Through this acknowledgment, we express our sincere gratitude to all those people who have been associated with this assignment and have helped us with it and made it a worthwhile experience. Firstly we extend our thanks to the various people who have shared their opinions and experiences through which we received the required information crucial for our report. Finally, we express our thanks to our lecturer Ms. Parul who gave us this opportunity to learn the subject in a practical approach and who guided us and gave us valuable suggestions regarding the project report.



Child labor is one of the more harrowing aspects of 19th century history and undoubtedly an emotive topic. To get employment reform acts passed as legislation, reformers highlighted stories of the horrific treatment of children in mills and down the mines. Not all work is bad for children. Some social scientists point out that some kinds of work may be completely unobjectionable — except for one thing about the work that makes it exploitative. For instance, a child who delivers newspapers before school might actually benefit from learning how to work, gaining responsibility, and earn a bit of money. But what if the child is not paid? Then he or she is being exploited. As UNICEF's 1997 State of the World's Children Report puts it, "Children's work needs to be seen as happening along a continuum, with destructive or exploitative work at one end and beneficial work - promoting or enhancing children's development without interfering with their schooling, recreation and rest - at the other. And between these two poles are vast areas of work that need not negatively affect a child's development." Other social scientists have slightly different ways of drawing the line between acceptable and unacceptable work. Children's participation in economic activity - that does not negatively affect their health and development or interfere with education, can be positive. Work that does not interfere with education (light work) is permitted from the age of 12 years under the International Labor Organization (ILO) Convention 138. So child engaged in part time work to learn practical skill linked to social or inherited custom or crafts is not child labor. It becomes "child labor" only when child weaves carpet in a factory or factory; earns money to support family without schooling, social development. On the other hand if child works for 3-4 hours to learn or earn for self or parents after schooling, would not be known as child labor as is additional education and practical skill that a child learns.


With official estimates of 12.6 million children in hazardous occupations, India has the highest number of labourers in the world under 14 years of age. Although the Constitution of India guarantees free and compulsory education to children between the age of 6 to 14 and prohibits employment of children younger than 14 in any hazardous environment, child labo ur is present in almost all sectors of the Indian economy Companies including Gap, Primark, Monsanto etc have been criticised for using child labour in either their operations in India or by their suppliers in India.

Child Labour
A girl working in the reconstruction effort carries a tile on her head in the city of Choluteca, Honduras

An estimated 158 million children aged 5-14 are engaged in child labour - one in six children in the world. Millions of children are engaged in hazardous situations or conditions, such as working in mines, working with chemicals and pesticides in agriculture or working with dangerous machinery. They are everywhere but invisible, toiling as domestic servants in homes, labouring behind the walls of workshops, hidden from view in plantations.  In Sub-Saharan Africa around one in three children are engaged in child labour, representing 69 million children.  In South Asia, another 44 million are engaged in child labour.

 The latest national estimates for this indicator are reported in Table 9 (Child Protection) of UNICEF's annual publication The State of the World's Children. Children living in the poorest households and in rural areas are most likely to be engaged in child labour. Those burdened with household chores are overwhelmingly girls. Millions of girls who work as domestic servants are especially vulnerable to exploitation and abuse. Labour often interferes with children’s education. Ensuring that all children go to school and that their education is of good quality are keys to preventing child labour.

Child Labour in India
Millions of children in today's world undergo the worst forms of child labor which includes Child Slavery, Child prostitution, Child Trafficking, Child Soldiers. In modern era of material and technological advancement, children in almost every country are being callously exploited. The official figure of child laborers world wide is 13 million. But the actual number is much higher. Of the estimated 250 million children between the ages of 5 and 14 who are economically active, some 50 million to 60 million between the ages of 5 and 11 are engaged in intolerable forms of labor. Among the 10 to 14year-old chil dren the working rate is 41.3 percent in Kenya, 31.4 percent in Senegal, 30.1 percent in Bangladesh, 25.8 percent in Nigeria, 24 percent in Turkey, 17.7 percent in Pakistan, 16.1 percent in Brazil, 14.4 percent in India, 11.6 percent in China. ILO estimated that 250 million children between 5 and 14 work for a living, and over 50 million children under age twelve work in hazardous circumstances. United Nations estimate that there were 20 million bonded child laborers worldwide. Based on reliable estimates, at least 700,000 persons to 2 million, especially girls and children, are trafficked each year across international borders. Research suggests that the age of the children involved is decreasing. Most are poor children between the ages of 13 and 18, although there is evidence that very young children even babies, are also caught up in this horrific trade. They come from all parts of the world. Some one million children enter the se x trade, exploited by people or circumstances. At any one time, more than 300,000 children under 18 - girls and boys - are fighting as soldiers with government armed forces and armed opposition groups in more than 30 countries worldwide. ILO estimates that domestic work is the largest employment category of girls under age 16 in the world. India has the dubious distinction of being the nation with the largest number of child laborers in the world. The child labors endure miserable and difficult lives. They earn little and struggle to make enough to feed themselves and their families. They do not go to school; more than half of them are unable to learn the barest skills of literacy. Poverty is one of the main reasons behind this phenomenon. The unrelenting poverty forces the parents to push their young children in all forms of

