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ST IVES GOLD MINE

SLOPE STABILITY GUIDELINES

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SLOPE STABILITY GUIDELINES


SIG-EHS-GU013

Revision
0
1
2

Approved
A. Vasey
D. Watts
D Watts

Date
19/04/1999
19/09/2005
23/05/07

Description
Approved and Current
Approved and Current
Approved and Current

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0 OVERVIEW ........................................................................................................ 4
1.1 DOSSIER DETAILS ......................................................................................... 5
2.0 GUIDELINES FOR DATA COLLECTION .......................................................... 6
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5

EXPLORATION AND PREFEASIBILITY STAGE ..................................................... 6


FEASABILITY AND DESIGN STAGE ................................................................... 8
SEISMIC STUDIES........................................................................................ 11
UNDERGROUND MINING AND KNOWN VOIDS ................................................. 12
ADDITIONAL INVESTIGATIONS ....................................................................... 12

3.0 GUIDELINES FOR SLOPE STABILITY ANALYSES ...................................... 12


3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5

INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................... 12
RISK ASSESSMENT ..................................................................................... 12
IDENTIFICATION OF POSSIBLE FAILURE MECHANISMS ..................................... 12
SLOPE DATA COLLECTION AND INTERPRETATION ........................................... 13
STABILITY ANALYSIS METHODS .................................................................... 13

4.0 GUIDELINES FOR SLOPE MONITORING ...................................................... 15


4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6

INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................... 15
VISUAL INSPECTIONS................................................................................... 15
SURVEY MONITORING TECHNIQUES.............................................................. 15
INSTRUMENTAL MONITORING TECHNIQUES ................................................... 16
PIT W ALL AND PIT FLOOR PILLAR MONITORING ............................................. 16
MONITORING TECHNIQUE REVIEWS .............................................................. 16

5.0 GUIDELINES FOR INVESTIGATING AND MINING THROUGH VOIDS ......... 16


5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7

VOID INVESTIGATION ................................................................................... 17


VOID INVESTIGATION TECHNIQUES ............................................................... 18
GUIDELINES FOR VISUAL INSPECTION OF VOIDS ............................................ 18
GUIDELINES FOR PROBE DRILLING FOR VOIDS .............................................. 18
GUIDELINES FOR SURVEYING OR GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION OF VOIDS....... 19
GUIDELINES FOR MINING THROUGH FOR VOIDS ............................................. 19
GUIDELINES FOR PIT PLANNING ................................................................... 20

6.0 GUIDELINES FOR CORE LOGGING AND EXPOSURE MAPPING ............... 20


6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4

DRILL HOLE SURVEYING, LOGGING AND PRESERVATION OF DRILL CORES ....... 20


PHOTOGRAPHY OF DRILL CORES ................................................................. 20
STANDARD CODES AND DATABASE ............................................................... 24
GEOTECHNICAL DATABASE SYSTEM ............................................................. 29

7.0 APPENDICES .................................................................................................. 30


7.1 APPENDIX 1 EXAMPLE OF A SLOPE STATUS REPORT ................................... 31
7.2 APPENDIX 2 EXAMPLE 1 SLOPE RISK AND HAZARD MATRIX ...................... 32
7.3 APPENDIX 2 EXAMPLE 2 SLOPE RISK AND HAZARD MATRIX NATURAL
SLOPES ..................................................................................................... 33
7.4 APPENDIX 2 PROFORMA SLOPE RISK AND HAZARD MATRIX ROCK SLOPES 34
7.5 RANKING GUIDELINES AND EXPLANATORY NOTES ROCK SLOPES ................ 35
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1.0 OVERVIEW
A Slope Stability Dossier is a collection of data and documents on a slope or
group of slopes organised and stored in a standard way.
Its purpose is to make it easier to:
Rapidly access or check previous work on the slope
Keep track of the status of each slope
Monitor progress of work on slope stability issues.
It is a requirement of the Slope Stability Standard that a Slope Stability Dossier
be maintained for all slopes as part of the Slope Management System and that
all data and documents relating to slope stabilities be indexed and stored in the
slope stability dossier. The Slope Standard also requires that the Guidelines for
Data Collection be followed which in turn specifies the indexation and storage
of data, reports and documents in a slope dossier.
On a typical mine/project site there may be several dossiers covering different
groups of slopes, for example:
Dossier 1 Pit XXXX slopes
Dossier 2Pit YYYY slopes
Dossier 3 Stockpiles
Dossier 4Dumps
Dossier 5 Water and tailings storages
Dossier 6Natural and modified slopes
The grouping of slopes into different dossiers is recommended to allow ease of
access, reporting and clear identification of responsibilities. Grouping also
allows a dossier to be closed and archived.
For ease of use, all slope dossiers have a standard structure with the following
sections:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Slope status reports


Slope identification plan
Slope risk and hazard assessment
Cross reference index of the document collection
Incident reports
Minutes of slope status meetings
Slope management instructions
Action plans

All file notes, drawings, photographs, SWPs and relevant reports will be
contained in a document collection
The physical document collection should be securely stored in a cupboard or
filing cabinet with an index and a section for recording all material borrowed
from the collection (Item, borrower, date taken, date returned).
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1.1 Dossier Details


Section 1 - Slope Status Report
This is a tabulated summary of the current status of slopes (see example
below).
Section 2 - Slope Identification Plan(s)
Pit or site plan(s) showing the location/identification of the slopes.
Section 3 - Slope Risk and Hazard Assessment
There are a variety of risk assessment tools that can be used to assess the
risks associated with slope failures.
The Slope Risk and Hazard Matrix developed for the various types of slopes
(examples in this guideline) is intended to provide a simple means to indicate
slopes that are potentially hazardous to personnel if they fail
Identify which slopes should be monitored
Facilitate setting of priorities for any outstanding work pertaining to slope
safety.
The first step in assessment of slope stability is to use the Slope Matrix. The
matrix is revised as work on the slope proceeds or as conditions change.
The matrices are divided into four sections:
1. An assessment of the potential for causing serious injuries or fatalities is
given by the rating.
2. An assessment of slope vulnerability to failure. Category 1 slopes are the
most vulnerable to failure and Category 5 the least. This categorisation
serves two purposes:
- as a baseline indicator of the likelihood of a slope failure, and
- to set the standards required for data collection and analysis in the slope
stability assessment, and the minimum standards required for slope safety
measures.
3. Slope Stability Data in which the quality of the data used for slope stability
assessments are ranked according to a set of guidelines. The most
vulnerable Category 1 slopes require the highest level of confidence in the
data and would be ranked I and Category 5, the lowest level of confidence
(Rank 5). This serves to highlight where the data may be deficient. ie All
input data for a Category 3 slope stability assessment should have a rank of
3 or less.
4. A Slope Safety Assessment in which the factors affecting the safety of the
slope of the slope are ranked. This serves to highlight where catch berms,
cable bolts etc require attention. ie All safety features on a Category 3 slope
stability assessment should have a rank of 3 or less.
There are four types of Slope Risk and Hazard Matrices:
Rock slopes

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Soil slopes, waste dumps, leach pads, stockpiles and earth embankments
(ordinary and water retaining structures)
Tailings storage embankments
Natural slopes
An example of a completed matrix, proformas for the four matrices and the
guidelines are given below. There are a variety of additional risk assessment
tools that can be used to compliment the Risk and Hazard Assessment.
Section 4 - Cross Reference Index of the Document Collection
The purpose of this index is to ensure that all related technical information/data
is clearly referenced and can be easily found when required.
Sites will need to develop their specific index headings. Suggested headings
include:
Slope Stability Analyses
Geological structures and structural analyses
Risk areas identified in reports requiring further investigation
Materials test work
Hydrology, hydrogeology and groundwater
Seismic risk assessments
Slope design parameters and slope reinforcement designs
Slope stability monitoring and leading indicators
Slope failures
Slope remedial works
Section 5 - Slope Incident Reports
This is a compilation of all incident reports.
Section 6 - Minutes of Slope Status Meetings
These may be the full minutes or extracts from the minutes of slope status
meetings.
Section 7 - Slope Management Instructions
This is a compilation of slope management instructions.
Section 8 - Action Plans
This is a compilation of action plans relating to slopes.

