Surfaces in contact with marshy conditions NA NA NA 65 55
aggressive water .~

THE UNITED REPuauc OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF WORKS

PAGE 6000 - 29

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD WORKS-2000

SElUes 6000 • STRIICTUfiES

SERIES 6000: STRUCTURES

(2) For use in other reinforced concrete members the shrinkage of the fine aggregate shall not p'l{cp.p.d 175% ,md nf thp. c .oarse aogregate 1500/0 of that of the reference aggregate.

SECTION 6400: CONCRETE FOR STRUCTURES

(3) For use in mass concrete substructures and unreinforced concrete head walls and wing wails, the ShrinKage Of both the tine at\<l coame aggregate shall not exceed 200% of that of the reference aggregate.

CONTENTS:

CLAUSE

PAGE

6401 SCOPE 6402 MAIt:.KlAI.S

6403 STORING THE MATERIALS 6404 CONCRETE QUALITY

6405 MEASURING THE MATERIALS 84m; MIXING

6407 PLACING AND COMPACTING 6408 CONSTRUCTION JOINTS 6409 CURING AND PROTECTING

6410 ADVERSE WEATHER CONDITIONS 6411 PIPES AND CONDUlTS

6412 ApPLIED LOADING

6413 PREcAsrCoNCRETE

6414 QUALITVOFMATERIALSAND WORKMANSj.jIP

6415 DEMOLITION AND REMOVAL OF EXISTING STRUCTURAL CONCRETE 6416 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

6000-30 6000-30 6000-31 6000-31 6000-32 5000-33 6000-33 6000-34 6000-35 6000-35 5000-36 6000-36 6000-36

(ii) The flakiness index of the stone as determined by CML Method 2.4 shall not exceed 35%.i.

(iii) Aggregates shall not contain any deleterious amounts of organic materials such as grass, timber or similar materials.

Where thet.. is any doubt about the sr.linkage characteristics of aggregates, the Contractor shall submit a certificate by an approved laboratory which gives the shrinkage characteristics of the aggregate.

The drying shrinkClge of concrete samples made from each of the required three concrete mixtures for preparing the compressive-strength and flexuralstrength samples shall not exceed 0.04%.

6000-38

6000-36 6000-37

6401 SCOPE

This Section covers the manufacture, transport, placing ann testing Of concrete used In !he Works where plain, reinforced or prestressed concrete is specified.

(iv) Where there is any danger of a particular combination of aggregate ana cement giving rise to a harmful alkali-aggregate reaction, the particular combination shall be tested in accordance with the relevant testing methods as described in CLAUSE 7502, and, where the result points to such reaction, either the aggregate or the cement or both shall be replaced so thai an acceptable combinalion may be obtained.

6402 MATERIALS

(a) Cement

Cement used for concrete shall be any of the following:

(() Ordinari Portland cement or rapid-hardening

Portland cement complying with the requlrernents of TZS 177;1999, [3S 12 of the latest issue or equivalent standard on approval of the Engineer.

(ii) Portland blast-furnace cement complying with the requirements of MSHTO M240"97 or equivalent standard on approval of tho Engineer.

(ii) SUlptiate-resistant cement, but only where shown on the Drawings or instructed by the Engineer.

(iv) In prestressed concrete members or units the use of Portland blast-furnace cement will nol be permitted; A 50150 mixture of ordinary Portland cement and grouOd granuillted blast-furnace slag may be used only if authorised in the Special SpGcifjcations orby the Enginoer, in writing

(II) The fineness modulus of the tine aggregate shall not vary py more than ±O.2 from the approved modulus.

(0) Plums .

Plums used in concrete shan comply with the follOwing

(i) The plums shall be clean, durable and inert.

(ii) The aggregate crushing value may not exceed 25%.

{iii} The mass of each plum shall be between 15 kg and 551>:.g.

(iv) No dimension of any plum shall be less than 150 mm or exceed 500 mm.

(d) Water

Water shall be clean and free from detrimental concentrations of acids, alkalis, salts, sugar and other organic or chemical substances that could impair the durability and strength of the concrete or the imbedded steel. The Contractor shall prove the suitability of the water by way of tests conducted by an approved laboratory to the satisfaction of tho Engineer. For reinforced and prestressed concrete the chloride content of tho mixing water shall not exceed 500 mgll when tested in accordance with SABS 202 or equivalent.

(b) Aggregates

Goth coarse aggregate (stone) and fine aggregate (sand) shall comply with tho requirements of CMl. Materials Testing Manual or equivalent, subject to the

following: .

(i) The drying shrinkage of both the finc and coarse 3ggrGg3tO whon -. tos:t",jin accordance with CML Laboratory Testing Manual or equivalent shall not exceed the following limits:

(1) For use in prestressed concrete, concreto bridge decks and slender columns !hr;>. shrinkage of both fine and coarse aggregate shall nol exceed 130 % of that of the reference aggregate.

(0) Admixtures

Admixtures shall not be used in concrete without the approval of the Engineer who may require that tests be conducted before the admixtures be used to prove their suitability. Admixtures, if their use is allowed. shall comply with lho following requIrements:

TIlE. u",rEoRr;Puuuc OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF WORKS

PAGE 6000 - 30

.:S:..:cTA:::.N:::D=AR.::O~S::..P=EC=IF..:.:jC=AT='O=N=S..:.FO=R.:.:R..:.:OA:::.=D.:.:W~O=RK..:.:S:..:-2=O=OO:...._ ---" ~___==SERIES 6000 - STRUCTURES

(i) Admixtures shall be used only in liquid form and shall be batched in solution in the mixing' water by mechanical batcher capable of dispensing the admixture in quantities accurate to WIthin 5'10 or the required quantity.

6404 . CONCRETE QUALITY

(ii) All admixtures shan comply with the requirements of ASTM C-494 or AASHTO M-194 and shall be of an approved brand and type.

(a) General

Concrete shall comply with the requirements for strength concrete or prescribed-mix concrete, as specified in SUBCLAUSES 6404(b) and (c) below.

(iii) Air entraining agents shall comply with the

requirements of ASTM C-260 or AASHTO M·154.

(iv) Admixtures shall not contain any chlorides.

(f) Curing agents

Curing agents shall be tested in accordance with ASTM C-156 and shall comply with the requirements of ASTM Cc309, except that the loss of water within 72 hours shall not exceed 0.40kg/m2• Approved curing agents only shall be used.

The lu!ai alkallne content (Na,O equivalent) of the concrete shall be limited taking into account the degree of reactivity.

(b) Strength concrete

The Contractor shall be responsible for the design of the concrete mix and for the proportions of the constituent materials necessary for producing concrete which complies With the requirements specified below for each class of concrete.

The class of concrete is indicated by the characteristic 28-day cube crushing strength in MPa and the maximum ";2" of coarse aggregate in the mix.

(a) Cement

Cement stored on the site shall be kept under cover which provides. adequate protection against moisture and other factors which may. promote deterioration of the cement,

E.g. CLASS 30/3S· concrete means concrete with a characteristic cube crushing strength of 30 MPa after 28 days and a maximum sized

coarse aggregate of 38 mm. .

The aggregate size shall be selected in accordance with SABS 1083 or equivalent.

The characteristic cube crushing strength of strength concrete shall be of any strength from 15 MPa, in increments of 5 MPa, up to 60 MPa, as indicated on the Drawings or in the Bill of Quantities or as m"'y hF! prescribed by the Engineer. The strengths preferred are

15,20,25,30,40,50 and 60 MPa. .

The cement content for any class of concrete shall not exceed 500 kg per cubic metre of concrete.

Wherefor reasons of durability or other considerations concrete is designated by the prefix OW".

E.g. CLASS W30/19, such designations shall denote concrete having 1'l cementitious content not less than and a water.cement ratio not exceeding the limits given in the Special Specifications.

In such cases, characteristic cube compressive strengths should be:

(i) the specified 28-day characteristic cube

compressive strength, or

6403 STORING THE MATERIALS

When the cement is supplied in bags, the bags shall be closely and neatly stacked to a height not exceeding 12 bags and arranged so that theY will not be in contact with the ground or the walls and can be used in the order in which they were delivered to the site.

Cement in bulk shall be stored in waterproof containers so designed as to prevent any dead spots from forming, and the cement drawn for use shall be measured by mass.

Cement shall not be kF!pt in "tnr"!)F! for longer than eight weeks without the Engineer's -, permlsslon, and different brands and/or types of the. saflle brand. of

cement shal.1 be storedseparately, ... .

(b) Aggregates

Aggregates of different nominal. sizes shall be stored separately and. in such a manner as to avoid segregation occtirring.lntermlxingof different materials and contamination by foraign matter ch",11 be avoided. Aggregates exposed to a marine el:1vlronment shall be covered to protect them from salt contamination.

Where concrete ls batched en site the aggregates shall be stored in bins with a ·3 m wide concrete apron slab constructed around the outer edge' of the aggregate stockpile area to prevent contamination during the process of tipping and .hoi;sting' ., the aggregate. The aggregates shan be tipped on the concrete apron slab. The storage bin shall have a concrete floor of15o mm

thickness. ... .

(ii) a characteristic cube corresponding to the water:cement ratio, or

compressive strength designated maximum

(iii) a characteristic cube compressive strength corresponding to the deSignated cementitious

content. .

(c) Storage capacity

The storage capacity provided and the quantity Qf material stored (whether cement, aggregates or water) shall be sufficient to ensure that no interruptions to the progress of the. work will be occasloned by any lack of

materials. ..

Before starting with any concrete work on the site, the Contractor· shall submit, for. approval, samples of the constituent materials of the concrete and a statement of the mix proportions which he proposes to use for each class of concrete indicated in the Bill of Quantities.

Where any change occurs in the material sources, the aggregate sizes, or any other components of the concrete, the above procedure shall.be repeated.

(d) Deteriorated materia! .

Deteriorated or contaminated .or otherwise damaged matorialsl)all not PI'> used in c<;nernto: S:uch material shall be removed from thesito without delay,

The somplq;l Gubmi~ed."hall be acccmpenied by evidence that they comply with the requirements for the various materials specified. The statement regarding the mix proportions shall be accompanied by evidence establishing that concrete made from the materials in

THE UNITED REPUBLic o.F TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF Wo.RKS

PAGE 5000 - 31

STANDARD Sf'ECIFtcATIONS FOR ROAQ WORl(S-2000

SERIES GOGO • STRUCTURES

the proposed proportions will have the specified properties.

Evidence shall be in th., form of:

{i) a statement regarding the test results, which shall be furnished by an approved laboratory; or

(II) an authoritative report on previous use of and experience in regard to the material.

The actual mix proportions used as well as any chang"" thamto shall be eubjcet to the Engineer's approval, but such approval shall not in any way relieve the Contractor of his responsibility for producing concrete with the specified propernes.

The Contractor is cautioned that the quality of cement may vary considerably from consignment 10 consignment' so as to necessitate adjustments in the cement content of mixes. In order to ensure a unifonn quality of concrete, the Oontractnr shall obtain from the manufacturer the dal'" regarding the relevant cement quality for each consignment with a view to ascertaining the required adjustment in tho cement content. This ihfonnation shllil be submitted tn tho Fnaim'"r

(c} Prescribed-mix concrete

The Contractor shall submit samples of every constituent of tho concrete in accordance with the appropriate provisions of SECTION 7200 and SUBCLAUSE 6404(b) for approval.

The nominal mixes . for prescribed-mix concrete for which no strength rGquirGn)entc hove been laid down

are shown in TABLE 6404/1. .

The class of concrete is indicated by the mix and the maximum size of the coarse aggregate in the mix.

E.g.

CLASS 1:7:7/38 concrete shall mean concrete with a prescribed mix in a volume ratio of:

one part of cement .

seven parts of sand seven parts of stone

nominal stone size of 38 rnm.

Cd) Bleeding

The concreto shall be so proportioned with suitable matcrials that bleeding is not exccsslve.

TAOU: (J404f1 NOMINAL MIXES

Constituent or property Mix
1.:7:7 1:5:5 1:4:4
Cement (kg) 50 50 50
Total quantity of 026
aggregate (m3) OA6 0.33
Max total quantity of
water (I) 62 46 37
Estimated averago 28 day
compressive strength
(MPa) 8 17 24 (c) Consistency and workability

The concrete shall be of suitable workability without the excessive use of water so that it can be readily compacted into tho corners of the fonnwork and around the reinforcement, tendons and ducts without the material segregating.

Slump measurements obtained in accordance with the test method described in CMl Method 2.11 on concrete used in the Works shall fall within the ranges specified in TAoLe 8404f2.

TABLE 6404/2 SWMPVAWES

Type of construction Slump (mm) 0)
Max Min
Prestressed concrete 75 25
Concrete nosings and pre-
fabricated units 75 50
Mass concrete 100 25
Reinforced concrete footings,
cast in situ piles (except dry-cast
piles), slabs, beams and
columns 125 50
*) Where high-frequency vibrators are used. the
values shall be reduced by one-thlrd. (f) Sulphate content

The total water soluble sulphate content of the concrete mix, expressed as SO, shall not exceed 4% (m/m) of tho cementltlous binder content or tlre mix. The sulphate content shall be calculated as the total from the various constituents of the mix using the following test methods:

Cementitious binrlp.r :

SABS 741 or equivalent SABS 850 or equivalent SABS 212 or equivalent

- Aggregates:

Water:

(9) Pumped concrete

Where pumping of the concrete is approved by the Engineer, tho concrete mix to be pumped shaH be so designed that:

(i) settlement ,viii not exceed 125 mm;

(ii) graded aggregate and suitable admixtures be used, wherever necessary, wilha view to improving the pumpability of the mix; and

(iii) its shrinkage GClp<I<,;ity shall not be excessivety higher than that of ordinary concrete mixes_

6405 MEASURING THE MATERIALS

(al Cement

Whe.re cement is supplied in standard bags, the bags shall be. assumed. to contain 50 kg. All cement taken from bulk-storaqe containers and from partly used bags shall be hatched by mass, accurate to within 3% of the required mass.

{b} Warer

The l1lixing water tor each batch shall be measured, either by mass or by volume, accurate to within 3% of the required quantity. The quantity of water added to the mix shal.1 bn "rljusted to make allowance for moisture in tho aggregates_

(e) Aggregates

AU aggregates for strength concrete shall be measured separately by mass, except as otherwise provided in this Clause, accurate to within 3% of the required quantity.

TilE UNITED REPUELIC OF TANZANIA. MINISTRY OF WORKS

PAGE 6000 • 32

STANDARD SPECIF.ICATIONS FOR ROAD WORKS-=-2000=-= ~~ ~_S.c."_,,_"'_,,_:O_=O_:__OO'__._S_T_"_U"_-T~U-RE-=-S

Aggregates for strength concrete may be volume batched subject to the approval of the Engineer, and to the quantity of cement being increased, at the cost of the Contractor, by 25 kg/m' of concrete, over and above the quantity which would have been necessary were the aggregate to have been batched by mass.

particular attention being given to the removal of any build-up of materials in the drum, in the loader, and around the blades or paddles. Worn or bent blades and paddles shall be replaced,

Aggregates for prescribed-mix concrete as specilled In SUI3CLAUSE 6404(c) may be measured separately by volume. Balching boxes for volume batching shall be filled without any tamping, ramming or consolidating the material (other than that occurring naturally during the filling of the container), and shall be screeded off level with their topmost edges.

Before any concrete is mixed, the inner surfaces of the mixer shall be cleaned and all hardened concrete shall . be removed.

(e) Standby mixer

When sections are cast where it is important for the cnGting to continue withouL interruption, a standby mixer shall be held in readiness to run on 15 minutes notice should the stock mixers break down.

Any adjustment to the volume shall be made by SUpplementary containers of a suitable size being used. Adjustments to the volume, by the incomplete filling of batphing boxes to marks on their inside faces will hot be permitted. . .

Fine aggregate shall .. be .. tested (or bul~ing at Il)e beginning of and. halfutay through each concreting shift, and adjustment shall be made to the batch volume to ~ive the true volume require<;l.,

The measurement otcernent i\l gSl,Ige.boxes will not be permitted .and volume balching shf311 be SO planned as to use full bags of cement

(f) Ready-mixed concrete

Where ready-mixed concrete is delivered at the site, the. requirements of SASS 878 .... orequlvalent shall have priority over the requirements specified in this Section

should inconsistencies occur. .

6407 PlACINIl AND COMpACTING

(a) Geno.,,1

Concrete shall be transported and placed in a manner that will prevent segregation or loss of. constituent materials or the contamination of the concrete.

la)G(mer~1

Mixing the material for concrete shall, be conducted by an experienced operator ... Unless .otherwise authorised, mixing shall be carried out in a mechanical batch-mixer of an approved type which wiU be capable of producing a uniform distribution of ingredients throughout the batch.

Concrete shall notbe placed in any part of the Works until . the Engineer's approval has been given. If concreting is no! started within 24 hours of approval having been given, approval shall again be obtained [,urn the Engineer.

6406 MIXING

COncreting operations shall be carried out only during daylight hours unless proper lighting arrangements have been made and the lights are in working order by noon. Workmen shaJJ not be allowed to work double shifts and the Contractor shall provide a fresh team for night shifts.

(b) Charging the mbeer

The eoqucnce of charging tho ingredi:e:;ni,s ::3haii be subject to approval by the Engineer, and, , unless otherwise instructed,the same sequence of charging the ingredients shall be mailitained.

PI<!cing and compacting the concrete shall at all times be under the direct supervision of an experienced concrete supervisor.

The volume of the mixed material by batch Shall not exceed the volume recommended by the manufacturer of the mixer.

Once the c63ting of concrete has begun, It snail be carried out in . a continuous . process between construction joints. Concrete shall be placed within 60 minutes from the start of mixing. These times' may be extended by the Engineer Where a ml:miing admixture has been' used, All excavations and other contact surfaces of an absorbent nature such as timber formwork shall be damp but no standing water shall be permitted. to remain on these surfaces. The formwork shaJJ lit.: clean on the Inside.

(c) Mixing and dls<.;h"rging .'. .'

The period Qfmixing shailbe measliredfrorn)hetime \'Ihe~ . all the. materials .. are in tho dnJM' until .. the commencement of discharge,

The'mixing period for the materials shall be 90 seconds and may be reduced only if the Engineer is satisfied that the reduced mixing time will produce concrete with the same strength and Uniformity as Wn9rete mixed for 90 s,econds .• , The reduced, f"Tlixing .. time" ho¥'ever, shal.1 be not . less than . 50 seconds or' tho. manufacturer's. reCOmmended milc:ing time. Whichever is the longer. A suitable' timing device shall' bcaitached to the mixer to ensu~, th,.,1 tho minimum mi/<ing tim", for til\" matertals

hasbeen complied with. '. . '. .

The first batch to be run whcn starting with a clean mixer, shall contain only 2/3 cf (he required quantity of coarse aggregate t() make" provision for "coating" tho mixer drum. Discharge sh",11 . be so .carri(ld ,out that no segregation of, the materials . Will occur in the mix. The mixer shall be emptied completely before it is recharged with fresh mato;JriaJs,

(d) Maintaining and pleaning thcinixcr .'

If the mixer has stopped running for a period lnexcess of 30 minutes, it "h",n be tt-,,;)roughly. cI"anedout

Water quality, marine life or any other sensitive environment shall not be adversely affected in any way.

(b) Placing . .

Whenever possible, concrete shall be deposited vertically into its final position, Where chutes are used, their length and slope shall be such as not to cause se!;lregation, and suitable spouts and. baffles shall be provided at the lower end to minimise segregation. The displacement of concrete . by vibration instead of by direct placing shall be done only when approved by the r:nginGGr,

Care shall be taken When casting bridge decks of a subs.tantial thickness t() avoid layering of the concrete, andthe entire' thickness shall be placed in one pass. Fresh concrete shall not be placed against concrete which has been in position for more than 30 minutes unless a construction joint has been formed or unless a retarding additive has been used in Ihe concrete.

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S7 ANDARO SPECifiCATIONS fOR ROAD WORKS·WOO

SER!i;S 6000 • STRUCTURES

The pumping of concrete shall be subject to approval by the Engineer. Aluminium pipes shall not be used for this purpose.

as to ensure efficient compaction and avoidance of surface blemishes.

(i) the plums are spread evenly throughout the concrete;

Special attention shall be given to the compaction of concrete in the anchorage zones and behind the anchor plates and in all places where high concentrations of reinforcing steel or cables occur.

Where the placing and compaction of concrete is difficult, a mix containing smaller sized aggregate may be used but only with the approval of the Engineer and after a mix containing such Aggr"o"tA hAS been

designed and tested. :f .