hazardous occupations. Child labor is a source of income for poor families. They provide help in household enterprises or of household chores in order to free adult household members for economic activity elsewhere. In some cases, the study found that a child's income accounted for between 34 and 37 percent of the total household income. In India the emergence of child labor is also because of unsustainable systems of landholding in agricultural areas and caste system in the rural areas. Bonded labour refers to the phenomenon of children working in conditions of servitude in order to pay their debts. The debt that binds them to their employer is incurred not by the children themselves but by their parent. The creditors cum employers offer these loans to destitute parents in an effort to secure the labor of these children. The arrangements between the parents and contracting agents are usually informal and unwritten. The number of years required to pay off such a loan is indeterminate. The lower castes such as dalits and tribal make them vulnerable groups for exploitation. The environmental degradation and lack of employment avenues in the rural areas also cause people to migrate to big cities. On arrival in overcrowded cities the disintegration of family units takes place through alcoholism, unemployment or disillusionment of better life etc. This in turn leads to emergence of street children and child workers who are forced by their circumstances to work from the early age. The girls are forced to work as sex -workers or beggars. A large number of girls end up working as domestic workers on low wages and unhealthy living conditions. Some times children are abandoned by their parents or sold to factory owners. The last two decades have seen tremendous growth of export based industries and mass production factories utilizing low technologies. They try to maintain competitive positions through low wages and low labor standards. The child laborers exactly suit their requirements. They use all means to lure the parents into giving their children on pretext of providing education and good life. In India majority of children work in industries, such as cracker making, diamond polishing, glass, brass-ware, carpet weaving, bangle making, lock making and mica cutting to name a few. 15% of the 100,000 children work in the carpet industry of Uttar Pradesh. 70-80% of the 8,000 to 50,000 children work in the glass industry in Ferozabad. In the unorganized sector child labor is paid by piece-by-piece rates that result in even longer hours for very low pay. Inadequate schools, a lack of schools, or even the expense of schooling leaves some children with little else to do but work. The attitudes of parents also contribute to child labor; some parents feel that children should work in order to develop skills useful in the job market, instead of taking advantage of a formal education. From the time of its independence, India has committed itself to be against child labor. Article 24 of the Indian constitution clearly states that "No child below the age of fourteen years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or employed in any hazardous employment" The Bonded Labour System Act of 1976 fulfills the Indian Constitution's directive of ending forced labour A Plethora of additional protective

legislation has been put in place. There are distinct laws governing child labour in factories in commercial establishments, on plantations and in apprenticeships. There are laws governing the use of migrant labour and contract labour. A recent law The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation law) of 1986 designates a child as a person who has not completed their 14th year of age. It purports to regulate the hours and the conditions of child workers and to prohibit child workers in certain enumerated hazardous industries. However there is neither blanket prohibition on the use of child labour, nor any universal minimum age set for child workers. All of the policies that the Indian government has in place are in accordance with the Constitution of India, and all support the eradication of Child Labor. The problem of child labor still remains even though all of these policies are existent. Enforcement is the key aspect that is lacking in the government's efforts. Child labor is a global problem. If child labour is to be eradicated, the governments and agencies and those responsible for enforcement need to start doing their jobs. The most important thing is to increase awareness and keep discussing ways and means to check this problem. We have to decide whether we are going to take up the problem head-on and fight it any way we can or leave it to the adults who might not be there when things go out of hand. IT is not new for economies to use the productive labour of children. The history of capitalism is replete with such instances, especially in phases of rapid industrialisation. Dickensian stories of cheap child labour being exploited by rapacious early capitalists were some of the cultural staples of the Industrial Revolution in England. More recently, child labour has been widely associated with poverty and seen as a sign of backwardness. Yet it is remarkably persistent and remains widespread in much of the developing world, including in the booming parts of the world economy. A 2003 survey by the International Labour Organisation suggested that there are 246 million child labourers (aged 14 years or less) in the world, and that as many as 180 million of them are engaged in hazardous activities that put them at direct physical risk. While this may be an overestimate, it should not be completely dismissed either. Allahabad, October 12. Within this, it is generally accepted that India has the largest number of child labourers in the world. The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) estimates that there are more than 35 million such children, accounting for 14 per cent of the children in the 5-14 age group.

Other unofficial estimates are much higher, ranging between 60 and 125 million child labourers. Meanwhile, the Census data for 2001 suggest a much lower incidence, with 12.5 million child labourers identified, which would be less than 5 per cent of the relevant age group. This represents a declining incidence compared with the 1991 figure of 6.4 per cent of the children between 5 and14 years. There is of course a lot of debate about these figures. Because so much of child labour is in informal activities, and is anyway a shadowy thing that very few parents or employers want to admit to allowing, there is no way of being sure of the accuracy of any calculations. The larger estimates (which are typically derived by looking at the number of children who are out of school and who are therefore assumed to be working) give a picture of an enormous national sweatshop, with production growth based on the exploitation of children. But there are reasons to be sceptical about the much larger estimates, even though it is certainly the case that those children who have never attended school or have dropped out of school are far more likely to be drawn into the work force. Bangalore, October 6. For obvious reasons, this is a highly emotive issue. It can and should generate strong responses, but the high social tolerance of inequity and exclusion in India has unfortunately meant that some of the strongest responses have come from outside the country. The international community has become increasingly aware of some of the more egregious practices of child labour exploitation in certain export industries such as carpet weaving, which have led to calls for boycotts and sanctions on exports. Domestically, the response has been to cry foul and decry the protectionism inherent in this approach, which somehow implies that only the child labour in export industries should be dealt with. In actual fact, export industries account for a very small proportion of the child labour in India, and the worst conditions are not to be found there but in other activities. In any case, urban child labour is by all accounts a very small proportion of the total, well below 10 per cent. According to both official data and most studies, nearly half the child labour in India is involved in agriculture. Most of the rest is involved in informal and service sector activities or in small home-based or cottage enterprises. Ukhrul, Manipur, October 10.