2.0 GUIDELINES FOR DATA COLLECTION


2.1 Exploration and Prefeasibility Stage
It is important not to lose the opportunity to collect information that later
developments on the site may obscure. This information may have a bearing on the
course of future investigations and ultimately slope stability and safety. Further
earthworks may obscure fault or shear exposures, sinkholes, old mine workings, old
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landslides and groundwater seeps. Copies of all reports, maps, logs, photographs
and records shall be preserved for future reference in a secure place. There are four
areas where opportunities to collect data may be lost due to the development of the
site:

2.1.1

Geological and Geotechnical Mapping

All available exposures in the project area and vicinity are geologically and
geotechnically mapped and interpreted if sufficient data is available:
Feature checklist:
Rock or soil types
Nature and orientation of structures: faults and shear zones, joints,
veins, bedding and foliation.
Lineaments and drainage lines
Exposure checklist:
Outcrops and stream beds
Costeans
Road and drilling pad cuttings
Exploration adits and other workings.

2.1.2

Topographic Mapping

All topographic features should be mapped, and relevant local history regarding
the mapped features recorded. Aerial and site feature photographs should be
retained of the undisturbed site.
Feature checklist:
Topography and surface features
Sinkholes and caves
Mine workings
Landslides and slips
Surface water ponding, channels, springs and groundwater seeps.

2.1.3

Drill Cores

It is important that for any potential mining project, all drill holes are surveyed,
and the cores properly logged, photographed and stored, so that information
may have a bearing on the course of future investigations and ultimately slope
stability is not lost. The Guidelines for Core Logging and Exposure Mapping
(see below).shall be followed. The following basic geotechnical data shall be
logged:
Interval (from to)
Core recovery
Rock type
Alteration
Weathering
Fracturing, crushing or shearing
All the properties required for rock mass classification in all major classification
systems, vis the NGI (Bartons) Q system, CSIR (Bieniawskis) RMR system,
GSI (Hoek) and the MRMR (Laubschers) Mining Rock Mass Classification
system.
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All major structures should also be individually logged as geotechnical zones if


wide enough, or as single features with the following items recorded:
Depth or depth interval (or distances)
Intersection angle (alpha angle) or orientation
Structure type (fault, shear zone etc.)
Brecciation, shearing, infill strength and width
Wall rock alteration and weathering
Evidence of water
Additional geotechnical items to be logged if present:
Stress induced core discing, borehole caving or borehole breakouts
Variations in rock densities and porosity.

2.1.4

Hydrology and Hydrogeology

Complete histories of rainfall and stream flows are important:


As soon as a presence is established on site, start recording rainfall and
water flows
Collect and record historical and anecdotal rainfall and water flow data
Monitor groundwater levels and quality in drill holes
Drawdown measurement with groundwater pumping tests.

2.2 Feasability and Design Stage


In a feasibility study all aspects, which could affect slope stability, should be
investigated or identified for future investigation and the slope stability dossier
initiated. Specific site investigations are required to determine foundation
conditions for treatment plants, dumps, dams and tailings storage facilities.
Specialist civil engineering geotechnical consultants normally undertake these
investigations. These investigations should also address slope stability issues
especially in high relief terrain. In the design stage further data collection may
be required to improve the quality of data and to fill gaps identified during the
feasibility study. However, due to practical limitations there may still be areas
that cannot be fully investigated (previous underground mining is a case in
point). These should be identified for investigation during the early construct
stage to address any deficiencies. Key areas include:

2.2.1

Topographical Mapping

Detailed ground or aerial topographical survey maps are essential prerequisites


for other data collection. These should show all surface features including:
Cuttings, embankments and drains
Sinkholes
Mine workings
Landslides and slips
Surface water ponding areas and groundwater seeps and springs.
The scale of the maps should allow all surface features to be shown in
sufficient detail for project planning and with contour intervals that allow for
recognition of drainage courses and areas of potential flooding. Ideally, the
maps should be prepared in the following formats:
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Drafting film for working plans


Digital strings for importation into mine planning software
Digital GIS model for data presentation and other studies.

2.2.2

Geotechnical Model

A geotechnical model is a simplified representation of the real rock and soil


properties in the project area, in which the area is subdivided into several zones
(or
domains) with similar geotechnical characteristics. It is based on an analysis
and interpretation of the results of geological and geotechnical mapping and
logging programmes. All available exposures and drilling data should be looked
at and considered in this interpretation. A well-distributed and representative
range of exposures, costeans and diamond drill cores should be selected and
geologically and geotechnically mapped or logged. The specific objectives of
this mapping and logging are to:
Understand project area geological structure the distribution and
relationships of the main rock and soil types, the nature and location of
faults, folds and inflections, facies changes, effects of weathering, etc.
Determine the location, orientation, and nature of major structures (e.g.
faults, shear, and crush zones, material contacts and weak beds)
Identify and define structural domains and characterise the materials
within them.
The required standard for the geotechnical mapping and logging is the Basic
Geotechnical Logging Standard (see detailed description below).
The proportion of the surface exposures and exploration and resource
evaluation diamond drill holes that should be geotechnically logged is site
dependent. In all cases, it should be sufficient to identify all major structures
and to define domains
and characterise the rocks within them. In some cases additional geotechnical
holes may be required to investigate specific structures or fill in gaps in the
distribution of source data.

2.2.3

Materials Testing

Tests are required to form the basis for estimates of the physical properties of
the soil or rock in each domain. Durability tests to check the potential for loss of
strength due to exposure, desiccation etc. may be required. Elastic moduli may
also be required for modelling of stress in rock slopes. The test work should
comprise both field index tests and laboratory tests on a suite of representative
samples of all major materials. The choice and numbers of tests are dependent
on the project ground conditions. Tests are to comply with Australian or
International Standards. Ideally, sufficient tests should be performed on each
material to provide confidence in the estimates of the material strengths.
2.2.4 Detailed Structural (Defect) Surveys and Analyses
In hard rock domains slope stability is likely to be structurally controlled with the
main failure mechanisms being toppling, planar, wedge or steppath failures on
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faults or shears, bedding and joints or a combination of these. For the design of
slopes in these materials the orientation, spacing, continuity and shear
strengths are required for:
Major structures, faults, shear and crush zones
Bedding planes and weak strata
Foliation partings
Joints and veins.
The data collection programme should include:
Structural and geotechnical line or face mapping of representative
exposures and costeans. Estimates of joint continuities can only be
obtained from
exposure mapping
Geotechnical and structural logs of orientated diamond drill cores which
are representative of the rock types in each of the hard rock domains
Special geotechnical drill holes where required to provide an unbiased
sampling of the structures and to fill in any gaps in the coverage
In poor ground where the core orientation is not possible, applicable
downhole geo-physical and sonic logging techniques such as the sonic.
Televiewer should be considered.
The Structural Mapping and Orientated Core Logging Guidelines (see below)
shall be used for the geotechnical mapping and logging. This also details
the requirements for orientated core drilling. The proportion of the surface
exposures, exploration and orientated cores that are mapped or logged, should
be sufficient to identify and characterise the joint sets and major structures in
each domain. The drill holes should be orientated to ensure that critical
joint sets and bedding or foliation planes are adequately sampled. In some
cases supplementary geotechnical holes may be required to investigate
specific structures or fill in gaps in drilling coverage.