In plain concrete with a thickness of not less than 300 mm, plums may, if approved, be included to displace concrete for up to 20% of the total volume, provided thet:

(ii) no plum laid shall have a dimension exceeding one third of the smallest dimension of the concrete in any plane, and

(iii) each plum is surrounded by at least 75 mm of concrete.

(e) Requirements in respect of sliding formwork Where sliding formwork is used, the following additional requirements shall apply:

(i) The. Contractor shall, take all the necessary measures to ensure the continuity of operations. All the necessary lighting and standby equipment for mixing, hoisting, placing and compacting shall be provided and all the materials required for completing each structure shall be ready on the site before casting commences.

(c) Placing under water

Placing under wat .. r shall be allowed only in exceptional circumstances where it is not feasible to dewater the locatlon before the . concrete is placed. No concrete shall be placed in ruriningwater.

Underwater concrete shall be placed by means of trernles. Full details of the method proposed by the Contractor shall be submitted ln advance for approval. Placing by skip or pipeline will also be considered in certain clrournatencce.

(ii) Concrete shall be cast in uniform layers in the forrnwork so that the level of the top surface of the concrete differs by no more than 250 mm between any two points in the formwork. In addition, the top level of the concrete shall never be so low down in the formwork as will cause structural instability in the formwork. The working platform shall be kept clean and no concrete which has dried oul in part may be swept into the formwork.

During concreting by trernle, the pipe shall be kept filled with concrete at all time's to prevent air and water form entering the tremie.When the tremie is charged. an approved sliding plug shall be used. Once concreting has begun by tremie, the discharge end of the tremie shall be kept well below the surface of the concrete. Should this seal. be broken, the tremie shall be lifted and . pl!Jgged . before.· concreting is recommenced. Qistributionof concrete by lateral movement of the tremie will not be permitted.

(iii) The concrete shall be compacted during and immediately after placing. Care shall be taken not to damage or disturb previously placed concrete. To ensure the proper bonding of successive layers not more than one hour shall elapse between the pl",cing of successive layers except where an approved admixture has been applied, in which case the delay may be amended in consideration of such circumstances.

Th", r. ...,oncr",.te mix .. to 1:>'" pl<\ced. underwater shall be specially designed and approved for. this purpose to ensure gooq flowability, plasticity and cohesion. Increased sand and cement contents over those of normal mixes will usually be required.

(iv) The slump of concrete may be up to 150mm should the approved method of sliding so require.

(d) Compaction .

Concrete shall be fully compacted by approved means during and immediately after placing. It shall be thoroughly worked againsf the formwork, around reinforcement bars, tendons, ducts and embedded fittings and into comers to form a solid mass free from voids.

6408 CONSTRUCTION JOINTS

The concrete shall be free from honeycombing and planes of weakness, and successive layers of the same lift shall be thoroughly bonded together.

Unless otherwise permitted by the Engineer, concrete shall be compacted by means of vibrators. Internal vibrators shall .. be capable . of producing npt less than 100.00 cycles per minute and extemal vibrators not less than 3000 cyd..,~ pi'lr minutl'l' SlIffid,mt ~t"mrthy vibrators shall be kept available in case of breakdowns.

Vibration shall be applied by experienced labourers, and over-vibration resulting in segregation, surface water and leakage shall be avoided. Contact with reinforcement and formwork shall, in so far as is practicable, be avoided When internal vibrators are used. Concrete shall no! be subjected to disturbance by vibration within 4 to 24 hours of it having been compacted.

Whenever vibration is applied externally, the design of the fonnwork and positioning of vibra!9rs shall be such

(a) General

Concreting shall be carried out continuously up to the construction joints shown on the working drawings or as approved, except that if, because of an amarganey (such as breakdown of the mixing plant or the occurrence of unsuitable weather), concreting has to be interrupted, a construction joint shall be formed at the place of stoppage and in the manner which will least impair the durability, appearance, and proper functioninq of the concrete.

Unless otherwise shown on the Drawings, the exact position of horizontal conatruction joints "hall be marked on the framework by means of grout checks in order to obtain truly horizontal joints.

Stub columns, stub walls and stays on footings shall be cast integrally with the footings and not afterwards, even where another class of concrete is being used.

(b) Preparing the surfaces

When the concrete has set and while it is still green the surface film and all loose material shall be removed, without disturbing the aggregate, by means of a water jet assisted by light brushing to expose the aggregate and leave a sound. irregular surface. Where this is not

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAOWORKS-2000

possible, the surface film shall be removed after the concrete has hardened, by mechanical means a ppropriate to the degree of hardness of the concrete so as to expose the aggregate and leave a sound, irregular surface. The roughened surface shall be washed with clean water to remove all laltance, dirt and loose particles.

Surface retarding agents may be used only with the approval of the Engineer.

(e} Placing fresh concrete at construction joints Where fresh concrete is placed the same day as that on which the construction joint was formed, the fresh concrete shall be cas! directly against the face of the construction joint.

When concreting recommences a day. or more after the construction joint has been formed, the following procedure shall be followed:

(l) The construction joint shall be keptconstan!ly wet for a period of at least six hours. The surface shall be in a saturated, surface dry condition when concreting has to recommence.

(H) Any dirt, excess water and loose particles shall be removed prior to reconcreting being started.

(iii) For horizontal construction joints a 25 mm thiok concrete layer of the same grade of concrete made richer by reducing tile coarse aggregate content by 25% shall be placed on the jointplane immediately before concreting.

(iv) For vertical construction joints the fresh concrete shall be placed against a surface prepared in accordance With SUBCLAUSE 6408(b), which is in a saturated, surface-dry condition.

Epoxy resins specially . designed for bondinq old concrete to. new shall be used. at construction joints where so specified. The preparation of the constmr.tlon joint surface and the application oftheepoxy resin shall be strictly. in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations and the Engineer's instructions. The actual brand and type of resin used shall be subject to the Engineers approval.

6409 CURING AND PROTECTING

Formwork shall be retained in position for the appropriate limes given in CLAUSE; 0206, and a8 8{){)fl as may be practicable, all exposed concrete surfaces shall be protected from loss of moisture by one or more of the following methods:

(al Method 1

Retaining formwork in place for the full curing period.

(b) Method 2

Ponding the exposed surfaces with water, except where atmospheric temperatures are low, i.e. less than 50C.

(c) Method3

Covering it with sand or mats modo from a mototurcretaining material, and keeping Iho covering constantly wet.

(d) Method 4

Constantly spraying tho onliro area of the exposed surfaces with water (onlyon surfaces where sand cover or ponding is impossible).

(0) M.cthod 5

Covering with a waterproof or plastic sheeting finnly anchored at the edges.

(f) Method 6

Using an approved curing compound applied in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions . .,,,roep! that, where the surface has to be subsequently waterproofed, coated or gunited, this method may not be used.

(9) Method 7

Steam curing the concrete (precast units).

(h) General

The mr.thorl of curing adopted shall ba subject to the Engineer's approval and shall not cause staining, contamination, or marring of the surface of the concrete.

The curing period shall be continuous for at least seven days for concrete made with ordinary Portland cement or ordinary Portland cement 15, rapid-hardening Portland cement or rapid-hardening Portland cement 15, and at leest 10 doyo if Portland blast-furnace cement or a 50/50 mixtUre of Portland cement and ground granulated blast-furnace slag is used. When the temperature of concrete falls below soC, these minimum curing periods shall be extended by the period during which the temperature of the concrete was below SDC.

When sliding fonnwork is used, the concrete shall be protected against the weather and rapid drying out by means of a 4 m wide ski. I attacned to the lower perimeter of the formwork and hanging over the working platform. The skirt shall consist of hessian in summer months and of canvas or ether suitable material in winter. The skirt shall be weighted ,.,t thF! hoftom to prevent it flapping in windy conditions.

The concrete shall be cured by means of a fog spray to keep it wet constantly for the periods stated above or until a curing compound is applied, WeUing the concrete by spraying shall be by means. of a fixed spraybar along Ihe full length of Ihe sliding formwork. The spraybar shall be connected to a suitable highpressure water supply. \·'lJetting chel! be d;cccn\'n..,ed when the ambient air temperature drops below 5°C, and care shall be taken by the Contractor to ensure that the water will not erode the surface of the fresh concrete.

6410 ADVERSE WEATHER CONDITIONS

(a) Cold weather

Concrete shall not be placed dunng tailing temperatures when the ambient air temperature falls below 70C or during rising temperatures when the ambient air temperature is below 3°C. When concrete is placed at air temperatures below 5°C tho concrete temperature shall not be below 10oC, for which purpose heating of the water anWor the aggregate shall be permitted. The Contractor shall make all the necessary arrangements for heating the material. Heated water and .aggregate shall first be mixed and the cement shall then be added only while the temperature is below 30DC.

The temperature of placed concreto shall not be allowed to fall below 5DC until the c;u"", ele has attained a strength of at least 5 MPa, and the Contractor shall be responsible for all protective measures necessary to Ihis end. All concrete damaged by frost or by the formation of ice in the concrete shall be removed and replaced by the Contractor at this own expense.

(b) Hot weather

When the ambient air temperature exceeds 30DC during concreting, Ihe Contractor shall take measures to control the tem perature of the concrete ingredients so that the temperature of the placed concrete will not exceed 30De unless otherwise determined by Ihe Enaineer_ Such measures include spraying aggregate

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STANDARD SPECIFlCAT10NS FOR ROAOWORKS-2000

SERIES SI)()O • STRUCTURES

stockpiles with water to promote cooling down by evaporation and, where feasible, shading the stockpiles and the area where concreting is carried out. Curing shall, commence Immediately after concrete has been placed to prevent an excessive loss of moisture.

(c) Precautionary measures for using sliding

rnrmwl'lrk

During sliding operations in cold weather, the water only, or the water and the aggregate, shall be heated to ensure that the concrete temperature wi!! not drop below 10°C until it has attained a strength of 5MPa.

During cold weather the rate of sliding shall be suitably decreased to ensure sufficient strength in the concrete which leaves the bottom of the forrnwork.

6411 PIPES AND CONDUITS

N~ pipes and conduits othe'rthan those shown on the Drawings shall be embedded in the concrete without the EnginE!er's approval, The clsar spaca b"tw"9n such pipes or between such pipes and any reinforcing steel shall be at leas! 40mm or the maximum size of the aggregate plus 5 mrn, whichever is the greater. The thickness of the concrete cover over pipes and fittings slJan be at least 25mm.

The ends of alf ferrules used for bracing forrnwork shall be neatly finished off to the details shown on the Drawing::.. Where no details are given on the Drawings, ferrules shall be ~ut back to,adepth of at least tlJa specified cover; and the holes shall be filled in with mortar and finished off flush withthe concrete surface.

6412 APPLIED LOADING

No load shall be, appliedto any part of a stl1.1cture until the specified curing period has expired,a(l,er which applledjoadlnq shall be allowed only when approved by the Engineer_ The Engineer's decision will, be based on the type of load to be applied, the,age oUhe concrete, the magnitude of stress inducedandthe propping of the structure. No structure shall be opened to traffic until teet cubes m_cdc from the concrete in aH - parts of the structure have attained the specified minimum 28-day com pressive strength.

6413 PRECASli'CONCRETE

, This Clause applies to all reinforced and prestressed concrete members other than precast concrete piles, culverts and pipes in so far as they are dealt with separately elsewhere in these Specifications.

All precast members shall be manufactured in accordance with the requirements specified for cast in situ members in so fa. as . these requirements are relevant. In addition, the following shall apply;

(a) The Contractor shaH take allnecessary safety and precautionary measures during thehan(!!ing and erectlonof precast' members and for ensuring the stability of members as positioned and prior to their being castln,

(b) Where precast concrete members have not been Illanura<;l~""u 0[' the slte, the rn~nuf!"c~urer shall keep ar:l(;Imake'avail~b!e t? the Engineer complete records of (111 the cO,ncretemixes and strength tests, pertaining to the '. members cast. 'The. Contractor' shall notify the Engineer in "rlv.mr.", of the dale>:; on which members are to be cast so that arrangements for inspecting and testing the precast members can be made.

(c) For the purposes of identification, all members shall be marked with paint in neat lettering with the member number showr on the, Drawings .or as agreed on and an iderltification numl:ler ,. relatlnfj to 'the ' manufacturing recorils. Letters etc shall ~E'!s6 positlonedas not to be

visible when the structural member is placed in its final position in the completed structure.

(eI) All precast members which have been chipped, cracked, warped or otherwise damaged to the extent that such damage will, in the opinion of the Engineer, prejudice the appearance, function or structural integrity of the membcre shall be rejected or, where So allowed, repaired to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

6414 QUALITY OF WORKMANSHIP AND MATERIALS

(a) Criteria for compliance with the requirements Routine inspection and quality control will be done by the Engineer as specified in SECTION 7200. The criteria for compliance with the requirements specified for 28- day characteristic compressive strength shall be as specified in CLAUSE 7205 for fuff acceptance, and as specified In CLAiJ:i1:: 7207 for concmonai acceptance. The re-submission of concrete lots on the basis of cores for full or conditional acceptance shall not be allowed. The Contractor's attention is drawn to CLAUSE 7208. If thFi Fnaint"fl>r ts "atisli"d that the requir"ments of the Contractor's process control have been met, the Engineer may decide at his discretion to use the Contractor's test results, in the evaluation of the concrete.

(b) Procedure in the event of non-compliance with

the requirements ,

Any lot represented by test cubes failing to comply with tho oritorio cpcoifled for the characteristic strength shall be rejected, . or the Engineer may at his discretion allow the following te~tsto. be conducted in order to decide whether !he concrete, may be left in position at further

reduced payment; "

{I} The, Engineer may allow the, elements or units concerned to be cured for all additional period not exceeding 56 days. Thereafter the Contractor shall drill co.e" ,in accordance with ,SA6S 865 or equivalent, andthe Engineer will evaluate these cores in accordance with SABS 0100 - Part II or equivalent.

(ii) Where the Engineer so directs, full-scale load tests shall be conducted in accordance with SASS 0100 Part II or equivalent to determine whether any particular structure or member can be, left in position. The cost of such tests shall be for the Contractor's account regardless of the outcome of

the tests. ' '

In all easae where concreto hoc been 3upplicd which fails to comply with the strength requirements,. the Contractor shall immediately take the required remedial action by changing the mix proportions to obtain the required strength.

(c) Tests ordered by the Engineer

Where the routine testing of concrete cubes is not conducted on the site by the Engineer, he may order

, the Contractor to have the, concrete cubes, which have been made by the Engineer, tested alan approved testing laboratory, in which case no separate payment will be made for such tests.

6415 DEMOLITION AND REMOVAL OF EXISTING CONCRETE

Where partial demolition is required for extension work to existing stn",f",..," the f'rst three paragraphs of CLAUSE 2214 sha)1 apply. In addition the following shall apply:

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_~TANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD WORKS-2000

SERIES 600n • STRUr.:"UR-F~

(a) The Contractor sha!! take great care to ensure that the reinforcement required to tie in the extension work is not cut off or damaged in the demolition process. Where reinforcement has been cut off, or where in the opinion of the Engineer, the reinforcement has been damaged to such an extent that it will not adequately perform its function, the Contractor shall, at his own expense, install dowel bars of the same diameler as the bar cui off or damaged, all to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

The bid rate for each precast member shall include full compensation for all work, costs and - equipment required for transporting. erecting and placinG intn position the precast concrete members.

mM

64.04 Epoxy BONDING OF NEW CONCRETE SURFACES TO OLD

UNIT SQUARE METRE (m2)

(b} Only hand operated breaking equipment shall hi'> used for the demolition of concrete where extension work is required.

The unit of measurement shall be the square melre of new concrete surface bonded to old by means of an approved epoxy bonding agent as set out in the Specifications. The bid rate shall include full compensation for preparing the surfaces and for furnishing and applying the bonding agent and for chamfering the concrete on visible joints, complete as shown on the Drawings,

6416 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

ITEM

64.01 CAST IN SITU CONCRETE:

(a) (CLASS OF CONCRETE AND PART OF STRUCTURE OR USE INDICATED)

(b) ETC FOR OTHER CLASSES OF CONCRETE AND OTHER USES OR PARTS OF THE STRUCTURE

CUBIC METRE (m3)

CUBIC MHR>,{m')

ITEM

64.05 EXTRA OVER ITEM 64.01 OR

64.02 FOR THE USE OF SULPHATERESISTANT CEMENT IN CONCRETE

UNIT

CUBIC METRE (m')

The unit of measurement for cast in situ concrete shall be the cubic metre of concrete in place. Quantities shall be calculated from the dimensions shown on the Drawings or as authorised. No deduction in volume measured for payment shall be made for the volume of any reinforcing steel, inserts and pipes or conduits under 150 mm in diameter embedded In the concrete.

The unit of measurement shall be the cubic metre of concrete manufactured with sulphate-resistant cement and placed in accordance with the details on the Drawings, or as instructed by the Engineer.

The bid rate shall be extra over each of the relevant rates for which sulphate resistance cement is used.

The bid rate shall include full compensation for procuring and furnishing all the materials, storing the materials, providing all plant, mixing, transporting, placing and compacting the concrete, forming the inserts, construction joints (except mandatory construction joints), and contraction joints, curing and protecting the concrete, repairing defective surfaces, and finishing the concrete surfaces as specified. Payment shall distinguish between the different classes of concrete.

ITEM

64.06 DEMOLISHING EXISTING

CONCRETE:

(a) PLAIN CONCRETE(MEMBER INDICATED)

(b) REINFORCED CONCRETE (MEMBER INDICATED)

CUBIC METRE (m3)

CUBIC METRE (m3)

The unit of measurement shall be the cubic metre of plain or reinforced concrete demolished for each member or portion thereof scheduled separately in the Dill of Quantities.

ITEM

64.02 MANUFACTURING PRECAST

CONCRETE MEMBERS (DESCRIPTION OF MEMBER WITH R!;FERENCE TO DRAWING)

UNIT NUMBER (no)

The bid rate shall include full compensation for all labour, plant and equiprnent required to demolish the existing concrete and disposal of the product of ths demolition to an approved disposal site. The bid rate shall also include full compensation for any necessary measures to ensure no debris falls into rivers and for any debris that has fallen into rivers to be recovered.

The unit of measurement shall be the number of complete members or elements of each type and size in position in the Works_

The bid rate for each precast member shall include full compensation for concrete work, formwork, reinforcing steel and prestressing as required for manufacturing the member complete, excluding only prestressing in connection with in situ concrete cast subsequent to the placing of the precast members for which prestressing separate payment is provided elsewhere in the nul of Quantities.

ITEM

64.03 TRANSPORTING AND £RECTINC

PRECAST CONCRETE MEMBERS (DESCRIPTION OF MEMBER AND APPROXIMATE MASS TO BE GIVEN)

NUMBEr!

(no)

The unit of measurement shall be the number of precast concrete members of each type and size placed into position.

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STANDARD SPECIFtCATIONS· FOR ROAD WDRKS-2000

SERIES 6000 - STRUCTURES

SERIES 6000: STRUCTURES

SECTION 6500: PRESTRESSING

CONTENTS:

CLAUSE

PAGI:o

6501 SCOPE

6502 DEFINITIONS 6503 MATERIALS

6504 EQUIPMENT 6505 TECHNICAL DATA

6506 PRESTRESSING SYSTEM

6507 DRAwiNGS PREPARED By THE

CON·TRACTOR

6508 PRECASTING

6509 PRE-TENSIONING 6510 PosT-TENSIONING 6511 Loss OF PRESTRESS

6512 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

8000-38 6000-38 6000-38 6000-40 6000-41 6000-42

6000-42 6000-42 8000-43 6000-43 6000-48 6000-46

6501 SCOPE

This Section covers the materials, equipment and work required for prestressing structural concrete members.

6502 DEFINITIONS

The following definitions shall apply to these Specifications:

(a) Ancha.",o",

Anchorage is the device comprising all the components and materials required for retaining the force in a tensioned tendon and to transmit this force to the concrete of the structure.

(b) Anchorage reinforcement

Anchorage reinforcement is the spiral and other reinforcement which forms part of the anchorage and is requlieo for strengthening tho enchorage and/or assisting in transmitting the tendon force to the concrete.

(c) Burstina reinforcement

Bursting reinforcement is the reinforcing steel required in and adjacent to the anchorage zones to resist the tensile stresses induced in the concrete by the anchorage(s).

(d) Cable

Cable is the tendon, together with the anchorage, sheathing and all fittings.

(el Characteristic strength

Characteristic strength of prestressinq steel is the manufacturer's guaranteed tensile strength below which no more than 5% of the test results in a statistical population shall fall.

(f) Duct

Duct is the void formed to house the tendon(s) and may be formed by caring, or by ueing "heath" or by way af extractable cores.