This does not mean, of course, that such children are not exploited or deprived of both their childhood and their future prospects. But the preponderance of informal activities does create real problems for dealing with this through policy and for eliminating child labour. However, there are other areas where the prevalence of child labour should be much easier to control and yet where it continues to persist. The most appalling form of this is in the continuing prevalence of bonded child labour, which is completely illegal and yetpersists in many regions and activities. There are certain industries that are known to be heavily reliant on bonded child labour and certain geographical locations that have become infamous for it as well. The fireworks producers of Sivakasi in Tamil Nadu, the carpet industry in Mirzapur in Uttar Pradesh, the glass bangle makers of been Jaipur in Rajasthan, the brassware industry of Uttar Pradesh and the gems industry of Mumbai have all been associated with substantial use of child labour. Other activities thathave known to use bonded child labour include knitwear- and matchstick-making units, beedi-making, tea plantations and some cultivation operations in cotton and sugarcane. Bonded and other child labour is also frequently found in services, especially in tea shops and truck shops, domestic service and commercial sex work. For example, the argument is frequently heard that much of child labour is simply an extension of the family unit, which allows a child to learn the traditional trade in comfortable circumstances and at the "right age", usually below 12 years. This notion is not only empirically questionable but also fundamentally casteist, effectively assuming that such children only deserve training according to their social and class background, rather than equal opportunities for education and advancement as all other children. It is taken as axiomatic in most discussions on child labour that it is a direct result of poverty and that little good will come of enforcing bans unless something is first done about the incomeearning opportunities of the parents. But this is far too simple an interpretation. Obviously, it is mainly the poor who are forced to make their children go to work, but it does not follow that there is a necessary causal relation in one direction. R.V. MOORTHY Children from the Bachapao Bachao Andolan performing a street play as part of its month-long nation-wide campaign 'From Work to School' outside the Labour Ministry office in

New Delhi on October 10. In fact, it has been plausibly argued that child labour can actually lead to more poverty, by depressing wages in general and by forcing all family members to work at below subsistence wages to meet household survival needs. It can be shown that if the banning of child labour is effective and forces wages to go up in that area or activity, both parents and children will be better off even in income terms, not to mention overall well-being. It is interesting to note that the four States that account for more than 40 per cent of all the officially recorded child labour in India - Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu - are among the richer States in India. This suggests that low per capita income is not necessarily associated with higher incidence of child labour across the States. Especially in societies like those in India, child labour is not only (or always even dominantly) about poverty: it is essentially about social exclusion, inequality and discrimination, which allow the relative poverty of some to be exploited in this manner. Factors such as inadequate employment opportunities for adult members of the household and lack of access to credit markets and social welfare schemes to guard against hunger or illness, all clearly play a role. But segmented labour markets result from more than these features, and are deeply embedded in social processes. Indeed, the reality of discriminatory perceptions in India is directly reflected in official inaction and implicit toleration of the widespread legal violations as well as in the indifference and even complacency of society at large. This is not to say that there are no voices of protest or effective actions against child labour within India. Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and social movements, ranging from MV Foundation in Andhra Pradesh to those fighting child bondage in particular areas across India, have shown how strategies to move children from paid or unpaid labour to school can work and how these strategies can be scaled up. Nationally, there is no question that the most basic public intervention to eliminate child labour has got to be the provision of free, compulsory and good-quality schooling for all children. This is the most essential plank of any effective strategy. This is just one of the reasons why it is so important to ensure the adoption of a `right to education' law that ensures universal schooling without exceptions or caveats. It is also necessary to make such legislation effective in terms of allocating sufficient public

resources for this and making sure that community control and adequate teacher training allow for good quality schooling for all. Banning child labour outright certainly appears to be a laudatory goal, but in the context of the ineffective existing laws and the less-than-half-hearted implementation described above, it is not in itself likely to have much impact. This is not an argument to accept poor legal enforcement - obviously, we have to fight for more comprehensive monitoring, regulation and enforcement of laws with respect to child labour. But it is clearly the case that the elimination of child labour requires a more comprehensive and multi-pronged strategy, with universal schooling as a key element. The experience of some other developing countries that have had some success in reducing or eliminating child labour, such as South Korea and Brazil, can be instructive. In Brazil, in addition to a law on universal schooling, there has been a special programme - the Bolsa Escola - which provides "education grants" or school stipends based on household monthly wages, which enable poor families to send their children to school. This was accompanied by laws banning child labour and a greatly strengthened programme of labour inspections to discover and punish cases of using child labour. Along with this, there have been strategies of using NGOs and federations of industrialists and employers to implement codes of conduct in activities that have a high incidence of child labour, such as automobile manufacturing, steel, shoes and citrus and sugar plantations. As a result of this, UNICEF has estimated that the incidence of child labour in Brazil fell by half over the decade up to 2003, even though it still accounted for 7 per cent of children in the 7-14 age group. The recent experience of China is also interesting. China experienced a rise in child labour from the mid-1990s, to the point where the estimates of child labour ranged from 10 to 20 million for 2005. Most analysts agree that the partial dismantling of the once free and universal socialist school education system has been critical. Thus, the decline in public educational spending and the increase in school tuition fees have been important proximate causes of the increase in child labour. There have been many cited instances of parents who cannot any more afford to send their children to school without some additional income from their paid labour. It has also been noted that the system of examinations and progression through school also creates

disincentives against continuation for children from poor families who perform poorly in any one year.