2.2.5

Stress Regime

High stresses can affect pit slope stability. Evidence of high stresses may be
seen in discing in drill cores or borehole breakouts (frequently called caving).
If high stresses are indicated, stress measurements may be required.

2.2.6

Hydrogeology Investigations

Groundwater pressures can have a significant effect on the stability of slopes.


These have to be taken into account in slope stability analyses and slope
design. The design may incorporate water controls, slope drainage and/or
depressurisation measures where appropriate. The following aspects should be
determined:
Sources of water
Current water table(s)
Potential phreatic surfaces
Design criteria for wall rock drainage or wall depressurisation
The potential for slope destabilisation by surface water ingress, erosion,
flooding.
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Checklist of items to be investigated:


Cavities, caves and channelled water
Underground mine workings
Paleochannels
Perched water tables
Location and nature of aquifers and aquitards
Water quality.
Test work may include packer, pump and air lift tests to determine porosity,
permeabilities, storativity of the main aquifers and water bearing structures.

2.2.7

Surface Hydrology

Slope stabilities can be affected by erosion arising from storm and floodwaters
and the replenishment of groundwater. Adequate drainage and floodwater
control measures should be incorporated in the site planning. The catchment
area should be monitored for changes, which may increase the flood risk or
modify the groundwater levels. Checklist of items to be investigated and
monitored:
Stream catchment areas
Rainfall data
Snow and ice accumulations
Stream gradient profiles, bed characteristics and debris accumulations
Lakes and depressions
Man made modifications bridges, dams, embankments, road
formations and subsequent alterations
Stormwater and water supply pipelines.
Reports and aerial photographs and/or GIS models of the catchment and
project areas shall be placed in the Slope Stability Dossier for the purposes of
change monitoring.

2.3 Seismic Studies


Seismic risks should be assessed in terms of the regional geology, especially
seismically active faults, and by probabilistic analyses of the earthquake record. In
low seismic risk areas, the published studies may be sufficient, but in seismically
active areas, a seismic study for the project is required to provide the following
design parameters. Open pits, modified and natural slopes:
Earthquake magnitudes and return periods
Peak particle accelerations
Soil and topographic amplification factors
Material properties.
Dams and tailings dams:
Magnitudes and return periods
Maximum credible earthquakes
Design base earthquakes
Spectral accelerations
Material properties.
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Refer to WMC Guidelines for the Design of Tailings Storages

2.4 Underground Mining and Known Voids


Where there are voids in the vicinity of the proposed pit, dumps, tailings facilities and
other slopes there should be a thorough search for all existing information. Where
there is incomplete or insufficient information available specific investigations will be
required. (see Guidelines for Investigating and mining through voids). Due
recognition should be taken of the probability that:
The actual limits of mining may differ from the plans due to subsequent mining
or stope collapses
Stope filling is incomplete.
The data should be assessed and recorded in the study documentation and Slope
Dossier for further detailed investigation.

2.5 Additional Investigations


There may be a requirement for specific or special investigations. These should be
identified in the study documentation to ensure they are conducted at the appropriate
time.

3.0 GUIDELINES FOR SLOPE STABILITY ANALYSES


3.1 Introduction
The steps in slope stability analysis generally include (but may not be limited to):
Risk assessment (Hazard and Risk Matrix or other appropriate assessment)
Identification of possible failure mechanisms and appropriate analysis
methods
Data collection and interpretation
Material testing
Back analyses
Stability analysis methods
A re-assessment of the hazard and risks
Recommendations for action or design
Documentation
Where a deficiency in the data is identified, this will need to be addressed,
and the slope stability analysis repeated.
The related procedures outlined in WMCs GL 68 must also be followed for the
design of tailings dams.

3.2 Risk Assessment


As a guide to appropriate slope stability analysis methods, the slope stability risk
and hazard rating should be used and complimented with a relevant technical
standard method(s).

3.3 Identification of Possible Failure Mechanisms


The best data available should be used to determine the possible failure
mechanisms at the site in question. The following is a checklist of the possible
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mechanisms:

3.3.1

Soil and Granular Materials, also Highly Fractured Rocks

Circular failures
Non circular failures
Combined failure slip circle and a weak substratum or fault
Two wedge e.g. for spoil piles
Liquefaction.

3.3.2

Rock Slopes

Rotational failures on substratum or fault


Planar failures
Step-path failures
Wedge failures
Toppling failures
Ravelling failures
Rock falls.

3.4 Slope Data Collection and Interpretation


Further data collection and or testing programmes may be required to meet the
specific requirements of the analyses. Common data requirements for both granular
and rock slopes are:
Slope geometry and the location of tension cracks
Slope material profiles and properties
Knowledge of geological structures
Ground water profiles
Seismic information.
The data requirements for slopes in soils and granular materials differ from rock
slopes.

3.4.1

Granular Materials

Mohr-Coulomb strength parameters are usually required. In fine-grained soils,


these can be determined by laboratory triaxial strength tests on undisturbed
samples. These should be threestage drained or undrained tests as
appropriate to the slope
drainage conditions. In highly fragmented rock, the MohrCoulomb strengths
can be estimated by an empirical method(s).

3.4.2

Rock Slopes

Joint orientation data, joint spacing and continuity data, joint shear strength test
data, (or estimates of joint strength data from joint properties) are required.

3.5 Stability Analysis Methods


The analysis methods and path followed is dependent on the risk of slope
failure and the failure mechanism. The greater the risk the more rigorous
the analysis process. This may include multiple and sensitivity analyses.
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Analysis methods may include but are not limited to:


Precedence or slope experience
Empirical
Kinematic
Numerical (deterministic or probabilistic)
Dynamic
Time dependant.
For example the following may apply:

3.5.1

Low-Risk Slopes

For these slopes it may be sufficient to use slope design charts such as
described in Hoek, E. and Bray, J. (1981), Rock Slope Engineering, revised
third edition, Institute of Mining and Metalurgy. Where there are no geological
complications, Haines and Terbrugges RMR (1995) based slope angle
charts can also be used. Haines A. (1993) Rock Slope Classification for
Optimum design of monitoring networks in Swedzicki, T. 1993 Geotechnical
Instrumentation and Monitoring in Open Pit and Underground Mining, Bulkema
ISBN 90 5410 3213).

3.5.2

Medium to High-Risk Slopes

More rigorous processes including computer based methods should be used. In


medium risk slopes these can be deterministic, but probabilistic methods
should be included in higher risk slopes. There is an increasing number of
computer packages for the analysis of slope stability. It is important to choose
the most appropriate package(s) for the expected failure mechanism. Wherever
possible, the analyses should be repeated on another package. The slope
stability analysis packages should allow modelling the effects of the following:
Position and depth of a tension crack
Water in the tension crack
Blasting and seismic loading
Ground water pressures
Different materials and properties
Geological structures.
In seismic risk areas, the effects of earthquake forces should be investigated. In
medium risk slopes, it is sufficient to treat seismic forces as pseudo static forces, but
in high-risk soil slopes dynamic modelling of the slopes may be required. The effect
of topographic amplification factors should be considered. (Davis L. L. and West L.
R. Observed effects of Topography on ground motion, bull. Sesm. Society of
America, 63, 1, pp. 283289). In weaker rocks or high stress areas, two or three
dimensional stress/strength analyses should also be performed. Destabilising
effects of voids requires special and rigorous consideration.