(g) Prestress

Prestress is the stress induced in concreto by tensioned tendons.

(h) Prestressed concrete

Prestressed concrete is structural concrete in which effective Internal stresses are induced by means of tensioned tendons.

(i) Pre-tensioned concrete

Pre-tensioned concrete is prestressed concrete where the tendon is tensioned before the concrete has been cast.

0) Post-tensioned concrete

Post-tensioned concrete is prestressed concrete where the tendon is tensioned after the concrete has hardened.

(k) pun-In

PUll-in is the elastic shortening of the tendon caused by relative movement between the anchorage or coupler components on account of seating and gripping action during or immediately after transfer.

(I) Release

Release is the speCified elastic shortening of the tendon at the anchorage achieved before or during transfer.

(m) Sh""ath

Sheath is the tube or casing enclosing the tendon and which temporarily or permanently allows a relative movement between the tendon and the surrounding concrete.

(n) Tendon

Tendon is the prestressing steel consisting of the bar, wire or strand individually placed, or of bars, wires or strands placed in a duct; ell of which ore tcnoioned to impart prestress to a concrete member.

(0) Tensioning

Tensionlnq is the action of inducing and regulating the force in a tendon by means of tensioning and measuring eqLlipment.

(p) Transfer

Transfer in the case of post-tensioned concrete is the action of transferring the tensioning force from the tensioning equipment (jack) to the anchorage.

Transfer in th", ~s'" "f !,r",-j",nsioned concrete is the action of transferring the force in the tensioned tendon(s) to the concrete.

(q) Bond breaker

Bond breaker is the coating or sheath placed on a tendon to prevent it from bonding to the surrounding concrete,

(r) Coupler

Coupler is the device compnsmq all components required to join two tendons.

(s) Deflector

Deflector is the device used to deflect a tendon alignment within a structural element.

(l) Transmission length

Transmission length is the tendon length required to transmit via bond stresses the full force in the tendon to the concrete.

6503 MATERIALS

(a) General

All materials and prestressing systems used in the prestressing of structural concrete members shall be subject to approval by the Engineer.

(11) Prestressing steel

(I) General

The type of prestressing steel shall be designated in accordance with the requirements of SUBCLAUSE

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STANDAAO SP.s:OIFtOATIOHS ron ROAD WORI-(S-2000

SERIES 5000 -. STRUCTliRES

6503(b). The Contractor shall keep proper records of all material analyses and test certificates for the batches of prestre$~ing etccl used in the Worn5. Where required by the Engineer. the Contractor shall produce certificates from recognised testing authorities certifying compliance of the prestressing steel with the specified requirements.

used for cleaning without the approval of the Engineer.

Prestressing sleel slielll be delivered at me site suitably protected against damage and corrosion. Such protection or the use of a corrosion inhibitor where allowed by the Engineer, shall not have any deleterious effect on the ':;j",,,[ or "nncret .. or impair the bond between the two.

Where prestressing steel is available in weld-free lengths (production lengths) and lengths containing welds (standard lengths), the batches delivered at the site shall be clearly labelled fur identification purposes.

(vi) Galvanising

Galvanised prestressing steel shall not be used unless specified. In no circumstances shall prestressing steel be subjected to galvanising after manufacture.

In no circumstances shall prestressing steel after manufacture be subjected to heat treatment other than provided for in the Specifications.

(vii)Welds

Prestressing steel used in structural prestressed concrete shall be weld-free. Where the steel is supplied in standard lengths, the welds shall be cut out and delivered to the Engineer.

(c) Anchorages and couplers

Anchorages and couplers to be used in prestressed concrete shall comply with the requirements of BS 4447 and shall be ofa proved and approved type, constructed from durable material completely free from imperfections and shall not damage, distort or kink the prestressing sleel in a manner that will result in ultimate tensile strength reduction. They shall resist. without failure and/or excessive deformation or relaxation of the force in the tendons, the full ultimate tensile strength of the tendons. The characteristic value for anchorages and couplers, determined in accordance with BS 4447, shall lIul be less than 90%.

(ii) Bars

Cold-worked high-tensile alloy steel bars for prestressed concrete snail comply at least with the requlrements of BS 4486.

The type of prestressinq steel shall be indicated in accordance with the 'equirGments of CLAUSE 4.2 of BS 4486 eg BS 4486-RR-32-1230 for 32mm diameter double-ridged bar with a characteristic strength of 1230 MPa.

(iii) Wires and seven-wire steel strand

Steel wire and seven-wire steel strand for prestressed concrete shall comply at least with the requirements of B55896.

The type of prestressing steel shall be indicated in accordance with the requirements of clauses 14 and 20 of BS 5896 for wire and strands

respectively, eg: . . . .

(1) BS 5896/2 wire 1770-7-PE-relax 1 for a 7 mm diameter plain wire of Class 1 relaxation with a cnaractertsbc strength of 1770 MPa; arid

(2} BS 5896/3 superstrand 1860-12.9-relax 2 for a 12.9 mrn diameter superstrand of ClasS 2 relaxation with a characteristic strength of 1860 MPa_

The anchorages shall effectively distribute the force in the tendon to the structural member,andthe resulting local stresses and strains in the member shall be so limited as to prevent damage. Unless otherwise approved by the Engineer, all anchorages and couplers shall be provided with anchorage reinforcement.

Wedges and the insides of barrels or cones shall be clean to allow the free movement and seating of the wedges inside the taper.

(Iv) Straightness . .. .

Prestressing bars delivered at the site shall be straight. Only small adjustments for straightness maybe made, which shall be done by hand on the site at a temperature abovo:;l5°C and under the supervision of the Engineer. Where heating of the bars is required, [his shall be by means of steam or hot water: Oars bent in tho threaded portion 5hall not be used.

The throad" of. born. nuta, anchorage" and couplers sha!! be suitably protected against damage and corrosion. The protection shall be removed at the last moment and the threads properly lubricated before use.

Prestressing wire and stand shall be supplied in coils with a SUfficiently large diameter to ensure that the wire and strand will payoff straight.

(v) Surface condition

Prestressing steel shall be clean, free from faults or defects, and without any harmfUl films and matter which may impair adhesion to the grout or concrete. A film of rust is not necessarily harmful and may improve the bond. It may, however, increase the friction b .. tw,-",.n th .. tondon and ducl. The d"pthof impertectionsor pits on Qte surface of prestressing steel shall not exceed 0.1 mm for wire with a dianieter up to and including (I rnm, or 0.2 mm for bars or wire .with a diameter exceeding 8 rnm.

Tendons may be cleaned by wire brushing or by paSSing through . a. pres~uro box . containing carborundum powder. Solvent solutions shall not be

(d) Sheaths

Sheaths shall be grout-light and of such material and configuration that bond forces can be transferred from the grout to the surrounding concrete. The properties of the sheath materia! shall be such that no corrosion attack of the prestressing steel will be induced. The sheath shall be sufficiently flexible to accept the required curvature without kinking, and strong enough 10 retain its cross-section and alignment and to resist damage on account of handling, transporting, tying and contact wilh vibrators during concreting.· Unless otherwise approved by the Engineer the thickness of the metal of steel sheaths shall not be less than 0.4 mm.

Metal sheathing shall be delivered at the. site suitably protected against damage and corrosion. At the time of incorporation into tha structural member, the sheathing shalf be free from loose mill scale, loose rust, lubricants and harmful matter,

Galvanisedsheathing shall not be used unless specifled,

Unless otherwise specified, the internal diameter of the sheath shall be at least 10 mm greater than the diameter cf the tend·on. For vertical tendons and where

THE U"'TED REPUBl!COF TAN2,<\NlA, M'NIS1RYOF WOFIKS

PAGE 6000 - 39

SERIES 6000 - SVRUCT!.iR-FS

tendons are to be drawn into cast-in sheaths, the crosssectional duct area shall be at least three times the croee-eectionel area of the tendon.

shall not exceed 2500 cP and 1 500 cP for horizontal and vertical cables respectively.

(3) Bleeding at 20"C measured in accordance with~t':

Subclause 7112(b) shall not exceed 2% by.a volume three hours after the grout has been~".'f/ mixed, and the maximum bleeding shall not exceed 4%. In addition, the separated (bleed) water must be reabsorbed after 24 hours.

(e) Cable supports

Supports of reinforcing steel or structural steel suitably braced to prevent buckling under load shall be used to support the cables. The cable saddles shall be rigid and secured in position by welding or by equivalent mechanical means to resist both gravitational and buoyancy forces.

Normal web reinforcement shall not be utilised to support cables.

(4) The compressive strength of 100 mm cubes mcde of thc grout and cured in a moist atmosphere for the first 24 hours and then in water at 20°C shall exceed 20 MPaat seven days.

(h) Protecting agents for unbonded tendons

The material used for permanent protection of unbonded tendons shall have the following properties:

i.

Saddles for external cables shall be of special design and material to ensure low friction and to prevent the tendon or parts thereof from grooving the surface. The saddle plates shall be curved to the requisiteradius to preventthe tendon or Part thereof from bearing on the end at the plate and snail incorporate features to ensure that individual bars, wires and strands are seated

separately. ' ., .

(1) ,Tondo"s'p~t,i:>fs

Tendon spacers used inside the ducts to separate individual bars, wires or strands of the tendon shall be of a proved and approved type and manufactured from material which will not induce corrosion of the

prestressing steel. '

(i) It shall remain free from creeks and ehell not become brittle or fluid within>the temperature range of -20°C to 70DC.

(il) It shall be chemically stable for the entire life of the

structure. '

(iii) It shall be non-reactive with the surrounding materials, i.e, concrete, tendons, wrapping or sheathing.

(iv) It shall be non-corrosive or corrosion-inhibiting.

(g) Grout

(i) Materials

In addition to Ine requirements of SUBCLAUSE 6402(d), water, shall not contain' more than 500 mg ofchlciride ions per litre of Water.

Only ordinary Portland cement which complies witli the requirements of .SABS 471 or equivalent and ordinary portland cement 15 which complies with the requirements or ~Ai5S 1)31 Of equi..,akmt shall 'be used. The temperature. oftha cement shall be less than 40°C, and the ceinent shall be stored in accordance with the' requirements of SUBCLAUSE

6:t03{a).' ,

Fine aggregate shall consist of siliceous granules, finely groundlimesiones. trass or very fine sand. The aggregate used shall pass through a 0.600 rnm sieve. The use of fine aggregate shall be SUbject to the approval qf the Engin~er and shall be restricted to grout for ducts wilh a diameter exceeding 150 mm. The' aggregate content in the grout shall not exceed 30% of thc r''''ss of tho cement.

(v) It shall be impervious to moistura.

(vl) It shall be SUfficiently tough to withstand the abrasion caused when a tendon, precoated with the rnateriat, is drawn into the sheath.

(vli} It shall have rio appreciable shrinkage or excessive volume increase.

(\I'm) lt aha!1 hcvc C ou!table vigoosity ~t ambient temperature or require only moderate preheating to permit injection.

(i) Testina

Prestressing steel, anchorages and couplers, and grout shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of SUBCLAUSE 7111 (b), Testing shall be carried out at the frequencies as directed by the Engineer.

6504 EQUIPMENT

The use of admixtures .shaU besubjecf to tests having shown that lliek use improves the properties of the grout, eg by increasing Workability, reducing bleeding, 'entraining air,orc)(panding the grout. Admixtures shall be free from any product liable to damage the steel or the grout itself, such as halides, nitrates, sulphides,' sulphates, etc. Tho quantity of admlxturu to be used shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

(a) Gcnerol

All, equipment used, shall be in a good working order and properly maintained,

(b) Tensioning and measuring equipment Tensioning and measuring equipment shall be such that the tendon force can be established to an accuracy of ±2% during any stage of the tensioning operation.

(ii) Properties of the grout ,

The mb(!~d orout shall have the following properties:

Unless otherwtse ijUlho[i~ed by the Engineer. the tensioning equipment shall bo power driven and capable of gradually applying a controlled total force without inducing dangerous secondary stresses in the tendon. anch" .... Of! or concrete.

(1) Tbecnlortde ions content shall not exceed 750 mgllitre.

(2} The viscosity of the grout measured In accordance with SUBCU\.USE 7111 (b) for horizontal cables shal! be 500 to 2 500 cP and for vertical cables 400 to 1 500 cPo .Tho viscosity. of the grout" 20 minutes afler mMno.

The force in the tendon during tensioning shall be measured by a direct-reading dynamometer or obtained direct from pressure gauges fitted in the hydraulic system to determine the pressure tn tna jacxs,

Pressure gauges shall have concentric scale dials which comply with the requirements of BS 1780. The dials shall not be les" than 150 mm in diametAr and Ihe

TilE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA. MINISTRY OF WOOl(S

PAGE 6000 - 40

SERIES 600D - STRUCTURES

gauges shall be used within' the range of 50 to 90% of their full capacity at maximum service pressure.

(a) Tendon alignment

A diagram showing the alignment of each tendon or group of tendons in bam tne nonzontat and verncai planes, together with the horizontal and vertical coordinates, and curve equations of the centroid of the tendon(s}, as may be relevant.

(b) Tendon system

The design shall be based on the system shown on the Drawings, but the Contractor may use any suitable system which will meet all the specified requirements, subject to approval by the Engineer.

When pressure gauges not using glycerine are used, a snubber or similar device shall be fitted to protect the gauge against any sudden release of pressure. Provision shall also be made for T-connections for the attachment, when required, for supplementary control gauges.

Only self-sealing connections shaH be used in the hydraulic circuit. Where the pressure i""ut pipe Is connected 10 the jack, a pipe rupture valve shall be installed in the circuit.

(c) Tensioning the tendons

Full particulars regarding the partial tensioning of the tendons, the stage during which the tendons shall be tensioned, and the sequence of tensioning to be followed.

Tensioning equipment shall be calibrated before the tensioning operation and thereafter at frequent intervals, as directed by the Engineer, with a master gauge or proving ring; and the Engineer shall be fumished with a calibration chart. The load-measuring device:; shau be I;8UbrcJtectto a,n accuracy of ±2%.

The, ,extension of tendons shall be measured to an accuracy of :±2% or ±2 mm, whichever is the more ':'''"Ilral''', and pu11-in and rGlossa 1,0 an accuracy of .=2 mm.

Cd) Tensioning force

The maximum tensioninq force and the effective force at the live anchorages, after transfer, as well as the corresponding stress level in 'the'prestressing steel, for each tendon or group of tendons. The forces wi)) be given, in MN units, and the stress levels will be expressed asa percentage of the characteristic

strength. '

(e) Extension

The extension per tendon or group of tendons under the maximum tensioning force, together with the modulus of elasticity (E) on which lt has been based. The, release to be attained at each live anchorage as well as the pull-ln for which, provision has been made.

(c) Groutingj)quipment (i) Mixer

Mechanically operated mixers only, of a type capable C)f producing high local turbulences whi,le imp3.!"ting only 0' slow motlon to the body of the

grout shall be used. '

The mixer shall be equipped with a screen with openings. not exceeding, 1.0 mm and shaU be capable of consistently 'producing "grout with a colloidal consistency.

(ti) Agitator " ,',', ,"

Where tI .. " c..,,,;;icitY of the mixer Is msurnciem [a fill " the duct completely with grout, an agitator shall be used.

Mechanic",1 "(Jifators only shall bQ usod, whioh are capable of maintaining the colloidal condition of the grout fill during the slorinQ andinjcption processes. The grot(t shall be, deflvercd at the structure from the agitator, and the system shall make provision for'ro-cirCUlating uio grout' trorn 'the pump back to the agitator.

The Contractor shall show on his drawings the expected extension based on the actual modulus of elasticity of the strand as wen as the. expected wedge pull-in and any provision for shimming.

(f) Prestressing losses in tendons

The losses allowed for in the design' from the causes

listed below will be given as follow::;: ' .

(ijFriction loss

The formula used for determining the 'tendon/duct friction ";':1:1, together with the vetues adopted for lhe friction coefficient (!-t) caused by curvature, and the wobble factor (k) caused by unintentional variation from the, specified, alignment.

(ii) Elastic deformation of concrete

The olastic factor, which, when multiplied by the compressive stress in the concrete adjacentto the tendon, Win give the loss caused by the deformation of me concrete.

(iii) Injection equipment

Tho pump cholt be of the positive displecement type (piston, screw or similartypc), capable of exerting a constant pressure of at least 10 bars on completely grouted cables and shall incorporate a safety device for preventing thc, bllildcup of pressure above 20 bars. The puinpshall be fiUedw.itha pressure gauge and a valve which can be lockedorf without loss of pressure in the cable.

The pump shall lie """ablont deHveririg grout at a speed ,that "ViII produce a speed of the grout in the

cable of bet1Neen 6 and 12 m./minule. "

(iii) Creep of the concrete

, The creep factor, which, when multiplied by the compressive stress in the concrete adjacent to the tendon, win give the loss caused by the creep of the concrete.

(iv) Shrinkage of the concrete

The stress loss in MPa caused by the shrinkage of tho concrete.

All connections in the [lip"sand bC'twc.e,n thQ pipe and tho cable shall bo airtight. Only bayonet, threaded, or similar types of connectors shall be used.

(v) Relaxation of prestressing steel

Thcotrcee ieee in Mrs, at a etrese level of 70% of the characteristic strength of the prestressing steel caused by the relaxation of the prestreSSing steel.

(g) Anchorages

The'positionswhero loop or fan-type dead-end anchorage may be used.

6505 TECHNI,CALDATA

The following technical data for pre-tensioned and posttensioned, structural members required fer the Contract will tie furnished on the Dl"<lwings:

, '

THE UNITED REPUBLIC or TANZANIA. M,NISTRY 9F Y:!OR)<S

PAGE 6C100 ·41

~IANOARO SP-ECIF!GATlaN~ t-UM ROADWO:R,l\.S-2QOO

SERIES 6000 • STRUCTURES

(h) Bursting reinforcement

The bursting reinforcement for the prestressing system on which the de~ign is·besed.

After approval by the Engineer of the Drawings and calculations prepared by the Contractor, no departure shall be p .. rmlttad from the forces. stresses and extensions shown thereon, without authorisation by the Engineer.

(i) Preoamber

The precamber at intervals not exceeding 0.25 times the span length.

a) Compressive strength of the concrete during

transfer

The compressive strength to be attained by the concrete in the relevant member before transfer may be effected.

The prestressing work shall not be commenced before the relevant drawings have been accepted lJy the Engineer. The Contractor shall make full allowanr.:;e in his bid rates for all costs in connection with the furnishing of information, making calculations, and preparing and ""bmitting the Drawinos.·· i1.nwever. no allowance need be made for the cost of checkmq, undertaken by the Engineer, of drawings and calculations for work which does not qualify as an alternative design.

'".'l

6506 PRESTRESSING SYSTEM

The use of all prestressing systems will be subject to approval by the Engineer. Bidders are advised to obtain approval for the prestressing system they intend using, prior to submitting their bids.

Within one month of the bid having been awarded, or within a period agreed on with the Engineer, the Contractor shall submit full details regarding the prestressing syslem(s), materials and. equipment he intends using, as well as regarding the methods he proposes to adopt tn the prt;~ll",~ing and related operations.

Alternative designs shall comply with the requirements of CLAUSE 1212 and the relevant provisions of this Section.

6508 PRECASTING

(a) C .... ting yard on tn" sit"

Subject to approval by the Engineer, precast work may be done at any location selected by the Contractor.

The Engineer, at his own discretion. may call for further information in the form of rI .. tailad drawings. proof of successful previous use, performance certificates from an approved independent testing authority, and calculations substantiating the adequacy of the system. The Contractor shall furnish such information within two weeks of being called upon to co so or Within a period agreed on with the Engineer. If, after investigating all the information, the Engineer is not satisfied that the prestressing of the structural member can be. carried out satisfactorily with the prestressing system offered by the C()ntractor, the Engineer reserves the right to order the Contractor to use any system which is suited to the ..... ork and which is readily available to the Co~tractor.

Only minor alterations to the concrete dimensions shown on the Drawings will be considered in order to accommodate the prestressingsystem finally selected. Major alterations· occasioned by the prestressing system offered by 'tne Coriliactor and which ,~ at variance with the tendon system specified in SUBCLAUSE 6505(b) shall be treated as alternative designs and shall be dealt with as specified in CLAUSE 1212.

Before the casting yard is established, the Contractor shall submit plans to the Engineer which demarcate tne site and oetail the layout of the Works, together with a flow oiagram of the construction stages and storage.

(b) Manufacture off the site

The. Contractor shall notify the Engineer in advance of the dates when tensioning of tendons, casting of members and transfer, will be undertaken.

