You are on page 1of 4

The teacher as a reflective practitioner has become one of the most consistent

themes of teacher development. For Dewey (1933) and Schn (1987), reflective
thinking is not just post-active in nature but proactive and interactive as well. When
reflection is done, teachers can appreciate that the nature of their work engages
them in a recursive cycle of reflective thinking that involves planning, acting and
reflecting (Lasley II, Matczynski, and Rowley 2002.)
Likewise, Lasley II et al. advocate peer coaching a professional development model
representative of the observation and assessment category of professional
development. Virtually, this is a relationship between two or more teachers
commited to providing technical and psychological help for the improvement of
instruction and the development of student learning. Presented below are the three
phases of the cycle of reflective practice for peer coaching.
1. Planning- the focus of the observation, selecting the observation
methodology, and negotiating the role of the participants.
2. Acting- observing the teaching and learning episodes and making the record
of evidence.
3. Reflecting- interpreting the observation record, making meaning, planning for
new action, and identifying new foci.
When teachers engage peer coaching, they gain confidence in what they are doing
and become more open to suggestions and critiques. Furthermore they engage in
reflective thinking which is an indicator of professional behavior of teachers.

DOMAINS OF KNOWLEDGE of Professional Teachers Schuman (1987)

Content Knowledge- knowledge of the particular subject to be taught, such as
Filipino, Math, English and History
Pedagogical content knowledge- that is, the special amalgam of content and
pedagogy that is uniquely the province of teachers-their own special form of
professional understanding
Knowledge of learners and their characteristic
General pedagogical knowledge- with special preference to the broad principles
and strategies of classroom management and organization that appear to transcend
subject matter
Knowledge of educational context- ranging from the workings of the group or
classroom to the governance of financing of school districts to the character of
communities and cultures

Curriculum knowledge- with a particular grasp of the materials and programs

that serve as the tails of the trade for teachers
Knowledge of educational ends, purpose, and values and their philosophical and
historical grounds
Apparently, teachers who are equipped with the knowledge domains of teachers
coupled with the needed management skills, organization skills in teaching, study
skills, and social skills are on the road toward effective teaching, which is the
product of professional development.
Professional teachers are clear teachers
Clear teachers are the product of professional development. They teach for
instructional clarity, which refers to the teachers ability to promote instruction that
helps students come to a clear understanding of the lesson. Clarity is something
students achieve and not something the teacher does. The magic focus of clarity is
not helping student understand what teachers have taught. Cruickshank, Jenkins
and Metcalf (1999) enumerated the ten specific behaviors that characterize clear


The lesson is planned and implemented in an organized manner.

Students are informed of the lesson objectives in advance.
The lesson is conducted step by step.
The teacher draws the students attention to new or important points by
writing these points on the board, repeating them at appropriate points in the
lesson, and incorporating deliberate pauses, thereby allowing time for
processing and reflection.
5. The teacher presents and works on examples that explains and support the
concept or ideas being taught.
6. The teacher explains unfamiliar words before using them in the lesson and
points out similarities and differences between ideas.
7. The teacher asks the students lot of questions and gives application exercises
to find out if they were able to understand the lesson.
8. The teacher carefully monitors the students work to gauge comprehension
9. The teacher encourages and allows time for the students to ask questions.
10.When the students do not understand the lesson, the teacher repeats main
points, presents additional examples or explanations, or elaborates until the
students achieve clarity of the lesson.
Great services are rendered by clear teachers to their students. Their services
prepare students in doing multifaceted tasks essential to learning. Their endless
efforts yield more competency and make instruction easy and comprehensible.
Characteristics of Competent Teachers

Kellough (2003) prepared an annotated list of the characteristics of a competent

classroom teacher. These characteristics should give teachers an idea of what they
should strive to be.
1. The teacher is knowledgeable about the subject matter
2. The teacher is an educational broker. He/she knows how to discover
information about the instruction content.
3. The teacher is an active member of a professional organization.
4. The teacher understand the processes of learning. He/she ensures that the
students understand the lesson objectives and classroom procedures.
5. The teacher uses effective modeling behavior. His/her behavior should be
consistent with what is expected by his/her students.
6. The teacher is open to change. He/she is willing to take risk and be held
accountable for his/her actions.
7. The teacher is non-prejudicial toward sex, sexual orientation, ethnicity and
8. The teacher organizes the classroom and plans lessons carefully
9. The teacher is a capable communicator. He/she selects words carefully, plans
questions, and has expressive voice inflections.
10.The teacher functions effectively as a decision maker.
11.The teacher is a perpetually learning to further develop a repertoire of
teaching strategies.
12.The teacher demonstrates concern for the safety and health of his/her
13.The teacher demonstrates optimism for the learning of every student.
14. The teacher demonstrates confidence in each students ability to learn.
15.The teacher is skillful and fair in the implementation of strategies for the
assessment of student learning.
16.The teacher is skillful in working with parents, guardians, colleagues and
17.The teacher demonstrate a continuing interest in professional responsibilities,
challenges and opportunities.
18.The teacher exhibits a wide range of interests.
19.The teacher shares a healthy sense of humor.
20.The teacher is competent. He/she can be relied on in fulfilling professional
responsibilities and commitments.
The foregoing competencies, if developed by classroom teachers, will help them
manage the classroom efficiently; plan, implement, and evaluate learning
effectively; and work with students and colleagues joyfully.
Good teacher engage in a continuing pursuit for professional development. They are
dedicated to the work assigned to them, competent and clear, and have the
following insights as expounded by Gunter, Estes, and Schwab (2003.)
1. Good teachers are in charge of their classrooms.

2. Good teachers create a conducive environment for learning.

3. Good teachers manage human relations effectively.
4. Good teachers engage students in the process of learning by their own.
5. Good teachers teach up.
6. Good teachers are good learners.
7. Good teachers develop instructional objectives with learners.
8. Good teachers is able to find out why a plan is not working
9. Good teachers strive to make their teaching interesting.
10.Good teachers give learners access to information and opportunities for
11.Good teachers teach for the kind of knowledge, knowledge content, and
knowledge on how to learn.