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4.0 GUIDELINES FOR SLOPE MONITORING


4.1 Introduction
The objective of slope monitoring is the early detection of developing hazards and
identification of sections of slopes that may be approaching instability so that
appropriate precautions can be taken. The Slope Risk and Hazard Matrix (see
above) can be used as a guide to identify those slopes that will need to be regularly
inspected and/or monitored. Some instrumentation may also be required. The
nature of the hazard will determine the frequency and type of monitoring.

4.2 Visual Inspections


Regular inspections of slopes should be carried out to check:
For potentially hazardous loose rocks
For deterioration in the condition of slopes due to weathering, erosion,
undercutting, loosening or blast damage
The condition of berms and capacity of the berms to catch and hold scat and
minor batter failures
For corrosion of reinforcement
Opening cracks and subsidence in crests, berms and haul roads as an
indicator of possible impending failures.
The appearance of cracks can be an early sign of a major failure developing and it is
essential that the development of the cracks be monitored. This may be done by:
Recording the number of cracks and their widths at regular time intervals. This
is suitable for low hazard potential failures
Establishing a number of line traverses and logging the cracks (location and
width) along each traverse. Repeating the logging at intervals will indicate
whether the slope is stabilising or deteriorating.
Crack dilation monitoring instruments (e.g. measurement between pins driven
into the ground and/or simple surface extensometers or other crack
monitoring devices such as glass plates, wedges )
Displacement monitoring by survey or extensometers.

4.3 Survey Monitoring Techniques


The most common method of pit wall monitoring is to use a total station (Electronic
Distance Measurement (EDM)/theodolite) to measure the distances from a base
station to an array of survey markers (corner cube reflectors or prisms) mounted
on the slope. It is critical that the EDM technique has an accuracy and precision
appropriate to the expected rate and magnitude of displacement. The minimum
requirements for the system are:
Survey base stations located on stable ground, or the means to check the
location of the base stations by instrumental or survey methods. The base
stations are best located opposite the slope to be monitored as the EDM
distance measurements are generally more accurate than the angular
measurements.
Adequate numbers of prisms located on the potential failure slope. The prisms
should be mounted so that they are not easily disturbed or destroyed by
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deteriorating surface conditions on the slope and sufficient should be installed


to cater for the inevitable losses.
The survey results should be graphed or mathematically analysed on a timedisplacement basis. Predictions of the time of failure are frequently possible by
manual or mathematical extrapolation of the displacement rates. When progressive
failure conditions become apparent, the monitoring frequency should be increased to
improve the prediction accuracy. Other survey techniques may include:
Precise levelling
Global Positioning System
Triangulation
Photogrammetry.

4.4 Instrumental Monitoring Techniques


There are a large number of instruments available for monitoring such as
extensometers, inclinometers, shear detectors, and microseismic monitoring system.
These should be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.
The monitoring programs should include devices capable of monitoring the
displacement of the slope so that timedisplacement analyses can be done and
predictions of the time of failure made. Where the consequences of a failure could
be lifethreatening, instruments capable of monitoring slopes continuously and being
linked to audible and mine radio alarm systems should be used where possible.
In earthquake prone areas seismometers linked to audible and mine radio alarms
should also be used.

4.5 Pit Wall and Pit Floor Pillar Monitoring


Where the pit is close to voids, monitoring of the stability of the pillars is essential.
The location size and condition of the voids should have been investigated by probe
drilling and/or geophysical or photographic techniques. As each bench is mined, the
remaining pillars should be re-investigated by the most suitable of these methods.
Generally, pit mining face advances preclude longer term monitoring instruments
such as extensometers, inclinometers, and shear detectors. Microseismic monitoring
systems have the potential to remotely monitor failing ground, however these also
pick up other pit operating noises and if these can be filtered out, they could offer
continuous monitoring and links to audible, visual and/or radio alarm systems.

4.6 Monitoring Technique Reviews


Periodic reassessments should be done on the type(s) of monitoring, location and
density of instruments and frequency of observations. Adjustments should be made
where necessary.

5.0 GUIDELINES FOR INVESTIGATING AND MINING THROUGH


VOIDS
Where there are natural voids or underground mining on a site, precautions need to
be taken to ensure that:

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Open pit mining can proceed safely and stopes or remaining pillars do not
collapse and destabilise the pit slopes above it
The pit floor does not collapse into an underlying stope and endanger the
safety of personnel operating in the pit
Dumps and tailings storage facilities are not constructed over potentially
unstable slopes
For the feasibility study, a first pass estimate of the location, size and nature of the
previous workings may be sufficient. This should include a review of the
underground mine plans and stoping data while recognising that the actual limits of
mining may differ from the plans due to subsequent mining or stope collapses.
Through out this guideline the titles of Pit Supervisor, Geotechnical Engineer and
Surveyor are used in a generic sense. Each operation may have a different title or
name for this duty eg may be called Production Engineer or Mine Manager. The
intent is clear in that a person shall designated to have specific responsibility for
each of the steps or activities and be accountable for compliance with the step or
process. It is critical that relevant experience or qualifications are held by the person
charged with the responsibility.

5.1 Void Investigation


Two or more stages of investigation may be required.

5.1.1

Initial Stage, to determine:


Whether the voids will affect the stability of pit walls and floors or the
safety of personnel working in the pit
What void investigation techniques are required and can be safely used
Safe working practices for further investigation of the nature and location
of the voids

5.1.2

Advanced Stage

In practice it may be necessary to make some conservative assumptions on the


minimum distance in order to develop the pit to a position where the stopes can
be investigated more fully. Probe and or geophysical techniques to determine:
The location and size and nature of the voids or workings to a precision
required for safe mining through the voids
The state of the voids:
the condition of the ground forming the back, walls and pillars
the presence of stope backfill, its condition, the degree of stope
filling and presence of water in the stope
stope back reinforcement (cable bolting) and its condition
The minimum distance that must be left between the open pit and stopes
to ensure the stability of the stopes and stope pillars, open pit walls and
floor. This would normally involve stress and displacement modelling
with measured or estimated in situ stresses and rock mass strengths.

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5.2 Void Investigation Techniques


The following techniques can be used to investigate the location and size of the
stopes:
Visual inspection of voids that are safely accessible from underground
Borehole probe drilling (see Probe Drilling SWP below):
Purpose drilled probe holes with closed circuit television if the
cavities are not flooded
Grade control drilling
Blast holes for small openings
Remote cavity surveying techniques:
Cavity Monitoring System (CMS ) This requires access to the void
from underground
Cavity Auto Laser Scanner (CALS) a 100 mm diameter survey
instrument that can be lowered down a borehole
Geophysical methods
Microgravity
Seismic tomography (e.g. RockVision)
Ground Probing Radar (GPR)
Radio imaging (e.g. RIM II).
Resistivity.