Hyderabad, October 09. Obviously, the children working in socalled debt servitude are particularly vulnerable and heavily exploited. They are of ten exposed to severe occupational hazards - which can lead to stunting, deformities, other health hazards and future debilities - quite apart from working long hours in dreadful conditions for appallingly low wages. There are many recorded instances of maltreatment and corporal punishment by employers. In general, the hazards that such children and other child workers in vulnerable situations face are not only physical, but also cognitive, social and emotional; and in most cases they are damaged for life as a result. There is next to no protection for such children, despite many government laws and policies. Another important concern relates to the children of migrant workers, who are disproportionately prone to become child labourers, often in very oppressive and personally damaging circumstances. These are in addition to those bonded or "pledged" child workers who are forced to migrate without their parents, in groups organised by contractors. Mumbai, October 10. The Indian government actually has a plethora of laws and specific policies to address child labour. While child labour per se is not banned in India, the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act of 1986 regulates the hours and conditions (but not the wages) of some child workers and bans the use of child workers in specified hazardous occupations, including fireworks and chemical industries. There are separate

laws governing child labour in factories, in commercial establishments, on plantations, and in apprenticeships. There are laws governing the use of migrant labour and contract labour, which would also apply to children. For children in servitude, the Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976, strictly outlaws all forms of debt bondage and forced labour and is an extension of a law enacted in 1933 by the British colonial government relating specifically to child bondage. But these laws have been singularly ineffective. They have rarely been even monitored, much less enforced. A study by Human Rights Watch conducted over 1995 and 1996 in several States of India found that all of these laws were routinely flouted, with absolutely no risk of any punishment to the offender ("The small hands of slavery: Bonded child labour in India"; Human Rights Watch Asia, 1996). Many other instances of blatant violation of the laws have been documented by Neera Burra and Lakshmidhar Mishra. New Delhi, October 1. Corruption is often cited as the primary cause of such brazen flouting of the law by those who exploit child labour, but generalised social apathy is also an important contributory factor. Indian society, with its still widespread concepts of birth determined hierarchies and the guarding of privileges by the elite, has proved to be only too willing to accept certain myths that allow for the perpetuation of child labour, both bonded and "voluntary".

Situational Analysis of Young Children in Delhi
More than 66% of children under the six years in Delhi slums are malnourished. It is more than the children in the sub-Saharan Africa where the figure stands at 38%. India’s malnourishment stand at 40%.This has been revealed by the survey report of situational analysis of young children in Delhi. This study was done in 22 slum clusters in Delhi. The study says that malnourishment is higher at the construction sites and among deprived including

Muslims and scheduled castes. The main reason is being the poor health status of the mothers. Only 10% of the poor women are accessing the basic health care services including nutrition services under integrated child development scheme. The report says adding that the scheme covers just 10% of the poor women. Most of the women in the unorganized sector do not get maternity leave resulting in poor health of the woman and the new born child. The birth registration rate in slums in less than 20% and large number of child-births take place at home. According to the study vulnerable sections like street children, beggers, children of migrant labor and sex workers are not covered in any government schemes. The report also says that there is tremendous increase almost double in the number of people living below poverty line.

Rural Schools
This project supported by Royal Dutch Embassy New Delhi is providing formal education to 500 children in the age group 6-14 in 5 villages who do not go to any school or are school dropouts through nonformal means. The children are enrolled from the villages. Our target is to encourage girls to join the schools as their education is generally neglected and look down upon.More than 50% of the students are girls who attend the schools regularly.Nonformal education is being provided under National Open School board. The curriculum and books for the course have been prepared on the basis of blueprints provided by NOS and Bihar Government syllabus at par with any formal school. The certificates are given by the NOS which are valid in India. Initially we have introduced classes from one to class three. The books and study materials are provided at nominal cost. The teachers are selected from educated youth of the community to provide employment to local youth especially women. These schools are managed by the local village committees comprising of panchayat members, educated and respected members of the society.

The Target Group:
The beneficiaries would be approx 500 children between 6-14 years. The Intervention Area:

Damalbari,Chattargach,Powakhali,Thakurganj and Pothia

The Objectives to be achieved:
1.The project would help in providing quality education to rural children. 2. The mothers and guardians would be encouraged to join literacy centers run by Azad India Foundation to get functional literacy. This would instill the value of education among people. 3. This project would help in increasing the literacy level of the district. 4. This project would give employment to the rural educated youth especially girls who would work as teachers at the centers. Donations: You can adopt a child for as small an amount as Rs.500/- and see him/her through a certificate from the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS).

Rural Schools Final Report
AREA/LOCATION OF THE PROJECT: The project was implemented in villages Damalbari, Chhattergach, Powakhali, Thakurganj and Pothia in Kishanganj district METHODOLOGIES: The main aim of the project was to provide education to rural children in the age group 6-14 in 5 villages who are out of any formal school system or are school dropouts through nonformal means. AIF began with the identification of the children residing in these villages and also nearby areas. Our main target was to encourage more girls to join the NFE schools as their education is generally neglected and look down upon. We followed formal as well as nonformal system of education in all the schools. Children were enrolled in classes one to three. They were given choice to join the formal setup or study according to their convenience in the afternoon. The schools have fixed timings for the formal students and flexible timings for the nonformal students. The teachers ensure at least six hours of study six days a week. Since we have accreditation from National Open Schooling Ministry of HRD, Government of India to conduct examination for class three, class five and class eight levels it helped us in convincing parents to send children to our schools. We followed the curriculum and books prepared on the basis of blueprints provided by NOS and Bihar Govt syllabus. We tried to keep the course at par with any formal school. Our main concern was to develop the capacity of children preparing them for formal schooling in the future. The course was divided into 4 modules. The first three months were devoted to teaching basics in language and mathematics. In the next three months we introduced