Within seven days of transfer, the Contractor shall submit to the Engineer a certificate giving the tendon force(s) and extension(s) attained as well as records of the cube crushing strength and age of concrete at transfer.

Test results relating to all aspects of the work shall be sent to the Engineer immediately upon their becoming available.

6507 DRAWINGS PREPARED BY THE CONTRACTOR

All dl'3win9" "''''pared by the ContrRdor and submitted to the Engineer for consideration shall comply with the requirements 01 CLAUSE 1221.

Where the Engineer requires tests to be conducted on completed members, no member to Which the tests relate shall be dispatched to the site until the tests have been satisfactorily completed and the member" accepted by the Engineer.

The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer at least two months before he intends commencing with the prestressing work, drawings detailing the layout and alignment for the individual tendons, the cable supports, modifications to the bursting and other reinforcement, anchorage recesses, tensioning sequence, ten"ioning loads and extensions, as well as requirements for controlling the tensloninq operations. For the prestressing system finally selected, the technical data whlch are at variance with the information given on the Drawings shall be shown on the Drawings. Each tendon shall be separately numbered for iOentification.

(0) Manufacture

Oefore work is commenced, dotails of th", manuf;;>etme and phasing of the work shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval. After approval no changes shall be made to the methods or systems without approval by the Engineer.

The Contractor shall ensure that the specified precarnber is incorporated in the form work. The magnitude of the precamber shown on the Drawings snail be SUbject [0 va.iation depending on tho Contractor's construction programme; and the Contractor shall, before manufacture, ascertain in writing from the Engineer, the increase or decrease in pracambsr. This procedure shall also apply to the cases where no precamber has been specified.

Where . required,. the Contractor shall submit calculations in respect of the .. varlatlon of the tendon force along· the length of the tendon, the expected extension and the bursting forces.

Ufting and supporting the precast members shall be made only at the points marked and provided on the members.

Precast members Which have not been fully tensioned or fully stage eXtensioned or which have ungrouted

THE UNITEQ REi'U~LlC OF TANZANIA. M,NISTRY OF WORKS

PAGE 6000 - 42

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD WOR"s-2000

SERJES SOOO - STR'iCTURiI:it$

tensioned tendons shall not be handled without authorisation by the Engineer_

corrosive conditions in coastal, damp and wet areas and under aggressive conditions the materials shall be stored in weatherproof sheds. All matedals shall be stored clear of the ground and while in storage shall not be enclosed to the weather.

Where members with ungrouted tensioned tendons are handled. control shall be exercised to guard against possible slip of the tendon at the anchorage.

prestressed precast concrete members shall also comply with the requirements of CLAUSE 6413,

When prestressing steel has been stored for a prolonged period and there ls evidence of its deterioration, the Contractor may be called on to prove by tests that the quality of the steel has not been Significantly impaired and that the prestressing steel still cempflce with the provisions of these Specifications.

s.

6509 PRE-TENSIONING

During the period between [ell:;iOllin9 and transfer, the force in the tendon shall be fully maintained by some positive means. At transfer, detensioning shall take place slowly to minimise any shock which could adversely affect the transmission length of the tendon,

Suitable protection shall be provided to the threaded

ends of bars, .

In the long-line method of pre-tensioning, sufficient localor plates shall be distributed through-out the length

. of the bed to ensure that the straight tendons are maintained in. their proper position dUring concreting, Where a number of units are manufactured in line. they shall be free to slide in the direGtion of their length so as to permit transfer of the tendon force to the concrete along the enti", lln ...

After fabrication, the cable ends shall be covered with protective wrapping to prevent the ingress of moisture into the duct.

In the individual-mould system, the' moulds shall be sufficiently rigid to provide the reaction to the tendon force without distortion.

Where. pOSSible, the mechanislTi for holding down or holding up deflected tendons shallens'ure that the part in contact with the tendon wi!!. be free to move in the line of the tendon so that frlctb;-, losses are eliminated. If, however, asystem is used which develops a frictional forCEl' this force shall be determined by' test and due

allowance made therefor, '. ... .

Whell UI<" [,,,,dOli is to be left untensloned for a prolonged period after installation, precautions shall be taken to protect the tendon against corrosion, Corrosion inhibitors, oils or similar materials used as lubrication or to provide temporary protp.dinn shall be such that th",y can be completely removed before permanent protection iseffected,

(b) Fabrication

All cutting of prestressing steel shall be performed with a high-speedab.rasive cutting wheel or by a method approved by the Engineer, Flame cutting will not be permitted,

For single tendons,' the deflector in contact with the tendon Shall halfe a ra_cliusof not (less than5times the tendon diameter f()r', wire, . or.' 10 times the. tendon diameter for astrand, and the total angle of deflection shan nOI exceed ·io·.

Care shall be taken to prevent the prestressing steei or anchorages from coming into contact with splashes from fiame-cutting or welding processes in the vicinity,

Where possible, all bars, wires. or strands tensioned in one operation. shall be taken from' the same parcel of prestressing steel. The tendon or cable shall be labelled to show the tendon or cable number, as well as identify from 'II¥hich p9;r~.~1 th~ stee:I.~la:s been,takei-i.

Tran,sfer of the tendon force 10 the concrete shall be effected in conjunction with the release of hold-down and hold-up forces in accordance with an approved method.

Where bars, wires or strands in a tendon are not tensioned simultaneously, tendon spacers shall be used in accordance with the recommendations for the prestressing syStem or, in the absence thereof, as directed by the Engineer.

Cables shall be fitted at both ends with pipes with a otameter of at teast 10 mm Tor tnemjecnon of grout or protection agents. The ends of the injection pipes shall be fitted with a clamp, valve or device capable of withstanding a pressure of at least 15 bars without loss of grout or protection agGnt,

Transfer shall ,no!. be effepted '. unti!. compressive~trengthtests on the concrete show that the concrete of the particular member hasiittained a' compressive strength of at least the compressive strength shewn on the Drawings. The transmission length is affected by the concrete strength, and the necessary modification for the,conc~et(l strength at tran::>fe~ ::>hall . be made in

conjunction with the Engineer. . . , ..

The tendons shall be cut off flush with the end. of the member and, the exposed ends covered with a heavy coat of approved bituminous material or epoxy resin, The cutting of the prestreSSing ~teel shall be performed with a high-speedabrasilfo cuuindwheel. Flame cutting

will not be permitted, .

Vent pipes with a diameter of at least 25 mm shall be provided iri the duct at every·' high point, change of sheath cross-section and at such intermediate positions as may be shown on the Drawings or required by the Engineer. The vent pipes shall extend to at least 500 mm above the concrete and shall comply with the requirements for injection pipes.

(a) Stol'1lge. handling and protection

During storage, transit, construction and after installation the sheaths, prestressing steel, anchorages and coup!ers shall be protected against corrosion, damage or permanent deformation, The manner and extent of protection required will depend on the environmental factors and the length of time before permanent corrosion protectlonls applied, and shall be to the satisfaction of the Engineer, Under severe

Connections to, and joints in sheaths shall be made grout-tight by using special sheathing coup~;ngs and taping. With bonded cables, the length .of taping shall not exceed' six sheath diameters, Where over sleeves are used, equal overlaps shall be provided over each length of sheathing. Joints in adjacent sheaths shall be spaced at least 300 mm apart

6510 POST~TENSIONING

(c) lnstanatton

The installation of tendons shall not commence unlil the requirements of CLAUSE 6507 have been complied with.

PAGE 6000 - 43

SERIES 6000 • STRUCTURES

The cable; sheath or extractable core shall be accurately installed to the specified alignment and secur"ly held in position both vertically and horizontally at intervals appropriate to its rigidity and 50 as not to be displaced during concreting, either by the. weight of the concrete or by buoyancy. The spacing of the cable supports shall furthermore ensure that the tendon can be installed to a smooth alignment Wltnout kinks and within the tolerance specified in, SUBCLAUSE 6803(g). Cable sheaths shall be supported and held in position by nieans of separate reinforcing steel supports with a diameter of not less than 16 mm. The trans:v"rse bars must be welded to the vertical bars or must rest on lugs welded to the vertical bars. The spacing of the vertical supports shall not exceed 1.0 m

permits, that all tendons are free to move in the ducts. All water in the ducts shall then be expelled with compressed air and the cables sealed until tensioning takes place.

Before tensioning is commenced, the side forms and other restraining elements shall be released or removed to give the structural member the freedom to deform under the induced force,

Extractable cores shall not be coated with release agent unless approved by the Engineer.

(ii) Tensioning sequence

The sequ"''''''' nf tensioning to be followed shall be as shown on the Drawings and/or on drawings prepared by the Contractor in terms of CLAUSE 6507. The Contractor shall make allowance in his bid rates for all incidentals which he may have to incur as a result of having to tension fully only some of the tendons at anyone stage or instant. Where partial tensioning of tendons is required, the work shall be executed in accordance with the details on the Drawings or as specified. The Contractorshall, in his bid rates, make provision for all incidentals he may have to incur as a result of having to tension partially only some of or all th'e tendons at anyone stage or instant.

Unless otherwise shown on the Drawings, the altYfllnent of the tendon within a distance of 1.0 in from the live anchOrage and/or coupler shall be straight. The tendon axis shall be set perpendicular to the bearing surface of its anchorage and firmly secured in position ';0 as not to mOl/e.' during concreting. External anchorages shall be seated on a thin mortar bedding to bear evenly on the concrete bearing

surface, and the tendon axis shalt be perpendicular to the bearing surface of the 'anchorage.

Unless otherwise shown on the Drawings, the minimum concrete cover over the outside surface of the sheath or cable support shall comply with the requirements of CLAUSE 6307, .,xcept that. for sheaths, thf.> cover shall

not be less than 50 rnrn, '

(iii) Assembling the equipment, and safety precautions The tensioning and measuring equipment shall be assembled for tensioning in exactly the same way "5 th~y are combined for calibration~

The spacing of cables will depend on the size of the cable· and shall be' such that the concrete can be

properly placed and compacted. ..

The Contractor shall take all the necessary safety precautions to prevent accidents caused by the malfunctioning or failure of any part of the equipment ,or material and sha!! accept full responsibility for injury sustained by persons or damage to property resultingtherefrom.

(iv) Friction

The Engineer may require the Contractor to perform frictiori tests on designated tendons and to revise the relevant theoretical extensions to compensate for the discrepancy between the values adnpt"rI in the design and the test results. Payment for these tests shall be made under ITEM 71.01.

Immediately before concreting, the Contractor shall inspect tlie sheaths for grout-tightness and shall seal all

damaged Ci'nd suspect eectione. ".

External tendons shall be installed to the same standards and accuracy specified herein for intemal tendons. The tendons shall be temporarily supported at regular intervals along the str;;light. length between saddles. The supports shall consist of . rigidly constructed frames secured to the concrete face.

Whel'(l applicable, allowance shall be made in the tensioning force to compensate for friction loss in the jack and in the anchorage.

(v) Tensioning

Tensioning shall bo carried out under the supervision of a technician skilled in the use of the prestressing system and equipment and the methods of tensioning to be adopted,

(d)' Concrete .. trcngth

Full tenslonlnq of all or some of the tendons shall not commence until the compressive-strength of the concrete is 35 MPa or the strength shown on the Drawings. whichever is Ihe greater.

The compressive strength of the concrete shall. be determined from cubes manufactured and tested in accordance with SUBCLAUSE 7106(a) which have been cured under the same conditions as the structural member which is to be prestressed, The· number of concrete cubes required for this purpose shall be as agreed on with the Engineer.

Where initially aU or some of the tendons are to. be partially tensioned, tensioning shall not commence before the concrete has attained the compressive strength indicated on the Drawings,

Tensioning shall not be commenced before the Engineer has been advised of each tensioning operation and has given his approval for the work to be started.

(i) Prepar atlon

Within two hours of the concrete having been placed, the contractcr " shall demonstrate that sheaths are free from obstructions, that extractablo "ores can be removed and. where the dDskm

The technician and operators shall be supplied with a schedule listing the sequence of tenstonlnq the various tendons and a tensioning record sheet showin(J the thAnretic:al aauge readings. jacking forces, extensions. release and pull-in for each tensioning operation. The record sheet shall furthermore provide room . for entering the corresponding information recorded and observations made dunng tenstorunq, A graph of the terisioning force and/or gauge reading versus theoretical extensions shall, where required, be appended to the record sheet and the actual extensions measured for each load increment shall be plotted on the graph. Copies of the completed record sheets and graphs shall be submitted to the Engineer within 24 hours of each tensioninq operation having been completed.

(e) Tensioning

THE UNrrED REpuaucOF TANZANIA, M,N,STRV OF WORKS

PAGE 6000 - 44

The Contractor shall note that the.extensions shall be regarded as an indirect measurement of the tensinning fnr~e and shall serve as a control on the tensioning force applied.

The protruding ends of all bars, wires and strands shall be clearly marked for the accurate measurement ot extension, release and pull-ln.

SUBCLAUSE 6503(h) and subject to approval by the Engineer·

Tendons located outside the structural section (ie external tendons) shall be encased with a dense concrete, dense mortar or material sufficiently stable and hard, all subject to approval. The encasement shall be ofthe thickness shown on the Drawings. Where bonding of the tendon to the structural concrete is required, this shall be achieved by bonding the concrete encasement to the structure with reinforcinq steel a5 detailed UI I the Drawings.

Protection and bonding of the tendons shall be effected within seven days of the final tensioning of the tendons, or as specified on the Drawings, but shall not take place without the prior approval of the Engineer having been obtained.

Before tensioning is commenced on extemal tendons, a small load shalt be applied to each tendon, commencing with the uppermost tendon. The force shall be sufficient to take up all slack and prevent entanglement of the tendons.

The jacking force shall be increased to approximately 5% to 10% of the final jacking force to take up the tendon slack and to detennine the zero position for measuring the extension and to check the gripping devices and the position and alignment of the jacks. The .1000 shall then be increased gradually to the full specified tensioning force .. while . int.ermediate . g<,luge . readings and extensions are recorded at regular intervals.· .

The final stage of tensioning shall be deemed to have been satisfactorily accomplished when all the following requirements have been compli~d with:

(1) TIle tendons have been tensioned to the required force.

(2) The measuredextenslon on individual tendons is within ±S0J0 of the the9retical extensions:'

After the permanent protection or bonding has been completed the anchorages shall be encased In concrete or grout which shall be bonded to the old concrete with epoxy resin designed for this purpose, or shall be completely coated with a cormsion-rasfstanr material. The protection provided shall in all cases prevent the ingress of water or aggressive agents. .

(li)Preparation of ducts

Before permanent protection andror bonding of tendons ,is effected, the following precautions shall

be taken; '

(3) The average variation between the measured and theoretical extensions of all. the tendons in a structural member is less than ±3%.

(1) The cables shall be checked for blo«kilgec by water or compressed air being injected.

(2) Unlined ducts which are to be filled with grout shall be flushed with water to we! the concrete.

(4) The release and/or pull-in is within ±2 mm of the theoretical values,

(3) Temporary protection or lubricants which are incompatible with the permanent protection or bonding, shall be removed by flushing the duct ;..vith water .or ail inert eolutlon. Of by any suitable approved method.

W"e_je the abo-yo conditiOl)5 are not, met indh,-kjuaiJy and collectively, the Contractor shall immediately advise the Engineer and obtain a ruling as to the procedure to be followed.

In the event of the tendon friction being too high, the Contractor may, subject to approval by the Engineer, inject an approved lubricant into the sheath after first having detensioned the tendon.

The cost of the remedial and corrective measures and of the release and retensionlng of tendons, which have been occasioned by failure of the nrerations to meet the above requirements shall be for the Contractor's account.

(4) On completion of the above, any excess fluid shall be expelled from the ducts by means of compressed air or shall be displaced by the protecting agent or grout, as may be relevant.

(5) Any blockages, leakages or factors which in any way may arre<;t the permanent protection or bending shall immediately be reported to the Engineer.

(iii) Mixing

After the tensioning has been accepted by the Engineer, the Contractor may cut off the tendons behind the anchorage as described in SUBCLAUSE

6510(b). .

(1) Protecting agents

The mixing of protecting agents shall be strictly in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

Internal tendons shall be protected and bonded to the structural member by. cement. grout or, when permitted by the Engineer, by send-cement grout. Where bond is not important; protection may be effected by the use of bitumen, petroleum-based compounds,. epoxy resins, plastics and similar products. all complying with the requirements of

(2) Grout

The aggregatG, if used, and the comont ehatl be measured by mass, and the water by mass Dr by volume.

The water:cementratio by mass shall be as low as possible wi.thin the range between 0.36 to 0.45, and shall be consistent with the fluidity requirements of SUBCLAUSE 6503(g).

(f) Pormanont protoction and bonding of t .. ndons

(i) General

After tensioning, all tendons shall receive permanent protection against mechanical damage and corrosion.

Where an admixture le used, it :shall be dissolved in a part of the mixing water before it is added 10 the grout

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, M,N,STRY OF WORKS

PAGE 6000 - 45

S., .. ,,,,, 6Mn _ STRUCTU .. ES

Mixing shall be commenced by two-thirds of the cement being added to the greater part of the mixing water, and, it ueed, an additive prediesolvad in part of the mixing water, and finally the remainder. of the cement. Mixing shall continue for not longer than four minutes after which the grout shall be continually agitated at slow speed throughout the injection operation.

Where aggregate is used in the grout mix, the word "cement" in the preceding paragraph shall be replaced by the term "ceme nt/aggregate component".

(iv) Injection

(1) General

The injeciion of permanent protecting agents or grout shall not commence before approval has been granted that the worx may start.

Before injection commences all air shall be expelled from the injection equipment and hoeea and all connections checked fer airtightness.

Injection shall take place from the anchorage or coupler. whichever is situated at the lower end of the cable. Grout injection shall proceed witihout any interruption until the cable has been completely filled and closed off.

(2) Protecting agents

The injection of protecting agents shall be strictly in accordance with the instructions, and with the· equipment specified by the manufacturer.

(3) Graul

Immediately aft~r rmxmg, and also during injection, the fluidity of the grout shall be tested at regular intervals in accoraance with SUBCLAUSE 6503(i).

Injection shall be continuous at a rate of 6 to 12 m per minute. As 300n QO grout wit" tho original consistency flows from. the intermediate vent pipes they shall be successively closed. Injection shall continue until the grout flowing fram the vent at the free end is of the same consistency as that of tihe injected grout. At this stage the vent shall be closed and the final pressure or a pressure of 5 bars, whichever is the greater, shall have been maintained on the grout column for five minutes before the valve at the injection end is closed.

All vents shall be kept. closed and supported vertically until tihe grout has finally settled. On vertical cables, a riser pipe with funnel shall be fitted to the top anchor to ensure that the separated water i"l1igrates upwards and will not remain in the cable •.

If an expanding agent is used In the grout mix, the air vents shall be re-opened after grouting to release any separated water, and. shall then again bc closed.

Unless a retarder is used in the grout rnlx, the grout not used within 60 minutes of mixing shall be .discarded.

During the course of grouting 10Qmm cubes shall be made for testing in accordance with SUBCLAUSE 6503(1). Whilst the grout is being poured Into the cub", rnould, the sides of the

mould shall be slightly tapped to permit any entrapped air to escape.

Precautions shall be taken not to discharge the escaping grout onto railway lines, public roads, water courses or private property.

If a blockage occurs dUring the course of grouting, the grouting shall be stopped before the maximum grouting pressure is reached. The duct shall then be Hushed out immediately and the blockoge cleared.

Grouting shan not be carried out ·during very cold weather when the ambient air temperature drops below SoC. Care shall be taken that the ducts are completely free from frost or ice before grouting commences after frosty weather.

6511 LOSS OF PRESTRESS

Any structural member which has lost all or part of its prestress through the failure or malfunctioning of any part of the prestressing component may be rejected by the Engineer and oholl be removed from the Works unless approved remedia! measures have been successfully carried out on the member. No payment will be made in respect of such remedial work or loss suffered by the Contractor in this regard.

6512 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

ITEM

65.01 PRESTRESSING

TENDONS:

(a) LONGITUDINAL TENDONS

(b) TRANSVERSE TENDONS

(c) VERTICAL TENDONS

MEGANEWTON - METRE (MN-m)

MEGAN EWTON - METRE (MN-m)

MEGANEWTON - METRE (MN-m)

The unit of measurement shall be the meganewtonmetre which is calculated as the product of the cnaractensuc strength it! megapascets of the prestressing steel, the cross-sectional area of the tendon in square metres and the length of the tendon in metres between the faces of the anchorages. In the case of fan and lnor Anchorages the "length of the tendon" shall include the length of tendon forming the loop or fan.