5.3 Guidelines for Visual Inspection of Voids


SWPs shall be developed to ensure the safety of personnel undertaking the
inspections Precautions shall include:
Examinations of plans sections etc so that inspection personnel do not enter
possibly unstable undercut areas
Inspection and barring down of development backs to avoid rockfalls
Personnel entering the void periphery wearing safety harnesses with SALA
fall arrest blocks and safety lines properly secured to a safe anchorage

5.4 Guidelines for Probe Drilling for Voids


The stages and responsibility for the work shall include:
Examinations of plans sections etc to identify possibly undercut areas and
determining minimum safe approach distances and planning the investigation
(Responsibility Geotechnical Engineer and /or Pit Supervisor)
Marking out the exclusion zones by red and white flagging tape
(Responsibility Surveyors)
Marking out the drilling traverse lines (Responsibility Surveyors)
Drilling probe holes at specified intervals and angles and depths specified by
the Pit Supervisor (Responsibility Driller)
Logging the probe holes (Date, driller, Location ie bench, traverse and
distance from start peg, depth to break through depth to floor) (Responsibility
Driller and/or Sampler)
Reporting voids located to Pit Supervisor (Responsibility Driller and/or
Sampler)

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Plotting of reported cavities and re-examination of plans sections etc to


determine minimum safe approach distances and planning further
investigation (Responsibility Geotechnical Engineer and/or Pit Supervisor)
Maintenance of up to date plans sections etc to determine shoeing void
outlines, minimum safe approach distances and maintaining up top date
exclusion zone flagging (Responsibility Surveyors)
SWPs shall be developed to ensure the safety of personnel undertaking the
investigations.
Precautions shall include:
Standing instructions that no one shall enter an exclusion zone marked by red
and white flagging tape except certain persons instructed to do so by the pit
supervisor to undertake specific tasks (Responsibility Pit Supervisor)
Safety training of persons required to work in an exclusion zone and provision
of belts and safety lines etc for them (Responsibility Pit Supervisor)
Maintenance of the exclusion zone markers (if any red and white flagging tape
is cut or moved it shall be restored immediately) (Responsibility all pit
workers).

5.5 Guidelines for Surveying or Geophysical Investigation of Voids


The stages and responsibility for the work shall include:
Planning the investigation with due regard for known undercut areas and
minimum safe approach distances (Responsibility Geotechnical Engineer and
Pit Supervisor)
Conducting the investigation and reporting of results (Responsibility
Geotechnical Engineer and Surveyor)
Plotting of reported cavities and re-examination of plans sections etc to
determine minimum safe approach distances and planning further
investigation (Responsibility Pit Supervisor).

5.6 Guidelines for Mining through for Voids


The stages and responsibility for the work shall include:
Analysis of all void data to determine a safe mining strategy and detailed
planning (Responsibility Geotechnical Engineer and Pit Supervisor)
Appointment of personnel with specific responsibilities in the plan for mining
through voids. The may include the appointment of a Void Officer to
coordinate work and maintain records on voids. (Responsibility Mine
Manager)
Preparation of SWPs for the safety of personnel mining through and
monitoring the stability of pillars between stope and pit See Guidelines on
pillar stability monitoring (Responsibility Pit Supervisor)
Mining operations and monitoring the stability of voids, pillars and slopes
(Responsibility Geotechnical Engineer and Pit Supervisor).
Precautions should include:
Exclusion zones shall be marked by red and white flagging tape and no one
shall enter an except certain persons instructed to do so by the pit supervisor
to undertake specific tasks (Responsibility Pit Supervisor)

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Safety training of persons required to work in an exclusion zone and provision


of belts and safety lines etc for them (Responsibility Pit Supervisor)
Backfilling of voids This will be a normal procedure except where the void is
too small to fill effectively or there is an obstruction that cannot be removed
safely that will prevent adequate filling of the void (Responsibility
Geotechnical Engineer and
Pit Supervisor). Standing instructions shall be developed for the placement of
the back fill (back fill materials, direct tipping, bulldozing etc.) (Responsibility
Pit Supervisor) Until the void is filled to the satisfaction of the Geotechnical
Engineer and Pit Supervisor, the exclusion zone markers shall be maintained
(if any red and white flagging tape is cut or moved it shall be restored
immediately - Responsibility all pit workers)
Drilling and Blasting Pillars above VoidsSafe and effective procedures shall
be devised for drilling and firing pillars next to or above voids (Responsibility
Geotechnical Engineer and Pit Supervisor). Standing instructions shall be
developed for the drilling and charging (Responsibility Pit Supervisor) Until the
void is effectively destroyed to the satisfaction of the Geotechnical Engineer
and Pit Supervisor, the exclusion zone markers shall be maintained. The
current Western Australia Department of Minerals and Energy Guidelines for
Open pit mining through underground workings shall be consulted.

5.7 Guidelines for Pit Planning


Pit shall be designed sot that all ramps avoid possibly undercut areas and within a
minimum safe approach distances based on the size and condition of the void and
duty of the ramp. (Responsibility Geotechnical Engineer and Pit Supervisor).

6.0 GUIDELINES FOR CORE LOGGING AND EXPOSURE MAPPING


6.1 Drill Hole Surveying, Logging and Preservation of Drill Cores
All drill holes used in slope stability assessments should have
Collar positions surveyed
Down hole traces surveyed.
Before the core is cut for assaying, all diamond drill cores shall also be:
Geologically and geotechnically logged
Photographed (see Guidelines for Core Photography)
Representative samples of relevant materials are preserved for later testing.
The remaining cores after assaying are preserved for further inspection.

6.2 Photography of Drill Cores


High quality and good clear core photographs are invaluable in establishing
geological and geotechnical models. The preferable requirements for good core
photographs are:
One core tray per photo

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Photograph core after core recovery has been measured, depth blocks have
been checked and before the core is split
Photograph in full sun, but avoid midday sun, as it is difficult to eliminate the
photographers shadows, also avoid early morning and late afternoon as the
colours may be distorted. Photographs on overcast days can produce
acceptable results if colours are not critical to rock type differentiation
Use colour print film and print on 100 x 150 mm paper is preferable but digital
photos may be taken (1.3 to 1.5 megapixel/frame camera with prints
reproduced by a colour laser printer on photoquality paper) A colour chart
should be included in the header board to ensure consistent colours during
printing.
Use a frame to hold the camera directly above the centre of the core tray and
heading board for best results, hand held cameras even disposable cameras
can produce acceptable results if used with care
Check that depth blocks are the right way up and not in deep shadow
If the core is orientated, arrange core so that orientation line can be seen
Arrange core tray to avoid shadows across it
Use a heading board to record hole number, tray number and the start and
end depths in the core tray and other comments (precollar depths, core loss,
EOH etc.)
Preferably place the heading board at the top of the tray, with the start of the
core in the tray at the top left.
Set camera focal length or distance so that the tray almost fills the frame.
Check the other camera settings
A light spray of water will enhance colours and help in rock type identification,
however, if the rock is dark or black, structures are easier to see in photos of
dry core
Avoid artificial lighting (flash or fluorescent), especially if cores are wet.
Standard Terminology for Geotechnical Mapping and Logging Drill Cores

6.2.1

Introduction

Geotechnical data forms the basis for modelling and is essential in the efficient
running of mines. This guideline outlines the standard terminology for data.
Several terms used in the descriptions below to describe natural breaks in the
rock mass. Defects include schistosity, foliation, bedding, veins, joints and
faults. Discontinuity and fracture exclude schistosity, foliation, but include
bedding, veins, joints and faults. Joints is used in the normal geotechnical
sense ie the common discontinuities which define the shape and size of rock
blocks.