writing skills and subsequently other subjects like EVS and art of healthy and productive living were introduced. We also tried to identify talent among the children like music, dance and drawing/painting. The books were provided free of cost. The teachers were selected from educated youth of the community to provide employment to local youth especially women. We charged nominal fees from the students to make it self-sustaining in the long run. ACTIVITIES UNDERTAKEN: CAPACITY BUILDING INITIATIVES: Azad India Foundation organized regular trainings and orientations for the teachers by the resource person by Mr.Shamim Akhtar who is TLC trainer. NONFORMAL CENTRES: Kishanganj district has a dubious record of having lowest literacy level in whole of Bihar. The worst sufferers are the women who due to illiteracy and ignorance face exploitation at all levels.Azad India Foundation has set up nonformal centres in target villages where women and girls come for functional literacy classes. The main purpose of setting these centres was to promote education among the guardians of the children. The method of teaching was non-formal involving local dialect Surjapuri and in some centers in Bengali/Hindi to help the women learn effectively .In these centers women were taught to read and write at their own pace. Some centers functioned in the afternoon after women finish their household work and some in the evening when they return from their fields. The involvement of the community ensured smooth functioning of these centers and made the teachers accountable to the task they have undertaken. RURAL SCHOOLS: Azad India Foundation believes that education is true means of socio-economic and intellectual advancement of the society. Every child at least deserves primary education irrespective of caste, religion or socio-economic background. We enrolled 449 children for OBE Level -A examination. These children were in the age-group 6-14 years. Out of these 236 were boys and 213 were girls. Our sustained efforts have led to about 47% of girls' and 52 % boys' enrollment in the schools. Many young children also attend the school. We conducted the examination in the month of July/August and the result is submitted to National Open School for certificates. The girls did better in the examination as 50.7% passed in first attempt where as 49% boys passed the examination in the first attempt. The students who have failed or partly cleared papers will be motivated to give exam again after six months. Their registration is valid is five years where they can clear papers according to their convenience. A detailed result of the students as follows:

• Total number of students enrolled : 449 • Total number of male students: 236

• • • • • • •

Total number of female students: 213 Total number of students passed : 201 Total number of female students passed: 102 Total number of male students passed : 99 Total number of part pass students: 21 Total number of failed students :149 Total number of absent students: 78

SPECIAL DAY CELEBRATIONS: Azad India Foundation celebrated special days like Republic Day (26th January) and Independence Day (15th August) at all the schools instilling a sense of national pride and teaching children importance of these days. We also organized drawing and sports competitions for the children regularly. The winners were given prizes and certificates. Parents and other important people including PRIs of the villages were included in all the programmes. COMMUNITY MEETINGS: The project coordinator and field workers of AIF carried out regular meetings with the parents, guardians and important persons of the community from time to time. These meetings are very important for building enabling environment for generating interest in education. It also helped us in the centers where there was high dropout of the girls and reluctance and apathy of the parents towards our project. AIF also organized film shows 'Meena ki Kahani' which deals with issues concerning education for girls and gender issues in the target villages. VISITORS TO THE RURAL SCHOOLS Ms Tinku Khanna,Ms Janki and Mr Kalam from Aapne Aap Women International an NGO working in Calcutta and Forbesganj visited Thakurganj and Chattargach rural schools on 23rd December. The children welcomed them with a song and displayed their learning skills. They were impressed with the progress of the children especially the girls. The main objective of their visit was to replicate the same programme in their intervention area. Azad India Foundation hosted Mr Alvise Fabretto a volunteer from Italy. He visited all the rural schools. Sports Day was celebrated at rural school at Pothia on 26th Janaury where 60 children participated from the two villages. They presented a small cultural programme.The winners were given prizes by Mrs Yuman Hussain and Mr Alvise Fabretto. UNESCO and National Open School (Ministry of HRD) conducted survey for the relevance and efficacy of Open Basic Education in 5 NGOs in India. Rural Schools of Azad India Foundation were chosen from Bihar where an independent agency carried out survey and interaction with 100 students in the month of July. The final report is awaited.

Child Labour Prohibition

Child is said to be the father of man and a citizen of tomorrow. Child in some strata of today’s society is being deprived of the opportunity to evolve into a fuller human being of the future. The employment of children under age 14 is inhuman as well as illegal. The problem of child labour is inter-linked with various socio-economic conditions. Poverty is considered its main cause, which leads to illiteracy, low productivity, poor health and low life expectancy. Some of the industries that depend on child labour are match and fireworks, bangle-making, beedi-making, power looms and manufacturing processes using toxic metals and substances, such as lead, mercury, manganese, chromium, cadmium, benzene, pesticides and asbestos. A certain number of child labour is also found at brick kilns, handicrafts-making, silk and silk products, soldering processes in electronics industries and on floriculture and vegetable farms. Child labour is an evil that must be eliminated. The Child Labour (Prohibition & Regulation) Act(External website that opens in a new window), 1986 of India prohibits the employment of children below the age of 14 in factories, mines and in other forms of hazardous employment, and regulates the working conditions of children in other employment. The Act also regulates the working conditions of children in all other employment, which are not prohibited under the child labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986. Increasing attention is being paid to strengthening the enforcement machinery related to child labour. Soon after the enactment of the comprehensive Child Labour (Prohibition & Regulation) Act, 1986, the Government of India recognized the need to protect child labour from exploitation and from being subjected to work in hazardous conditions that endanger such children’s physical and mental development, and the need to ensure the health and safety of children at the workplace. It recognized that they should be protected from excessively long working hours and from night work. Even work in non-hazardous occupations should be regulated, and all working children should be provided with sufficient weekly rest periods and holidays and then Government adopted a National Child Labour Policy in 1987. The Policy focusses on areas known to have high concentration of child labour and to adopt a project approach for identification, withdrawal and rehabilitation of working children. A toll-free helpline (1098) has been made operational from 10th October 2006 to receive distress calls about employing children in the banned sectors, presently working in the following 72 cities: Agartala, Aurangabad, Chennai, Guwahati, Kanchipuram, Kozhikode, Nadia, Pune, South 24 Paraganas, Varanasi, Shimla, Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Coimbatore, Hyderabad, Kanyakumari, Kutch, Nagapattinam, Puri, Thiruvananthapuram, Vijayawada, Ludhiana, Ahmednagar, Baroda, Cuddalore, Imphal, Karaikal, Lucknow, Nagpur, Rourkela, Thirunelveli, Vishakhapatnam, Akola, Bhopal, Delhi, Indore, Kochi, Mangalore, Nasik, Ranchi, Thrissur, Waynad, Allahabad, Bhubaneshwar, East Midanapore Jammu, Kolkata, Madurai, New Jalpaiguri,