The bid rates shall include full compensation for preparing and SUbmitting the DraWings, supplying. storing, handling and protecting all materials (excluding anchorages and couplers), fabricating, supporting and installing the cables; lubricating, permanentiy protecting and bonding the tendons, for the using of all the equipment, as well as for aU work and incidentals required for completing the work as specitled,

ITEM

65.02 ANCHORAGES AND

COUPLERS:

(a) END ANCHORAGE AT

JACKING

(b) ANCHORAGE: AT DEAD END (C) COUPLER AT JACKING END (d) COUPLER AT DEAD END

MEGAN EWTON (MN)

MEGANEWTON (MN) MEGAN,~WTON (MN) MEGANEWTON (MN)

The unit of measurement shall be tihe meganewton which is calculated as the product of the characteristic

TilE UNiT .. O Ra>llDLIC OF T ANZAHIA, M1N1STRY OF WORKS

PAGE 6000 - 46

STANDARD SPECifICATIONS fOR ROAD WORKS-2000

SERIES 6000 - STRUCTURES

strength in mega pascals of the prestressing steel and the cross-sectional area of the tendon in square metres, effectively anchored or coupled.

The bid rates shall include full compensation for supplying, storing, handling, fabricating and protecting the complete anchorage or coupler assembly, anchorage reinforcing, constructing the recesses for the anchorage or coupler, tensioning, anchoring and/or coupling, trimming the tendon ends, using all the equipment. as well as for all work and incidentals required for completing the work as specified.

The coupler shall include the complete assembly consisting of the anchorage built into the first-stage construction and the part coupled to it.

The bid rate for loop or fan anchorages shall exclude the cost of the length of tendon forming the ioop or fan.

ITEM

65.03 . EXTRA OVER ITEM 65.02 FOR PARTIALLY TENSIONING THE TENDONS

UNIT MEGANEWTON (MN)

The unit of measurement shall be the meganewton, which is calculated as for ITEM 65.02.

The bid rate shall include full compensation for the use of all equipment, as well as for all work and incidentals required for tensioning and anchoring the tendons to the specified partial force.

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF WORKS

PAGE 6000 - 47

sr ANDARO SPEC1F1CA T10t<S FOR ROAD WORKS-2000

SERIES 6000: STRUCTURES

SERIES 6000 • STRUCTURES

SECTION 6600: NO-,FINES CONCRETE, JOINTS, BEARINGS, PARAPETS AND DRAINAGE FOR STRUCTURES

CONTENTS:

CLAUSE

PAGE

6601 SCOPE

6602 NO-FINES CONCRETE

6603 JOINTS IN STRUCTURES 6604 BEARINGS FOR STRUCTURES

6605 PARAPETS, RAILINGS AND SIDEWALKS 6606 DRAINAGE FOR STRUCTURES

6607 BOLT GROUPS FOR ~lECTRIFICATION BRACKETS

6608 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

6000-48 6000-48 6000-48 6000-51 6000-54 6000-55

6000-55 6000-55

6601 SCOPE

This Section covers;

- the manufacture and placing of no-fines concrete used in the WOrkS;

the supply and installation of all permanent joints which wHi permit relative movement between contiguous structural members;

the conatruotion, supply and inctallatlon of bearings for structures;

the construction of parapets, railings and sidewalks on structures;

the construction and/or installation of drainage works such as weep holes, drainage pipes and gulleys, no-fines concrete blocks, filter lining and concrete channelling;

bolt groups for electrification brackets.

6602 NO·FINES CONCRETE

(a) Materlal5

Cement, aggregate and water shall comply with the requirements of CLAUSE 6402.

Each si7e of aggregate shall be a single size aggregate graded in accordance with SABS 1083 Part II or equivalent

(b) Classes of no-fines concrete

No-fines concrete shall be ctassmeo by the prefix NF and the size of aggregate to be used. E.g. CLASS NF 19 means a no fines concrete with a 19,Omm nominal size aggregate.

The volume of aggregate per 50 kg of cement for each class of concrete shall be as detailed in TABLE 660211.

TABLE 660211

VOLUMES OF AGGREGATE

Class of cement Aggregate per SO kg
NF38 O.33m
NF19 0.30 m3
NF13 0.27 rn3 ( e ) De.t c hing and mixing

Cement shall be measured by mass or in full pockets of 50 kg each and aggregate shall bo measured by volume in approved measuring boxes or barrows.

The aggregate shall be moist or wetted before the cement is added. Where drum mixers are used, about 20% of the water shall be poured into the drum before 'i,i; the aggregate and cement are loaded. The mixing time

in the drum shall be about 45 to 50 seconds.

The quantity of water added shall be just sufficient to form <l' smooth grout which will adhere to and completely coat each and every particle of aggregate, and which is just wet enough to ensure that, at points of contact of aggregate, the grout will run together to form a small fillet to bond the aggregate together. The mix shall contain no more than 20 lltres of water for every 50 kg of cement.

Mixing shall be done in an approved balch-type mechanical mixer, but small quantities may be hand mixed.

(d) Placing

No-fin"" COncrete shall bE! placed in ac,",orri,mt:f! with the procedure approved by the Engineer. It shall be placed in its final position within 15 minutes of having been mixed.

The concrete shall be worked sUfflcienUy to ensure that it will completely fill the space to be concreted and that adjacent aggregate particles are in contact with one another. Excessive tamping shall be avoided and the concreto shall not in any eiroumetancee ba' vibrated.

(e) Protection

All no-fines concrete shall be protected from the elements' and loss of moisture. Protection against loss of moisture shall be accomplished by one or more of the following methods:

(i) Retaining formwork in place.

(ii) Covering enclosed surfaces with sacking or other approved material kept continuously wet.

(iii) Covering .. nci,.,s",d surfaces with plastiC sheeting.

No-fines concrete placed during cold weather shall be adequately protected against frost for at least three days ..

. 6603 JOINTS IN STRUCTURES

(a) Material5

(i) General

All materials used in forming, constructing and sealing pennanentjoinls as well as all proprietary or custom-built expansion-joint assemblies shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer.

When required by the Engineer, the Contractor shall submit test certificates issued by an approved, independent testing authority to confirm that the respective materials comply with the specified requirements, or a certificate by the patent holder or designer certifylng that the manufactured item complies in all respects with relevant product specifications.

(ii) Joint filler

Joint filler shall consist of sheets or strips of the fonowing materials complying with the requirements of the relevant specifications listed:

(1) Oitumen-impregnated fibreboard and bitumen

impregnated corkboard US Federal

Specification HH-F-341 F or AASHTO

Specification M-213.

THE UNITED RePUBLIC OF TAJoIlANIA. MnliSTRY OF W(Jf{KS

PAGE 6000 - 48

STANOARO SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAOWORKS·2000

SERIES 6000 . STRUCTURES

(2) Resin-impregnated corkboard - US Federal Specification HH-F-341F.

(3) Flexible foams of expanded polyethylene,

polyurethane, PVC or polypropylene

AASHTO Specification M-153.

(4) Rigid foams of expanded pulyeUlylene, polyurethane or polystyrene - BS 4840 or BS 3837.

(vi) Cover plates

(1) Steel em;"" pl"les shall be of

Grade 43A steel which complies with the requirements of BS 4360, or

Grade 300W steel which compiles with the requirements of SABS 1431 or equivalent.

(2) Galvanising shall comply with the requirements of SABS 763 or equivalent.

Other joint filler materials may be used if approved by the Engineer after he has been furnished with full specifications and information by the Contractor.

(3) Anchor bolts ahall be of stainless steel Grade 302 S.21, which complies with the requirements of BS 970 Part 4.

(iii) Sealants

Thermoplastic hot-poured sealants shall comply with the requirements of US Federal SpeCification 88-5-1401 E3, BS 2499 or AASHTO SpeCification M-173. The sealants shall be of the rubberised bituminous type containing a minimum of 20% natural or synthetic rubber.

Thermoplastic cold-applied sealants shall comply with the requirements of US Federal SpeCification SS-S-156. The sealant shall be of the rubberised bituminous type containing a minimum of 20% natural or synthetic rubber.

(b) Filled and unfilled joints (i) Genera!

Wherever polystyrene or similar material eusceptible to damage ls used fUi furl"lulJ juinls, it shall be lined with a hard surface on the side to be concreted. The hard surface shall. be sufficiently resilient to ensure that the jOint and surfaces can be formed froo from defects.

Thermosetting chemically ouring ()oolonl3 :>hell comply with the requirements of ASTM C-920 or BS 4254.

(ii) Filled joints

Filled joints shall be accurately formed to the dimensions shown and with the filler material spectaeo on the Drawings. The filler Shall be secured in position not to displace during concreting or thereafter if the filler is to remain permanently in the joint.

Where the removal of themter is required, it shall be done prior to the installation of the proprietary

joint. ..

The final IRHD (International Rubber Hardness Degree) hardness of the sealant shall be 20 ±5.

Silicone sealants shall comply with the

requirements of the Special Specifications.

Other sealants may be used if approved by the Engineer after he has boen furnished with full inforri1ation and specifications by the Contractor.

(iV) Waters tops .. ....

Waterstops shall be of natural rubber or flexible PVC and of the type specified or shown on the Drawings.

Natural-rubber waterstops sliall comply with the requirements of CKS 388.

(iii) Unfilled joints .

Unfilled joints shall be accurately formed to the dimensions given on the Drawings arid all external comers chamfered or rounded for at least 5 mm. Tho concrete faoo 2gaim:t which 'tho fm"h concreto is placed shall be treated in good time with an approved bond breaker.

(c) Concrete nosings

Concrete nosings forming the edges of expansion joints shall be constructed as follows:

FI",ldble. PVC rubber watorstops shall comply with the requirements Of CKS 339.

(i) After the concrete in the structural member has hardened sufficiently, the protruding ends of the reinforcing steel shall be bent flat onto the concrete surface of the formed recess.

(v) Accessory materia!

(1) Primers

Where a primer is to be used in conjunction with the sealant, it shall be of tho prescribed proprietary material.

(ii) Geforo the asphalt surfacing is laid. the recess shall be filled with well-compacted crusher run, sand or weak mortar. The Contractor shall ensure that the concrete surfaces of the recess and the reinforcing steel are not contaminated with bituminous agents. The asphalt surfacing shall then be laid continuously over the joint.

(2) Bond breakers

Polyethylene tape coated paper, metal foil or similar material may be used where bond breakers are required.

(iii) The asphalt surfacing shall be cut with a diamond saw blade In cormspnnr! to thf! wirlth of thA no",;no and all material shall be removed from the nosing recess. The concrete surfaces of the recess shall then be roughened to expose the aggregate and leave sound. irregular surfaces. The reinforcing stoet snail then be bent, fixed and placed as shown on the. Drawings.

. (iv) The prepared concrete surfaces of the recesses shall be treated with an approved opoxy-resln adhesive, immediately before the concrete riosings are cast Opposite concrete nosings, separated by a joint filler strip, shall be cast simultaneously in accordance with SUBCLAUSE 6408(c), and

(3) Backup material

l3ackupmaterial shall consist of a compressible material of correct width ariu shape to ensure that,after installation, it wW be in approximately 50% compression and the sealant can be formed to the specified depth.

Gackup materials shall be compatible with the sealant used. Material containing bitumen or solverits shalt not be used with thermosetting chemically curing sealants.

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, M,NISTRY OF WORKS

PAGE 6000·49

SERIES 6000 -STRUCTURES

compacted by vibrator. The nosing shall be screeded flush with the premix surfacing and be given a Class U2 surf~"" flnixh.

The Contractor shall ensure that primers are applied only to surfaces which are absolutely dry. The primer shall be applied strictly in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Unless otherwise specified, the primer shall be applied within the temperature range of 10°C and 40°C, and the sealant shall be applied after the curing period of the primer and within the period Will"" lll" primer remains active.

(v) Curing shall be In accordance with Method (f) of CLAUSE 6409.

(vi) After three days, the gap between the noslngs snail be enlarged to the requisite dimensions by cutting both sides with parallel diamond saw blades. The depth of the saw cut shall be such that a ledge is formed along the lower edge of the cut on which the sealer unit can be supported.

(iii) Sealants

Sealants shall be applied strictly in """orciance with the mailufacturer's instructions by a person skilled in the use of the particular type of sealant. Trapping of air and the forming of voids in the sealant shall be avoided. The sealant shall be finished to a neat appearance to the specified depth.

Thermoplastic hot-poured sealants shall not be poured into the joints when Ihe temperature of the joint is below 10"C. Tho cafe heating temperature shall not exceed the specified pouring temperature by more than 10°C.

(vii) The exposed comers of Ihe nosings shall be ground to a 10 mm chamfer.

(viii) After the joint has been sealed, the wearing surface of the nosings shall be treated with a bituminous primer 10 the satisfaction of the Engineer.

Unless otherwise specified, traffic shall not be permitted to pass over the joint before the concrete in th" nMinO h"" "op.d for at least 1 0 days.

Two-part thermosetting chemically curing sealants shall not be applied after expiry of the specified potlife period which commences once the base and activator of the sealant have been combined.

Unless otherwise indicated onthe Drawings, the concrete used in the construction of the nosings shall be Class 40113 and. Shall have a slump of not less than 50 mm and not exceeding Ib mm.

(IV) Waterstops

Waterstops shall be securely and accurately located in position so that they will not be displaced or deformed during construction.

Concrete nosings shall be constructed under the direct supervlsion of experienced and skilled

peraonnel. .

(d) Plug type expansion jOints

Plug type.expansion joint systems, shall be constructed in accordance with the details on the Drawings and the specifications and instructions of the licences.

(f) Proprietary expansion joints

(i) General

The use of any type of expansion joint shall be subjeci to approvaL Bidders shall obtain approval for the type of expansion joint they intend using prior to submitting their bids.

(e) Sealing the joints

(1) General .... ... '". . .

Sealed joints shall be mado watertight over the full length of the jolnt, including the full height of the kerbing. lJnle$s oth"""""" prescribed in the Special SpeCifications. Unless a waterstop is equipped with an effective waJertight interlocking system for joining sections, all joints in waterstops shall be bonded or fused to. have a tensile strength of at least 50% of that of the unjOinted material. At intersections and abrupt changes of direction, waterstops shall be jointed wi.th prefabricated junction pieces.

Restrictions on joint width and on the temperature at the time of installing the sealant or seal will be shown on the Drawings. In the absence of such restrictions on the Drawings, and unless otherwise specified, installation shall be carried out only within the temperature range be.tween 5°C and 30°C.

(ii) Preparing the joints

Wherl:l required, jui" l::i shatl be ..aWfl at a suitable time SO as 10 avoid edge spalling or ravelling.

After the temporary filler material has been removed or the """"'". concrote has been broken out, the inside faces . of the joint shall be wire brushed or sand-blasted to remove ali laitance and contaminants. The joint shall then be cleaned and blown out with compressed air to remove all traces of dust Solvents shall not be used for removing contaminants from the concrete and porous surfaces.

(ii) Dimensions

The Contractor shall note the overall dimensions of the expansion joints and the limiting dimensions of that portion of the concrete structure which is to accommodate the joints. No alterations to the concrete which will be visible in the final structure or major re-arrangement of the prestressing anchorages will be permitted in order to accornrnodate joints ur excessive size.

All joints to be installed skew shall be accurately dimensioned to ensure compliance with the requirements of SUFI(:IAtJ"'E f\B03(g).

Unless otherwise specllled, proprietary expansion joints shall include the complete expansion-joint assembly, traversing the entire roadway, kerbs, sidewalks and median, and shall include the coping and parapet cover plates as well as the drainage system to drain the expansion joint.

(iii) Oooign and. rnanufccture

The expansion joint shall be designed to withstand the movements, displacements and rotations specified on the Drawings in conjunction with the loads described in the code of practice adopted for the design of the structure without exceeding in any member the requirement for serviceability limit state. Any strengthening of the supporting member required to resist forces imparted by the joint to the structure shaH IJ" for the Ocntractor'e account.

The specified movements, displacements and rotations shall be withstood without the efficacy or riciino quality of the joint being impaired.

THE UNITeD REf'UBLICOF TANZANIA, M,,"STRY OF WORKS

PAGE 6000 - 50

STANDARD SPECIFICATIOHS FOR ROAD WORKS-2000

SERIES 6000 - STRUCTURES

The joint shall be vibration free, resistant to mechanical wear and other forms of abrasion, and shall resist corrosion. It shall have good riding characteristic", "hall be highly "kid reslstent, eilent, and of watertight construction or have provision for tho dlsposat of water debris or grit collecting in the joint. It shall be of a construction that \'Vill facilitate easy inspection, maintenance anti repair.

(ii) Roofing felt

Roofing felt shall be 3-ply and comply with the requirements of SABS 92 or equivalent for Type 1 roofing felt.

(iii) Elastomer

The elastomer used in the manufacture of bearings shall be natural rubber or synthetic rubber.

Apart from stainless steel, all steel surfaces shall be prepared in accordance with the requirements of SUBCLAUSE 5907(b) and sprayedwith a galvanising Goat which complies with the requirements of 3A[3S 1391 Part I or equivalent for Zn 150 coverage. All enclosed surfaces sprayed \'lith zinc shall, within four hours, be covered with a sealant suitable for use with the zinc and the subsequent layer. Two coals of chlorinated rubber paint with a combined dry-coat thickness of not less than 150 urn shall then be applied. They' shall be of two . different colours.

Natural rubber shall comply with the requirements of BS 1154 for specified IRHO hardness.

3y"UlcliL; rubue :;11,,11 comply wlllt tile requlrernerus of OS 2752 for specified IRHO hardness.

(iv) Stainless steel plate

The texture of the st!ding surface of stainless steel plate used in conjunction with PTFE to form lowfriction sliding surfaces shall be equal to or better than 0.2 urn Ra in accordance with the requlrornents of [3S 1134.

Prior. to manufacture of the joints, the Contractor shall. SL!bl1!it for' approval detail drawings . in accordance.wilh the requirements of CLAUSE 1221 Of oach expansion' joint. '. The' expansion joints

delive,etl.<l1 HIe site shall JJesuilably marked to shew clqarly tile:. scqu6n~e'and . position qf

installation. . .. .. '. . . .

(v) Stainless steel dowels and bolts

Stainless steel used for the manufacture ef dowels and anchor bol ts shall comply with the requirements of OS Q70 : Part" fer st",,1 3i6S16 ..

(g) i'nstall!ngthe expansion [olnts

Proprietary . expansion joints. shall be installed by approved .,specia!istsubconlr:.:ctors .:'. only.' Installed proprietary expansion joint;; shall have a 15 year written OU(lrp;ntcc~,_·N9. cxpnnG.ipn joint or:_ par~_"thcn~of uholl b<? installed prior to U10. co~strucliqri of the final surfacing,

Unlc1>SOlhen.viseapl?royed.··· . ..

Tho expansion joint shall form an even surface with the rood sur£asc o~ .. 9Illler side and .. the. dovtatlon .. across nr.du!cng·the. expansicnjoint .sluill complywiUl the requlremcnts' of ~UBCLAUSE3'105(e) and' SlIBCLAUSt; 3405(1) for. surface l'eguiiJritY'measuredby ordinary

~tlillljhi~ct!8\: .. , . . .. .. , ... .

(vi) Mortar

Mortar beddings for scaling the bearings shall be composed of an approved sand and either cement or . epoxy resin, or may consist of an approved proprietary mortar. The mortar shall comply with the following strength requirements:

(1). Santl-ccment mortar

The 7 -day compressive strenglh of 150 mm cubes made from the mortar and cured in a moist .atrnospherc for tho firs! 24 hours and allcrwards in water' at 200C shall be not less than 1.5 times the average contact stress under the' bearing or 15 MPa, whichever is the

greater. . .

On9?mpleiion'd HIe ir.:>t<.:H:.:!lcn of the proprietary cxpunsion joints. the Contractor shall submit to the Engineer a ccrli.r:cate from the mcnutacturcr or supplier of the joints, certifying ncccpl3h~cofllw lnslallation. Notwithstanding !ileissuing oIs~ch certificate, tt shall flotrt:;lieve Ulcco:l!ractci9fhb.re~pensibmty under the C9nlr:lct. NbseiniratspaYnlChtlv[[!'gemadcfor',thc ir\SpCCll9n of ttio JOlritsaritl,,11C IssuIng ar}ligc~nmclJte by tho' rnaH~fectur6ror supplier. ltwillbcregarded as anobligationOt tile Contractor to be covered by the

~9DlSSI P~!FS,s P'~!8 f?rJQin~~"

(2) S,,"J-O]JUXY ",~ill ",ml"f.

The cured compressive cube slrength of tho mortar shall be not less lhan two times the averaqc contact stress under the bearing, or 20MPa. whichever is thogr,caler. .