6.2.2

Data Fields

The following are a list of all the data fields currently used for geotechnical data.
The codes only relevant to in-situ measurements are outlined:
Recovered Core Length: total length of core recovered from interval
(Recovery is calculated from it)
Core > 10 cm: total length of all core > 10 cm (RQD may be calculated from
it)
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Weathering: degree of weathering


QSI: estimated rock strength (or Qualitative Strength Index)
Fractures per interval: calculates Fracture per metre (FPM) or Joint
Spacing
Fracture Type: Type of discontinuity
Joint Sets: degree of jointing
Joint Roughness: the nature of the discontinuity wall
Fracture Infill: the type of joint infill and its alteration
Fracture Infill Mineral: the main mineral in the joint
Fracture Thickness: the thickness of the fractures
Fracture Length (only for in-situ measurements)
Fracture Spacing (only for in-situ measurements)
Fracture Termination (only for in-situ measurements)
Seepage: water flow and free moisture in discontinuities or rock mass (Joint
Water Pressure) (only for in-situ measurements)
Stress Reduction Factor: weakness zones intersecting excavation (only for
in-situ measurements)
Angle to Core Axis: angle to core axis (Alpha angle)
Rotation Angle: called also (Beta Angle)
Outputs
Geotechnical data is further processed for indexes to quantify rock mass quality.
The main currently used indexes are RQD, Q, RMR and MRMR. RQD is the
percentage of core length>10 for the interval. The other indexes require more
complex manipulation as illustrated below:
Field
Recovery
Core >10cm
Weathering
Rock Strength
Fracture/m (FPM)
Type
Number of sets
Joint Roughness
Alteration/ Infill
Infill Mineral
Infill Thickness
Seepage
Stress Reduction Factor
Angle to Core Axis
Rotation Axis
() full Q index

6.2.3

Q modified

RMR

MRMR

()

Structure

()
()

Core Logging for Open pits and Underground Mines

In Underground Mines, all diamond holes should be geotechnically logging within


20 m (true thickness) on either side of the orebody. In Open pits all diamond drill

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holes that intersect the current or possible future pit walls should be
geotechnically logged.
Logging forms shall designed to capture the following data to allow the rock
mass to be rated in any of the above classification systems. For the hole:
HOLE ID: Hole number
LOGGED BY: Name of the logger
DATE: Date of logging
DIAMETER: The diameter of drill core. (Can be obtained from other drill
hole information)
HOLE COMMENT:Comment for hole.
For logging intervals (specific to geotechnical logging-does not require to be the
same as assay intervals)
FROM: The start of the downhole interval for similar rockmass
TO: The end of the downhole interval for similar rockmass
CORE10: The total length of core greater >10 cm for RQD
NO / FRACTURES: The number of fractures for interval for fracture
frequency (FPM)
QSI: The ISRM category for estimated UCS
TYPE: The nature of the dominant fracture
NO OF SETS: The number of discontinuity sets
JOINT INFILL:The type of joint infill and its wall rock alteration (gouge,
breccia carbonate cement, weathering, chloritic alteration, talcification,
argillic or propylitic alterations must be recorded. The nature of the
dominant infill if infill > 1 mm and wall rock alteration if infill < 1 mm
THICKNESS: The thickness of the fracture
ROUGH: The topography of the continuity
COMMENT: Comment for interval.
The above format is very similar to most current geotechnical core logging forms
currently used within WMC. It has to be mentioned that the core recovery and
dip and dip direction are not included. The recovery measuring the recovered
core length can be either captured for the logged interval or for different intervals
on a different form e.g. between the drillers core blocks. The dip and dip
direction for oriented cores should also be included with the alpha and beta
angles.

6.2.4

Exposure Mapping

In-situ mapping will be performed by line mapping or window mapping. The


information is treated like a drill hole information and store in the drill hole
Geodata\Geobase database. The following data is recorded for window mapping
and the mapper may use the electronic Breithaupt Tectronic compass to
reduce the data entry time. For the location (not recorded in electronic
compass):
FACERUN ID: The ID of the mapping location (e.g. Mine prefix + level +
number)
MAPPED BY: The mappers name
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DATE: The date of the mapping


GRID_NAME: The name of the grid
NORTHING: The northing of the start of line (or centre of the window)
EASTING: The easting of the start of line (or centre of the window)
RL: The RL of the start of line (or centre of window)
AZIMUTH: The azimuth of the line or window
LENGTH: The length of the line or window
ROCK TYPE: The rocktype for the line or window mapping (rocktype can
be assigned to interval for line mapping)
SQI: The estimated UCS for the area (as for window can be assigned to
line mapping if required)
SET NO: The number of discontinuity sets
PHOTO: The reference to a photograph of the location if any
COMMENT: Comment on the location. For each fracture the following
data is captured by electronic compass:
TYPE: The nature of discontinuity
INFILL: The nature of the dominant infill if infill > 1 mm and wall rock
alteration if infill < 1 mm
THICK: The thickness of the fracture
ROUGH: The topography of the continuity
SPACING: The category for the spacing of the discontinuity by category
LENGTH: The category for the length of the discontinuity
END: The nature of the discontinuity termination
SEEPAGE: The water condition for the fracture.
The data can be then summarised for the particular window and display in
software such as Datamine or other geotechnical packages.

6.3 Standard Codes and Database


Each site has a standard technical database, Techbase. The logging part of the
database uses properties to capture any type of information. For example, TYPE is
the property name for fracture type and joi (for Joint) is the code assign to this
property. Properties for geotechnical logging have been defined in the current
database and the standards set up throughout WMC. While operations may select to
capture only some selected fields, the codes used in the capture system will be
identical between operations and will optimise the use of
common ideas and systems. A table called drill_geotech is set up in the Techbase
database in a spreadsheet type table to facilitate the data extraction process.

6.3.1

Recovered Core Length

The recovered core length is the length (in metres) of core recovered for an
interval. The most accurate way to measure it is by measuring the length of core
between blocks. The recovery may have to be input by itself because the interval
between the blocks is unlikely to fit the geotechnical domain interval.

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6.3.2

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Core > 10 cm

The core >10 cm is the total of all the core greater than 10 cm in length, ignoring
end of run and core tray breaks, within the interval. Joints that run parallel to the
core axis are to be ignored.

6.3.3

Weathering

Weathering field records the degree of weathering on the rocks. The data entry
system uses the following codes:

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6.3.4

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QSI (Qualitative Strength Index)

The qualitative strength index is an estimating rock strength by index tests as listed
below.