Salem, Tiruchirapalli, West Midnapore, Alwar, Chandigarh, Goa, Jaipur, Kollam, Mumbai, Patna, Shillong, Udaipur, Agra, Amarawati, Cuddalore, Gorakhpur, Kalyan, Kota, Murshidabad Port Blair, Sholapur, Ujjain and Gurgaon.

Elementary education and child labour are intimately linked. The mission of the recent Global March Against Child Labour in which thousands of organizations in almost 100countries participated acknowledges this clearly: 'to mobilise worldwide efforts to protectand promote the rights of all children, especially the right to receive a free, meaningfuleducation and to be free from economic exploitation and from performing any work thatis likely to be damaging to the child's physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development'. The National Human Rights Commission of India recently stated that child labourcan never be eradicated unless compulsory primary education up to the age of 14 isimplemented. A comparison between the states of Kerala and Uttar Pradesh in India for example defiesthe claim that it is predominantly poverty that prevents the poor from sending their children to school. In both states the proportion of people living below the poverty line isaround 45%. Nevertheless Kerala has an average literacy rate of 90% whereas in Uttar Pradesh this figure is around 40%. In terms of average income per capita Kerala is in themiddle range of Indian states, but it spends much more on primary education.It is a well-established fact that children in India are working on a large scale in the household, in family enterprises or in incomeearning activities outside the home. It ishowever not so well-established how many children are working, how much time they spend on that work and how much is the income thus earned or saved (by allowingparents to earn income). Estimations of the number of working children vary from 11 million to at least 90 million children. The former figure is from the Census of 1991 while the latter is based on the official number of non-school attending children. Unofficial estimates of the number of non-school going children go up to 114 million. It is usually assumed that (almost) all non-school going children are working a major part of the day. But if one looks at the number of working children mentioned by anti-childlabour organizations such as the South Asian Coalition on Child Servitude (SACCS) - 55to 60 million - it shows that there is a large group of children who are neither in schoolnor at work most of their time. This is corroborated by a recent survey (the Public Reporton Basic Education -PROBEsurvey) in four of the poorest and most child-labour endemic states: Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. The surveyindicated that one third of the children had not done any work during school hours on theday preceding the survey. The same study showed that 18% of the out-of-school children worked more than eight hours, while about half worked less than three hours. The surprising figures about the relatively short time spend on either household work or income-earning activities of most out-of-school children are supported by a

large number of other field-level investigations in different states of India (Kiran Bhatty, Economic andPolitical Weekly, July 4, 1997). The author states that all available studies indicate that domestic work is the most common and regular kind of work. Especially girls spent onaverage twice to sometimes even three times as much time working as boys, mostly on domestic duties. The studies he quotes nevertheless indicate that especially young children up to 10 devote about 1 to 4 hours (the latter only in the agricultural peak season) on average to both domestic and (other) productive work. For the older age group of 10 to14 years this increases while 'it is only after the age of 15 that children begin to make substantial contributions (Bhatty)'. If non-school participation would be largely driven by the time devoted by children to household and income-earning activities one would expect that drop-outs from primary school would increase with age as the time devoted to these activities is increasing. The opposite is the case. Most studies show that drop-outs tends to be heavily concentrated in grades 1 and 2, which suggests other reasons for dropping out than poverty and work. He also points at the 'apathy of the people' but relates this to a 'fundamental lacuna in our democracy: the failure to provide an organized means of putting pressure and demanding change' as well as to the 'continued social and political marginalization of large sections of the population, particularly of the poor'. Also recent Nobel prize winner Amartya Sen writes in his book 'Economic Opportunity Development and Social Opportunity' (1995)', co-authored by PROBE coordinator Jean Dreze: 'The fact that the government was able to get away with so much neglect in the field of primary education relates to the lack of political clout of the illiterate masses'. There are however a number of cases where 'putting pressure and demanding change' did have important effects on the provision of good primary education, also for presently working children. We will come to them later. Summing up: the fact that children work rather than go to school does not necessarily mean that poverty or parental disinterest is to blame for their failure to attend school. Looking at the evidence it is the other way around: children work or remain idle becauseschool-going is not possible or very unattractive. Parents often use the labour of their children after they have dropped out of school, for reasons unconnected to poverty. Bhatty calls it 'child labour as a default activity' and concludes that 'parents are keen to educate their children provided they are assured of basic quality'. Even in cases where poverty is a real constraint, it has been shown regularly - also in the example of an NGO whose work will be described later - that parents are willing to make sacrifices for the education of their children if a decent form of primary education is offered. Incentive programmes like free midday-meals can also be of help but are not a substitute for good primary education.