(3) Proprietary mortar

The strength· requirements for proprietary mortars shall be in accordance with either SIj[3(;L/UJ8l: '6604(a)(~I)(1), 9r,(2) as may, Do relevant.

(b) Concrete hhlgc$ ..

Concrolo 'hino"'" shall bo ' conslwc[od inaccorci<1nco with the <.!cluilss!IOWri onthe D~aWin£lS. '.,

Construction joints shall not be formed in the throat area. Where a joint is necessary, il shall be formed as a recess bel9vI the throat.Icve! "vitI! the top reinforcement mat. Tile \',~dth of therecess shaU.bs snghUygreatcr

than that of tile throat,' .

Cfi04

(i) ~il~W~:Cql1e~tcd. bY.YiI~' [r:l'bi~cer,B~c (:;prit~~qt~r shall::;ub,nit ,lcstqerlWcC[cs from,;m approved, .lndcpcmlell!.193Un9 . <H.lthqrlly_ to. StlDW tlm~ tile respeclivc.m~teriqI3 comply: with ,,the ". specined requirements, ora cprlific;qte from tpe patent holder or~esignerccrliryjng .\I)at)lle ma[)ufflC:lured" item , cpmplie>", il1 "a.!Im"ro~!"cvill,l. mt"":'1nt r>~nd!lr,t

, speciflcaticns. . ,. , .," .. ,

.. U~lessqtt19rwl;ospeqificd: ul! the milteriuls used fcrmariUf<lCturing tho llemings shan comply with tile requirements or EJS t>40Q : I~art 9.2.

Coro cl;all bo taken to oliminalolho formation of shrinkage cm~ks wiltlin the throat.

During construction, adequate braci~g.and support shall be provklco tplhesatisf(lction altho Engineer to prevent rotation in U£ throat from tho timo of casting to compleuoaor the structure incorporating the hinge . 9uring tho c()urse of construction the hinge shall not be subjected' ,to . conditions , whic~. ,Vfill.,. i,[)duco." tensile "lrc:"SCS in' the Ihroatare".Uponcompletion of tho slructura! 'members incorPorating thehinge, tile space qrollpd the thro~t shall be filled and scaled with an approved cornprcsstblornatcrlal.

Til" U"'Tm RtruuLlC OF TANZ!I"", MINISTRY OF WOOI<S

STANOARO SPECIFICATIONS fOR ROAOWORKS·2000

SERIES 6000 - STRUCTURES

(c) Roofing felt

Roofing felt used as bearing strips shall consist of at least three layers.

Where lubricated linings are specified, the roofing felt shall be saturated with used motor oil and then liberally dusted with graphite powder before it is laid on the bearing surface.

tests,for bearings damaged, and for sample bearings.

Cu~ies dr lest results and certificates for tile above mentioned tests shall be submitted by the Contractor to the Engineer in good time to enable. the Engineer to assess the information before the bearings are installed.

(d) Elastomerlc bearings

The dimensional tolerances for the bearings shall .. comply with the requirements of SUBCLAUSE 6803(h).

(i) Technical data

The following technical data for the elastomeric bearings will be supplied on the Drawings, and shall also be supplied on drawings prepared by the Contractor for submission to the Engineer:

Before the bearings are dispatched to the site of the Works, each bearing, with the exception of large bearings as provided for in the Special Specifications shall be subjected simultaneously to a vertical load equal to 150% of the maximum design load, and to a shear distortion equal to 150% of the maximum design value. The bearings shall be visually inspected for defects by the Engineer or his nominee and shall not at any stage under this test show any cracks visible to the naked eye orany other defects. The cost of this testing shall be included in the rate bid for ITEM 71.01.

The Engineer may instruct that one bearing of each consignment shall be cut open with a view to a visual assessment of the bonding and the thickness of layers.

(1). Design loads and deformatlons

The critical desigri-Ioad combinatiol1s and coexisting rotations and horizontal displacements for each bearing or each group of identical

bearinds: . . .

(2) Size and construction of bearing

Tile size and construutlou uf the bearing ;oh"dl be designated by:

Lx 13 x n(t}

where:

L length of b~aring in the

transverse dlrectlon, in mm B '" width of bearing in the span direction, in mm

n number of elastomer layers.

t = thickness of individual elastomer layers, in rrim

(e) Proprietary bearings (i) General

This Clause covers custom-built bearings and bearings manufactured under licence, except etastomenc bearings. Combined bearings, consisting of an assembly of an elastomeric bearing in conjunction with a low-friction sliding or mechanical component shall fall under this Clause.

The bidder may base his bid on any bearing which complies with the specified requirements, provided that the efficacy of the bearing has been verified by tests and successful previous use. Evidence hereof as well as information on the durability and 3uitability of the bearings for the epccified USE> shal! be submitted to the Engineer for consideration.

The steel plates shall be encased in a 3mm thick elastomer layer,

(3) Hardness and type of elastomer

The IRHD hardness and type of elastomer, ie natural or synthetic rubber, from which the specified bearings are to be manufactured.

(4) Identification

Each bearing shall be ideQtified by a number.

Details of the product guarantee shall be submitted

with the bid. .

(ii) Alfem;otiv<'! h<'!Rrings

Where alternative bearings are offered by the Contractor, they shall be designed in accordance with the requirements' of BS 5400 Part 9.1 for the loadings and deformations shown on the Drawings.

Where a bearing consisting of a type .of rubber is offered which. differs from that which is specified, the bearing shall be redesigned to make provision for the variation in hardness and/or type of rubber.

(iii) Inspection and testing

On completion of the manufacture of the bearings, the Contractor shall submit bearinqs selected by the Engineer, or specially manufactured bearings to serve as samples as authorised by the Engineer, to . an independent testing authority for testing.

(ii) Drawings and approval. . ..':

Prior to manufacturing the bearings, the Contractor or his nominee shall submit the fonowing Information to tile Eng;"'"er fUl constderetlon:

(1) Tllemllnufacturer's specification containing detailed iQfonnation on the design standards, materials, manufacture and technical data.

(2) Drawings complying with the provislon in CLAUSE 1221 showing the bearing construction and installation details.

(3) Friction properties based on actual tests conducted on the relevant materials.

Tile te;oting facilities of the manufacturer or supplier may be used if so approved and on condition that the tests arc conducted in the presence of the

Engineer.· .

The Engineer shall determine which tests arc to be conducted, and the tests shall comply with the appropriate requirements of SU13CLAUSE7111 (a). Payment will be made under ITEM 71.01 for these

(iii) Technical requirements

The following technical requirements will be supplied en the Drawings, and shall also be supplied on the Drawings prepared by the Contractor for submission to the Engineer:

(1) Design loads and movement

The maximum and minimum vertical loads and co-existing horizontal loads as well as the

rilE Ul'IlTm REPliBllC Cf TANZANIA. M,N,STRY Of WORKS

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD WORKS-2000

SERIES GOIlO • STRUCTURES

maximum horizontal load and co-existing vertical load. The maximum values in each direction of the reversible and irreversible movements and the rotation .. bout e .. ch "xi".

Spraying the surfaces with zinc to comply with the requirements of AASHTO M32-97 or equivalent on approval of the Engineer fur Type Zn 1:>0 surfacing.

(2) Identification

Identification of each bearlnq by a number, data on the degree of freedom of movement (fixed, multi-directional or unidirectional bearings) and the type of bearing (spherical, elastomer-pot, etc) shall appear on each bearing.

Coating the zinc-sprayed surfaces within four hours with a sealer compatible with the zinc "nn Ihp. J;lIhsaquent coat" of paint

(lv) Design

The bearings shall be designed in accordance with the requirements and recommendations of BS 5400 Part g, 1. The following shall also be complied with:

Applying a coat of chlorinated rubber paint with a minimum of 75 11m of dry-film thickness and of a colour which differs from that of the final coat of paint.

Applying a final coat of chlorinated rubber paint with a minimum of 75j.lm of dry-film thickness and of dark grey colour.

(1) The average pressure on the' area of the elastomershalt not' exceed 25MPaunder the serviceability limit state, unless otherwise prescribed by the Engineer.

(2) The maximum average contact stress and maximum edge stress on the concrete. or mortar beddino, "hall nol",,",ci>ed 05 "n<1 0-6 times ' the 28-day cube characteristic compressive strength under the serviceability limit state respectively, unless otherwise prescribed by the Engineer.

(3) The bearing pad shan be of dimensions as wil,l fit into the space allowed for its installation. Major alterations to the contiguous members will not be permitted.

Surfaces in contact with concrete shall be sprayed with zinc' so that it complies with the requirements of AASHTO M32-97 or equivalent on approval of the Engineer for Type Zn 150 surfacing,

(vi) Inspection and testing

The Engineer may require tests to be conducted to verify compliance of the bearing with the specifications and/or its satisfactory performance under the design loads. Payment for this testing will be made under ITEM 71.01,

(v) Construction

Unless otherwise specified, the following shall be complied with:

(1) The thickness of the elastomer di~c shall be not less than 0.066 times its diameter:

i2) APprbV~dlUbricanis only shall be J"ed on the PTFE sliding surfaces.

(3) The bearing shall be provided with tight~fitting seals to' prevent the ingress of dust or delet~rious matter onto the moving parts. The seals shall be of, an approved' type and sufficiently durable to last i~ excess of ~o y~ars.

(4) The assembled 'bearing shall lie suppliecJ wl.lh welded or bolted lugs or straps, temporanly securing the moving part" firmly in position to ensure that no undesirable relative movement occurs before or during construction,

Test certificates of all the tests conducted shall be submitted to the Engineer,

The Contractor shall give the Engineer at leas! seven days notice prior to final assembly of the bearings to enable' the Engineer to inspect the bearings at the factory.

Under no circumstances shall bearings be taken apart and reassembled on the site, except where it is an unavoidable feature of the installation procedure, in which case the dismantling, installation and reassembly shall be under the supervision of qualified personnel.

Rehabilitation, modification and repair work to bearing" shall be carried out only in the f"ctory or in an approved engineering Works.

(f) Dowels and guides

Where dowels and cuides are used in coniunction with bearings they shall not complicate or prevent the removal of the bearings.

Preparing the surf~c"" by abra"ive b!a"ting 10 a finish equal 10 the Sa3 fimsh of Swedish Standard SIS 05 59 00 or equivalent

(g) Storage and handling

The [",,,,illg,; ,;11,,11 ,,[ "II tlmes be stored under covel and clear of the ground, away from sunlight, heat, oils and' chemicals' deleterious to the bearings. The bearings shall not be stacked in a manner or on a surface which will cause distortion of th e bearings,

The bearings shall be handled with care to ensure that they are not subjected to impact loads or any other conditions which may be harmful.

(h) Installation

The concrete surfaces of elements required to receive 'bearings 'shall comply with the requiremen~s of SUBCLAU'SE 6209(c}, Plastering of the surface WIll net under any circumstances be permitted.

Before the mortar bedding is constructed, the concrete surface shall be chipped back to expose the aggregate and leave a sound irregular surface. Bonding ot the mortar bedding to the concrete surface shall be in

(5) The bearing shall be recessed into adapter plates or be of suchcohstructlon as to facilitate removal of the bearing from the installed position without damage' to' any part of the bearing or the surrounding material after the relevantstructural member has been raised by 15 rnrn or the distance specified.

(6) Anchors and holding-down bolts shall be of the

specified material. '

(7) Corrosion protection 01. all oxposed. steel surfaces, with the exception of the stainlesssteel sliding plate, shall involve the following treatment:

",,-,'

THE UNITED REPUlllic OF TANZANIA, MINISTRV,OF WORKS

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STANDARD SPECII'ICAT!ONS FOR ROAD WORKS-2000

SERIES 6000 • STRUCTURES

accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations and the Engineer's instructions.

The pipes and fittings to be used for the construction of the dueling shall be rigid PVC pipes and fittings with flexible rubber joints which comply with the '''''lllimm"nts: nf SABS 967 or equivalent. Duct ends shall be provided with suitable conical wooden stoppers to prevent dirt, concrete, etc, from entering the ducts. Two strands of 2.5 mm diameter galvanised steel wire shall be threaded through each duct. The strands shall extend 2 m beyond each end and be wedged firmly lr1to position with the wooden stoppers. Inspection eyes for the ducts shall be constructed in accordance with the details shown on the DraWings.

No separate payment will be made for service ducts in parapets and end blocks and the rates bid for the parapets and end blocks shail include full compensation for the provision and installation of service ducts complete with stoppers, draw wire and inspection eyes.

Unless otherwise shown on the Drawings, the bearings shall be installed on a horizontal plane and shall be in full contact with the concrete and bedding surfaces.

To accommodate soffit irregularities and camber in the case of precast members, the member shall be lowered onto a mortar skim on top of the bearing. The member shall then be propped until the mortar skim has hardened into a wedge.

The bearings shall be accurately installed to the specified level, alignment and orientation, all within the construction tolerances set out in SUBCLAUSE 6803(h) and the details shown on the Drawings.

Where the bearing has long sliding plates. the latter shall be rigidly supported to prevent their being distorted. under the weight of the wet concrete and the construction loads. Before the l.Jtliur"ll I::; inwlporated into the structure, it shall be cleaned to remove all deleterious substances and adhering matter, after which it shall be wrapped in polyethylene sheeting and so sealed as to prevent tho ;norc~~ of mortar and/or slush onto the bearing during the course of construction.

(e) Steel railings

All steelwork shall be manufactured in accordance with the requirements of SECTION6700.

A mortar bed, not less than 10 rnrn in thickness, shall be provided below all steel base plates over the full dimensions of the plate. The sides of the beds shall be neatly chamfered at 45D• All open spaces between the bolt and the sides of the holes in the base plate shall be grout filled.

After installation, the polyethylene wrapping shall be removed, the bearing and the space around the bearing thorQughly cleaned and the lugs removed as prescribed by the Engineer.

Steelwork which is to be cast or grouted Into concrete shall be completely painted to a distance of 75 mm in the concrete or grout, and shall be cleaned of aT! loose rust, milT scale, oil or other material which may impair the bond betw<>en the concrete and steel

On completion of installation of proprietary be::>rlngs, the Contractor shall submit to tho Engineer a certificate from the manufacturer or supplier of the bearings certifying acceptance of the installation. The issuing of such a certificate shall not relieve the Contractor of his responsibility under this Contract. No separate payment will be made for the inspection of the bearings by the manufacturer or supplier and the issuing of the certificate.

All steelwork shalt be painted in the shop and on site in accordance with the provisions of SECTION 5900, Surfaces which will be inaccessible after erection of the units shall be painted before erection commences. If called for on the Drawings or in the Bill of Quantities steelwork shall be galvanised and painted. Galvanising shall be "done afterTabricatlori, in accordance with GADO 763 or cqulvalcnt for Type A 1 ertlclco.

6605 ~ARAPETS, RAILINGS AND SIDEWALKS

(d) Numbers for structures

(i) Number plates .. .

Number plates shall be fixed in the positions and according to the method of fixing shown on the Drawings.

(ii) Painted numbers

The surface onto which the numbers are to be painted shall be prepared in accordance with the requlremonts of SUBCLAUSE 5909(a). The background shall be of at least two coats of the prescribed paint. The letters and figures shall be in accordance with Ihe details given on the Drawings and shall be written at the prescribed positions with a template.

(a) Materials

(i} Concrete

All concrete work sha!! be carried out in accordance with the requirements of SECTIONS 6200, 6300, 6400 and CLAUSE 6603.

(ii} Structural stool

Structural steel work shall comply with the provisions of SUBCLAUSE 6702(0).

(iii) Mortar

Mortar shall comply with the requirements of SUBCLAUSI; 6604(a).

(b) Concrete parapets

Concrete parapets shall be either cast in situ or precast or a combination of the two as shown on the Drawings. Where possible, precast elements shall be placed With the unformed surface downwards or outwards.

(iii) Numbers shaped in concrete

Dridge numbers shall be placed and shaped in eccordcncc with tho roquiroments shown on the Drawings. The minimum concrete cover over the steel reinforcement behind the numbers shall not be less than the prescribed cover for the structural member in Question.

Concrete parapets shall be constructed after Ihe removal of tho falscworn and the oomplotion of tho prestressing but not before the bridge deck has been accurately measured so as to determine the final lines

and levels. .

(e) Concrete sidewalks

After completion of the prestressing and the removal of the formwor~, the sidewalks and kerbing shall be constructed, but not befcre the bridg" deck has been accurately surveyed to establish final lines and levels.

Service ducts in parapets and blocks shall be fixed and cast into position in accordance with the requirements of CLAUSE 6411 and the details shown on the DraWings.

PAGE 6000· 54

THE UN!T~D REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA. MINISTRY OF WORKS

STANDARD SPECIFICA TICNS FOR ROAD WORKS·2000

SERIES 6000 • STRUCTURES

The previously cast bridge deck area shall be prepared as specified in CLAUSE 6408 to receive the sidewalk concrete.

Forms shall be accurately set to the final lines and levels and shan be firmly held in position during the placing of the concrete. Stops at the ends of sections shall be accurately placed to ensure that joints between adjacent sections will be truly perpendicular to the surface of the concrete and at right angles to the edge of the road or to the skew angle of the deck at the expansion joint.

After removal of the forms, the enclosed surfaces of the kerbs and copings shall be rubbed and finished in accordance with the requirements of SUBCLAUSES 6208(a), 6208(c) and 6209(b}. All edges shall be rounded to a radius of 20 mm unless otherwise shown on the Drawings.

(f) Concrete surface finish requirements

All fo:med concrete surfaces shall have a Class F3 surface finish as specified in SU[lCLAUSE 6207(d) and all unformed concrete surfaces shall have a Class U3 surface finish in accordance with SUBCLAUSE 6209(c).

(g) Transition blocks

Transition blocks shall be constructed in accordance with the details shown on the Drawings.

(h) Nose endings

Nose endings at balustrades shall be constructed in

accordance with the details on the Drawings. .

6606 DRAINAGE FOR STRUCTURES

(a) Weep holes, drainage pipes and channelling Weep holes shall not be. placed within 40mm of any reinforcement and shall be. carefully cleaned and. kept clean, Drainage pipes shall be of the material prescribed on the Drawings, and the interior surface shall, on completion, be smooth and clean.

cast in situ concrete channelling shall be provided next to the kerbing if shown on the Drawings and according to the details provided. Concrete work shall be carried 01" in ",ccordanc~ with the provisions of SECTIOM 6400 an~ channelling shall be given a Class U2 surface finish as specified in SUBCLAUSE 6209(b). The channelling shalf be bonded to the bridge deck concrete in accordance with the provisions of CLAUSE 6408.

(b) No-fines concrete blocks

Blocks shllil. be of the class of prescribed no-fines concrete and to the required dimensions and shall be

plac~d in advance of backfilli!"'g: . .

No-fines concrete shall comply with the requlrements of CLAUSE 6602.

(c) Synthetic-fibre filter fabric

Synthetic-fibre filler fabric shall be of the type and grade shown on the Drawings or specified in the Special Specifications. Filter fabricshall be placed as shown on tho Drawing~. and shall be protected against sunlight and mechanical damage during storage and installation.

The fabric shall comply with the requirements of SUBCLAUSE 2104(a}.

(d) Crushed stone in drainage strips behind walls The crushed stone used in drainaqestrlps shall.comp!y with the requirements for 20mm nominal size stone. TflliJtrul;tied stone 'snatt be wrapped In synthetic-fibre geotextlle and placed .. in accordance with the details shown on. the Drawings or as instructed by the Engineer.

The fabric shall comply with the requirements of SUBCLAUSE 2104(a).

6607 BOLT GROUPS FOR ELECTRIFICATION BRACKETS

The Contractor shall supply and install bolt groups in bridge decks for the electrification brackets of Railway Owners, The bolt groups shall consist of stainless-steel sockets complete with stainless-steel bolts and mildsteel plates. The sockets, bolts and plates shall be manufactured in accordance with the details shown on the Drawings. Tha r.""tr",ctor shall install the sockets in bridge decks in the positions and in the manner shown on the Drawings.

On completion of the deck, the Contractor shall ensure that the threads of the bolts and sockets are clean and that the bolts can be secured in the sockets. The Railway Owner will supply and install the brackets at a later stage.

6608 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

!TEM

66.01 CAST IN SITU NO-FINES

CONCRETE

.!.!.wI

CUBIC METRE (rn")

The provisions of CLAUSE 6415 IT':M 6>1.01 shall apply with changes as required.

ITEM

66.02 PRECAST NO-FINES CONCRETE

UNITS (CLASS OF CONCRETE AND DESCRIPTION OF UNIT)

UNIT NUMBER (no)

The unit of measurement shall be the number of complete units of each size and type in position in the Works.