6.3.5

Fracture Number per Interval

The fracture number per interval is the number of discontinuities for the interval.
The fracture number per interval is processed to provide fractures per metre.
Fracture Type
A fracture is defined as any plane or surface which is now or has been in the
past been broken. Fracture type include joints, veins, faults, shears and bedding
planes. Care must be taken in identifying major structures such as faults and
shears as these are the key controlling features in slope stability.
Code
joi: Joint
con: Lithological Contact
zon: Fault or Shear Zone
fol: Foliation Discontinuity
bed: Bedding Plane Discontinuity
vei: Vein Parallel Discontinuity
dis: Discrete Fault or Shear
Joint Sets
The joint sets field define the number of joint sets present.. Joints are common
discontinuities which define the shape and size of rock blocks. The codes
are based on the Barton Tunnelling Quality Index Q.
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Code
mnf: Massive or few joints
1js: One joint set
1jr: One joint plus random
2js: Two joint sets
2jr: Two joint sets plus random
3js: Three joint sets
3jr: Three joint sets plus random
4js: Four or more joint sets, random, heavily joined
cre: Crushed rock, earth like
Joint Roughness
Joint roughness refers to the nature of the discontinuity walls and to the small
irregularities on the fracture surface. The codes are based on the Barton
Tunnelling Quality Index Q. The RMR rating for joint condition is a combination
of joint roughness, fracture infill and fracture infill thickness.
Code
rad: Rough and discontinuous
smd: Smooth and discontinuous
rau: Rough and undulatory
ssd: Slickensided and discontinuous
smu: Smooth and undulatory
rap: Rough and planar
ssu: Slickensided and undulatory or gouge filled and
discontinuous
smp: Smooth and planar
gpu: Gouge filled with nor rock wall contact and planar and
undulatory
ssp: Slickensided and planar
Fracture Infill
The fracture infill records the type of joint fill and its alteration. The codes are
based on the Barton Tunnelling Quality Index Q.
Code
non: None or tightly healed or hard, nonsoftening, impermeable,
unweathered filling e.g.quartz
una: Unaltered joint with surface staining only
sli: Slightly altered or weathered joint walls, hard mineral coating,
may include small clay free sandy particles
mod: Silty or sandy clay coating, small clay fraction
sof: Soft infill including low friction clay, platy mica, talc, gypsum
and graphite
bad: Soft and highly weathered swelling clay filling e.g.
Montmorillonite
Fracture Infill Mineral
The fracture infill mineral field records the mineral in the fracture. The mineral
codes are the standard WMC legend mineral codes. There are 586 mineral
codes stored in the min.val file.
Fracture Thickness

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The fracture thickness records the thickness of the fracture measure at right
angle to the fracture.
Code
t<1: Thickness of infill < 1 mm
t<5: Thickness of infill 1 5 mm
t>5: Thickness of infill > 5 mm
nwc: Sheared with no wall contact or thick zones of decomposed
or highly weathered material.
Fracture Length
The fracture length records the length of the fracture in metres. This is recorded
in mapping by in-situ measurements.
Code
l<.5: Length (m) < 0.5
l<1: Length (m) 0.5 1
l<2: Length (m) 1.0 2.0
l<3: Length (m) 2.0 3.0
l<5: Length (m) 3.0 5.0
l<7: Length (m) 5.0 7.0
l<10: Length (m) 7.0 10.0
l<20: Length (m) 10.0 20.0
l<40: Length (m) 20.0 40.0
l>40: Length (m) > 40.0.
Joint Spacing
The joint spacing records the spacing between the joints in metres. This is
recorded in mapping by insitu measurements.
Code
sna: N/A - discrete feature
s>8: Spacing >8.0 m
s<8: Spacing 4.0 8.0 m
s<4: Spacing 2.0 4.0 m
s<2: Spacing 1.2 2.0 m
s<1.2: Spacing 0.6 1.2 m
s<.6: Spacing 0.4 0.6 m
s<.4: Spacing 0.2 0.4 m
s<.2: Spacing 0.06 0.2 m
s<.06: Spacing <0.06 m.
Fracture Termination
Fracture termination is a measure of the continuity of the fracture. A fracture may
be continuous across the core, terminate in the rock or terminate on another
fracture. This measure is used in the in-situ mapping.
Code
tir: Terminates in rock
low: Terminates in another set at <20 degrees
hig: Terminates in another set at >20 degrees
flo: Terminates by floor
roo: Terminates by roof
wal: Terminates by wall
log: Indeterminable (logistically)
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cont: Indeterminable (continuity).


Seepage - Joint Water Pressure
The water seepage (or joint water pressure) field is an estimate of the water flow
through the rock. Seepage is an in-situ measurement and is not used in
core logging. However it can be used in window mapping.
Code
dry: Dry
dmi: Damp or minor flow
wet: Wet
drp: Dripping
mip: Medium inflow or pressure
lpc: Large inflow/high pressure in competent rock
lhp: Large inflow/high pressure
ehd: Exceptionally high inflow decaying with time
ehp: Exceptionally high inflow or pressure.
Stress Reduction Factor
The stress reduction factor is an indication of the weakness zones which may be
loosening of rock mass when a tunnel is excavated. This is an in-situ
measurement but it has been included in the list because it can be used for face
run in future line or window mapping.
Code
sr3: single weakness zones containing clay (depth of excavation
> 50 m)
sr5: single weakness zones containing clay (depth of excavation
< 50 m)
sr2.5: single shear zones in competent rock (clay free) depth of
excavation > 50 m
sr5.0: single shear zones in competent rock (clay free) depth of
excavation < 5 0m
sr7.5: multiple shear zones in competent rock loose surrounding
rock
sr10: multiple occurrences of weakness with clay
sr12: loose open joints, heavily jointed or sugar cube.
Angle to Core Axis (Alpha angle)
The angle to core axis is the angle between the core axis and the plane of the
fracture. If the rotation angle (Beta angle) is measured, the true dip and dip
direction can be calculated for the plane.
Rotation Angle (Beta angle)
A plan in the core has an elliptical trace on the surface of the core. The rotation
angle is the angle between the reference line and the up hole apex of the
elliptical trace. If the angle to core axis (Alpha angle) is measured, the true dip
and dip direction of the planar fracture can be calculated for the plane.

6.4 Geotechnical Database System


Data Flow
The data flow of the geotechnical information is summarised below:
1. Log data either on a paper form or in the geological logging system (GLS)
2. If it is a paper form, enter the system on the geotechnical data entry system
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3. Send the transaction files either from the GLS or from the geotechnical data
entry system to the Geodata logging update directory.
4. The data is then automatically loaded to the Geodata database (e.g. Once a
day)
5. Geodata geotechnical logging information is then down loaded automatically
to the drill_geotech table in Geobase
6. Data can be then retrieved automatically or inter actively to a
Datamine/Surpac format and include in the current Datamine extract used by all
operations.
7. Geotechnical data can be retrieved on plans and sections with Geoview.
8. Data can be extracted to a text file to load to Excel spreadsheet or other
software package.
9. Added value can be input back into the database. For example, it is quite
common to assign lode codes to an interval (e.g. Hole XXXX from 100.6
to 112.00 lodecode = HV1). Similar practices could applied to geotechnical data
and domain codes could be defined and stored in the database.

7.0 APPENDICES

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7.1 Appendix 1 Example of a Slope Status Report


Slope

Location

Rd]

Date of
Last
Inspection
31/3/98

Action Status

Failure imminent crack width increasing


rapidly - lmm/day

Pit abandoned close haul road


adjacent to north
side of pit

Action complete
- earth bunds
constructed
across haul road
at two sections

A N Other

25Oct1998

Pit slope under review


with view to steepen
batter slope

Review of
stability analysis
required

T. Li

3/11/98

25 Oct1998

Crack observed on
berm at RL 220
on30/10/98 - crack
about 35m long and 5
mm wide

Monitor slope
movement
Develop and
implement SWP
for work in
vicinity of slope

Review of
analysis under
way - complete
by 3/11/98
Action plan to be
reviewed and
approved by RM
and SEQ
manager SWP
under
compilation
Temporary
safety measures
implemented

D Milton - Action
Plan
P Arthur - SWP

1.
2/1i/98

Redeemer east
wall
Rd4

Redeemer west
wall, southern
section

Action
by
Date

Action

Redeemer
North wall

Rd3

Responsible
Person/s

Slope Status

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Safety Issues
Erect warning signs at
bunds - no further
monitoring - no personnel
allowed in vicinity of north
side of pit. D Milton to
observe daily and report to
RM
None

Barriers to be erected to
prevent vehicular access
onto berm

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7.2 Appendix 2 Example 1 Slope Risk and Hazard Matrix