IT is not new for economies to use the productive labour of children. The history of capitalism is replete with such instances, especially in phases of rapid industrialisation. Dickensian stories of cheap child labour being exploited by rapacious early capitalists were some of the cultural staples of the Industrial Revolution in England. More recently, child labour has been widely associated with poverty and seen as a sign of backwardness. Yet it is remarkably persistent and remains widespread in much of the developing world, including in the booming parts of the world economy. A 2003 survey by the International Labour Organisation suggested that there are 246 million child labourers (aged 14 years or less) in the world, and that as many as 180 million of them are engaged in hazardous activities that put them at direct physical risk. While this may be an overestimate, it should not be completely dismissed either. Allahabad, October 12. Within this, it is generally accepted that India has the largest number of child labourers in the world. The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) estimates that there are more than 35 million such children, accounting for 14 per cent of the children in the 5-14 age group. Other unofficial estimates are much higher, ranging between 60 and 125 million child labourers. Meanwhile, the Census data for 2001 suggest a much lower incidence, with 12.5 million child labourers identified.

C ss f a eo u


m ht f e Cl rnr o so d h ea u t e, i d e f r s f o. o o r m w k

n d r pp e f ar e eo o r d epe o cid e l m f h. vo n a l t

ORPHANSC hildren born out of wedlock, children with no : WILLINGNESS TO EXPLOIT CHILDREN is at : This the root of the problem E ven if a family is very poor, the incidence of child labour will be very low unless there are people willing to exploit these children. UNEMPLOYMENT OF ELDERS lders often find it :E

parents and relatives, often do not find anyone to support them. Thus they are forced to work for their own living.

difficult to get jobs. The industrialists and factory owners find it profitable to employ children. This is so because they can pay less and extract more work. They will also not create union problem.

Consequences Children..

Physical injuries and maintained machinery o accidents in plantations, encountered in industrie fireworks manufacture

Long-term health disease, asbestosis a common in countries work with dangerous HI V/ AI DS and oth diseases are rife amo forced into prostituti addiction and menta among child prostitu Exhaustion and m underdeveloped child labour, working long


National Policy on Initiatives in 1987 formulated towa  prohibition of child Child Labour hazardous occupati  Poverty being the m decided to generate  The government has mad  Child labor laws in India i supplementary nut and Regulation) ups so has according as to pr  Government mainstream school problem through strict en

with simultaneous rehabili

T H E C H IL (P r o h ib itio n

 


S e c tio-3 sh a l n

n o t b e less th a w h ich sh a ll n o

UNICEF in India

Children are rem resilient - bu fragile

© UN IC EF In di a A sc ho ol

“ So let us And shap

gir l pa rti cip at es in a cla ss.

UNICEF has been working in India since 1949. The largest UN organisation in the country,UNICEF

is fully committed to working with the Government of India to ensure that each child born in this vast and complex country gets the best start in life, thrives and develops to his or her full potential. The challenge is enormous but UNICEF is well placed to meet it. The organisation uses quality research and data to understand issues, implements new and innovative interventions that address the situation of children, and works with partners to bring those innovations to fruitition. What makes UNICEF unique in India is its network of 13 state offices. These enable the organisation to focus attention on the poorest and most disadvantaged communities, alongside its work at the national level. UNICEF uses its community-level knowledge to develop innovative interventions to ensure that women and children are able to access basic services such as clean water, health visitors and educational facilities, and that these services are of high quality. At the same time, UNICEF reaches out directly to families to help them to understand what they must do to ensure their children thrive. UNICEF also wants them to feel a sense of ownership of these services. That same knowledge and interface with communities enables the organisation to tackle issues that would otherwise be difficult to address: the complex factors that result in children working, or the growing threat that HIV/AIDS poses to children. UNICEF knows that key to addressing these challenges are its partnerships with sister UN agencies, voluntary organisations active at the community level, women’s groups and donors.

The organisation also works with an array of celebrities, including members of the Indian cricket team and leading actors from the Indian film industry, as well as hundreds of thousands of unnamed volunteers who tirelessly give their time and influence to ensure that, together, they are able to help every child realise his or her full potential. Celebrities Supporting UNICEF’s Work in India The overall goal of the 2008-2012 Country Programme is to advance the fulfilment of the rights of all women and children in India to survival, development, participation and protection... The Country Programme, 2008-2012 The overall goal of the 2008-2012 Country Programme is to advance the fulfilment of the rights of all women and children in India to survival, development, participation and protection...


Despite improvements over last 30 years health challenges for children in India remain. An increased effort is needed to ensure the necessary reduction in maternal, infant and young child mortality.

UNICEF supports the Government in its objectives to reduce and prevent malnutrition and to improve the development of children under three years old, especially those in marginalised groups.

Water, environment and sanitation

UNICEF supports the national and state governments in developing and implementing a range of replicable models for sanitation, hygiene and water supply.


As a part of the joint UN response and within the context of NACP-III, UNICEF collaborates with the Government of India and other partners in four key programme areas we call the four Ps.

The number of children who are not in school remains high and gender disparities in education persist despite a major improvement in literacy rates during the 1990s.

Child protection
UNICEF India’s programmatic approach to child protection aims to build a protective environment in which children can live and develop in the full respect of their fundamental rights.

Bottom of Form

Support UNICEF

For around six decades UNICEF, along with the Government and other partners, has worked in India to ensure that each child gets the best start in life, thrives and develops his or her full potential." Now the children need your help too. Donate on-line now Donate through SMS Now the donors in India can also donate through SMS.

"It's time to play a winning knock" Today, even as India is forging ahead, we have to lead from the front and take more responsibility for our children.