Tire bid rate for each precast concrete unit snail include full compensation for providirig all the materials, labour, plant and formwork required for manufaciuring the unit complete as shown on the Drawings and for transporting ann p!>ltoing th .. nnl+ in position.

ITEM

66.03 PROPRIETARY EXPANSION

~OINTS:

(a) PRIME COST SUM ALLOWED FOR PRIME COST
PURCHASING AND TAKING DELIVERY SUM
OF EXPANSION JOINTS
(b) PERCENTAGE ON PRIME COST SUM PERCENT (%)
FOR CHARGES AND PROFIT Payment for purchasing and taking delivery of proprietary expansion joints shall be in accordance with the provisions of the Conditions of Contract (see Note 2 below).

ITEM 66.04

INSTALLATION OF

PROPRIETARY EXPANSION JOINTS: (a) (DESCRIPTION OF JOINT MEASURED PER METRE)

(b) (DESCRIPTION OF JOINT MEASURED BY NUMBER

METRE (m)

NUMBER (no)

The unit of measurement shall be either the metre of complete joint of each type installed or the number of

THE UNITEiJ. REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA. M1NISTRY OF WORKS

PAGE 6000 • 55

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD WORKS-WOO

SERIES 6000 - STRUCTURES

complete joints of each type installed. The bid rates shall include full compensation for supplying all materials not covered under ITEM 66.03, transporting, handling and stOring, aIK! all labour, equlpment, shaping the recesses, and incidentals required for installing the expansion joint complete in accordance with instructions (see Notes 1 and 2 below).

The bid rate shall be final and binding, irrespective of the type or make of joint finally installed.

The bid rates shall include full compensation for providing and applying the bond breaker and all materials not paid for under ITEM 66.08, also for the labour and incidental" required for completing the unfilled joint as prescribed.

ITEM

66.08 SEALING JOINTS WITH:

(a) SEALANT (DESCRIPTION OF JOINT, SEALANT AND SIZE)

(b) SEAL (DESCRIPTION OF JOINT, SEALANT AND SIZE)

(c) WATERSTOP (DESCRIPTION OF JOINT, WATERSTOP AND SIZE)

ITEM

66.05 EXpANSION JOINTS:

(a) (DESCRIPTION OF JOINT ME;ASURED PER METRE)

(b) (DESCRIPTION OF JOINT MEASURED BYNUM6E;R .

METRE (m)

NUMBER (no)

The unit of measurement shall be the metre of sealant,

seal or waterstop of each type installed. .

The unit of measurement sh;all be the metre of c:nmplete expansion joint of each type installed or the number of completed joints of each type installed;

The bid rates shall include full compensation for supplying all the materials, manufactUring the expansion joint, transporting, handling and storing, and all labour equipment, shaping the recesses, and incidentals required for installing the expansion joint complete in accordance with lnstructlcne (ace Notes 1 and 2 below),

METRE (m)

METI<E(m)

METRE(m)

Tho bid rates shall include full compens"tinn for supplying all materials, forming or cutting the concrete to the required shape and size, all labour, equipment and incidentals required for sealing the joint complete in accordance with the prescriptions, and for all waste materials (see Note 2 below).

ITEM

66.09 PROPRIETARY BEARINGS: (a) PRIME CQSTSUM ALLOWED FOR

. PURCHASING AND TAKING DEl.IVERY OF BEARINGS

(b) PERCENTAGE ON PRIME COST SUM

FOR CHARGES AND PROFIT .

!m4

66.06 FILLED JOINTS:

(a) (DESCRIPTION OF AND THICKNESS OF JOINT FILLER FOR JOINTS MEASURED PER SQUARE METRE)

(b) (DESCRIPTION OF AND THICKNESS

OF JOiNT FILLER FOR JOINTS .. MEASURED PER METRE)

SQUARE METRE (m2)

PRIME COST SUM

PERCENTAGE (%)

METRE (m)

Payment for purchasing and taking delivery of proprietary bearings, complete with anchor bolts and/or dowels, shall be in accordance with the provisions of the Conditions of Contract.

The unit' of measurement sha!! be the squire metre of filled joint calculated from the surface area of the joint. Where the filled joint is 150 mm or less in depth, the unit of meas.urement shall be the metre of filled lolnts measured along the joint centre line. Concrete surfaces formed prior to the construction of the final surface for completing the filled joint shall be measured under ITEMS 62.01, 62.02, 62.03 or 62.04. as may be applicable.

The bid rates shall include full compensation for supplying and installing the Joint filler and all materials not covered under ITSM 66.0S. and for all lahnur and incidentals required for completing the filled joint as prescribed.

ITEM

66.10 INSTALLING THE PROPRIETARY

BEARINGS (DESCRIPTION OF EACH TYPE, AND STATIO CLASS)

UNIT NLlMBER (no)

The unit of measurement shall be the number of complete bearings of each type and class installed.

the bid rate shall include fun compensation for supplying ali the materials not covered under ITEM 66.09, constructing the bedding, transp6rting. handling and storing, and all labour, equipment and incidentals required for installing the bearings complete as detailed.

The bid rate shall be final and binding, irrespective of the type or make of bearing finally installed.

ITEM

66,07 UNFILLED JOINTS:

(a) (DESCRIPTION OF JOINT FOR JOINTS MEASURI'n PFR !,;OlJARE METRE)

(b) (DESCRIPTION OF JOINT FOR JOINTS MEASUREDPER LINEAR METRE)

SQUARE METRE (m2)

METRE (m)

ITEM

66.11 GEARINGS (DESCRIPrION OF

E:ACH TYPE AND CL,A:;l$)

Y!ill

NUMBER (no)

The unit of measurement aholl be the square metre of unfilled joint, calculated in accordance with the joint area. Where, however, the depth of the joint is 150 mm or less. the unit of measurement shall be the metre of unfilled joint measured along the jolnt centre line. Concrete areas formed before the final surface is constructed to complete the unfilled joint, shall be measured under ITEMS 62.01, 62.02, 62,03 or 62.04, as may be applicable.

The unit of measurement shall be the number of complete bearings of each type and class installed.

The bid rate shall include full compensation for supplying .all the materials, including anchor bolts and/or dowels, constructing the bedding. manufacturing the bearings, transporting, handling and storing, and all labour, equipment and incidentals required for installing the bearings complete as detailed.

THE UNITED fl.El'UBLIC DF TANZANIA. MI~ISTRY OF WoRKS

PAGE 601)0· 56

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD WORKs·2000

sa::~lIis; 6000 - STRUCTURES

ITEM.

66.12 CONCRETE HINGES:

(a) (DESCRIPTION OF MIJ'iGfO MEI\~URED PER METRE)

(b) (DESCRIPTION OF HINGE MEASURED BY NUMBER)

MI::IHI::(m)

The unit of measurement for steel railings shall be the metre of railing complete in accordance with the Drawings.

NUMBER (no)

The bid rate for steel railings shall include full compensation for all steelwork and corrosion protection, including fastenings, anchor bolts, mortar bedding, etc, as may be required for erecting the railings.

The unit of measurement shall be either the metre of complete hinge of each type manufactured and installed or .tho number of complete hinges of each type manufactured and installed.

The bid rates shaUinclude. full compensation for supplying all materials, including formwork, manufacturing the hinges, transporting, handling and storing, sealing the hinges, and all labour, equipment and incidentals required for· installing the hinges complete as detailed.

ITEM

00.17 END BLOCK::>

UNIT NUM!lER (no)

ITEM

66.13 BEARING STRIPS

(DESCRIPTION OF mE MATERIAL AND NUMBER OF LAYERS)

UNIT

SQUARE METRE (m2)

The unit of measurement of bridge end blocks shall be the number of end blocks constructed complete in accordance with the Drawings.

The bid rate shall include full compensation for all materials, labour," plant, and other incidentals required for constructing the end blocks complete as specified. excluding only reinforcing steel.

tt5!!! 66.18

NUMBERS FOR

The unit of measurementshall be the square metre of bearing area lined with tho specified material irrespective of tho number of layers placed.

STRUCTURES:

(a) NUMBER PLATES

(b) PAINTED NUMBERS (c) NUMBERS FORMED IN

CONCRETE

NUMBER (no) NUMI:<I"R(nr» NUMBER (no)

The bid rate shall include full compensation for supplying all the materials, transporting, handling and storing, and all labour and incidentals required for installing the bearing strips complete as detailed.

1m!

66.14 DOWELS/GUIDES

(DESCRIPTION OF EACli TYPE)

UNIT NUMBER (no)

Thn unit of meaauromont shall be GrthGT the number of bridgo number plates provided and installed, or the number of complete numbers painted on the structures, or the number of complete numbers formed in concrete. A bridge number may consist of a combination of letters and digits; eg 131533.

The unit of measurement shall be the number of dowclsiguides of each type installed.

The bid rates shall include full compensation for providing and installing either the number plates, or preparing the ourfcec and painting the numbers, or forming the numbers in concrete, and for all material, labour and equipment required in this connection.

The bid rate shall include full compensation for supplying all materials, including anchor bolts, manufacturing the dowels/guides, TransporUng, handling and storing. and all labour. equipment and incidentals required for installing the dowels/guides complete as detailed.

DMfNAGE PIPES AND WEEP

ITEM

66.15 CONCRETE PARAPETS

UNIT METRE (m)

HOLES:

(a) DRAINAGE PIPE;;' .

(i) (TYPE AND SIZE lNDICATED) (il) (TYPE AND SiZE INDICATED) (b) WEEP HOLES:

(i) (TYPE AND SIZE INDICATED) (il) (TYPE AND SIZE INDICATED)

METRE(m) NUMBER (no)

The unit of measurement for concrete parapets shall be the metre of concrete parapet complete in accordance with the DraWings. Concrete parapets shall include all work above the top level of the sidewalks or, where not placed on a sidewalk, above the top of the bridge deck concrete, wingwalls or retaining walls and shall also include any kerbing and coping forming an integral part of the concrete parapet

METRE (m) NUMI3ER(no)

The unit cf measurement shall be either the metre of pipe/weep hole or the number of pipes/weep holes of each type and size of pipe/weep hole completed.

The bid rate for concrete parapets shall include full compensation for all concrete, formwork, service ducts, drawing wires and accessories. The rates will exclude only the cost of reinfercing steel as this will be measured and paid for under another pay item.

The bid rates shall include full compensation for supplying all the materials, manufacturing and installing the pipes and making weep holes.

ITEM

GO.20 DHAINAGE GULLEYS

(DESCHIPTION OF EACH TYPE GIVEN)

UNIT NUMBER (no)

ITEM

66.16 STEEL MILINGS (TYPE

DcseRIDcD)

UNIT METRE (m)

The unit of measurement shall be the number of drainage gu!!eys of "<1,,11 lYIJl' in:>l<llll'd.

Tile UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF WOOKS

PAGE 6000 • 57

8TANUAKU Sf'Et;IFICATION~ "'oR n.OAD WOnl-{C 2000

SERIES SOlI!) - STRUCTURES

The bid rate shall include full compensation for providing all the material and manufacturing and in::otalling the drainage inlets.

1m! 66.26

SUPPLYING AND INSTAlLATION

OF aOL T GROUPS COMPLETE FOR ELECTRIFICATION BRACKETS:

(a) SINGLE-BOLT GROUPS

(b ) DOUBLE-BOLT GROUPS

NUMBER (no) NUMBER (no)

ITEM

66.21 SVNTHETIC-F!8R", I'll TFR

FABRIC (TYPE INDICATED AND DESCRIPTION)

UNIT

SQUARE 'METRE (m2)

The unit of m"'A~urement shall be the square metre of filter fabric installed as specified, including the specified overlap. The bid rate shall include full compensation for supplying, cutting and installing the filter fabric, and for waste material.

The unit of measurement shall be the number of each type of bolt group installed complete in position in accordance with the details shown on the Drawings. .

The bid rates shall include full compensation for procuring and fumishing all. materials, manufacturing, transporting and storing, and all labour, constructional plant and materials required for installing the bolt

groups as specified. .

Notes:

ITEM

66.22 CONCRETE CHANNELLING

(SIZE INDICATED)

UNIT METRE (m)

(1) The cost of forming the open joint{s) shall not be Included In the raws bid fur !TEMS 66.04 and 66.05 as payment for this work shall be made under ITEM 62.06.

The unit of measurement shall be the metre of completed concrete channelling of each size constructed.

(2) Separate payment ",hAl! not be made for supplying andlor installing the seal in proprietary expansion joints or the seal between concrete or synthetic nosings.-

(3) Measurement of and payment for concrete sidewalks (including kerbing and coping) shall be made in accordance with CLAUSES 6210, 6310 and 6415.

The bid rate shal! include full compensation for providing all the material, aU labour equipment and expenses required for completing the work.

ITEM

6623 CRUSHED STONE IN DRAINAGE STRIPS

UNIT

CUBIC METRE (m3)

The unit of measurement shall be the cubic metre of crushed stone placed in position as specified, in accordance with the details shown on the Drawings or instructed by the Engineer.

The bid rate shall include full compensation for procunnq, fUrnishing and pla(;iny lhe crushed stone, and for wrapping it in synthetic-fibre geotel\tile as specified. The geotextile will be measured for payment under ITEM 66.21.

!!§! 66.24

NOSE ENDINGS AT

UNIT NUMBER (no)

RALUSTRADES

The unit of measurement shall be the number of nose endings constructed complete in accordance with the details shown on the Drawings.

The bid rate shall include full compensation for all labour, constructional plant and materials required, for filling the recesses with concrete or nosing material, 20 mm x 20 mm plastijoint seal between the end block and the transition block, steel cover plate complete with anchor bolts, and aU incidentals required for constructing the nose endings complete.

ITEM

66.25 CONCRETE TRANSITION

BLOCKS (! FN(.;nlINDICATED)

UNIT NUMBER (no)

The unit of measurement shall be the number of each size of concrete transitlon block constructed complete in Accordance with the details shown on the Drawings.

The bid rate shall include full compensation for all labour, constructional plant, materials and all incidentals required for constructing the transition blocks.

THE UNITED REl'UElUC OF TANZANIA. M!NISTRY OF Woru<S

PAGE 6000 - 58

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD WORKs-20G0

SERIES 6000: STRUCTURES

SERIES 6000 - STRUCTURES

SECTION 6700: STRUCTURAL STEELWORK

CONTENTS:

CLAUSE

PAGE

6701 SCOPE 670:2 MATIORIALS

6703 CODES OF PRACTICE 6704 SHopDETAILS

6705 FABRICATION AND ASSEMBLY 6706 ERECTION

6707 TESTING

6708 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

6000-59 6000-59 6000-59 6000-59 6000-59 6000-60 6000-61 6000-61

6701 SCOPE

This Section covers the manufacture, transport and erection of structural steelwork for minor structures, eg llv"rh"ad road-siGn structures. Major "t"",1 structures such as steel bridges, shall be covered in the Special Specifications and shall conform to SPECIFICATIONS FOR HlqHWAY WORKS, PART 6 1800, STRUCTURAL ST~EL WORK, published by HMSQ, London, UK, or approved equivalent standards.

6702 MATERIALS

(a)Structliral steel

Structural steel shall comply with the following requirements:

Mild steel: [3S 4360, Grade 43A; or SA[3S1431, Grade300W.

High-yield stress steel: OS 4360, Grade 50[3; or $At3$1431, Grade 3S0W.

{

The dimensions and properties. of rolled steel sections shall comply with the prescriptions given in the structural steel tables issued by the South African Institute of Steel Construction or arc equivalent.

(b) Steel tubes

Steel tubes shall comply with the requirements of SA[3S 657, Part I or equivalent.

(c) Bolts, nuts and washers

Ordinary bolts and nuts shall be bolts and nuts used for transferring forces by tensile stress, compressive stress and sheer stress without any friction-grip ectlon being considered. Ordinary bolts and nuts shall comply with SAOS 135, SABS 136 or SA[3S 1143 or equivalent. Washers for ordinary bolts and nuts shall comply with the requirements of SABS1149 or equivalent.

High~strength friction-grip bolts, nuts and washers shall comply with the requirements of SAGS 1282 or

equivalent. .

otner . epproved friction-grip fasteners equal to the above may be used.

(d) R;vp.t!.

Mild:steel rivets shall comply with the requirements of SABS 435 or equivalent. High-tensile rivets shall be so manufactured that they can be driven and their heads formed satisfactorily without the physical properties of the steel being impaired. .

(e) Welding consumables

Welding electrodes shall comply with the requirements of SABS 455 or equivalent.

The quality, handling and storage of all consumables shall be so as to achieve the desirable properties of the weld metal.

The welding consumables used shall be appropriate to produce weld metal Which will yield all the weld-metal test specimens as specified in GS 709 having both minimum yield and minimum tensile strengths not less than those of the parent metal.

(f) Test certificates

The Contractor shall submit test certificates, as required by the Engineer, of the structural steel and anchor bolts that will be used.

6703 CODES OF PRACTICE

The design, whore undertaken by the Contractor, of all work shall comply with the requirements of SABS 0162 or equivalent.

6704 SHOP DETAILS

Where shop details have not been fumished on the Drawings, the Contractor shall prepare his own shop details in accordance with the provisions of CLAUSE 1221. Shop details shall be approved and signed by the I:::ngineer prior to the fabrication of any items.

6705 FABRICATION AND ASSEMBLY

(a) General

All structural steel both before and after fabrication shall be within the tolerances specified in SUBCLAUSE 68030) and shall be flat, straight (unless required to be formed to another shape) and free from twists.

(b) Marking the steel

AI all stages of fabrication, all structural steel other than Grade 3QOWand Grade 43A. steel shall be clearly marked by grade by means of a suitable marking system.

(c) Cuttil'lO

Steel shall be cut by sawing, shearing with shears, cropping, or flame-cutting.

Edges shall be free from any defects or distortions and all burrs, notches and similar defects shall be removed.

All structural welds shall be full-strength joints.

(d) Hoi ... , forfast .. n .. rs

Holes for fasteners shall not be formed by flame cutting. Holes in light members not thicker than 12 mm or the diameter of the hole, whichever is the smaller, may be punched.

Holes for fasteners of up to 25 mm in diameter shall not be more than 2 mm larger than the diameter of the fastener and holes for larger fasteners not more than 3 mm larger then the diameter of the fastener.

Holes for friction-grip fasteners shalt be in accordance with SABS 094 or equivalent.

All burrs shall be removed from holes before assembly.

(e) Joints in compression

The abutting surfaces of joints dependent on contact for ItI..: Irall<;[]]b:;itJH ur lUaU :;lIall be accurately prepared SQ that the full area intended for bearing will be in contact as specified in SUBCLAUSE 6803(j).

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF WORKS

PAGE 6000 - 59

~AN:nARn SPF(,;lFICATlONS'FOR ROAOWORKS-2000

SERIES 6()()0 - STRUCTURES

(f) Hollow sections

Unless protection against corrosion is provided by other means. the interior of any hollow section shall be sealed to prevent the ingress of moisture. Where a sealed hollow members holed for a fastener or pin, precautionary measures shall be taken to prevent the ingress of water to the interior of the member. Vent notes for galvanising shall be sealed alter g<>lv""i:;iny has been completed.

(g) Alignment of holes

All matching holes for fasteners or pins shall be accurately aligned so that the fasteners can be inserted freely through the assembled members in a direction at right angles to the faces in contact. Drifting for aligning the holes shall not distort the metal or enlarge the holes.

(h) Welding

Welding shall be done in accordance With the requirements of as 5135.

The welding techniques shall be such as to avoid undue distortion and to minimise shrinking stresses.

All slag shall be removed.

Where required for certain welding:

(I) the rnanuracturer :;11,,11 lIull.l a. valid weldingprocedures certificate in accordance with SABS 044 Part III or equivalent for Grade 13 welding joints, and the welding shall be done. by. a welder qualified in accilrrl',""'" with SABS 044 Part IV or equivalent:

(ii) or ... the .welder shall hold a valid certificate of competency in accordance With SASS 044 Part V or equivalent for the specified type of welding.

(i) Bolting ..

The jointed parts shall be fimily dra ..... n together. Where necessary, tapering washersshall be used for each bolt head on<:J nut to transfer the cornpreeeivc stress over its full surface. Where bolt holes have greater than normal clearance, washers shall be placed under the bolt heads and nuts.

The length of each bolt shall be such that, after tightening, at least one full thread projects through the nut on the outside and at least one full thread (in addition to the thread run-out) remains clear between the nut and the bolt head.

{j} Friction-grip fastening

The use offriclion-grip bolts shall be in accordance with SABS 094 or equivalent. Where use is made of equivalent types of friction-grip fasteners, they shall comply with· the requirements of SABS 094 or equivalent for equivalent fasteners and shall be installed in accordance with the appropriate requirements of SASS 094 or equivalent.

(k) Riveting

Wherever possible, riveti[1g shall be done with Pl"Jeum;:>tic <>quipment.

Riveted units shall. have all parts firmly drawn together and aligned before riveting. Every rivet shall, when driven, completely fill the hole and shall have a wellformed head or, if countersunk, fill the countersink completely.

All loose, eccentric-headed, badly formed, bumt or otherwise defective rivets shall be cut out and replaced.

(I) Trimming

All fabricated steel work shall be neatly trimmed 50 as :i not to show any sharp edges. Acute angles shall be" rounded off toa radius of at least 1.G mm,

(m) Corrosion prevention

(i) Painting

Before removal from the place of manufadure the steelwork shall be painted as specified in SECTION 5900_

Where the finishing coats are to be applied on the site, the shop painting shall include the application of an undercoat as specified in SECTION 5900.

Galvanised steel shall not be painted unless painting is specifically called for in the specifications.

(ii) Sprayed metal coatings

Where the sprayed metal coating of steel surfaces is called for, it shall be done in accordance with the requirements of SABS 1391 Part I or equivalent. Tile type of metal used shall be as specified, and, unless otherwise. specified, the metal coating shalf comply with the requirements of Type AI 150 or Type Zn 150.

(iii) Galvanising

Where the galvanising of structural steelwork' is required, the members shall be hot-dip galvanised. Structural steel members shall be given an 851llT\ coating or such other thickness as may be specified.. in accordance with SASS 763 or equivalent and sheet steel and strip a Class M coating in accordance with SASS 934 or equivalent.

All nuts, bolts, screws and threaded articles shall be hot-dipped 9;;llvanised. in accordance with the appropriate requirements of SASS 763 or equivalent for Type C 1 or Type C2 articles,

Cut ends and small damaged areas shall be repaired by the application oi a zinc-rich paint or by zinc spraying.

6706 ERECTION

(a) General

Where specified, details of the method of erection shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval. All structural steel shall be stored, transported, handled ana erected so as not to subject it to U"dU9 st .... asor damage.

Erection over traffic is not permitted, and a temporary diversion for traffic shall be provided.

Provision for traffic accommodation will be paid for in accordance with the appropriate items under SECTION 1500.

(b) Safety during erection

During.tho erection of a structure, the steelwork shall be bolted, braced or otherwise secured ·so as to make adequate provision for all erection loads.

(e) Alignment

Each part of a structure shall be aligned as soon as possible after erection. Members shall not be permanently connected until sufficiently large members of the structure nave been aligned, plumbed, levelled. and temporarily secured to prevent their displacement during the erection or alignment of the remainder of the

structure. .

THE UNJTED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA. MINJSTRV OF WORKS

PAGE 6000 - 60

STANDARD SP~CIF!cATIONS FOR ROAl) WORKS-2000

SERIES 6000 - STRUCTURES

(d) Corrections

Drift pins, jacking equipment and the like shall not be used for bringing improperly fabricated members into place. A moderate degree of cuning and reaming may be done to correct minor misfits if, in the opinion of the Engineer, this will not be detrimental to the appearance or strength of the structure. The burning of holes will not be permitted without written approval.

DESCRIBED)

(b) (STRUCTUREfARTICLE DESCRIBED)

(c) (STRUCTURE/ARTICLE DESCRIBED)

METRE (m)

NUMBER (no)

The unit of measurement chnll bo oithor tho tonno or the metre of erected permanent steel structures or articles, or the number of erectedperrnanent steel structures or articles. Where the unit of measurement is the tonne the mass. of the steel waste caused by punching, drilling, sheared edges, milling or planning, or metal cut-outs shall not be deducted, and the mass of rivets, bolts, nuts, washers, welding fillets or temporary bracing shall not be added. In computing the mass of steel, the nominal mass per unit of.length or area will be used and tolerances and other permissible deviations will be ignored.

(e) Repairs to painting and site painting

Repairs to painting and site painting shall be effected in accordance with the provisions of CLAUSE 5907.

(I) Grouting

The grout shall be poured under and around the base plates of columns after the. steelwork has been finally checked for alignment and height and after the approval of the Engineer has been obtained to proceed with the grouting. The column base plates shall be supported by the top and bottom nuts and by steel wedges. The area under the steel shall be thoroughly cleaned and shall be dust and oil-free, and the concrete shall be thoroughly rinsed with water to leave the surface clean and moist.

The bid rates shall include full compensation for preparing shop details where not provided on the Drawings, the supply of all the required materials, fabrication, process control, loading, transporting to the site, off-loading, and erecting. It shall also include full compensauou fur <III nuts, bulls, washers, rivets, (;ulUng, waste, and any temporary bracing necessary for transporting and erecting.

The grout shall be . an approved non-shrinking, pourable, cernentttious grout. The grout sh<lll be prepared and applied strictly in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations and the Engineer's

directives.· .

The bid rate shall also include full rompensalion for supplying and pouring t!ie specified grout under and around the base plates of steel columns, for procuring and supplying all the necessary labour, constructional plant, tools and materials, as well as waste, formwork for the grout, and finishing to obtain me required surface finish for the grout under and around base plates of steel columns.

leak-proof formwork shall be used for the pourable grout, and all comers shall be chamfered. The surface finish shall be Class F2 and Class U2 as applicable ..

6707 TESTING

(a) Testing by the Engine6r

The Engineer may nominate a. testing authority to inspect the Works and to conduct such tests as he may deem to be necessary to test compliance with the specifications. Where required, test samples of welds shall be prepared by the Contractor, free of charge.

.!ill!

67,02 ANCHOR BOLTS:

(a) (DESCRIPTION OF EACH ASSEMBLY, AND GRADE/TYPE OF STEEL, DIAMETER AND LENGTH INDICATED)

(b) (DESCRIPTION OF EACH ASSEMBLY,

AND GRADE/TYPE OF STEEL, DIAMETER AND LENGTH INDICATED)

Payment for these tests shall be made under ITEM 71.G1.

(b) Proceas control ..

Welds shall be regularly inspected and tested by the Contractor in terms of his obligations in regard to process control, as described in CLAUSE 1205. This shall include visual inspection of welds to ensure that no undercutting, uneven lengths, porosity, or evidence of cracking occurs and that full fusion of the metals has been achieved. In doubtful areas, cores containing weld metal and adjacent parent material shall, if so required by the Engineer: be cut out.pousneo and examined and

the hole repaired. '

At least 30% of the welds shall be examined by ultrasonic or radiographic means. If more than 5% of the examined welds. show. unsatisfactory results, additional ·examinations covering all 'welds shall be performed. Certificates of the examination confirming that the steel plates and welds comply with the requlrernents 6f SABS 044 Part III or equivalent shall be

submitte~ to the Engineer. .

The cos! of testing shall be deemed to be included in the rate bid for ITt:M 67.01 Struotural stool. .

KILOGRAMME (kg}

NUMBER (no)

The unit of measurement shall be either the kilogram of installed anchor-bolt assemblies or the number of ;nstall"d anohor.bolt assemblies.

The. bid rates shall include fuJi compensation for the materials, fabrication, handling, transporting and installing the anchor-bolt assemblies, including corrosion protection,

ITEM

67.03 CORROSION PROTECTION:

(a) SPRAYED-ON METAL:

(i) (TYPE OF METAL AND THICKNESS OR TYPE SYM130L OF COATING INDICATED)

(Ii) (TYPE OF METAL ANO THICKNESS OR TYPE SYMBOL OF COATING INDICATEO)

(IIi) (TYPE OF METAL AND

THICKNESS OR TYPE SYMBOL OF COATING INDICATED)

(b) HOT-DIP GALVANISING:

(i) (Type OF METAL AND THICKNESS OR TYPE SYMBOL OF ZINK COAT INDICATED)

6708 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

ITEM

67.01 STRUCTURAL STEEL:

(a) (STRUCTURE/ARTICLE

TONNE (I)

PAG~ 6()()O - 61

TONNE (I)

METRE(m)

NUMBER (no)

TONNE(!)

STANDARD SPECifICATIONS FOR ROAD WORKS-2000

METRE(m)

SEREs 6000 • S1'RUCTURES

(Ii) (TYPE OF METAl AND THICKNESS OR TYPE SYMBOL OF ZINK COAT INDICATEO)

(ui) (TYPE OF METAL AND THICKNESS OR TYPE SYMBOL OF ZINK COAT INDICATEO)

NUMBER (no)

The unit of measurement shall be either a tonne or a metre of steel structures or articles protected against corrosion, or the number of steel structures or articles protected against corrosion. The quantities are calculated as specified in ITEM 67.01.

The . bid rates shall be extra over the rates for ITEM 67.01 . and shall include full compensation for applying the specified corrosion protection, including surface preparation, materials, labour, tools, equipment and all incidentals required.

Note:

Payment for painting shall be made under ITEM 59.01.

THE UNITED REPUBlIC OF TANZANIA, M,NISTRY OF WORKS

PAGE 6000 • 62

~ --~--------

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD WORKS-2000

SERIES 60D!) - STII:UCTUIU!S

SERIES 6000: STRUCTURES

(a) Foundations, footings, pile capping slabs, columns, wall,s, piers, abutments, bridge and culvert superstructures

The tolerances are given in TABLES 6801/1, 6801/2, 6801/3,6801/4 and 6801/5.

SECTION 6800: CONSTRUCTION TOLERANCES FOR STRUCTURES

TABLE $80111

TOLERANCES OF PILE FOUNDATIONS

CONTENTS:

CLAUSE

PAGE

Position:
0.167 times the diameter of the pile, or 100 mm,
whichever shall be the oreater
External dimensions:
Prefabricated Diles +25 mm -5mm
Cast in situ piles plus-tolerance not specified,
. minus-tolerance 0 mm
Pile-head level: Average level of trimmed cut
oile head +25 mm
Verticalitv or rake 1.5
Straig htness:
For precast piles the permissible maximum deviation
from straight is 5 mm for piles up 103m in length
and 1.0 mm more for each additional metre of pile
lenoth. 6801 SCOPE

6802 DEFINITIONS 6803 TOLERANCES

6000-63 6000-63 6000-63

6801 SCOPE

This Section covers the requirements in regard to the conetructlcn tolerances applicable to the verioue structures and structural members.

6802 DEFINITIONS

Excopt whero othorwis" specified, tho following aspects of construction to which tolerances apply shall have the meanings attributed to them below:

(a) Position

The position of a structure or structural member shall be the horizontal position of its centre line(s) and/or centro point(s) in relation to the overall layout of the Works as shown on the Drawings.

IAfJLE 680112

TOLERANCES OF CAISSIONS

(el Leading and cross-sectional dimensions TlI"!<::<ltli.iY anti croas-secttonal dimenl>ions of" structure or structural member shall be the dimensions relating to width, length, height, thickness, etc, which collectively determine its shape, and are shown on the Drawlngs~ Dimensional tolerances not. relating to leading or' cross-sectional dimensions shall b~ shown

on the DrawinjJs: : .. .

Position of too of caisson:
10% of the smallest outer dimension of the caisson,
measured in elan. :
Verticality:
1.5"
Dimensions:
Wall thickness +25mm -Smm
Outer dimension of ±25mm
circular, rectanqutar or
square cross-section
Level: Upper level of trimmed/cut caisson head:
Maximum deviation of +25mm
averaoe level
Maximum deviation of ±50mm
anv individuallcvel
Foundation ~fin:
Average level oftop of ±25mm
fill (b) Alignment

The alignment of a structure or structural member shall be the alignment of its centrelineis) in, relation to the overaUlayout of the Works. as shown on the Drawings. Deviation from true alignment shall be measured in degrees of an arc.

(d) Levels

'rne level of any structure or structural member shall be the level of the upper or Jowersurtacc, as may be relevant, with reference to an established datum-level

on the site. . ...

(el Surface regularity

Surface regularity is the shape of a surface with reference to a 3m straight-edge (or template in the case of curved surfaces) placed on the surface.

The tolerance for surface regularity is expressed as a distance by which the surface tested may deviate from a straight-edge (or template in the voaso ~ of curved surfaces)

held against thesurface.

TABLE 6801/3

TOLERANCES OF FOOTiNGS, PILE CAPPINGS, CAISSION COVER SLABS ETC.

6803 TOLERANCES

ThQ tolerances aiwm hp.fnw "h,,11 bn tor. maximum permissible deviations from the specified 'dimensions, levels, alignment, positions, etc. shown on the Drawings of the structures or structural members.

Position:
15mm
Alignment:
InclMClual members 5"
Members as they collectively 1 minute
determine the allgnment of the
structure as a whole
Dimensions:
Leadlnq dimensions in Dian I +25mm
Thickness +25mm
-15mm
Levels:
Average lovel of slabs, footings, ±25inm
etc THEUt:4lTED REPtJlltiC OF T,,"~IA. MINtsmv OF w~S

PAGE 6(1)0 - 63

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR !'lOAD WORKs~2000

SERIES 6000 - STRUCTIJRES

TABLE 680114

TOLERANCES OF COLUMNS, WALLS, PIERS, ABUTMENTS, ETC.

The width of the gap between contiguous beams shall not exceed twice the width of the specified nominal gap shown on the Drawings or the width of the nominal gap plus 40 mm. whichever is the less, and the overall width between the outermost beams of the bridge deck shall

be within 40 mm of the specified width. .

Position:
10mm
AII~nment:
Walls, piers, abutments and 12 minutes
column groups
Dlm~n .. ion":
Leading dimensions of walls, piers I ±25mm
and abutments
Thickness of walls, piers and abutments and cross-
sectional dimensions of columns:
Plus-tolerance 25mm
Minos-tolerance 3% of the specified
dimensions within the
range of 5 mm to 25 mm
Levels:
levels: Average level of finished I ±10mm
or trimmed/cut columns, piers,
walls abutments. etc
': .. ' .
Verticalitv: . c,.
Using ordinary 1 in 400. Maximum 25 mm
formwork
Using ;;;liding 1 in 200. Maximum 50 mm
formwork' .' . '. .. ':, .
.:
Surface regularity:· ... ,: .... , .
Using ordinary a mm
formWork
UsingsUding 6mm
formwork 1 in 200. STRAIGtlTNE33 OR Bow: The deviation from the prescribed line measured on the overall length of the beam shall not exceed the following:

(i) In the horizontal plane:

0.5 min per metre length of the beam within the tolerance range of 6 mm to 15 mm.

(ii) In the vertical plane:

(1) i-beams: 2 mm per metre length of the beam within the tolerance range Clf 6 mm to 20 mm. (2) Other beams: 1.0 mm per metre length of the beam within the tolerance range of3 mm to 20 rnm,

CAMBER: The' soffits of' adjacent beams when placed side by side on the bridge deck shall not lit any place differ by more than 2 mm per metre length of the beam within the tolerance range of 6 rnm to 20 mm.

THE LENGTHS OF PRECAST BEAMS: Before stressing the length shlill be ±0.1% of the total length within the tolerence range of i5 mm to 20 rnm,

SURFACE REGULARITY: 6 mm

(f) Reinforcing steel

Except for the requirements given below, no tolerances are given for the placing lind fixing of reinforcing steel. The steel, however, shall be neatly and accurately fixed in a. .11111rmer which is consistent with proper workmanship and the structural . integrity of the structural member. Specifically the following requirements shall apply:

TABLE 680115

TOLERANCES OF BRIDGE AND CULVERT SUPERI;TRUCTUREis

.
Position: .
10mm ,
Alianrnent:
Superstructure as a whole 1 minute
Dimensions:
Leading dimensions in ±25mm
plan
Thickness of slabs, width and depth of beams:
Plus tolerance 15 mm
Minus tolerance 3% of the specified
dimensions within the
range of 5 mm to 15
. .. mm
Surface regularity:
All surfaces other than 3mm
upper surface of deck
Bridee and culvert decks, surface tolerances:
The tolerances specified in SECTION 7100 for the
base in rasped of lavcl, grade, cross-section
and surface regularity shall apply. Surface
reoularitv shall be tested bv straloht-edoe. <il Tension. steel

The actual position of tension steel shall not deviate from the true position by a distance which would reduce the effective lever arm by more than 2% of the overall depth of the member, or 10 rnm, whichever is the greater.

{ii> Concrete cover

The concrete cover on reinforcing steel shall nowhoro bo 10GG than the specified cover.

(iii) Spacing between bars

The spacing between closely spaced parallel bars, especially in beams and columns, shall, unless otherwise specified, be not less than the maximum size of the aggregate used in the concrete .

(iv) Bending of reinforcement

The requirements of SABS 82 or equivalent regarding dimensional' tolerances for cutting and bending of the reinforcing steel shall apply, wi.th· the proviso that the other requirements set out in this Clause shall be complied with even if the tolerances in SABS 82 or equivalent are not exceeded.

(g) Prestressing

Sheaths for prestressing tendons shall be placed and mamtaineo In position within the following tolerances:

(b) (reter to SUBcLAUSE 6a03!1I)} (c) (ni)fer to SUBCLAUSE 6Sp3(a» (d) (rcfor to SUBCLAUSE 68Q3(a)}

(i) In the direction of the width of the member.

For members of up to 200 mm in depth; ±20 mm For members exceeding 200 rnrn in depth' ±10 mm

(e) Precast beams ,',

The fonowing toterances shall apply to prccaet beams in addition to the requirements stated in TAllLES 680111 to 6801/5 for the superstructure. .

(ii) In the direction of the depth of the member:

For members of up to 200 mm in depth: ±0.025 x depth

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA. M,NISTRY OF WORKS

. PAGE 6000 - 64

STANDARD SPEClFLCATIONS FOR ROAD WORKS-2000

SERLES Gillin • S ..... "CTtJ .. "'"

For members exceeding 200 mm in depth:

±0.01 x depth within the tolerance range of:!:5 mm to .±25 mm.

shall not exceed 1.0 mm when the members in contact are aligned.

(vi) Accuracy of erection

Steelwork shall not be out of plumb over any vertical distance by more than 5 mm or one thousandth of the distance, whichever is the grec.ler.

(h) Bearings

Bearings for structures shall be installed to within 5 mm of the position shown on the Drawings and to within 2 mm of the required level.

Dimensional tolerances for elastomeric bearings shall comply with the requirements of!3S 5400 Part 9.2.

(k) Fabricating and construction tolerances for reinforced-earth structur~s

(i) Miscellaneous

(i) Individual concrete panels:

Surface regularity:

When tested with a 1.5 m straight-edge, the deviation shall not exceed 5mm.

Leading dimensions .±5 mm

(i) Chamfers

Fillets used for forming chamfers shall be within a tolerance of 1.0 mm in cross-sectional dimensions, and the actual chamfer on tho concrete shall not vary by more than 3 mm from tho specified dimensions.

(ii) Completed walls:

Surface regularity:

When tested with a 3 m straight-edge, the deviation shall not exceed 20 mm.

No point of the structure shan be out of position vertically by more than 10 mm per metre heigh! of the structure, with a maximum of 50 mm.

(ii) Kerbs, copings, sidewalks, bridge railings, parapets,

etc .

The members shall be constructed . within a toterance or ;to mm for all dimensions. The alignment shan not deviate from the true alignment by more than 10 mm in anyplace, nor shall the alignment deviate by more than 5 mm from the true alignment over any length of 5 m.

OJ Fabrication and assembly tolerances for structural steel

(i) General

The fabrication and assembly tolerances on all dimensions fer structural steel shalt be ;t2 mm. Holes for connections shall be drilled/punched and aligned as specified in SUBCLAUSES 6705(d) and (g)

respectively. . .

(ii) Cross-section

The tolerances ·on . cross-sectional dimensions of rolled sections shall be as specified in the Structural Steel Tables, published by the SA Institute of steel

Construction or equivalent. .

(iii) Straightness

A structural member before erection shall not deviate from stralqhtness (or the specified shape) by more than the following:

For compression members and. beams, one~ thousandth of the length between points which arc laterally restrained. Fer other members, one five hundredth at the overall lengU"l, but not oxceeomq 25mm.

0v) Length

The length of a member shall nol deviate from its prescribed length by.moro than the rollewin?:.

for compression members faced at both ends for bearing, :!:1.0 mm

For other members: +0 mm~nd -4 mm

For such members as trusses and ·Ialtice girders, the above tolerances ehall apply to tho members as a whole. Thelength~ of component parts shall be such that tho structural member can be properly assembled with the required accuracy.·

(v) !3earing surfaces

Where two steel surfaces are required to be in contact for transferring compressive forces, the maximum clearance between the bearing surfaces

TILE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANzANIA. M,NISTRY of WORKS

PAGE 6000·65

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