SLOPE RISK AND HAZARD MATRIX
Pit Nil Desperandum
Assessor I M Notjoking

ROCK SLOPES
Slope Sector 1 South East
Revision No - 5

POTENTIAL CONSEQUENCE OF FAILURE


Potential Human exposure
SLOPE VULNERABILITY CATEGORY
Slope height and steepness
Vulnerability & probability of natural events
Likelihood of failure

Multiple
Category
Steep/ high
Vulnerable / High
Highly likely

SLOPE STABILITY DATA


Slope stability analyses
Confidence level in material strengths
Confidence levels in ground water conditions
Confidence level in geological structures
Design consideration of natural events
SLOPE STABILITY ASSESSMENT
Crest and wall condition
Cable bolt and other support
Catch berm and catch fence conditions
PROTECTION MEASURES
Protection fences and warning signs
Slope stability inspection and monitoring
Slope specific SWPs

Batters 350-500m
Date 2 Feb 1998
X
None
Regard as an action priority ranking
1
2
3
4
5
Low
X
Not Vulnerable
X
Unlikely
X

Rank
Rigorous
Known
Known
Known
Rigorous

Rank
Sound
Good
Wide and Clear

3
X

5
None
Assumed
Assumed
Assumed
Not Considered

X
X
X
X
2

Not required
Good condition
Operating satisfactorily
In force

5
X

X
X

Poor/ deteriorating
Poor/ deteriorating
Narrow or full

Required
X
X
X

Incomplete/ faulty
Planned/ suspended
Pending

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7.3 Appendix 2 Example 2 Slope Risk and Hazard Matrix Natural Slopes
SLOPE RISK AND HAZARD MATRIX
Pit
Assessor

ROCK SLOPES
Slope
Revision No

Height
Date

POTENTIAL CONSEQUENCE OF FAILURE


Potential Human exposure

Multiple
Category
Steep/ high
High/ critical
Hazardous

SLOPE VULNERABILITY CATEGORY


Slope height and steepness
Probability of natural events
Slope geological profile
Land use effects
Likelihood of failure

Critical
Highly likely

X
Regard as an action priority ranking
1
2
3
4
5
X
X
X
X
X

SLOPE STABILITY DATA


Confidence levels in ground water
Confidence level in geological structures
Natural events in stability assessment

Rank
Known
Known
Known & Considered

SLOPE STABILITY ASSESSMENT


Crest and wall condition
Cable bolt and other support
Catch berm and catch fence conditions

Rank
Sound
Good
Wide and Clear

PROTECTION MEASURES
Protection fences and warning signs
Slope stability inspection and monitoring
Slope specific SWPs

Not required
X
X
X

2
X
X

X
2
X
X

None
Low
Low
Sound
Minimal
Unlikely
Assumed
Assumed
Ignored

Poor/ deteriorating
Poor/ deteriorating
Narrow or full

Required
Good condition
Operating satisfactorily
In force

Incomplete/ faulty
Planned/ suspended
Pending

Note: Likelihood of failure. Use lowest category.

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7.4 Appendix 2 Proforma Slope Risk and Hazard Matrix Rock Slopes
SLOPE RISK AND HAZARD MATRIX
Pit
Assessor
POTENTIAL CONSEQUENCE OF FAILURE
Potential Human exposure to failure
SLOPE VULNERABILITY CATEGORY
Slope height and steepness
Vulnerability & probability of natural events
Likelihood of failure

ROCK SLOPES
Slope
Revision No

Batters
Date
Multiple

None
Regard as an action priority ranking
Category
1
2
3
4
5
Steep/ high
Low
Vulnerable / High
Not Vulnerable
Highly likely
Unlikely

SLOPE STABILITY DATA


Slope stability analyses
Confidence level in material strengths
Confidence levels in ground water conditions
Confidence level in geological structures
Design consideration of natural events
SLOPE STABILITY ASSESSMENT
Crest and wall condition
Cable bolt and other support
Catch berm and catch fence conditions
PROTECTION MEASURES
Protection fences and warning signs
Slope stability inspection and monitoring
Slope specific SWPs

Rank
Rigorous
Known
Known
Known
Rigorous

Rank
Sound
Good
Wide and Clear

Not required

None
Assumed
Assumed
Assumed
Not Considered

Poor/ deteriorating
Poor/ deteriorating
Narrow or full
Required

Good condition
Operating satisfactorily
In force

Incomplete/ faulty
Planned/ suspended
Pending

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7.5 Ranking Guidelines and Explanatory Notes Rock Slopes


Ranking/ Category
POTENTIAL
CONSEQUENCE OF
FAILURE

Multiple
fatalities in a
major failure

Single fataility
in a major
failure

Serious LTI

Possible LTI or
MTI

No injuries or
loss

SLOPE
VULNERABILITY

Ranking based on factors of safety, probablility of sliding or assessed stability relative


to other slopes on site, taking into consideration the possible consequences a major
failure. The possible influences of underground mining must be considered.

Slope height and


Steepness

FoS<1.2 or
PoS>50% or
severe
cracking or
failing

FoS=1.2-1.5 or
PoS>20-50%
or minor
cracking

FoS=1.5-2 or
PoS>5-20%
Apparently
stable

FoS=2-3 or
PoS>0-5%
Apparently
stable

Vulnerability &
probability of natural
events

Critical and
>=1 in slope
life

Vulnerable
and >=1 in
slope life

Vulnerable
and >=1 in 100
Years

Vulnerable or
>=1 in 100
Years

SLOPE STABILITY
DATA
Slope design
methods

Rigorous
design

Specific
design

Ground water
conditions

Assumed

Assumed

Confidencee in influence of ground water


Known or fully
drained slope,
no phreatic
surface

Known
phreatic
surface and no
seepage

Unknown
phreatic
surface and no
seepage

No drainageseepage visible

No drainagefree flowing
water visible

Confidence in the geological structural data and interpretation used


Detailed
mapping and
interpretation

Face mapping
interpretation

Limnited face
mapping

Borehole data

Assumed

Vulerability of the slope to an earthquake or exceptionally heavy rainfall event

Probability and
magnitude
assessed and
incorporated in
design

Probability and
magnitude
assumed and
included in
design

Probability and
magnitude
assumed and
considered in
design

Considered
inconsequential
and ignored in
design

Not
considered

Potential for the slope face or crest to become hazardous

SLOPE SAFETY
ASSESSMENT
Crest and wall
condition

Based on
Procedure

Confidence levels in influence of ground water


Lab tests
Limited lab
Index tests
tests

Lab tests and


back analyses

Natural event
hazards and Slope
design
considerations

Not vulnerable
or <1 in 100
Years

Ranking of detail and/ or thoroughness of the slope stability assessment

Material strengths

Geological structure
and interpretation

FoS>3 or
PoS>0-5%
Stable

Sound
batters and
crests

Mild blast
damage
cracking

Moderate
blast
damage/
Friable or

Heavy
damage
Weathering

Unravelling
severely
cracked

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fractured
rock
Condition of cable bolting, mesh, shear pins or catch fences

Cable and other


support
Sound/ not
required

Mild
corrosion or
deterioration

Moderate
corrosion or
deterioiration

Heavy
corrosion

Severely
corroded

Capacity of berm to hold scat and rock falls

Catch berm and


catch fence
condition
Wide/ clear

Fall Capacity
20 BCM/m

Fall Capacity
10 BCM/m

Fall Capacity
5 BCM/m

Narrow/ full

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