I urge you to join me and thousands of caring, enlightened Indians in contributing to UNICEF's programmes to support every child's health, nutrition, sanitation and education needsUNICEF in Emergencies UNICEF in Emergencies Since its inception, UNICEF’s mandate has involved a rapid response to humanitarian crises. Originally called the United Nations Children’s Emergency Fund, the organisation was created to provide humanitarian assistance to children living in a world shattered by the Second World War. Though emergencies have grown increasingly complex and their impacts ever more devastating, UNICEF remains dedicated to providing life-saving assistance to children affected by disasters, and to protecting their rights. UNICEF is guided in its emergency response by its Core Commitments for Children in Humanitarian Action (CCCs), which build on our experiences in recent crises and outline the core responses at all levels of the organisation. These include our initial response when an emergency breaks out as well as the timeframe for a sustained response in communities affected by an emergency. The first guiding principle of UNICEF’s humanitarian emergency response is that children in the midst of conflict or natural disaster have the same needs and rights as children in stable areas. UNICEF responds to Emergencies in India Over the last two decades, India has borne the brunt of several major natural disasters including the Latur Earthquake in 1993; the Orissa super-cyclone in October 1999, the Bhuj earthquake in January 2001, the Tsunami in December 2004, the earthquake in Jammu & Kashmir in October 2005, major flooding in Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Assam, Orissa, West Bengal and other states in 2007 and 2008, major avian flu outbreak in West Bengal and Kosi floods in Bihar in 2008.

In 2009, the eastern Indian State of West Bengal was hit by cyclone Aila which affected 6.8 million people and resulted in a loss of 138 human lives. In addition, a number of relatively smaller-scale emergencies, primarily floods, but also droughts, landslides, cholera and avian flu outbreaks have occurred. Tens of millions people are affected annually in India, most of them from the poorest strata of the population, a high proportion of whom are children. UNICEF in India is the UN agency with most effective field office network in the country, high credibility with the government, and capacity to make a significant contribution in emergencies by complementing the Government’s efforts. In most cases, UNICEF’s response complemented the government's efforts in providing urgently needed supplies with the ultimate purpose of preventing disease epidemics and saving lives, but UNICEF at the same time put an ever increasing emphasis on advocacy efforts with the government partners and all other stakeholders to ensure appropriate response to the needy affected population and fast resumption of essential social services. In 2009, UNICEF was a major humanitarian player in the country that complemented the governments' action. UNICEF provided support to the state governments to assist the victims of communal violence and displacement, programme communication support in tackling avian flu, and multi-sectoral support in dealing with major floods. UNICEF has been able to effectively respond to emergencies in India by complementing the government’s efforts. Notably, in recent years UNICEF has consistently been a major humanitarian player, providing immediate response to each crisis and assuming a great responsibility for the well-being of the affected. UNICEF’s role has been highly appreciated by the Government of India and other partners. UNICEF has been able to effectively respond to emergencies in India by complementing the government’s

efforts. Notably, in recent years UNICEF has consistently been a major humanitarian player, providing immediate response to each crisis and assuming a great responsibility for the well-being of the affected. UNICEF’s role has been highly appreciated by the Government of India and other partners. Most importantly, UNICEF’s interventions have contributed to the prevention of epidemics and to alleviating the adverse impact of disasters on the well-being of the most vulnerable among the communities affected, particularly the children. UNICEF and its Partners Prepare for Emergencies UNICEF works in collaboration with local and international partners, including governments, UN agencies, and civil society. These partnerships are crucial to ensuring comprehensive and effective delivery of humanitarian assistance. Key partners for UNICEF India include the Union Government’s National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), Sphere India Unified Response Strategy, RedR India, and the Indian Red Cross Society. With it’s network of 13 field offices covering 16 states in India – UNICEF has played a critical role in times of crisis by gathering information, conducting rapid assessments and providing a platform for the UNDMT to coordinate the UN system’s response in areas where it has a presence. While UNICEF is ready to respond to a humanitarian crisis anywhere in India, emergency preparedness efforts are primarily focused on disaster-prone states. The principal goal of UNICEF’s Emergency Preparedness and Response Programme in India has been to ensure the fulfillment of the rights of children and women in humanitarian crises. UNICEF’s current response capacity owes a great deal to its preparedness arrangements which include Emergency Preparedness and Response Plans (EPRPs) in each office; prepositioning of essential emergency items in disaster-prone states;

institutional partnerships with key organisations which allows for improved coordination, emergency training and capacity building, and rapid deployment of pre-screened consultants, etc. UNICEF Contributes to Disaster Risk Reduction In line with the government’s strategic policy shift from response to preparedness, UNICEF has also adopted a gradual shift in its programme priorities. While maintaining its readiness to ensure fulfillment of its responsibilities as per the Core Commitments for Children, UNICEF has initiated various disaster management interventions. The key concept is promotion of Community-based Disaster Risk Reduction (CBDRR) activities in selected vulnerable areas of West Bengal, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Assam. Limited in scope, but successful experiences in CBDRR interventions in several states have proven to help build the capacities of vulnerable communities to prepare for, respond to and recover from the impacts of disasters.UNICEF has been able to effectively respond to emergencies in India by complementing the government’s efforts. Notably, in recent years UNICEF has consistently been a major humanitarian player, providing immediate response to each crisis and assuming a great responsibility for the well-being of the affected. UNICEF’s role has been highly appreciated by the Government of India and other partners.


Over all conclusion is that child labour in developing country is a very critical position behind this lots of reason we mentioned on above report. so it’s a very necessary that government and public both work on this issues.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful