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“Spent the winter at Jockey Hollow, and … washed together while there …”

American Revolution Army Women Names Project
Continental Army

John U. Rees, editor
____________

An effort to provide biographies of the "nameless" women who followed the armies of the
War for American Independence. (43)
Names Project: Purpose, Methodology, and Contributions

The aim of this project is to compile names and biographies of women attached to the military forces
of the War for American Independence, 1775 to 1783; Whig (Continental), French, Spanish, British,
German, and Loyalists. This includes females (and their offspring) who followed the troops on campaign,
or served in a camp, garrison, or other settled military post (including artificers and other military support
groups). Spouses and retainers of both enlisted men and officers are eligible. The project will begin with
Continental army and Whig militia female followers. Eventually, my hope is to convince people with
special knowledge of the other nations’ armies involved to participate.
Material may be sent to the editor at ju_rees@msn.com or via Facebook messaging (John U. Rees).
Names must be accompanied by supporting source material and a transcription of the same. Please
include available pension narratives and as much detail from other sources as is available. Contributors
will be listed with their submissions. Appended is the recommended structure for entries (formulated by
Eliza West, revised by John Rees):

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BASIC FACTS
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army:
Date of death:
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s):
Names and birthdates of children:

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.):
Campaigns:
Garrison locations:
Battles participated in/observed:
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment:

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
_______________________________________

An invaluable resource for Revolutionary soldiers’ narratives are the transcribed, annotated, and
fully searchable pension depositions made available by Will Graves and C. Leon Harris on
Southern Campaign Revolutionary War Pension Statements & Rosters (World Wide Web,
http://www.southerncampaign.org/pen/ ).

Other works used for this article:

Holly A. Mayer, Belonging to the Army: Camp Followers and Community during the American
Revolution (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1996)

E.M. Sanchez-Saavedra, A Guide to Virginia Military Organizations in the American Revolution,
1774-1787 (Richmond: Virginia State Library, 1978)

Francis B. Heitman, Historical Register of Officers of the Continental Army During the War of the
Revolution – April, 1775, to December, 1783, New, Revised, and Enlarged Edition (Washington, D.C.:
The Rare Book Publishing Company, Inc., 1914)
_______________________________________

There are many people I owe thanks for assisting me with, and serving as inspirations for, this
compendium; not wishing to leave anyone out in a longer list, I will mention two. Eliza West
provided the impetus for this project and is one of the younger generation doing wonderful work
and pushing me to view old subjects from new angles. Carrie Fellows is a treasured friend, who
has long helped me appreciate the practical day-to-day experiences of 18th century soldiers and
female followers.

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Contents

Wives/Consorts of Enlisted Men or Army Craftsmen (Artificers)
Miss Austin, 5th New York (Sullivan’s Campaign 1779)
Mrs. Canby and child, 4th New York (Sullivan’s Campaign 1779)
Mrs. Elihu Cary, Col. Jeduthan Baldwin’s Regiment of Artificers (1780-1781)
Miss Clinton, 5th New York (Sullivan’s Campaign 1779)
Jane Collins, 22 years old in 1780; Virginia State Artillery Regiment (April to September 1780)
Mrs. Cothal, 4th New York (Sullivan’s Campaign 1779)
Mrs. Cregier, Continental artificers (1782)
Maria Cronkite (nee Humphrey), 32 years old in 1777; 1st New York (1777-1783)
Mrs. Moses Dean, Col. Jeduthan Baldwin’s Regiment of Artificers (1780-1781)
Anna [Hannah] Martha Elmore/Ellmore/Ilmer, 20 years old in 1777; possibly 11th
Pennsylvania/Armand’s Legion/ 1st Partisan Corps (tentative unit identifications based on pension
information, possibly transferred to 4th or 1st Continental Light Dragoons) (1777-1783) Steve Rayner,
contributor.
Elizabeth Evans, 3d New Jersey (1777)
Mary Geyer/Gier, 13th Pennsylvania Regiment/Pennsylvania State Regiment (1776-1778)
Mrs. Hezekiah Gibson/Gillson, Col. Jeduthan Baldwin’s Regiment of Artificers (1780-1781)
Eleanor Gosnell (Kramer), 16 years old in 1780; Pennsylvania State Regiment/2d Pennsylvania (1780)
Suzannah Grier, Hendricks’ Pennsylvania Rifle Company (1775)
Miss Haburn, 3d New York (Sullivan’s Campaign 1779)
Margaret /Higgins/Higgons, Virginia militia (year uncertain, 1780, 1781, or 1782)
Miss Jackson, 3d New York (Sullivan’s Campaign 1779)
Margaret Johnson, 22 years old in 1777; 3d New Jersey (1777)
Mary Johnson, 2d Virginia Regiment, 1777-1778
Eliza Kingsbury and children (unit unknown, 1777-1779) Eliza West, contributor.
Lena Kime, 5th Pennsylvania Regiment (1777)
Mrs. Lambertson, 2d New York (Sullivan’s Campaign 1779)
Mrs. Lloyd, Continental artificers (1782)
Christianna McCune, 14 years old in 1781; 9th Virginia Regiment (1781) Steve Rayner, contributor.
Ann McIntire, 2d Virginia Regiment, 1777-1778
Ann Nice, 23 years old in 1779; unknown Pennsylvania regiment (1779-1780) Steve Rayner, contributor.
Sarah Osborn, 37 years old in 1781; 3d New York (1781-1783)
Mrs. Parker, 3d New York (Sullivan’s Campaign 1779)
Sarah Parsell, Continental artificers (1782)
Mrs. Penojer, 4th New York (Sullivan’s Campaign 1779)
Elizabeth Robeson, 1st New York Regiment (1777-1778) Steve Rayner, contributor.
Rosanna Shelley, Armand’s Legion (1777-1783?) C. Leon Harris, contributor.
Miss Sherlock. 3d New York
Miss Smith and child, 4th New York (Sullivan’s Campaign 1779)
Miss Smith & 2 children, 2d New York (Sullivan’s Campaign 1779)
Hannah Thomas, Quartermaster General’s department (October 1780)
Dorcas Towers/Henderson (née Godfry), 16 years old in 1777; 1st Virginia Regiment, 1777-1778 Steve
Rayner, contributor.
Jemima Warner, Hendricks’ Pennsylvania Rifle Company (1775)
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Miss Weymyre, 5th New York (Sullivan’s Campaign 1779)
Catherine Wilson, 12th Pennsylania (New Jersey Campaign, 1777) Cat Tannenbaum Schirf, contributor.

Officers’ Wives and Nurses
Elizabeth Brewer, nurse and spy (April-June 1777)
Margaret Jane Peale Ramsey, 33 years old in 1776; Smallwood’s Maryland Regiment and 3d Maryland
Regiment (1776, 1778) Matthew C. White, contributor.
_______________________________________

Afterward
1. Women in Hospital as Nurses and Patients
2. Names Not Added to the List of Female Followers

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Wives/Consorts of Enlisted Men or Army Craftsmen (Artificers)

Miss Austin, 5th New York (Sullivan’s Campaign 1779)
Colonel Israel Shreve, 2nd New Jersey Regiment, was left with 250 men to the fort while Sullivan's united force
moved on into western New York. On 24 August Shreve was instructed, “It will ... be absolutely necessary to
send most of the Women and Children [by boat] to Wyoming, returning only such as may be applied to the use
of the Hospital, or may be deem'd necessary to keep the Soldier's clean at their Return. You will give orders to
the Commissary at Wyoming [Pennsylvania] to issue Rations to those Women & Children.”
BASIC FACTS
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army:?
Date of death: ?
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): possibly Holms Austin (private)
Names and birthdates of children: ?

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): Johnson’s company, 5th New York Regiment
Campaigns: 1779 campaign against the Iroquois
Garrison locations: Fort Sullivan, Tioga.
Battles participated in/observed: none
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: (known) May to October 1779
Pvt. Holms Austin, service in the 5th New York: (Compiled Service Records, National Archives), enlisted 1 August
1777; New Windsor, January 1778; in hospital February 1778; “on Command [detached duty] at Purcepsy
[Poughkeepsie]” May 1778; “On Commd at Bedford” June 1778; White Plains, New York July/August 1778; on
command at Norwalk September /October1778; Schoharie November 1778 to February 1779; on command at Fort
Fisher March/April 1779; Canajoharie, May/June 1779; Morristown winter camp 1779/1780; on furlough 29 December
1779, returned March 1780; West Point, New York May/June 1780; “Transfer’d from the 4 Coy July 20 [1780] on
Comd. Light Infy”; camp at Steenrapie July/August 1780; Schenecdaty September to December 1780; no further
information.

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
"A Return of the Women & Children Left in Charge of Baggage, Necessary to wash for Genl Clintons Brigade",
probably August 1779, Israel Shreve Papers, Rutgers University, Alexander Library, manuscript no. 287.

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
“The New York Brigade under Brig. Gen. James Clinton was to assemble at Canajoharie on the Mohawk River.
Clinton's force would then move southwest through New York, destroying whatever Indian villages were in its path.
Upon linking up with Gen. Sullivan at Tioga (now the town of Athens, on the Pennsylvania-New York border), the
combined force would move into the heart of Six Nations' land. The expedition was supposed to begin in May, but
was held up due to a lack of supplies and the need to construct military roads through the wilderness areas. This
delay would end up working to the Americans' advantage as it helped to convince the British that the Americans
were not planning any significant actions against the Six Nations.”
https://www.nps.gov/fost/learn/historyculture/the-western-expedition-against-the-six-nations-1779.htm

“In 1779 Gen. George Washington's main army was in New Jersey and eastern New York covering British forces
occupying New York City. During that summer detachments under Major General John Sullivan and Brigadier General
James Clinton were sent into Pennsylvania and Western New York to suppress the Iroquois. Clinton’s column coalesced
at Lake Otsego (present-day Cooperstown, New York), where a fleet of bateaux was prepared. The soldiers built a dam
at the lake’s southern end which, when breached, floated General Clinton’s force down the Susquehanna River towards the
Indian town of Tioga. In the meantime Sullivan’s troops marched up the Susquehanna from Lake Otsego to rendezvous with
Clinton at Tioga, at the junction of the Susquehanna and Chemung rivers. The two columns met at Tioga on 22 August and
built a small work called Fort Sullivan.5 Before moving north General Sullivan decided that as
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the Troops should Move as light as possible, the Officers are requested to leave at the Garrison
all the Baggage they can possibly spare. All the Women & Children to be left at this place ...6

Colonel Israel Shreve, 2nd New Jersey Regiment, was left with 250 men to the fort while Sullivan's united force moved
on into western New York. On 24 August Shreve was instructed:

It will ... be absolutely necessary to send most of the Women and Children [by boat] to
Wyoming, returning only such as may be applied to the use of the Hospital, or may be deem'd
necessary to keep the Soldier's clean at their Return. You will give orders to the Commissary at
Wyoming [Pennsylvania] to issue Rations to those Women & Children.7

A "Return of the Women & Children Left in Charge of Baggage, Necessary to wash for Genl Clintons Brigade", lists
some of the followers left at Fort Sullivan:8

2nd New York 3rd New York
Miss Smith & 2 children Mrs. Parker
Mrs. Lambertson Miss Sherlock
Miss Haburn
Miss Jackson

4th New York 5th New York
Mrs. Cothal Miss Weymyre
Miss Smith & child Miss Clinton
Mrs. Canby & child Miss Austin
Mrs. Penojer

Some inferences can be drawn from this return, one of which is that it seems to have been acceptable for unmarried
women to be attached to a military organization. In addition, two of the women in the roster may have had children out
of wedlock, though these, of course, could simply have been someone else's children put under their charge. These
women would have been the mothers, sisters, wives, daughters or consorts of non-commissioned officers or privates. A
study of the muster rolls brings forth various enlisted men the aforesaid followers probably had some relation to.9

2nd New York 3rd New York
Sgt. John Smith, 4th Co. Pvt. Edward Parker, Colonel’s Co.
Sgt. Simon Lambertson, 7th Co. Pvt. John Sherlock, Aorson's Co.
Sgt. William Haburn, Tiebout's Co.

4th New York 5th New York
Pvt. Richard Cottril, Fowler’s Co. Pvt. Frederick Wemire, Godwin’s Co.
Pvt. James Cambee, Walker’s Co. Pvt. John Clinton, Hamtramck’s Co.
Fifer Jesse Penoyer, Titus’ Co. Pvt. Holms Austin, Johnson’s Co.
Sgt. Josiah Smith, Titus' Co.

There are at least six other Smiths in the 4th New York, all privates. "Miss Smith & child" could have been attached to
any one of them.
Using the returns of the soldiers and washerwomen with the New York regiments in 1779 it is possible to determine
the proportions of women "deem'd necessary to keep the Soldier's clean at their Return."10

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Officers &
Enlisted Men Ratio of Washerwomen
2nd N.Y. 248 2 women 1 for every 124 men
3rd N.Y. 435 4 women 1 for every 109 men
4th N.Y. 327 4 women 1 for every 82 men
5th N.Y. 374 3 women 1 for every 125 men

As can be seen, the workload for these women must have been heavy when Clinton's Brigade finally returned to the
post at Tioga at the end of September 1779; of course some soldiers reported their clothes were tattered and torn beyond
use; washing them may have been a moot point. The proportion of washerwomen to soldiers in this case can be
compared to several other instances. In June 1776 a return of Captain Joseph Bloomfield's company of the 3rd New
Jersey Regiment listed seventy-one enlisted men and three "Washer-Women", giving a ratio of one woman to
twenty-four soldiers. In sharp contrast to these numbers was the proportion used in Colonel John Lamb's Artillery
Regiment in September of 1780; "one Woman to Wash for ten." A final comparison is the number of "Wash Women" in
the 9th Massachusetts Regiment over a period of three and a half months during the summer of 1782. The approximate
average for those months was one laundress for every thirty-five enlisted men.11
6.General orders, 23 August 1779, Orderly book of Col. Oliver Spencer's Regt., 27 July 1779 - 28 September 1779,
Early American Orderly Books, 1748-1817, Collections of the New York Historical Society, microfilm edition,
(Woodbridge, N.J., 1977), Reel 9, item 93, pp. 86-87 (hereafter cited as Early American Orderly Books).
7. John Sullivan to Israel Shreve, 24 August 1779, Otis G. Hammond, ed., Letters and Papers of Major-General John
Sullivan Continental Army, vol. III (Concord, N.H., 1939), pp. 101-103.
8. "A Return of the Women & Children Left in Charge of Baggage, Necessary to wash for Genl Clintons Brigade",
probably August 1779, Israel Shreve Papers, Rutgers University, Alexander Library, manuscript no. 287.
9. New York muster rolls, Continental regiments, 1779, Revolutionary War Rolls, reels 68-72.
10. Strength returns of the Continental Army, July and October 1779, Lesser, Sinews, pp. 124-125, 136-137. For an
approximation of the total number of troops on the expedition see Mark M. Boatner III, Encyclopedia of the American
Revolution (New York, 1966), p. 1072. Journal of Rev. William Rogers, 28 August 1779, Journal of Lt. Rudolphus Van
Hovenburgh, 23 August 1779, Frederick Cook, ed., Journals of the Military Expedition of Major General John Sullivan
Against the Six Nations of Indians in 1779 (Auburn, N.Y., 1887), pp. 265, 278 (hereafter cited as Cook, Journals of
Sullivan's Expedition). Rogers gives an account of the number of people residing at the camp at Fort Sullivan after the
army left and prior to the departure of the extraneous personnel downriver. It is important to note that the primary
garrison itself consisted of "two hundred and fifty men properly officered" while the other persons left behind by the
army consisted of "the Invelade[s] & the weomen." Roger's account of August 28, 1779 stated that "there are in the
garrison about twelve hundred souls, men, women and children included ..."
There is no known account of the exact number of sick left behind at the fort. A vague determination may be made,
however, by examining the number of sick in the involved regiments in July and October of 1779, just prior to and
immediately following the expedition. The total of the sick, both present and absent, for the October return has been
used, with some minor additions from the July return where information is lacking. Only the number of sick in the
following regiments were available for the total: 1st, 2nd and 3rd New Jersey; Spencer's Additional; 1st, 2nd and 3rd
New Hampshire; 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th New York; 4th and 11th Pennsylvania; the 6th Massachusetts and the July return
for the German Battalion.
The total number of sick for October 1779 was 661. This total was increased by another 100 for an adjusted total of
761. This adjustment roughly allows for the numbers of sick in the artillery and other miscellaneous detachments for
which returns are not available. Hopefully this will also allow for the increased occurrence of sickness and accidental
injury due to the arduous nature of the campaign.
A rough estimate of the numbers of women and children would be as follows:

1200 men, women and children (Roger's estimate)
- 300 soldiers of the fort's garrison (including officers)
- 761 sick
139 total women and children with the troops

This final number is not much more than an educated guess but it gives some idea of the numbers of distaff and their
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offspring which accompanied the troops on Sullivan's expedition. It is interesting to note that the figure of 139 women
and children amounts to 3.5 percent of the 4,000 soldiers under Sullivan's command at Tioga. This percentage agrees
with the percentages calculated for the 1781 and 1783 main army returns which can be found in the body of this
article under the sections entitled 1781 "... the women with the army who draw provisions" and
1783 "The proportion of Women which ought to be allowed ..."
11. Strength return of the Continental Army, July 1779, Lesser, Sinews, pp. 124-125. Cook, Journals, p. 134. Mark E.
Lender and James Kirby Martin, eds., Citizen-Soldier; The Revolutionary War Journal of Joseph Bloomfield (Newark,
N.J. 1982) p. 87. H.A. Mayer, Belonging to the Army: Camp followers and the Military Community during the
American Revolution, PH.D. dissertation, College of William and Mary, 1990, pp. 193-194. Provision and regimental
strength returns of Jackson's 9th Massachusetts Regiment, Henry Jackson Papers, 1772-1782, Library of Congress,
microfilm edition, no. 17,359, vol. 4, pp. 379-443).
From: John U. Rees,"`The multitude of women': An Examination of the Numbers of Female Camp Followers with
the Continental Army"
1777 and 1780: A Common Thread?
1776 to 1782: “Necessary to keep the Soldier's clean"
1781: "Their Wives all of whom ... Remained" - Women on Campaign With the Army
1781: "The women with the army who draw provisions"
1782: "Rations ... Without Whiskey" - Colonel Henry Jackson's Regimental Provision Returns
1783: "The proportion of Women which ought to be allowed ..."
The Brigade Dispatch (Journal of the Brigade of the American Revolution), three parts: vol. XXIII, no. 4 (Autumn
1992), 5-17; vol. XXIV, no. 1 (Winter 1993), 6-16; vol. XXIV, no. 2 (Spring 1993), 2-6 (Reprinted in Minerva:
Quarterly Report on Women and the Military, vol. XIV, no. 2 (Summer 1996)).
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/wnumb1.htm

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“Aug. 11 [1779] … At 7 o’clock this morning the army marched and crossed the Susquehanna
… after crossing we passed a swamp, a small distance through, and then entered a beautiful
plane. This place is called Tioga, from the middle of which we crossed over the Tioga branch,
to a point of land … on this point the army incamped … About a mile further up the two
rivers approach each other, within a little more than a hundred yards, and, is the place which
we expect will be fortified, to cover our boats until we return.” Capt. Charles Nukerck’s map
showing Fort Sullivan and the camp on Tioga Point. Journal of Dr. Jabez Campfield,
Spencer’s Additional Regt., Journals of the Military Expedition of Major General John
Sullivan Against the Six Nations of Indians in 1779 (Glendale, N.Y.: Benchmark Publishing
Company, Inc., 1970), 54. Map of Tioga Point on endplate following page 329.

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“The fort was called Fort Sullivan; it was nearly four square, about 90 yards one way and a
little under the other way, and was built by digging a trench 2 ½ feet deep, and placing
upright logs in the trench about twelve feet high, leaving two or three gateways.” Hand-
drawn map of Fort Sullivan at Tioga, ca. Aug.-Oct. 1779, Israel Shreve Revolutionary War
Letters (Box 1, Folder 17), Courtesy of Special Collections, University of Houston libraries.
"Personal Narrative of the Services of Lieut. John Shreve of the New Jersey Line of the
Continental Army", Magazine of American History, vol. 3, part 2 (New York and Chicago:
A.S, Barnes & Co., 1879), 569-570.

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Aerial photo showing Tioga Point, looking towards the south. The town of Athens, Pa., is in
the foreground, and the narrow neck where Fort Sullivan was built is just above that. At
the top of the photo is the broad flat where Sullivan’s troops camped. It is still, today, open
farmland in private hands. Photo courtesy of Henry J. Retzer.
=================================

Mrs. Canby and child, 4th New York
Colonel Israel Shreve, 2nd New Jersey Regiment, was left with 250 men to the fort while Sullivan's united force
moved on into western New York. On 24 August Shreve was instructed, “It will ... be absolutely necessary to
send most of the Women and Children [by boat] to Wyoming, returning only such as may be applied to the use
of the Hospital, or may be deem'd necessary to keep the Soldier's clean at their Return. You will give orders to
the Commissary at Wyoming [Pennsylvania] to issue Rations to those Women & Children.”
BASIC FACTS
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army:?
Date of death: ?
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): James Cambee (private)
Names and birthdates of children: ?

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): Walker’s company, 4th New York Regiment
Campaigns: 1779 campaign against the Iroquois
Garrison locations: Fort Sullivan, Tioga.
Battles participated in/observed: none
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: (known) May to October 1779
Pvt. James Cambee, service in the 4th New York: (Compiled Service Records, National Archives), enlisted December
1776; reduced from corporal to private August 1777; camp near Loudon’s Ferry on the Mohawk River January to
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September 1777; Valley Forge winter camp December 1777 to June 1778; “sick in Jersies” July 1778; “sick in Flying
Hospital” August/September 1778; Peekskill September 1778; camp at Continental Village October 1778; Johnstown
November to February 1778; Fort Plank March/April 1779; Canajoharie, May/June 1779; Morristown winter camp
1779/1780; West Point, New York May to June 1780; camp at Steenrapie July/August 1780; Fort Schuyler September
to December 1780.

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
"A Return of the Women & Children Left in Charge of Baggage, Necessary to wash for Genl Clintons Brigade",
probably August 1779, Israel Shreve Papers, Rutgers University, Alexander Library, manuscript no. 287.

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
See Miss Austin, 5th New York (Sullivan’s Campaign 1779)
=================================

Mrs. Elihu Cary, wife/consort of an artificer at Fishkill, New York, 1780-1781
“The Q MGenl. Having agreed, in consideration of the Wives of Hezekiah Gibson & Elihu Cary, cooking
each, for a mess of Artificiers, which superseded the necessity of two men being employed on that Business,
that one Ration should be allow’d, daily, to each of those Women.”
BASIC FACTS
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army: ?
Date of death: ?
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): Elihu Cary
Names and birthdates of children: ?

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): Col. Jeduthan Baldwin’s Regiment of Artificers
Campaigns: none
Garrison locations: Fishkill, New York
Battles participated in/observed: none
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: 1780-1781

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
Timothy Pickering to Alexander Hamilton, Newburgh, 2 February 1781, Numbered Record Books Concerning Military
Operations and Service, Pay and Settlement Accounts, and Supplies in the War Department Collection of Revolutionary
War Records (National Archives Microfilm Publication M853, reel 25, vol. 124), Record Group 93, NA.
Holly A. Mayer, Belonging to the Army: Camp Followers and Community during the American Revolution (Columbia:
University of South Carolina Press, 1996), 131-132.

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
In “February [1781 Timothy Pickering] wrote Colonel Alexander Hamilton, one of Washington’s aides-de-camp, for
advice on provisioning the destitute families of two men, Moses Dean and Hezekiah Gibson (or Gillson), in Colonel
Baldwin’s Regiment of Artificers. Pickering filled pages with his distress:

A daughter of Gillson Lives with Mrs. Pickering; a little wanderer, a perfect stranger. Some time since she
came unasked when told by one of the Servants to go home, she replied ‘her mother had nothing for her to
eat.’ Dean informs me that he has two other Sons (besides those now in the Artillery) who have served as
Soldiers for three years. I enquired of both how they had subsisted their families in time past. they replied,
that they had sold every thing they had brought with them … even to their very Clothes: and that during the
last summer, & untill Arnold’s Flight, they had been allowed to draw three Rations each for their families.
They said that Genl. Poor at first, afterwards Genl. Arnold, gave orders for those Issues, which the
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Commissary had stopp’d since Arnold’s flight. Dean first requested a similar order: but it appeared to me
improper that public Officers … should at their option become discretionary Almoners for the public. It
would open a Door for innumerable Abuses. Too many irregularities of the Kind have already been
practised. Yet the forlorn Condition of these poor men demands Relief. But they are not alone. Hundreds of
Soldiers Families are also distress’d. What is granted to one should not be denied to another in like
Circumstances … I am clear it will be better to discharge Dean & Gibson than give them four daily Rations.
But if we begin to discharge Soldiers to relieve their distress’d familes, where shall we stop? … As Cases
similar to the above must frequently have fallen under your Notice, I beg you will inform me what order has
usually been taken concerning them.

Hamilton replied that ‘the situation of the two artificers can only be pitied not redressed. The families of men in
the service cannot be the object of military provision, and it will be impossible to discriminate. This is the General’s
sentiment and has governed in all former application of the same kind.’ Pickering apparently did not accept that as
the only way to deal with the problem. In a letter to an assistant commissary of issues at Fishkill Landing, Richard
Platt, a deputy quartermaster, wrote, ‘The Q MGenl. Having agreed, in consideration of the Wives of Hezekiah
Gibson & Elihu Cary, cooking each, for a mess of Artificiers, which superseded the necessity of two men being
employed on that Business, that one Ration should be allow’d, daily, to each of those Women.’ There was no
mention of Dean and his family, but Pickering probably found a way to help them, too.”
Holly A. Mayer, Belonging to the Army: Camp Followers and Community during the American Revolution (Columbia:
University of South Carolina Press, 1996), 131-132.
=================================

Miss Clinton, 5th New York
Colonel Israel Shreve, 2nd New Jersey Regiment, was left with 250 men to the fort while Sullivan's united force
moved on into western New York. On 24 August Shreve was instructed, “It will ... be absolutely necessary to
send most of the Women and Children [by boat] to Wyoming, returning only such as may be applied to the use
of the Hospital, or may be deem'd necessary to keep the Soldier's clean at their Return. You will give orders to
the Commissary at Wyoming [Pennsylvania] to issue Rations to those Women & Children.”
BASIC FACTS
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army:?
Date of death: ?
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): John Clinton (private)
Names and birthdates of children: ?

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): Hamtramck’s company, 5th New York Regiment
Campaigns: 1779 campaign against the Iroquois
Garrison locations: Fort Sullivan, Tioga.
Battles participated in/observed: none
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: (known) May to October 1779
Pvt. John Clinton, service in 5th New York: (Compiled Service Records, National Archives), enlisted May 1779 nine
months levy; camp at Canajoharie, May/June 1779; “Camp Wick Farm” near Morristown October to December 1779;
discharged 1 January 1780.

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
"A Return of the Women & Children Left in Charge of Baggage, Necessary to wash for Genl Clintons Brigade",
probably August 1779, Israel Shreve Papers, Rutgers University, Alexander Library, manuscript no. 287.

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
See Miss Austin, 5th New York (Sullivan’s Campaign 1779)
=================================
13
Emma Cross and Jenny Lynn as followers of the Delaware Regiment, 1781. Cowpens Battlefield,
January 2018.

14
=================================

Jane Collins, Virginia State Artillery Regiment
“my … husband enlisted into the service of the united states in the month of September 1777 and left
the service in the month of September 1780 after having served his full time of of enlistment of three
years and I was married to my said husband John Collins in the month of april 1780 and went with
him immediately after our marriage into the service and remained with him in the service until he had
served his full term of enlistment of three when the army was ordered to the South my husband John
Collins was commanded by Captain William Spiller Captain Pannel remaining or being ordered
elsewhere and I was at Gates’s defeat with my husband [defeat of Gen. Horatio Gates at the Battle of
Camden SC, 16 Aug 1780; see endnote] and who remained in the service five or six months after I was
married to him I mean the regular service but was several times in the malitia service after he left the
regular service …”
BASIC FACTS
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army: 4 September 1757 (22 years old in April 1780)
Date of death: ?
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): John Collins (married April 1780)
Names and birthdates of children: ?

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): Capt. David Pennell’s company, Virginia State Artillery Regiment
Campaigns: 1780 Southern campaign
Garrison locations: none
Battles participated in/observed: Camden, 16 August 1780
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: April to September 1780

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
Pension papers of John Collins, Virginia State Artillery Regiment, 1777-1780 (W6736), Revolutionary War Pension
and Bounty - Land - Warrant Application Files, National Archives Microfilm Publication M804. Transcribed and
annotated by C. Leon Harris, “Southern Campaign Revolutionary War Pension Statements” http://revwarapps.org
E.M. Sanchez-Saavedra, A Guide to Virginia Military Organizations in the American Revolution, 1774-1787
(Richmond: Virginia State Library, 1978), 124-125.

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
Pension Application of John Collins W6736 Jane Collins VA
Transcribed and annotated by C. Leon Harris
Declaration
In order to obtain the benefits of the third section of the act of Congress of the fourth of July 1836 — State
of Virginia King William County, On this 30th day of June 1837, personally appeared before me James
Johnson a justice of the peace for the County of King William and State of Virginia, Jane Collins a resident
of the County of King William aged eighty years on the 4 day of September next who being first duly
sworn according to law doth on her oath make the following declaration in order to obtain the benefit of
the provision made by the act of Congress passed July the 4 1836. That she Jane Collins is the Widow of
John Collins who was a regularly enlisted soldier for three years in the army of the united stats during the
the revolutionary war which enlistment for three years my deceased husband the said John Collins
faithfully served. That my said husband John Collins enlisted into the service of the united states and
revolutionary war under Captain David Pannel [sic: David Pennell] of King William County as a common
soldier and marched from King William Courthouse where he enlisted to york town under Captain
David Panel and Col Elias Edmunds my said deceased husband enlisted into the service of the united
states in the month of September 1777 and left the service in the month of September 1780 after after
having served his full time of enlistment of three years and I was married to my said husband John

15
Collins in the month of april 1780 and went with him immediately after our marriage into the service and
remained with him in the service until he had served his full term of enlistment of three when the army
was ordered to the South my husband John Collins was commanded by Captain William Spiller Captain
Pannel remaining or being ordered elsewhere and I was at Gates’s defeat with my husband [defeat of
Gen. Horatio Gates at the Battle of Camden SC, 16 Aug 1780; see endnote] and who remained in the
service five or six months after I was married to him I mean the regular service but was several times
in
the malitia service after he left the regular service I was lawfully married to my deceased husband in
Williamsburg by parson Bracken [possibly Kracken] a regularly ordained minister of the Gospel in the
month of april 1780 but on what day of the month we were married I do not now recollect, but positively
know, that we were married between five and six months before he left the regular service. My said
deceased husband John Collins was born, and raised, and lived in the County of King William to the day
of his death. He died in the year 1822 of a rupture which was brought on him during his regular service
in the revolutionary army of the united states by excessive fatigue hard marching, &c &c. I further
declare that I have never maried and am now the widow of the said John Collins deceased, as will more
fully appear by reference to the proof hereto annexed. Jane herXmark Collins
___________________
[Mason Collins, pension application S39355, certified the above declaration in similar words. On 1 Sep
1837 he made another supporting declaration in which he stated that the name of Jane Collins before her
marriage was Jane Richeson. In the same document part of the surname is lined through, making the
name Jane Rich. See also the more detailed statement by Mason Collins below.]
This is to Certify, That it appears from a List in this Office of such Officers and Soldiers of the
Virginia State Line, during the Revolutionary War, as settled their Accounts, and received Certificates for
the balance of their Full Pay, according to an Act of Assembly, passed the November Session, 1781, that a
Certificate issued on the 13th day of June 1783, in the name of John Collins as a Soldier of Artillery for
£70.9.6, which Certificate appears to have been delivered to himself and was given for services prior to
the 1st January, 1782.
Given under my hand at the Auditor’s Office, Richmond, this 5th day of October, 1838.
A. W. Morton/ AUDITOR absent
___________________
State of Virginia King William
The affidavit of Jane Collins, widow of John Collins deceased, an old revolutionary soldier, aged eighty
three years, who after being first duly sworn according to law, doth say, that she was lawfully married
to
the said John Collins dec’d in Williamsburg, in the state of Virginia, in the month of april 1780, and
that
soon after her marriage, she went with her husband, the said John Collins to Hillsborough [NC], and
from there she went with her husband, and was in the camp with him at Gates’s defeat, and some
short
time thereafter, she came on to Richmond through Petersburg, and from thence she came on to King
William County, where she has lived ever since, to this day further this affiant saith not. Given under
my
hand and seal this 9 day of January 1840— Jane herXmark Collins
State of Virginia King William County ss.
The affidavit of Mason Collins an old revolutionary soldier, resident of the aforesaid County, aged 81
years, who after being first duly sworn according to law, doth on his oath say, that he was intimately
acquainted with John Collins a revolutionary soldier, and husband of the widow of Jane Collins who is
now alive and is still a resident of King William County, where she has always lived ever since the
revolutionary war. This affiant further saith that he himself was at Gates’s defeat, and perfectly recollets
to have seen the said John Collins and Jane his widow there, both before and after the battle, and that
some short time after Gates’s defeat, they the said John Collins and Jane his thin [sic] wife came on
through Petersburg to Richmond City, in Virginia and from thence to King William County in Virginia,
from wence they wint; they the said John Collins and Jane his now widow were lawfully married in
16
Williamsburg in april 1780 and lived together as man and wife until his the said John Collins’s death.
further this affiant saith not. Given under my hand and seal this 9 day of January 1840—
Mason hisXmark Collins
___________________

State of Virginia City of Richmond Ss.
On this 31st day of July 1844 personally appeared before me the subscriber Mrs Jane Hargrove a
resident of the County of Henrico, who being first duly sworn according to law, doth on her oath state,
that she was well acquainted with John Collins who it was computed and beleaved intermarried with
Jane Harn; that the said John Collins and his wife Jane were members of the Baptist church and that the
said John was in the habit of praying and exorting in publick and that she well recollects of seeing them
together, the said John & Jane as man and wife at publick meeting’s immediately after the close of the
Revolutionary war, and before this affiant was married. She also declares that she allways understood
and beleaves that the said John Collins entered the service in the war of the revolution as a soldier and
during his service the said Jane Collins was with her husband the said John Collins some time and
washed for the officers. The declarant cannot state the officers under whom the said John Collins served,
but heard and beleaves that he served several years in the war of the Revolution; That when he the said
John Collins returned home from his service in the war of the Revolution he lived with his wife Jane in
the immediate neighbourhood of this affiant for many years, and continued his religious exercises in
publick. This affiant also states that she has frequently heard the said Jane Collins who was in the habit of
visiting this affiant, frequently for many years, speak of circumstances that happened while her husband
the said John Collins was in the service of the war of the revolution. She further states that she was not at
the marriage nor can she assert with sertainty the year their marriage took place further than they were
married some eight or ten years before this affiant was married. She also saith that she frequently heard
the said John Collins relate the circumstances of his wife Jane being with him in the service in the
revolutionary war, and that the said John Collins died some years since a consistant member of the
Baptist church. This affiant further states that she was married in the year 1788 to Billy Hargrove who was
a Baptist preacher and lived in the immediate neighbourhood of John Collins and his wife Jane for many
years after she was married, and further she saith not. Jane herXmark Hargrove
NOTES:
Jane Collins may have been one of the camp followers who remained camped at Mask’s Ferry on
Pee Dee River during the Battle of Camden.
In his pension application, Mason Collins described himself as “an illiterate Mulatto.”
Jane Collins is referred to in other documents in the file as “Jany Collins” and Jinny Collins.” On
11 Nov 1844 Jane Collins stated that her husband died in 1821 or 1822. Other correspondence in the file
indicates that he may have died as early as 1818.
The 97-page file contains many statements attempting to establish the service of John Collins and
that Jane Collins was legally married to him. The file includes a pension certificate issued to “Jane
Collins, widow of John Collins, who was a Dragoon, in the Va. Line.” There is no claim in the file,
however, that John Collins had been a dragoon.
=================================

Mrs. Cothal, 4th New York
Colonel Israel Shreve, 2nd New Jersey Regiment, was left with 250 men to the fort while Sullivan's united force
moved on into western New York. On 24 August Shreve was instructed, “It will ... be absolutely necessary to
send most of the Women and Children [by boat] to Wyoming, returning only such as may be applied to the use
of the Hospital, or may be deem'd necessary to keep the Soldier's clean at their Return. You will give orders to
the Commissary at Wyoming [Pennsylvania] to issue Rations to those Women & Children.”
BASIC FACTS
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army:?
Date of death: ?
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): Richard Cottril (private)
Names and birthdates of children: ?
17
MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): Fowler’s company, 4th New York Regiment
Campaigns: 1779 campaign against the Iroquois
Garrison locations: Fort Sullivan, Tioga.
Battles participated in/observed: none
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: (known) May to October 1779
Pvt. Richard Cottril, service with the 4th New York: (Compiled Service Records, National Archives), enlisted January
1777; camp near Loudon’s Ferry on the Mohawk River January to September 1777; Valley Forge winter camp
December 1777 to June 1778; with Maj. Gen. Friedrich de Steuben July to October 1778; camp at North Castle July
1778; Peekskill October 1778; November/December 1778 sick in hospital at Albany; Fort plain January to April 1779;
Canajoharie, May/June 1779; Morristown winter camp 1779/1780; West Point, New York May to June 1780; camp at
Steenrapie July/August 1780; Fort Schuyler September to December 1780, and waiter to Maj. Gen. Alexander
McDougall.

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
"A Return of the Women & Children Left in Charge of Baggage, Necessary to wash for Genl Clintons Brigade",
probably August 1779, Israel Shreve Papers, Rutgers University, Alexander Library, manuscript no. 287.

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
See Miss Austin, 5th New York (Sullivan’s Campaign 1779)
=================================

Maria Cronkite (nee Humphrey), 1st New York
Hendrick Plimley (1st New York, Ten Broeck's Company), stated "that he was also well acquainted with Maria
Cronkite wife of the said Patrick who was also in said Company [Wendel's] and Regiment and was a
washerwoman and continued in said Service untill her husband... was duly discharged that they had several
children togeth[er] who were also in the army with their parents."
BASIC FACTS
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army: circa 1745 (32 years old in 1777)
Date of death: ?
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): Patrick Cronkite, fifer (10 September 1766)
Names and birthdates of children: ?

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): Wendell’s company, 1st New York Regiment
Campaigns: see T.W. Egly, Jr., History of the First New York Regiment, 1775-1783 (Hampton, N.H.: Peter E.
Randall Publisher, 1981)
Garrison locations: see above
Battles participated in/observed: see above
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: 1777-1783

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
Pension papers of Patrick Cronkite, fifer, 1st New York Regiment, 1777-1783, supplementary depositions of
Maria Cronkite (nee Humphrey) and Hendrick Plimley, Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty - Land -
Warrant Application Files, National Archives Microfilm Publication M804, reel 695, W16932.
NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
The pension application for Patrick Cronkite consisted of the deposition of his wife Maria Cronkite (nee Humphrey).
Maria's husband served as a fifer in Captain Wendell's Company of the 1st New York Regiment. In her account Maria
stated that Patrick enlisted in 1777 (she was then 32 years old) and was discharged in 1783. She further stated that they
were married on "the tenth day of September [1766]... That the marriage ceremony was performed by one Squire

18
Vandyke a Justice of the peace of the then County of Albany (now Greene) in the now town of Athens the place where
she resided when her husband the said Patrick Cronkite enlisted in the army. That her maiden name before her marriage
was Maria Humphry - That notice of intention of marriage was published in the Dutch Reformed church by Reverend
John Schuneman... in said Conuty of Albany..." Maria had "accompanyed her husband... in the service as aforesaid and
continued in said service in the capacity of washerwoman for the officers untill the close of the war where her husband
was duly discharged. That she had while in said service several children..."
Another ex-soldier, Hendrick Plimley (1st New York, Ten Broeck's Company), stated "that he was also well
acquainted with Maria Cronkite wife of the said Patrick who was also in said Company [Wendel's] and Regiment and
was a washerwoman and continued in said Service untill her husband... was duly discharged that they had several
children togeth[er] who were also in the army with their parents."
"’The proportion of Women which ought to be allowed...’: An Overview of Continental Army Female Camp
Followers”
The Continental Soldier, vol. VIII, no. 3 (Spring 1995), 51-58. ALHFAM Bulletin (Association of Living History,
Farm and Agricultural Museums), vol. XXVIII, no. 4 (Winter 1999), 18-21.
https://www.scribd.com/doc/255868431/The-proportion-of-Women-which-ought-to-be-allowed-An-Overview-
of-Continental-Army-Female-Camp-Followers
=================================

Mrs. Cregier, cook and wife/consort of an artificer at Fishkill, New York, 1782
“Sarah Parsell cooked for the wheelwrights, Mrs. Cregier performed the same service for the blacksmiths,
and Mrs. Lloyd served up meals to the express riders.”
BASIC FACTS
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army: ?
Date of death: ?
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): ?
Names and birthdates of children: ?

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): Continental artificers, Fishkill, New York
Campaigns: ?
Garrison locations: Fishkill, New York
Battles participated in/observed: none
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: 1782

DOCUMENTATION
Holly A. Mayer, Belonging to the Army: Camp Followers and Community during the American Revolution (Columbia:
University of South Carolina Press, 1996), 140. Endnote for pertinent passage: “Voucher for Thomas’s cooking services
by Sgt. Mark ‘Rodes,’ Philadelphia, 3 November 1780, in Letters, Orders for Pay, Accounts, Receipts, and Other
Supply Records Concerning Weapons and Military Stores, 1776-1801, M927, National Archives. Cooks and artificers
are noted in Compiled Service Records of American Naval Personnel and Members of the Departments of the
Quartermaster General and the Commissary General of Military Stores Who Served During the Revolutionary War,
M880, National Archives, rolls 1 and 2, and listed on ‘Pay Roll of sundry Persons employed in the publick Service …’
in Revolutionary War Rolls, 1775-1783, M246, National Archives, roll 135. Kerber in Women and the Republic
mentions a few of these people on pages 56-57.” (Linda K. Kerber, Women of the Republic: Intellect and Ideology in
Revolutionary America, University of North Carolina Press, 1997)

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
“When some artificers gathered at Fishkill in 1782 to work for the army, they brought female relations with them.
The quartermaster department paid a few of them to cook for the men. Sarah Parsell cooked for the wheelwrights,
Mrs. Cregier performed the same service for the blacksmiths, and Mrs. Lloyd served up meals to the express
riders. Parsell and Cregier received twelve days pay, at two shillings per day, for work done that January, while
Lloyd worked from May through September at ten dollars in New York currency per month. Parsell and Cregier

19
received considerably less than their artisan relations, but Lloyd’s monthly pay as a cook equaled that of her hostler
husband.” Holly A. Mayer, Belonging to the Army: Camp Followers and Community during the American Revolution
(Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1996), 140.
=================================

Mrs. Moses Dean, wife/consort of an artificer at Fishkill, New York, 1780-1781
“A daughter of Gillson Lives with Mrs. Pickering; a little wanderer, a perfect stranger. Some time since she
came unasked when told by one of the Servants to go home, she replied ‘her mother had nothing for her to
eat.’ [Artificer Moses] Dean informs me that he has two other Sons (besides those now in the Artillery) who
have served as Soldiers for three years. I enquired of both how they had subsisted their families in time past.
they replied, that they had sold every thing they had brought with them … even to their very Clothes: and
that during the last summer, & untill Arnold’s Flight, they had been allowed to draw three Rations each for
their families. They said that Genl. Poor at first, afterwards Genl. Arnold, gave orders for those Issues, which
the Commissary had stopp’d since Arnold’s flight. Dean first requested a similar order: but it appeared to me
improper that public Officers … should at their option become discretionary Almoners for the public.”
BASIC FACTS
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army: ?
Date of death: ?
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): Moses Dean
Names and birthdates of children: unknown, but had three or four sons in the army, two of them serving with the
Continental artillery

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): Col. Jeduthan Baldwin’s Regiment of Artificers
Campaigns: none
Garrison locations: Fishkill, New York
Battles participated in/observed: none
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: 1780-1781

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
Timothy Pickering to Alexander Hamilton, Newburgh, 2 February 1781, Numbered Record Books Concerning Military
Operations and Service, Pay and Settlement Accounts, and Supplies in the War Department Collection of Revolutionary
War Records (National Archives Microfilm Publication M853, reel 25, vol. 124), Record Group 93, NA.
Holly A. Mayer, Belonging to the Army: Camp Followers and Community during the American Revolution (Columbia:
University of South Carolina Press, 1996), 131-132.

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
In “February [1781 Timothy Pickering] wrote Colonel Alexander Hamilton, one of Washington’s aides-de-camp, for
advice on provisioning the destitute families of two men, Moses Dean and Hezekiah Gibson (or Gillson), in Colonel
Baldwin’s Regiment of Artificers. Pickering filled pages with his distress:

A daughter of Gillson Lives with Mrs. Pickering; a little wanderer, a perfect stranger. Some time since she
came unasked when told by one of the Servants to go home, she replied ‘her mother had nothing for her to
eat.’ Dean informs me that he has two other Sons (besides those now in the Artillery) who have served as
Soldiers for three years. I enquired of both how they had subsisted their families in time past. they replied,
that they had sold every thing they had brought with them … even to their very Clothes: and that during the
last summer, & untill Arnold’s Flight, they had been allowed to draw three Rations each for their families.
They said that Genl. Poor at first, afterwards Genl. Arnold, gave orders for those Issues, which the
Commissary had stopp’d since Arnold’s flight. Dean first requested a similar order: but it appeared to me
improper that public Officers … should at their option become discretionary Almoners for the public. It
would open a Door for innumerable Abuses. Too many irregularities of the Kind have already been
20
practised. Yet the forlorn Condition of these poor men demands Relief. But they are not alone. Hundreds of
Soldiers Families are also distress’d. What is granted to one should not be denied to another in like
Circumstances … I am clear it will be better to discharge Dean & Gibson than give them four daily Rations.
But if we begin to discharge Soldiers to relieve their distress’d familes, where shall we stop? … As Cases
similar to the above must frequently have fallen under your Notice, I beg you will inform me what order has
usually been taken concerning them.

Hamilton replied that ‘the situation of the two artificers can only be pitied not redressed. The families of men in
the service cannot be the object of military provision, and it will be impossible to discriminate. This is the General’s
sentiment and has governed in all former application of the same kind.’ Pickering apparently did not accept that as
the only way to deal with the problem. In a letter to an assistant commissary of issues at Fishkill Landing, Richard
Platt, a deputy quartermaster, wrote, ‘The Q MGenl. Having agreed, in consideration of the Wives of Hezekiah
Gibson & Elihu Cary, cooking each, for a mess of Artificiers, which superseded the necessity of two men being
employed on that Business, that one Ration should be allow’d, daily, to each of those Women.’ There was no
mention of Dean and his family, but Pickering probably found a way to help them, too.”
Holly A. Mayer, Belonging to the Army: Camp Followers and Community during the American Revolution (Columbia:
University of South Carolina Press, 1996), 131-132.
=================================

(Contributed by Steve Rayner)
Anna [Hannah] Martha Elmore/Ellmore/Ilmer, possibly 11th Pennsylvania/Armand’s Legion/ 1st
Partisan Corps (tentative unit identifications based on pension information, possibly transferred to 4 th or 1st
Continental Light Dragoons) (1777-1783)
“Mary Painter … lived at the time in the Northern Liberties of the City of Philadelphia … the said
Frederick was enlisted in the German Battalion called Armands Corps that he was then placed in the
Barracks of the army then in the Northern Liberties. this She thinks was in the year 1776 before the British
came into Philadelphia [26 Sep 1777]. deponent saw the said Frederick in his uniform and was present at
their marriage which took place about a week or Ten days after he was enlisted by the Reverend Mr
[Henry Melchoir] Muhlenberg then the Pastor of the German Lutheran Church of St. Michaels & Zion, in
the City of Philadelphia. The marriage took place at a Tavern in Third Street in the Northern Liberties,
called the Cross Keys it being still a Tavern. Witness officiated as a brides maid to the said Anna Martha.
Deponant further states that she saw the said Frederick in his uniform which was blue trimed up with red.
He was made a Sergeant as deponant then understood and believed. deponant further states that she saw
the said Frederick march from the said Barracks. She thinks early in the fall and saw Mrs Ellmore in the
Baggage wagon going toward the Schuylkill River. Deponant knows that both her husband and Mrs
Ellmore were out all the war.”
BASIC FACTS
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army: born 1757 (20 years old in 1777)
Date of death: ?
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): Frederick Wilhelm Ilmer/Elmore (July 17 1777)
Names and birthdates of children: George, born 1789

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): Ottendorf’s Corps/Armand’s Legion/ 1st Partisan Corps (tentative unit
identification based on pension information, possibly transferred to 4 th or 1st Continental Light Dragoons)
Campaigns: 1777 Philadelphia campaign
Garrison locations: possibly Valley Forge 1777, Middlebrook 1779, Jockey Hollow winter camp 1780
Battles participated in/observed: Brandywine, Germantown, Camden
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: 1777-1783

21
DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
Pension papers of Frederick Wilhelm Ellmore (Ilmer), 1777-1783 (R3325), Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty
- Land - Warrant Application Files, National Archives Microfilm Publication M804. Transcribed and annotated by
C. Leon Harris, “Southern Campaign Revolutionary War Pension Statements” http://revwarapps.org

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
Pension Application of Frederick Wilhelm Ellmore (Ilmer) R3325 Anna Martha Ellmore PA
Transcribed and annotated by C. Leon Harris.
State of Pennsylvania }
County of Philadelphia } Ss
On this fifth day of May AD 1837 personally appeared before the Court of Common Pleas in and
for the County of Philadelphia Anna Martha Elmore a resident of the district of the Northern Liberties in
the County and State aforesaid aged Eighty years who being first duly affirmed according to Law doth on
her solemn affirmation make the following declaration in order to obtain the benefit of the provision made
by the act of Congress passed July 4, 1836 that she is the widow of Frederick Wilhelm Ilmer alias Elmore
dec’d who was a sergeant in the Revolutionary war in Col. White’s German Regiment [sic: see endnote],
that he enlisted at Philadelphia (where he resided at the time) near the commencement of the Revolution
for the term of during the war and served untill the war ended and received his discharge which was given
into the hands of Mr Fraly in the year 1827 to obtain his pension from the State of Pennsylvania and his
land and that said Fraly has since died and due search has since been made for his discharge but cannot be
found, and she further states that she went out with her husband the said Frederick Wilhelm Ilmer alias
Elmore in the Army three weeks after they were married and remained with him in the service untill he
was discharged at the close of the war, and that she nursed the sick and wounded in the army. she further
states that her husband the said Frederick Wilhelm Ilmer alias Elmore was in several engagements and that
she was with him at Charleston South Carolina during the southern Campaign, she further declares that she
was married to the said Frederick Wilhelm Ilmer alias Elmore on the 17th day of July in the year 1777 as
appears by the annexed certificate from the marriage record that her husband the aforesaid Frederick
Wilhelm Ilmer alias Elmore died in the year 1815 and that she has remained a widow ever since that
period as will more fully appear by reference to the proof hereto annexed
Anna Martha herXmark Elmore
_________________________

On the seventeenth of July in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and seventy seven, by
authority of a permission from Colonel White, were lawfully married Friedrick Wilhelm Ilmer, a native of
Silesia, and Anna Martha Fiesin [Anna Martha Fies].
That the above is a true Extract from the Registers of the German Lutheran Congregation of St Michaels
& Zion, I certify with my hand and seal.
Philadelphia/ April 29th 1837. Chs. R. Demmi/Pastor of the said Congreg.
_________________________

State of Pennsylvania }
Philadelphia County ss }
On this twenty second day of May AD 1838 personally appeared before me the Subscriber an
Alderman and Justice of the Peace, in and for the said County and State aforesaid Anna Martha Elmore or
Ilmore, who being first duly affirmed according to law, doth on her solemn affirmation declare and say,
that she is the widow of Frederick Wilhelm Elmore or Ilmore, and that they Married on the seventeenth
day of July in the year seventeen hundred and seventy seven, a few days after our Marriage she left her
Fathers House and went into the army with her Husband, who was at the Battle of Brandywine [11 Sep
1777], and at the Battle of Germantown [4 Oct 1777]. they encamped at White Marsh and staid there
during the winter, and in the Spring they were sent to New Jersey. He was at the Battle of Monmouth [28
Jun 1778], and from thence they proceeded on towards Kings Bridge the winter before they marched for
the South, they staid at Jockeys Hollow near Morristown and were marched on to Charleston South
22
Carolina, and she further states her Husband was at the Battle of Camden [see endnote], the affirmant was
at Savannah, during the time the Army lay in Georgia, was also personally acquainted with Mr. Cope
[possibly Peter Cope, Captain Scull’s company, 11th Pennsylvania Regiment (Compiled Service Records,
National Archives)] who was a butcher and went out with the army, he lived near Father’s in the Northern
Liberties [Philadelphia] previous to his joining them. Their first child was born at Mr Copes at a little Town
called Ebenezer, and her Husband requested Mr. Cope to let her remain there untill after she was confined.
Her child died and was buried there. Her Husband the said Frederick Wilhelm Elmore or Ilmore was at the
Battle of Savannah [see endnote], after this the Troops were sent home; on our arrival at Philadelphia, we lay
in the Barracks, we were poor and oblidged to stay until we could get a room, the affirmant further states
that she remained in the Army with her Husband, until they returned from the South, except the time of her
confinement and a short time that Lady Washington took her to her quarters [see endnote] She Elmore or
Ilmore nursed the sick and wounded and washed for the Officers, and it does appear to her to be very hard,
not being able to do any thing and oblidged to live on Forty Dollars, the Lord has been so kind to give me. She
further states that it appears like a dream to her, but thinks that colonel Farmer [unidentified] commanded the
Regiment at the Close of the War to which her Husband belonged and knows that Colonel White had, because she
washed for him a long time when he commanded the said Regiment
Anna Martha herXmark Elmore or Ilmore
_________________________

In the Matter of Mrs Anna Martha Ellmore.
Peter Kline a resident of the County of Philadelphia duly sworn according to Law doth upon his oath
make the following declaration. That he is now sick and unable to go to Court. that for this reason he
makes his deposition before the Justice. That he was well acquainted with Frederick Ellmore in his
lifetime and remembers that he enlisted in the Dutch or German Battalion called Armands Corps [see
endnote] who were principally enlisted in the Northern Liberties of said City. That said Frederick was a
Corporal or Sergeant in said Battalion. He remembers that Mrs Ellmore went with her said husband from
this City to the war and returned with him when it was over. That deponant is now about Seventy Six
years.
Sworn to & subscribed before me this first day of September AD 1838 [signed] Peter Kline
_________________________

In the Matter of the Claim of Mrs Hannah Elmore for a Pension.
Personally came into open court of Common Pleas for the City and County of Philadelphia Mary Painter
a resident of the County of Philadelphia aged about Seventy Four Years and upwards who being duly
sworn according to Law doth depose and say. That she was well acquainted with Frederick Elmore in his
life time as well as with his wife Mrs Anna Martha Ellmore. That deponent was the bridesmaid of the said
Parties when they were married. That deponent was present when the said Frederick Ellmore was enlisted.
that deponent lived at the time in the Northern Liberties of the City of Philadelphia. That the said
Frederick was enlisted in the German Battalion called Armands Corps that he was then placed in the
Barracks of the army then in the Northern Liberties. this She thinks was in the year 1776 before the British
came into Philadelphia [26 Sep 1777]. deponent saw the said Frederick in his uniform and was present at
their marriage which took place about a week or Ten days after he was enlisted by the Reverend Mr
[Henry Melchoir] Muhlenberg then the Pastor of the German Lutheran Church of St. Michaels & Zion, in
the City of Philadelphia. The marriage took place at a Tavern in Third Street in the Northern Liberties,
called the Cross Keys it being still a Tavern. Witness officiated as a brides maid to the said Anna Martha.
Deponant further states that she saw the said Frederick in his uniform which was blue trimed up with red.
He was made a Sergeant as deponant then understood and believed. deponant further states that she saw
the said Frederick march from the said Barracks. She thinks early in the fall and saw Mrs Ellmore in the
Baggage wagon going toward the Schuylkill River. Deponant knows that both her husband and Mrs
Ellmore were out all the war.
Sworn to and Subscribed before me in open Court of Mary herXmark Painter
_________________________

23
Common Pleas on this First day of September AD 1838
[Wilhelmina Sullender, about 70, made a similar statement.]
[The handwriting in the following is extremely poor.]
State of Pennsylvania }
County of Philadelphia }
On this Twenty third day of May AD 1838 personally appeared before me an Alderman and
Justice of the peace in and for the said County and State aforesaid Ann Nice Aged Eighty two years
Resident of the County, who being first duly affirmed according to law, doth declare and say, that she was
personally acquainted with Anna Martha Elmore, before she was Married to Frederick Wilhelm Elmore,
they both lived in the City and County, and were in the habit of visiting each other; a few days after the
Marriage of Anna Martha, she left her Father’s house, and went with her husband the said Frederick
Wilhelm Elmore into the Army. She Declarant, was in the Service and saw Anna Martha Elmore at
Morristown at the time they were Encamped together during the winter of seventeen hundred and seventy
nine in a place called Jockey Hollow, and they washed together while there; and believes to the best of her
knowledge it was just before the Battle of Stony Point [16 Jul 1779], that Serjeant Frederick Wilhelm
Elmore was transfered to another Company and marched for the South; and then it was that she affirmant
lost sight of them, and did not see them again until the Troops were discharged and returned from the
Southward. Ann herXmark Nice
_________________________

Pennsylvania SS
Philadelphia County S.S.
In the Matter of the Claim of Mrs Anna Martha Ellmore for a Pension.
Personally appeared in Open Court of Common Pleas for the City and County of Philadelphia on the tenth
day of November AD 1838 George Ellmore [undeciphered word] officer of the Northern Liberties aged
Forty Nine Years and upwards who being duly sworn according to Law says that he is the son of Frederick
Wilhelm Ellmore and the son of Anna Martha Ellmore. That he often remembers to have heard his father
speak of his being out in the Revolutionary War and of the facts of his being married as stated by Mrs
Painter and Mrs Sullender in this case. That he understood that the Regiment to which his father belonged
was commanded by Colonel White. That he understood from his father as well as by his Mother that his
mother went with the troops and remained out until His father returned to Philadelphia and was discharged
being out all the war. That he heard his father state that he was at Charleston and Savannah and at different
places in the South with the Army – when Deponant was about twelve years of age, and Individual Came
to his fathers and informed him that there was money coming to him in Germany from whence he came
originally to this Country. That said Person prevailed upon deponent for them to give him his papers
[undeciphered word] when he came to this Country. That among those Papers was his fathers discharge
from the Service. That witness often seen the said discharge, but from his youth at the time he is now
unable to specify the particulars of it. That he often in years past seen old revolutionary Soldiers at his
fathers and particularly a man of the name of Jacob Lentz now deceased many years That they often
spoke of being out together, and of being taken by the British – at the South. That his father died before
they ever heard anything from the Individual who carried his papers to Germany and deponant often heard
him regret the loss of his Papers and charge that person with being a rogue. That neither deponant nor his
mother ever since have hear of any thing of the man or the Papers. That Deponant thinks from the
different conversations that he heard between his father and himself and other Revolutionary Soldiers that
he is of the opinion that his father was in the artillery – as he often spoke of being black with powder He
never hear of him speak of the Infantry but allways of the Big Guns – and always spoke of the artillery.
Deponent also swears expressly that he never heard of any one in Pennsylvania of the name of Ellmore
and he believes from the difficulty which has occurred in finding his name upon the rolls, and from certain
hints dropped by his father in his liftime, that he would have enlisted under another name than Frederick
William Ellmore, but what that name was deponant cannot state – deponent means by this that his father
did not use his first name of Frederick Wilhelm or William. That his father in his life time was well known
in the Northern Liberties of the City of Philadelphia as a Revolutionary Soldier and upon all public
occasions, he was recognized as such. [signed] George Ellmore
24
_________________________

State of Pennsylvania } Ss.
City of Philadelphia }
On this third day of September 1840 Personally appeared before me John Binns: Alderman, Duly
chosen, Commissioned and sworn, In and for the City of Philadelphia. Margaret Patterson, widow aged 77
years past who being by me duly sworn according to Law Doth on her oath declare, that she is well
acquainted with Hannah Elmore widow of Frederick Elmore (deceasd) who was a Soldier in the war of the
Revolution. While the American Army for some time lay in Charleston, South Carrolina [see endnote]; I
lived with Mr. Frederick Kisselman and wife. at this time Frederick and Hannah frequently call’d at our
house, Mr. Kisselman often asked them to eat, which they readily accepted; my understanding dutch
[German], and Elmore being a German, I frequently talked with him. After the war, Mr. Kisselman
Removed to Philad’a. and some time after to Burlington New Jersey where I lived with them, untill I
married. I then lived in Philadelphia where I met Frederick Elmore and his wife Hannah and altho a
number of years had passed, I knew them again and have in his lifetime frequently talked with them about
our first acquaintance. This is the same Hannah Elmore, who was in the army with her Husband Frederick
Elmore through the war. and further saith not. Margaret herXmark Patterson
_________________________

State of Pennsylvania } Ss.
County of Philadelphia }
On the tenth of December 1841 Personally appeared before me Charlton Potts one of the
Aldermen in and for the County afores’d duly Commissioned and acting as such. Anna Martha Ellmore,
widow of Frederick Wilhelm Ellmore (dec’d) who being duly sworn according to Law Doth on her oath
declare; That she was married to Frederick Wilhelm Ellmore at the commencement of the war of the
Revolution. That he Enlisted in the County of Philadelphia in the army of the U. States and marched to the
Delaware above Trenton, under Gen’l Washington, and after crossing, assisted in taking the Hessions [sic:
Hessians] at Trenton in December 1776. I marched with him and assisted in Cooking & washing for the
Troops. After some time (I cannot say how long) the detachment to which he belonged, marched to the
South went through Maryland into Virginia, where we took vessels, and arrived at Savannah in the State
of Georgia: after being here a short time, the Enemy came and attact our men [29 Dec 1778]. in the
meantime we women were placed in an old out house or cellar, untill we retreated and went to Charleston
in South Carrolina. my husband was wounded in the leg, near the knee. I after assisted in dressing the
wounded. I remember one poor man, by name of John Lugley, a Seargent; who died immediately after we
dressed his wound. Here my self & husband met with good friends – a Mr. Kisselman and Lady gave us
often victuals. by and through the hand of a woman who lived with them we were often fed. She
understanding Dutch. my memory has become so poor, I cannot but remember as a dream. I know my
husband was in a number of battles, and was discharged at the close of the war. I can remember a few of
the officers names. Captains Gray [George Gray, capt. 4th Cont. Dragoons 7 December 1777] or William
Gray, capt 1st Cont. Dragoons in 1781] Capt. Johnson [? William Johnson surgeon’s mate 1st Cont. Dragoons
resigned January 1780], Ensign Humphreys [ John Humphreys ensign and Collonel White [Anthony Walton
White, Lt. Col 4th Cont. Dragoons 15 Feb. 1777; Lt. Col. Commandant 1 st Cont. Dragoons 10 December
1779]. I think he wasfrom the jerseys. I washed for a number, but cannot tell at this late day. I am not able to tell
my age, but believe I am past 90. I have gone through great hardships for which I now solicit such assistance as have
granted to the widows of Soldiers, who faithfully served their Country.
Anna Martha herXmark Ellmore
_________________________

State of Pennsylvania } ss
County of Philadelphia }
On the 10th day of December, 1841 Personally appeared before me, Joseph Smith, an alderman
of the County of Philadelphia, duly commission’d, and acting as such, Peter Kline; To me well known.
who being duly sworn according to Law: Doth, on his Oath declare; That he was well acquainted with
25
Frederick Wilhelm Ellmore of the Pennsylvania line, in the War of the Revolution, now deceased. That he
was a soldier, under General Washington, in the year 1776. crossed the Delaware as such, and assisted in
taking the Hessions at Trenton, New Jersey. I also remember his wife, Anna Martha Ellmore, and am now
well acquainted with her; that she went with her husband as far as the river Delaware, but I believe did not
go over; I remember, she assisted in making fires and cooking for the Troops. after the taking the
Hessions, and the Prisoners having crossed into Pennsylvania I returned home. This atchievement being on
my birthday, the 26th of December; I was fifteen years of age. The army moveing into different directions,
I cannot remember, but from heresay what became of Ellmore & wife, but do believe, she continued with
him through a great part of the war. She is far advanced in years and is very poor.
[signed] Peter Kline
_________________________

In the Matter of the Claim of Mrs Anna Martha Ellmore widow of Frederick Wilhelm Ellmore.
Personally appeared Before me the subscriber one of the Justices of the Peace in Nether Providence
Delaware County Pennsylvania George Heizer aged Ninety Two years and upwards who being duly sworn
according to Law saith that whilst in the army he remembers the said Ellmore and often heard his name
but cannot remember the corps or Regiment to which he belonged. But he remembers that this said
Frederick Wilhelm Ellmore belonged to the Northern Liberties of the City of Philadelphia. after his
discharge deponent returned to Delaware County where he resided and he presumes that is the reason why
he did not see more of the said Ellmore.
Sworn & subscribed Before me this Tenth day of June AD 1842 George hisXmark Heizer
NOTES:
In the Revolutionary War it was not unusual for some wives and other “camp followers” to travel
with the troops.
The German Regiment was commanded by Lt. Col. Ludowick Weltner. Heitman’s Historical
Register of Officers of the Continental Army During the War of the Revolution lists only two Col. Whites.
Lt. Col. Anthony Walton White from New Jersey commanded the 4th Regiment of Continental Dragoons,
which was organized in Philadelphia in February 1777. Col. John White from North Carolina commanded
the 4th Georgia Regiment, which was also organized in Philadelphia in February 1777. It ceased to exist
after the Siege of Savannah late in 1779, but Col. John White continued to serve until captured at the
surrender of Charleston on 12 May 1780. The phrase “Col Wites Battalion Bound to Georia,” in the 1824
certificate by Lentz and Rich suggests that Ellmore’s Col. White was John White. However, in one
testimony Anna Martha Ellmore stated that she thought Col. White was “from the jerseys.”
If Ellmore enlisted in 1776 it could not have been in the regiment of either Col. White. I could
find no record of a Captain Gray or Johnston in their regiments.
The Battle of Camden refers to either the battle near Camden SC on 16 Aug 1780 or the Battle of
Hobkirk Hill near Camden on 25 Apr 1781.
“during the time the Army lay in Georgia” could refer to the period before the British captured
Savannah on 29 December 1778, or to the period from February 1782 until the British evacuated
Savannah on 11 July 1782. During the latter period the Americans were encamped at Ebenezer GA.
The phrase “Battle of Savannah” usually refers to the siege from 24 Sep till 19 Oct 1779, in which
Col. John White participated. It might also refer to one of the skirmishes in the vicinity of Savannah,
especially the skirmish at Ebenezer on 23 June 1782. The latter appears more consistent with Anna Martha
Ellmore’s statement that they lived at Ebenezer and returned to Philadelphia soon afterward.
In 1777 Col. Charles Armand, a Frenchman, was given command of about 80 men, about half of
whom were soon killed or wounded. By the summer of 1778 Armand had replenished his troops, then
known as the Partizan Corps. Armand’s Partizan Corps fought at the Battle of Camden on 16 Aug 1780.
“Lady Washington” might refer to Jane Elliott Washington, whom Lt. Col. William Washington
married on 21 April 1782 and who lived near Charleston. Lt. Col. Washington commanded the 3rd
Regiment of Continental Light Dragoons, also known as Lady Washington’s Dragoons.
“While the American Army for some time lay in Charleston, South Carrolina:” From later
statements this appears to have been after Savannah was captured by the British at the end of 1779, but
before the siege of Charleston in the spring of 1780.
26
_________________________

Anna Martha Ellmore’s claim was rejected because proof of her husband’s service and their
marriage was deemed insufficient. Efforts to find Frederick Wilhelm Ellmore’s or Ilmer’s name in the
rosters of the Pennsylvania Continental Line were unsuccessful, of course.
On 27 April 1847 George Ellmore as the son and only heir of Anna Martha Ellmore assigned
power of attorney to pursue the claim for a pension.
=================================

Elizabeth Evans, 3d New Jersey
"A Mess Roll of Captn. Ross's Compy," 3rd New Jersey Regiment
(A listing of mess squads for June 1777)
5th
Emmanuel Evans
Elizabeth Evans
Edward Brady
Joseph Johnson
BASIC FACTS
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army:?
Date of death: ?
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): Emmanuel Evans
Names and birthdates of children: ?

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): Capt. John Ross’s company, 3d New Jersey Regiment
Campaigns: spring/summer 1777
Garrison locations: near Morristown, N.J.
Battles participated in/observed: ?
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: (known) May/June or June/July 1777

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
. "A Mess Roll of Captn. Ross's Compy", 1777, Revolutionary War Rolls, 1775-1783, National Archives Microfilm
Publication M246, Record Group 93, reel 62, section 44-2. Muster rolls for Captain John Ross's company, 3rd New
Jersey Regiment, May and October 1777, ibid., section 44-1. A comparison of these two rolls indicates that the
date of the mess squad listing is June of 1777. During this month the 3rd New Jersey was attached to the main army
and posted near the Short Hills in northern New Jersey. Muster rolls of the 3rd New Jersey Regiment, ibid., reels 62,
63 and 63. One instance of the varying numbers of men per company within an individual regiment comes from the
3rd New Jersey for June of 1777. The numbers are as follows: Ross's Company, 49 enlisted men; Dickerson's Co.,
65; Flanigan's Co., 42; Gifford's Co., 32; Hagan's Co., 20; and Patterson's Co., 33. The full strength of a company of
foot in 1777 was eighty-six enlisted men. Robert K. Wright, Jr., The Continental Army (Washington, D.C.:
Government Printing Office, 1984), 47

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
Elizabeth Evans’ husband served for one year in 1776 with the 3d New Jersey, and reenlisted for the war on 14
January 1777. He was sick absent from at least 3 November 1777 to 24 March 1778, and was listed on detached duty
at Trimbles/Trembles/Trembells Point, New Jersey from December 1778 until he deserted to the enemy on 24 March
1779. Emanuel was captured by Whig forces in 1779 and in March 1780 was listed as a prisoner under sentence of
death. Historian Todd Braisted provides more details: after deserting from the 3d New Jersey, Emanuel Evans
enlisted in the Loyalist 1st Battalion, New Jersey Volunteers on 27 March 1779. On 15 October 1779 he and five
other N.J.V. soldiers were captured off Elizabethtown Point on board the galley “Crane.” Sentenced to death for
"Deserting to the enemy and [being] taken in arms against the States," Evans and nine other condemned men were
pardoned on 26 May 1780 and returned to duty with their Continental regiments. On 23 June 1780, likely at the
27
Battle of Springfield where both the New Jersey brigade and the New Jersey Volunteers fought, Emanuel Evans
again deserted and rejoined the Loyalist battalion. He served to the war’s end and afterwards settled in New
Brunswick, Nova Scotia.
John U. Rees, “’Remember[ing] the Ladies’: Margaret Johnson and Elizabeth Evans, Women of the New Jersey
Brigade” http://www.scribd.com/doc/235418684/Remember-ing-the-Ladies-Margaret-Johnson-and-Elizabeth-
Evans-Women-of-the-New-Jersey-Brigade
=================================

Mary Geyer/Gier, 13th Pennsylvania Regiment/Pennsylvania State Regiment
“Mrs. Mary Geyer, serving as a laundress on the regimental strength of the 13 th Pennsylvania, had
accompanied her husband, Peter, and her eleven-year-old son, John, when they enlisted for twenty-one
months in the spring of 1776. “
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army:?
Date of death: ?
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): Peter Geyer/Gier, rifleman, 13th Pennsylvania Regiment. (originally Miles
Rifle Regiment/Pennsylvania State Regiment)
Names and birthdates of children: John, drummer, 13th Pennsylvania Regiment. (originally Miles Rifle
Regiment/Pennsylvania State Regiment)

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): Miles Rifle Regiment/Pennsylvania State Regiment/13th Pennsylvania Regiment
Campaigns: 1776 New York campaign, autumn 1776 retreat across New Jersey, 1776-1777 Trenton-Princeton
campaign, 1777 New Jersey and Philadelphia campaigns
Garrison locations:
Battles participated in/observed: uncertain
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: Spring 1776 to spring 1778.

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
John B.B. Trussell, Jr., Birthplace of an Army: A Study of the Valley Forge Encampment (Harrisburg, Pa.: Pennsylvania
Historical and Museum Commission, 1979), 85.
Records of the General Assembly, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, House of Representatives File, Pensions,
Revolutionary War, Session of November 19, 1828.
Harry Emerson Wildes, Valley Forge (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1938), 232.

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
From Trussell, Birthplace of an Army: A Study of the Valley Forge Encampment, 85.
“Mrs. Mary Geyer, serving as a laundress on the regimental strength of the 13 th Pennsylvania, had accompanied her
husband, Peter, and her eleven-year-old son, John, when they enlisted for twenty-one months in the spring of 1776.
Peter, a rifleman, and John, a drummer, were wounded at the Battle of Germantown – Peter being permanently
disabled – but all three remained with the army until their enlistments were completed and Peter and John were
discharged at Valley Forge on January 1, 1778. Mary, with John helping, stayed on through the encampment,
continuing to work as a laundress.”
=================================

28
Mrs. Hezekiah Gibson/Gillson, wife/consort of an artificer at Fishkill, New York, 1780-1781
“The Q MGenl. Having agreed, in consideration of the Wives of Hezekiah Gibson & Elihu Cary, cooking
each, for a mess of Artificiers, which superseded the necessity of two men being employed on that Business,
that one Ration should be allow’d, daily, to each of those Women.”
BASIC FACTS
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army: ?
Date of death: ?
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): Hezekiah Gibson/Gillson
Names and birthdates of children: ?

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): Col. Jeduthan Baldwin’s Regiment of Artificers
Campaigns: none
Garrison locations: Fishkill, New York
Battles participated in/observed: none
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: 1780-1781

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
Timothy Pickering to Alexander Hamilton, Newburgh, 2 February 1781, Numbered Record Books Concerning Military
Operations and Service, Pay and Settlement Accounts, and Supplies in the War Department Collection of Revolutionary
War Records (National Archives Microfilm Publication M853, reel 25, vol. 124), Record Group 93, NA.
Holly A. Mayer, Belonging to the Army: Camp Followers and Community during the American Revolution (Columbia:
University of South Carolina Press, 1996), 131-132.

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
In “February [1781 Timothy Pickering] wrote Colonel Alexander Hamilton, one of Washington’s aides-de-camp, for
advice on provisioning the destitute families of two men, Moses Dean and Hezekiah Gibson (or Gillson), in Colonel
Baldwin’s Regiment of Artificers. Pickering filled pages with his distress:

A daughter of Gillson Lives with Mrs. Pickering; a little wanderer, a perfect stranger. Some time since she
came unasked when told by one of the Servants to go home, she replied ‘her mother had nothing for her to
eat.’ Dean informs me that he has two other Sons (besides those now in the Artillery) who have served as
Soldiers for three years. I enquired of both how they had subsisted their families in time past. they replied,
that they had sold every thing they had brought with them … even to their very Clothes: and that during the
last summer, & untill Arnold’s Flight, they had been allowed to draw three Rations each for their families.
They said that Genl. Poor at first, afterwards Genl. Arnold, gave orders for those Issues, which the
Commissary had stopp’d since Arnold’s flight. Dean first requested a similar order: but it appeared to me
improper that public Officers … should at their option become discretionary Almoners for the public. It
would open a Door for innumerable Abuses. Too many irregularities of the Kind have already been
practised. Yet the forlorn Condition of these poor men demands Relief. But they are not alone. Hundreds of
Soldiers Families are also distress’d. What is granted to one should not be denied to another in like
Circumstances … I am clear it will be better to discharge Dean & Gibson than give them four daily Rations.
But if we begin to discharge Soldiers to relieve their distress’d familes, where shall we stop? … As Cases
similar to the above must frequently have fallen under your Notice, I beg you will inform me what order has
usually been taken concerning them.

Hamilton replied that ‘the situation of the two artificers can only be pitied not redressed. The families of men in
the service cannot be the object of military provision, and it will be impossible to discriminate. This is the General’s
sentiment and has governed in all former application of the same kind.’ Pickering apparently did not accept that as
the only way to deal with the problem. In a letter to an assistant commissary of issues at Fishkill Landing, Richard
Platt, a deputy quartermaster, wrote, ‘The Q MGenl. Having agreed, in consideration of the Wives of Hezekiah

29
Gibson & Elihu Cary, cooking each, for a mess of Artificiers, which superseded the necessity of two men being
employed on that Business, that one Ration should be allow’d, daily, to each of those Women.’ There was no
mention of Dean and his family, but Pickering probably found a way to help them, too.”
Holly A. Mayer, Belonging to the Army: Camp Followers and Community during the American Revolution (Columbia:
University of South Carolina Press, 1996), 131-132.
=================================

Eleanor Gosnell (Kramer), Pennsylvania State Regiment/2d Pennsylvania
“… she was with her husband the said George Gosnell in the service during the year 1780”
BASIC FACTS
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army: circa 1764 (16 years old in 1780)
Date of death: ?
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): George Gosnell, 23 January 1780 (Gosnell was executed in South
Carolina, 22 April 1782); married another veteran, William Rushworm , 22 December 1783, “who died on the 12th
day of October A.D 1793”; married Christian Kramer, 30 December 1794
Names and birthdates of children: ?

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): Bankson’s company, Pennsylvania State Regiment/2d Pennsylvania Regiment
Campaigns: 1780 New Jersey campaign
Garrison locations: Morristown, New Jersey, winter 1780 and winter 1780/81, West Point
Battles participated in/observed: ?
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: circa January 1780, possibly into spring 1781

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
Pension papers of George Gosnell, Pennsylvania State Regiment/2d Pennsylvania (W5016), Revolutionary War
Pension and Bounty - Land - Warrant Application Files, National Archives Microfilm Publication M804.
Transcribed and annotated by C. Leon Harris, “Southern Campaign Revolutionary War Pension Statements”
http://revwarapps.org

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
Pension Application of George Gosnell W5016 Eleanor Kramer PA
Transcribed and annotated by C. Leon Harris. Revised 10 Jul 2016.
“State of Pennsylvania }
County of Philadelphia } Ss.
On this eleventh day of April AD 1837 personally appeared before the Court of Common
Pleas in and for the County of Philadelphia Eleanor Kramer a resident of the district of the
Northern Liberties in the County and state aforesaid aged Seventy three years who being first
duly sworn according to Law doth on her solemn oath make the following declaration in order to
obtain the benefit of the provision made by the act of Congress passed July 4th 1836 and the act
explanatory of said act passed March 3rd 1837. that she was lawfully married to George Gosnell
who was a sergeant in the Revolutionary war in Capt. Banksons [John Bankson, pension
application W25210] Company of the second Pennsylvania Regiment commanded by Col.
Walter Steward [sic: Walter Stewart]. that he enlisted in the year 1776 at Philadelphia for the
term of during the war that he was in several engagements, and that she was with her husband
the said George Gosnell in the service during the year 1780 [see endnote] and that he died in the
service when on a southern campaign in South Carolinia. She further declares that she was
married to the said George Gosnell on the 23rd day of January A.D. 1780. that her husband the
aforesaid George Gosnell died in the service on the 22nd day of April A.D. 1782 [see endnote].
that she was afterwards married to William Rushworm [William Russwurm, pension application
W3390] on the 22nd day of December A.D 1783 who died on the 12th day of October A.D 1793,

30
and that she was afterwards married to Christian Kramer on the 30th day of December A.D 1794,
who died on the 13th day of July A.D. 183[last digit missing; elsewhere said to be 1834] and that
she was a widow on the 4th day of July A.D 1836 and still remains a widow as will more fully
appear by reference to the proof hereto annexed Eleanor herXmark Kramer
[Certified by Christian Hubbert S39754.]
January the twenty third Anno Domini one thousand seven hundred and eighty George Gosnell
and Eleanor Shaw made Their appearance at Wicacoa and were pronounced Man and Wife, by
me Andrew Goeranson
[Certified by John Curtis Clay, “Rector of the Swedish churches in & near to Philad’a.”]
I do certify, That Christian Kramer and Nelly Rushwan, both of the City of Philadelphia were
lawfully joined together in holy Matrimony, on the thirtieth Day of December, in the Year of our
Lord One thousand seven hundred and ninety four. Witness my Hand and Seal.
Philadelphia, this 30 Day of December 1794. J. Friedrich Schmidt,
Minister of the Gospel of the Lutheran
Congregat. at Philadelphia”
___________________
Note: Mrs. Kramer knew the date of her husband’s death, and was either dissembling or, not having been present, did
not know her husband had been executed.

Maj. Gen. Nathanael Greene’s orders,
“Head Quarters near Bacons Bridge 22d. April 1782 …
At the Genl. Court Martial of which B[rigadier]. Genl. Gist is Presdt. held the 21st. Instant was tried Sergeant [George]
Gosnell of the Pennsyla. Line, on the following charges – Viz. – For having spoken words tending to excite Mutiny –
The Court after having considered the evidence for & against the Prisoner, and [?] due weight to his defence, are of
oppinion, that he is guilty of the charge, and that he is Punishable by the 3d. Article of the 2d. Sect. of the Articles of
War, and do sentence him to suffer Death, two thirds of the Court Agreeing. The General Approves the sentence and
orders the Prisoner to be shot to Death, on the Field in the rear, this afternoon at 3 oClock – 100 Men from each Brigade
properly officered to attend the Execution.”
1st Pennsylvania (Provisional) Battalion Order Book, 13 March 1782 – 12 May 1782, vol. 58, target 8, 60-61,
Numbered Record Books Concerning Military Operations and Service, Pay and Settlement Accounts, and Supplies in
the War Department Collection of Revolutionary War Records, (National Archives Microfilm Publication M853, reel 9)
U.S. War Department Collection of Revolutionary War Records, Record Group 93, National Archives, Washington.
(See also, Charles Patrick Neimeyer, America Goes to War: A Social History of the Continental Army (New York and
London: New York University Press, 1996), 153–155.)
=================================

Suzannah Grier, Hendricks’ Pennsylvania Rifle Company, 1775
“Entering the pond, (Simpson foremost,) and breaking the ice here and there with the huts of our guns and
feet, as occasion required, we were soon waist deep in the mud and water. As is generally the case with
youths, it came to my mind, that a better path might be found than that of the more elderly guide. Attempting
this, in a trice the water cooling my armpits, made me gladly return into the file. Now Mrs. Grier had got
before me. My mind was humbled, yet astonished, at the exertions of this good woman. Her clothes more than
waist high, she waded before me to the firm ground. No one so long as she was known to us, dared intimate a
disrespectful idea of her. Her husband, who was an excellent soldier, was on duty in Hendricks' boat, which
had proceeded to the discharge of the lake with lieutenant M`Cleland.”
BASIC FACTS
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army: ?
Date of death: ?
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): Joseph Grier (sergeant)
Names and birthdates of children: ?

31
MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): Capt. William Hendricks’ Rifle Company from Cumberland County,
Pennsylvania
Campaigns: 1775 march to Boston, Boston siege, Arnold’s march through Maine to Quebec, siege of Quebec
Garrison locations: Boston, August/September 1775
Battles participated in/observed: siege of Quebec 1775/1776, attack on Quebec 31 December 1775
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: 1775/1776

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
John Joseph Henry, An Accurate and Interesting Account of the Hardships and Sufferings of That Band of Heroes
Who Traversed the Wilderness in the Campaign Against Quebec in 1775 (Lancaster: Printed by William Greer,
1812), 65-66, 198.
“… as well as two ‘Mollies’ (camp followers) of Captain William Hendricks’ Rifle Company from Cumberland,
Penn.: teenaged Jemima Warner, who accompanied her husband James, and Suzannah Grier, wife of Sergeant Joseph
Grier. Arnold also ordered the construction of 200 bateaux for transports. They would be awaiting him at the mouth
of the Kennebec in what is now the state of Maine.” Sam Brakeley, In the Wake of America’s Hannibal: : Tracing
Benedict Arnold and the 1775 Expedition to Quebec by Canoe (Raleigh, N.C.: Lulu Press, 2015) 117.

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
Army followers occasionally were exposed to battlefield dangers, though such was the exception rather than
the rule. Women were already present with the troops in 1775, though numbers were much less than in the
later war years. At least two Pennsylvania rifle companies had female followers on their march through the
Maine wilderness with Col. Benedict Arnold in 1775. John Joseph Henry leaves the only account of these
women; curiously, his narrative is one of the few providing some insight into the characters of individual
followers.

This morning, the first of November [1775], breakfasting on our bleary, we took up the line of march
through a flat and boggy ground. About ten o'clock A. M. we arrived, by a narrow neck of land at a marsh
which was appalling. It was three fourths of a mile over, and covered by a coat of ice, half an inch thick.
Here Simpson concluded to halt a short time for the stragglers or maimed of [Capt. William] Hendrick’s
and [Capt. Matthew] Smith's companies to come up. There were two women attached to those companies,
who arrived before we commenced the march. One was the wife of Serjeant Grier, a large, virtuous and
respectable woman. The other was [Jemima Warner] the wife of a private of our company, a man who
lagged upon every occasion. These women being arrived, it was presumed that all our party were up. We
were on the point of entering the marsh, when some one cried out “Warner is not here.” Another said he had
"sat down sick under a tree, a few miles back." His wife begging us to wait a short time, with tears of
affection in her eyes, ran back to her husband. We tarried an hour. They came not. Entering the pond,
(Simpson foremost,) and breaking the ice here and there with the huts of our guns and feet, as occasion
required, we were soon waist deep in the mud and water. As is generally the case with youths, it came to my
mind, that a better path might be found than that of the more elderly guide. Attempting this, in a trice the
water cooling my armpits, made me gladly return into the file. Now Mrs. Grier had got before me. My
mind was humbled, yet astonished, at the exertions of this good woman. Her clothes more than waist high,
she waded before me to the firm ground. No one so long as she was known to us, dared intimate a
disrespectful idea of her. Her husband, who was an excellent soldier, was on duty in Hendricks' boat, which
had proceeded to the discharge of the lake with lieutenant M`Cleland.
John Joseph Henry, An Accurate and Interesting Account of the Hardships and Sufferings of That Band of Heroes Who
Traversed the Wilderness in the Campaign Against Quebec in 1775 (Lancaster: Printed by William Greer, 1812), 65-66, 198.
(Following page) Detail of a 1795 map, overlaid with Arnold's expedition route: *A: Cambridge *B: Newburyport *C:
Fort Western *D: Fort Halifax *E: Great Carrying Place *F: Height of land *G: Lake Mégantic This map does not
accurately represent the area around the height of land and Lake Mégantic. John Russell (underlying map),
User:Magicpiano (markings) - Source map from the Boston Public Library Map Collection, Public Domain,
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=6581099

32
33
=================================

Miss Haburn, 3d New York
Colonel Israel Shreve, 2nd New Jersey Regiment, was left with 250 men to the fort while Sullivan's united force
moved on into western New York. On 24 August Shreve was instructed, “It will ... be absolutely necessary to
send most of the Women and Children [by boat] to Wyoming, returning only such as may be applied to the use
of the Hospital, or may be deem'd necessary to keep the Soldier's clean at their Return. You will give orders to
the Commissary at Wyoming [Pennsylvania] to issue Rations to those Women & Children.”
BASIC FACTS
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army:?
Date of death: ?
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): William Haburn (sergeant)
Names and birthdates of children: ?

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): Tiebout's company, 3d New York Regiment
Campaigns: 1779 campaign against the Iroquois
Garrison locations: Fort Sullivan, Tioga.
Battles participated in/observed: none
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: (known) May to October 1779
Sgt. William Haburn, service in the 3d New York: (Compiled Service Records, National Archives), enlisted 16 May
1777; promoted to sergeant 9 March 1778.

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
"A Return of the Women & Children Left in Charge of Baggage, Necessary to wash for Genl Clintons Brigade",
probably August 1779, Israel Shreve Papers, Rutgers University, Alexander Library, manuscript no. 287.

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
See Miss Austin, 5th New York (Sullivan’s Campaign 1779)
=================================

Margaret /Higgins/Higgons, Virginia militia, year uncertain, 1780, 1781, or 1782
“when they were married her said husband was a militiaman in Captain Housleys Company & in Colonel
Peyton’s regiment & so remained at Lewis’ Orchard near Charlottesville for about a month afterwards when her
said husband enlisted in the Virginia state troops & took the bounty. He was then in Captain Stubblefields
company. This deponent states that the said William Higgons also served at different times under Captains
Kirkpatrick & Lamb … she was constantly with her said husband after her marriage until he was discharged
which period of time was not less than 16 months & previous to her marriage the said Higgons had been in the
militia service not less than three months. She recollects of being at Charlottesville Leesburg & Hanover & other
places but cannot be more particular in her statements about times & places …”
BASIC FACTS
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army: ?
Date of death: ?
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): William Higgins
Names and birthdates of children: ?

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): Virginia militia
Campaigns: ?
Garrison locations: ?
Battles participated in/observed: ?
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: year uncertain, 1780, 1781, or 1782
34
DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
Pension papers of William Higgins, Virginia militia, 1780, 1781, or 1782 (S16155), Revolutionary War Pension and
Bounty - Land - Warrant Application Files, National Archives Microfilm Publication M804. Transcribed and
annotated by C. Leon Harris, “Southern Campaign Revolutionary War Pension Statements” http://revwarapps.org

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
Pension Application of William Higgins S16155
Transcribed and annotated by C. Leon Harris. Revised 14 June 2011.
The State of Ohio Highland County SS:
On this 31 day of October A.D. 1833 personally appeared in open court st before the Court of
Common Pleas of said county now sitting William Higgins a resident of said County aged 88 years who
being first duly sworn according to law doth on his oath make the following declaration in order to obtain
the benefit of the Act of Congress passed June 7 th 1832. And first this applicant states that he was born in
the City of London in the year of our lord 1745 on the 11 th day of November. Has no record of his age
That he lived when called into the service of the United States in Loudon [sic: Loudoun] County in the
State of Virginia – After the close of said war he returned to said County where he resided many years –
after which he moved to Hampshire County in said state of Virginia where he remained about 12 years &
then moved to Highland Count in the State of Ohio where he has lived ever since.
That he entered into the Virginia line on Continental Establishment [sic] as a substitute for one
George Russ who enlisted in said line for during the war [see endnote].
That in the month of March AD 1780 [see endnote] he entered said line as a substitute for said
George Russ in the county of Louden above named under Captain Houseley [probably William Owsley of
the Loudoun County Militia] & in the regiment commanded by Colonel Francis Payton [sic: Francis
Peyton]. Soon after he joined said company & regiment he marched to Staunton where said regiment
remained about three weeks after which they marched to Charlottesville & on our way to that place joined
that division of the American army commanded by General Steuben [see endnote]. We remained at
Charlottesville & in the vicinity of that place upwards of three months. On our way from Staunton to
Charlottesville I was sent out with ten others as a foraging party & whilst we were out we were surprized
by a party of British & had a scirmish with them. I was several times knocked down & once stabbed in the
thigh with a bayonet but the majority of our men escaped. When we left Charlottesville we marched to
Hanover & remained there & in the vicinity of that place until the first of October AD 1781. About three
weeks before the surrender of the British Army under General Cornwallis at Yorktown [19 Oct 1781] I
was transferred to the Company Commanded by Captain Kirkpatrick in the regiment commanded by
Colonel Cole – our company & regiment soon after marched towards Yorktown to join the American
Army – on our way Captain Kirkpatrick was severely wounded in the head by one of his own men who
discharged his musket at the Capt & shot out his eye. After this accident Captain Lamb took the
command of the Company. I was at the taking of Yorktown & after the surrender of the British I marched
under the command of said Captain & Colonel to guard some prisoners to Albemarle near Staunton
Virginia. I was unwell at this time & had been for some time previous & received in consequence of my ill
health a furlough from my captain which specified that I was to go until my health was restored & I was
in the service of the United States from the time I entered as a substitute until I was discharged on
furlough nineteen months at least.
This applicant further states that he knew Generals Washington – Anthony Wayne – Lafayette –
Charles Lee [dismissed by Congress in Jan 1780] – & many other revolutionary officers but does not now
recollect their names. That he never received a written discharge from the service except his furlough
above spoken of. That John Powers Allen Trimble John Jones Amos Danthan Jacob Weaver Matthew
Creed John Smith & many others of his neighbours will be willing to testify as to his good character for
veracity in his neighbourhood & as to their belief of his services as a soldier of the revolution. That he had
sundry documents in his possession relating to his service in the revolutionary war but that he put them
into the hands of Colonel Francis Payton after the close of the war & was never able to recover them. That
he knows of no living witness by whom he could prove his service in said war
He hereby relinquishes every claim whatever to a pension or annuity except the present & declares that
his name is not on the pension roll of the agency of any state. That there is no clergyman residing in his
neighborhood & in consequence thereof that it would be very inconvenient for him to procure a certificate
in all respects similar to that required by the war department &c &c
[signed] Wm Higgins

35
___________________
The amended declaration of William Higgins in order to obtain the benefit of the Act of Congress passed
June 7th 1832
The State of Ohio Highland County
Personally came before me a justice of the peace of said county William Higgins who being duly
sworn deposes & says that in the county of Loudon in the State of Virginia in the month of March AD
1780 he was put by his master into the Militia of the State of Virginia by his master James Lewis as a
substitute for one George Russ who had been drafted (this applicant by reason of his old age & loss of
memory can not say for how long a period the said George Russ had been drafted but thinks it was one
year) that his said master received for the substitution from George Russ a negro man to work a year for
him & two hogsheads of tobacco. That he entered the company commanded by Captain Houseley & the
regiment commanded by Colonel Francis Peyton. That he marched first to Staunton where they remain
about 3 weeks thence to a place called Levin’s Orchard in the vicinity of Charlottesville where they
remained nearly three months having join Steuben’s Division of the American army. About that time a
proclamation was issue by the Virginia Government that all militiamen under a certain draft who would
enlist for the war should receive a Discharge from the Militia tour & receive bounty in money & land. That
his applicant under this proclamation at Lewis’s Orchard received the bounty money from Col. Peyton &
certain commissioners whose names he does not now recollect. was discharge from his militia duty after
serving not less that four months & enlisted in the Virginia State troops for during the war. He was then
under the command of Captain John Stubblefield Major [John] Willis & Colonel [William] Russell – that
Col. Peyton was a militia officer, the Couty Lieutenant [sic: County Lieutenant] of Loudon County & that
he rec’d the bounty money from his hands when he enlisted though the other commissioners were
standing by at the time – from the time of his enlistment until he received his furlough he served in the
state line of Virginia for fifteen months at least and in all his service taken together he served not less than
nineteen months. That he has lost his discharge rec’d after his militia tour & his other papers were
destroyed or lost as he has stated in his declaration. That the original Declaration made by this applicant
is in other respects strictly correct so far as his old age & loss of memory will permit him to state. That he
has made the subject his study since his Declaration was returned & during that time it has been brought
to his recollection & he is now satisfied that he first entered the Militia of Va as he has stated – He served
in the artillery [signed] Wm Higgins
Subscribed & sworn to before me this 15th day of November AD 1834
___________________
The State of Ohio Highland County SS.
Personally came before me a magistrate of said County Margaret Higgons wife of William
Higgons who has subscribed & sworn to the above declaration – aged [blank] years who being first duly
sworn says that she has known the said William Higgons from March 1780 to the present time That from
March aforesaid she frequently saw him said Higgons in Captain Housleys company of Virginia militia till
some time in June following when this deponent & the said William Higgons were married at Loudon
County in the State of Virginia. That when she married said Higgons she immediately followed him to the
camp of the American army & followed the camp (until he was discharge or furlough by reason of his
sickness). [See endnote.] That when they were married her said husband was a militiaman in Captain
Housleys Company & in Colonel Peyton’s regiment & so remained at Lewis’ Orchard near Charlottesville
for about a month afterwards when her said husband enlisted in the Virginia state troops & took the
bounty. He was then in Captain Stubblefields company. This deponent states that the said William
Higgons also served at different times under Captains Kirkpatrick & Lamb but by reason of her old age &
loss of memory she cannot state at what period he served under each of his said captains. That she was
constantly with her said husband after her marriage until he was discharged which period of time was not
less than 16 months & previous to her marriage the said Higgons had been in the militia service not less
than three months. She recollects of being at Charlottesville Leesburg & Hanover & other places but
cannot be more particular in her statements about times & places Margaret herXmark Higgins
Subscribed & sworn to before me this 15 day of November th AD 183 [sic]
NOTES:
Gen. Baron von Steuben held an independent command in Virginia only briefly in the spring of
1781.
A size roll of noncommissioned officers and privates taken at Carter’s Ferry (now Cartersville in
Cumberland County) lists the following: William Higgins/ age 25/ height 5’ 3½”/ dark hair/ black eyes/
fair complexion/ butcher/ born in London, England/ residing in Loudoun County where he enlisted on 19
Mar 1781 for the duration of the war. Sized on 28 May 1781. Note, however, the discrepancy between this
36
age and that of the pension applicant.
Although there were many female “camp followers” in the Revolutionary War, Margaret Higgins
is among the few whose names are known.
A document in the file states that William Higgins died on 11 Feb 1842 leaving no widow but the
following surviving children: John Higgins, Thomas Higgins, William Higgins, James Higgins, George
Higgins, Charles Higgins, and Elizabeth Lee. Other documents state that all were living in Highland
County except for Elizabeth Lee of Scioto County OH.
Washington Doggett deposed that he had made the coffin for William Higgins, Sr., and that he
had previously made a coffin in June 1839, which he thought was for the wife of William Higgins. William
McReynolds deposed that he had sold the grave clothes and preached the funeral sermon of William
Higgins.
=================================

Miss Jackson, 3d New York
Colonel Israel Shreve, 2nd New Jersey Regiment, was left with 250 men to the fort while Sullivan's united force
moved on into western New York. On 24 August Shreve was instructed, “It will ... be absolutely necessary to
send most of the Women and Children [by boat] to Wyoming, returning only such as may be applied to the use
of the Hospital, or may be deem'd necessary to keep the Soldier's clean at their Return. You will give orders to
the Commissary at Wyoming [Pennsylvania] to issue Rations to those Women & Children.”
BASIC FACTS
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army:?
Date of death: ?
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): ?
Names and birthdates of children: ?

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): 3d New York Regiment
Campaigns: 1779 campaign against the Iroquois
Garrison locations: Fort Sullivan, Tioga.
Battles participated in/observed: none
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: (known) May to October 1779

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
"A Return of the Women & Children Left in Charge of Baggage, Necessary to wash for Genl Clintons Brigade",
probably August 1779, Israel Shreve Papers, Rutgers University, Alexander Library, manuscript no. 287.

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
See Miss Austin, 5th New York (Sullivan’s Campaign 1779)
=================================

37
Margaret Johnson, 3d New Jersey
“… her said Husband had the Small Pox, and hired a man to come to Mount Holly, and bring her to Camp, to
take care of him – that he was stationed not far from Morristown, in New Jersey, it was in the Spring of the
Year, that she staid with him a few days over two Months, & took care of him, & she thinks there was twelve
in the Mess to which she was attached – that she cooked & Washed for the Mess …”
BASIC FACTS
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army: circa 1755 (22 years old in 1777)
Date of death: ?
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): Samuel C. Johnston/Johnson (possibly married April 1773 or common
law marriage)
Names and birthdates of children: “… her oldest Child was Eleven Months old, when she went to her said Husband,
when he was in Capt: Ross’s Company” in 1777.”

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): Capt. John Ross’s company, 3d New Jersey Regiment
Campaigns: spring/summer 1777
Garrison locations: near Morristown, N.J.
Battles participated in/observed: none
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: May/June or June/July 1777

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
1. "A Mess Roll of Captn. Ross's Compy", 1777, Revolutionary War Rolls, 1775-1783, National Archives Microfilm
Publication M246, Record Group 93, reel 62, section 44-2. Muster rolls for Captain John Ross's company, 3rd New
Jersey Regiment, May and October 1777, ibid., section 44-1. A comparison of these two rolls indicates that the
date of the mess squad listing is June of 1777. During this month the 3rd New Jersey was attached to the main army
and posted near the Short Hills in northern New Jersey. Muster rolls of the 3rd New Jersey Regiment, ibid., reels 62,
63 and 63. One instance of the varying numbers of men per company within an individual regiment comes from the
3rd New Jersey for June of 1777. The numbers are as follows: Ross's Company, 49 enlisted men; Dickerson's Co.,
65; Flanigan's Co., 42; Gifford's Co., 32; Hagan's Co., 20; and Patterson's Co., 33. The full strength of a company of
foot in 1777 was eighty-six enlisted men. Robert K. Wright, Jr., The Continental Army (Washington, D.C.:
Government Printing Office, 1984), 47
2. Pension papers of Samuel C. Johnston/Johnson, Pnew Jersey Regiment (W20215), Revolutionary War Pension
and Bounty - Land - Warrant Application Files, National Archives Microfilm Publication M804.

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
Statement of Margaret Johnston/Johnson (wife of Samuel C. Johnston/Johnson, pension W20215)
“… her oldest Child was Eleven Months old, when she went to her said Husband, when he was in Capt: Ross’s
Company, and that she lived in Mount Holly, in the State of New Jersey, before she went, she says her childs Name
was Rebecca Johnston, which she left at home with [her or his] Mother and agreed to give her one Dollar per Week
for the taking care of her said Child, which her said husband paid out of his Wages, Received while in the service –
she further says – her said Husband had the Small Pox, and hired a man to come to Mount Holly, and bring her to
Camp, to take care of him – that he was stationed not far from Morristown, in New Jersey, it was in the Spring of the
Year, that she staid with him a few days over two Months, & took care of him, & she thinks there was twelve in the
Mess to which she was attached – that she cooked & Washed for the Mess, while there, she says that Capt John Ross
said to her she ought to have had two Dollars per Week for what she did – Capt Ross, said to me, that he would try to
get some out of their Wages (to wit) the Soldiers and pay Me – but I never received one penny – the Year I cannot
recollect, because I have become so old, over Eighty Years of age – she says she recollects, it was a very
Discouraging and gloomy time with the Army … and that she never learned to write.”
“’Remember[ing] the Ladies’: Margaret Johnson and Elizabeth Evans, Women of the New Jersey Brigade”
http://www.scribd.com/doc/235418684/Remember-ing-the-Ladies-Margaret-Johnson-and-Elizabeth-Evans-
Women-of-the-New-Jersey-Brigade

38
=================================

Mary Johnson, 2d Virginia Regiment (see also Ann McIntire)
Valley Forge camp: “On January 29 [1778], General Greene approved 100 lashes each for Jeremiah Bride and
Mary Johnson (who was also drummed out of the army by all the fifes and drums of the division …”
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army:?
Date of death: ?
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): Richard Johnson, 2d Virginia Regiment
Names and birthdates of children: ?

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.):. 2d Virginia Regiment, 1777
Campaigns: 1777 New Jersey and Philadelphia campaigns
Garrison locations:
Battles participated in/observed: uncertain
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: 1777 to January 1778

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
John B.B. Trussell, Jr., Birthplace of an Army: A Study of the Valley Forge Encampment (Harrisburg, Pa.: Pennsylvania
Historical and Museum Commission, 1979), 73.
George Weedon, Valley Forge Orderly Book of General George Weedon of the Continental Army under Command of
Genl. George Washington, in the Campaign of 1777-8 (New York, N.Y., 1971), 187, 214-216.

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
From Trussell, Birthplace of an Army: A Study of the Valley Forge Encampment, 73.
Valley Forge, January 1778: “Perhaps the most surprising case of an enlisted man punished by no more than a reprimand
was that of Private Edward Driver, 2d Virginia, who was convicted of mutiny and desertion by a division court martial
of Nathanael Greene’s division. Driver was involved in a conspiracy between Andrew Webb, 10th Virginia, and six other
members of the 2d Virginia – Thomas Pelton, Robert Edwards, Timothy Dreskill (who had already received 100 lashes
for attempted desertion less than a month before), William Cox, Jeremiah Bride, and Richard Johnson – along with his
Johnson’s wife, Mary. Also implicated were John Keyton, 10th Virginia; William McIntire, 2d Virginia; and McIntire’s
wife, Ann. These individuals were tried by a court martial, but the sentence (which has not been recorded) was
disapproved on January 28 as being in excess of what was authorized by the articles of war. On January 29, General
Greene approved 100 lashes each for Jeremiah Bride and Mary Johnson (who was also drummed out of the army by all
the fifes and drums of the division, and appears to have been the ringleader in the plot) and the previously noted
reprimand for Driver; John Keyton, and William and Ann McIntire were acquitted; the remaining six were sentenced to
100 lashes each, but in their cases the punishment was remitted.”
=================================

39
(Contributed by Eliza West)
Eliza Kingsbury and children (unit unknown)
October 1779: “I have been seven years married to a Carpenter; a man naturally industrious, but like my self
unfortunate. In the commencement of the War [he] inlisted as Artificer, and I accompanied him with two
small Children and all our effects, (which tho not grand, were decent) to Ticonderoga, tho I am entirely unfit,
both by nature and constitution for the fatigues of a camp, yet at the request of my husband I undertook this
journey, nor was I appriz’d of the Army’s retreating [on the night of July 5/6 1777] till they had [illegible]
[evacua]tion, and every [hutt empty?] around me – My husband was absent on command and my self almost
unable to travel by weakness and dejection of spirits which now Tried me.”
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army:?
Date of death: ?
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): ?Names and birthdates of children: ?

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): Eliza Kingsbury’s husband was an artificer with a regiment at Fort
Ticonderoga before its evacuation by American forces on the night of 5/6 July 1777.
Campaigns: Saratoga campaign, summer 1777
Garrison locations: Fort Ticonderoga, New York
Battles participated in/observed: American evacuation of Fort Ticonderoga, July 1777
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: not certainly known

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
Eliza Kingsbury letter to unknown officer, 4 October 1779, Miscellaneous Numbered Records, National Archive
Microfilm Publication M859, reel 66, item 20592.

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
(Miscellaneous Numbered Records, National Archive Microfilm Publication M859, reel 66, item 20592.)
“Albany Octo 4th. 1779
Whilst the welfare of an injured and Oppressed people depends upon you, and your whole faculties doubtless
engaged with concern for their interest, is it possible a tale of private sorrow should find admission to your ear –
I am encouraged to appeal to you from the general Character of your condision and humanity even to the meanest
people. Be patient great Sir whilst I relate the whole of my distress, and hope to find in you, the refined feelings of
humanity which are rarely to be met with –
I am myself the daughter of a Gentleman in the North of England, and can remember with regret that I once lived
in affluence, and had the advantages of a virtuous and a liberal education. Upon a disagreement with my family, I left
my native Country and came to America, some years before this cruel contest happened. I had then the priveledge of
hearing after from my Father, and receiveing supplies to keep me above real want. In the beginning of the War, my
friends overcame their unjust resentments and sent orders to draw money from a person who was Secretary to the
Earl of Dunmoreto equip myself and return home, but alas the ill timed pardon came too late & the Gentleman saild
for England, a fortnight before my letter came to hand, and no other person would receive said order.
Here I was at once deprived of all I held most dear. Friends, Relations, and native Land, I must never more expect
to see – Were this all, and I might be permited to earn my bread by slavish industry, I should endeavour to be
contented, (happiness I know is beyond my attainment in this world) but this resource, reasonable as it may seem, is
also denied. I have been seven years married to a Carpenter; a man naturally industrious, but like my self
unfortunate. In the commencement of the War [he] inlisted as Artificer, and I accompanied him with two small
Children and all our effects, (which tho not grand, were decent) to Ticonderoga, tho I am entirely unfit, both by
nature and constitution for the fatigues of a camp, yet at the request of my husband I undertook this journey, nor was
I appriz’d of the Army’s retreating till they had [illegible] [evacua]tion, and every [hutt empty?] around me – My
husband was absent on command and my self almost unable to travel by weakness and dejection of spirits which now
Tried me. I was obliged to leave every comfortable necessary behind, and make my escape with only the Cloaths I
wore. For three days sucessively I made my way through the most solitary woods, I have ever read off [sic] without

40
any subsistance but the berries and water I providentially met with. My two Children often cryed to me for food, but
I none to give, nor could I procure any from the hard hearted Inhabitants, and when weary with travelling at night, if
I gained accep[tance] to any house, I was obliged to lye upon the floor in company with their dogs, I who had been
accustomed to sleep on down, and wake to scenes of plenty and pleasure was now a helpless Vagrant, destitute of the
common necessaries of life, wandering through a land of strangers with two little Infants, without the least prospect
of relief. My strength was almost exhausted with continued fatigue, and my ears often assailed with the Yells of the
savages at a distance in the woods which almost froze me with terror, at length I arrived in Albany, and had the good
fortune to see my husband again, who had also met with incredible hardships. The directors of hospitals gave me a
room and employed my husband as a Carpenter – here we have continued ever since and by his work have been
enabled to procur some necessaries requisite for a comfortable living once more- he is now recalled to his Regiment,
an affair that will infallibly ruin us – We have now three Children, and I have no home or dependance but on my
husband. This will oblige me to follow a Camp, which is far more dreadfull than death to me, I therefore entreat you
good Sir consider my helpless situation and permit my husband to stay here and work for the Congress, which will
save me and my poor little [illegible, but likely children or little ones] from the disasters attendant on a Camp, and he
will be as serviceable here, as he can possibly be in the capacity of a soldier – this grant from your Excellency will
inable us to get a maintinance for our family – the reverse will end in confusion misery, and bitter want to me and my
infants -
Pardon sir the liberty I have presumed to take in addressing my case to you; but since heaven seems to have chosen
you to redress our public wrongs I hope the benevolence of your nature will incline you to commiserate private
distress, that ever the [lowest?] Ranks of people may have reasons to admire and feel you beneficance, as well as
those who are in high Office about you - that heaven will protect you and smile on all your undertakings is the
sincere prayer of the unfortunate
Eliza Kingsbury
=================================

Lena Kime, 5th Pennsylvania Regiment
“She is gone with her husband [Andrew Kime], who is a servant also, and enlisted with Capt. Bartholomew in
the Pennsylvania Fifth battalion, commanded by Col. Francis Johnson. It is posed she is gone to Bristol
order to get to the camp with the soldiers …”
BASIC FACTS
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army: ?
Date of death: ?
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): Andrew Kime (Kyme)
Names and birthdates of children: ?

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): Bartholomew’s company, 5th Pennsylvania Regiment
Campaigns: 1777 New Jersey campaign
Garrison locations:
Battles participated in/observed: ?
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: summer 1777

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
Pvt. Andrew Kime (Kyme), service in the 5th Pennsylvania: (Compiled Service Records, National Archives), enlisted
8 May 1777; sick in hospital, 7 August to 10 December 1777; Valley Forge winter camp; Millstone, 24 February to
14April 1777; West point, 6 August to October 1779.

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
The Pennsylvania Evening Post, 3 June 3 1777: “RAN AWAY from the subscriber living in Wilmington, a Dutch
servant woman named LENA KIME, about thirty years of age, five feet high, thin face, and a scar on her nose; she
wears a black bonnet lined with pale red; her other clothes unknown, as she took a good many clothes with her. She

41
is gone with her husband [Andrew Kime], who is a servant also, and enlisted with Capt. Bartholomew in the
Pennsylvania Fifth battalion, commanded by Col. Francis Johnson. It is posed she is gone to Bristol order to get to
the camp with the soldiers, therefore it is hoped all those that keep the ferries on Delaware will apprehend said
servant, or any other person that secures her in Philadelphia workhouse, shall have Eight Dollars reward and
reasonable charges. Wilmington, Sixth month 3. MOSES BRYAN.”
=================================

Mrs. Lambertson, 2d New York
Colonel Israel Shreve, 2nd New Jersey Regiment, was left with 250 men to the fort while Sullivan's united force
moved on into western New York. On 24 August Shreve was instructed, “It will ... be absolutely necessary to
send most of the Women and Children [by boat] to Wyoming, returning only such as may be applied to the use
of the Hospital, or may be deem'd necessary to keep the Soldier's clean at their Return. You will give orders to
the Commissary at Wyoming [Pennsylvania] to issue Rations to those Women & Children.”
BASIC FACTS
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army:?
Date of death: ?
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): Simon Lambertson (sergeant)
Names and birthdates of children: ?

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): 7th company, 2d New York Regiment
Campaigns: 1779 campaign against the Iroquois
Garrison locations: Fort Sullivan, Tioga.
Battles participated in/observed: none
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: (known) May to October 1779
Sgt. Simon Lambertson, (Lamberson/Lambertson/Lamberton), service in the 2d New York: (Compiled Service Records,
National Archives), appointed 7 December 1776; Valley Forge 1778; camp at White Plains July/August 1778;
appointed sergeant 19 December 1778; camp at Jacob’s Plains, New York, February to June 1779; Morristown winter
camp 1780; northern New Jersey, June to August 1780; Schenectady, New York, September to December 1780; Fort
Herkimer, July 1781; Baltimore, Maryland, 15 September 1781; huts near Pompton, New Jersey, winter 1781/1782;
discharged June 1783.

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
"A Return of the Women & Children Left in Charge of Baggage, Necessary to wash for Genl Clintons Brigade",
probably August 1779, Israel Shreve Papers, Rutgers University, Alexander Library, manuscript no. 287.

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
See Miss Austin, 5th New York (Sullivan’s Campaign 1779)
=================================

42
Mrs. Lloyd, paid cook and wife/consort of an artificer at Fishkill, New York, 1782
“Sarah Parsell cooked for the wheelwrights, Mrs. Cregier performed the same service for the blacksmiths,
and Mrs. Lloyd served up meals to the express riders.”
BASIC FACTS
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army: ?
Date of death: ?
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): ?
Names and birthdates of children: ?

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): Continental artificers, Fishkill, New York
Campaigns: ?
Garrison locations: Fishkill, New York
Battles participated in/observed: none
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: 1782

DOCUMENTATION
Holly A. Mayer, Belonging to the Army: Camp Followers and Community during the American Revolution (Columbia:
University of South Carolina Press, 1996), 140. Endnote for pertinent passage: “Voucher for Thomas’s cooking services
by Sgt. Mark ‘Rodes,’ Philadelphia, 3 November 1780, in Letters, Orders for Pay, Accounts, Receipts, and Other
Supply Records Concerning Weapons and Military Stores, 1776-1801, M927, National Archives. Cooks and artificers
are noted in Compiled Service Records of American Naval Personnel and Members of the Departments of the
Quartermaster General and the Commissary General of Military Stores Who Served During the Revolutionary War,
M880, National Archives, rolls 1 and 2, and listed on ‘Pay Roll of sundry Persons employed in the publick Service …’
in Revolutionary War Rolls, 1775-1783, M246, National Archives, roll 135. Kerber in Women and the Republic
mentions a few of these people on pages 56-57.” (Linda K. Kerber, Women of the Republic: Intellect and Ideology in
Revolutionary America, University of North Carolina Press, 1997)

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
“When some artificers gathered at Fishkill in 1782 to work for the army, they brought female relations with them.
The quartermaster department paid a few of them to cook for the men. Sarah Parsell cooked for the wheelwrights,
Mrs. Cregier performed the same service for the blacksmiths, and Mrs. Lloyd served up meals to the express
riders. Parsell and Cregier received twelve days pay, at two shillings per day, for work done that January, while
Lloyd worked from May through September at ten dollars in New York currency per month. Parsell and Cregier
received considerably less than their artisan relations, but Lloyd’s monthly pay as a cook equaled that of her hostler
husband.” Holly A. Mayer, Belonging to the Army: Camp Followers and Community during the American Revolution
(Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1996), 140.
=================================

43
(Contributed by Steve Rayner)
Christianna McCune, 9th Virginia Regiment
“…the said Peter McCune was married to her, dressed in his soldiers uniform, and that he rendered many
and arduous services after their marriage, during the greater part of the Indian war... and that she herself
has shared in all the dangers and toils incident to the wife of a soldier engaged in savage warfare and that she
has slept by the side of her husband when he was ordered to lay upon his arms …”
BASIC FACTS
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army: 1767, 14 years old in 1781
Date of death: ?
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): Peter McCune (January 13 1781)
Names and birthdates of children: six sons and four daughters

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): Campbell’s company, 9th Virginia Regiment
Campaigns: none
Garrison locations: Fort Richards on the West Fork River, Virginia
Battles participated in/observed: none
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment:

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
Pension papers of Peter McCune, 2d and 9th Virginia Regiments, 1777-1781 (W7412), supplementary depositions of
Christianna McCune, Elijah Runion, and Adam Flesher, Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty - Land - Warrant
Application Files, National Archives Microfilm Publication M804, reel 695. Transcribed and annotated by C. Leon
Harris, “Southern Campaign Revolutionary War Pension Statements” http://revwarapps.org/w7412.pdf

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
Pension Application of Peter McCune W7412 (Transcribed and annotated by C. Leon Harris)
“At A Court held for the County of Lewis on the 13th day of September 1820 it being a Court of Record for said
County Peter McCune a resident of the said County of Lewis who being first duly Sworn according to Law doth on
his oath declare that he served in the Revolutionary War as follows towit that he Enlisted as a Soldier in the
Revolutionary War in the year 1777 in a Company of Regulars under the command of Captain John Lewis of the 2nd
Virginia Regiment under the command of Col Thomas Morgan that he afterwards at Petersburg entered as a private
in Captain Campbells Company of Regulars attached to the 9th Virginia Regiment under Col Gibson that he
remained in the Service of the united states against the English and Indians attached to said 9th Regiment for three
years when he was Regularly discharged at Wheeling in the year 1781...
NOTES:
On 1 Oct 1839 Christianna McCune of Kanawha County, 72, applied for a pension stating that she was married to
Peter McCune on 13 Jan 1781 at age 14 by a Baptist preacher named Edwards while they were forted against the
Indians in Fort Richards on West Fork River about 10 miles south of Clarksburg. She added “that her youthful
affection was placed on the said Peter McCune as a soldier that she married him with the understanding that he was
then a soldier in the service of his Country, guarding the fort, and she distinctly recollects that the said Peter McCune
was married to her, dressed in his soldiers uniform, and that he rendered many and arduous services after their
marriage, during the greater part of the Indian war... and that she herself has shared in all the dangers and toils
incident to the wife of a soldier engaged in savage warfare and that she has slept by the side of her husband when he
was ordered to lay upon his arms, and that such was the fondness of her late husband, Peter McCune for military life,
that even in old age during the late war he substituted and performed at least one six months tour of duty.” She stated
that she and Peter McCune had six sons and four daughters, and he died 15 Jan 1832.
In support of her application, Elijah Runion [pension application R9079], 78, deposed that he was present at the
marriage of Peter McCune to Christianna, daughter of Adam Obrian, that Runion himself had married a widow with
a daughter two or three years old. He added “that the appearance of the bride at the time she was married was that of
a verry young girl, he says that he recollects Joking her on the occasion, and told her to roll up some handkerchiefs

44
and put in her bosom to give appearance of breasts.”
On 9 Oct 1839 Adam Flesher [S18403], 75, deposed that he was also present at the marriage and that McCune
wore “what was called a Mcaruona [macaroni] hat such as soldiers wore, and a blue coat faced with red.””
“Southern Campaign Revolutionary War Pension Statements,” http://revwarapps.org/w7412.pdf
=================================

Ann McIntire, 2d Virginia Regiment (see also Mary Johnson)
Valley Forge, January 1778: “John Keyton, and William and Ann McIntire were acquitted; the remaining six
were sentenced to 100 lashes each, but in their cases the punishment was remitted.”
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army:?
Date of death: ?
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): William McIntire, 2d Virginia Regiment
Names and birthdates of children: ?

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.):. 2d Virginia Regiment, 1777
Campaigns: 1777 New Jersey and Philadelphia campaigns
Garrison locations:
Battles participated in/observed: uncertain
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: 1777 to January 1778

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
John B.B. Trussell, Jr., Birthplace of an Army: A Study of the Valley Forge Encampment (Harrisburg, Pa.: Pennsylvania
Historical and Museum Commission, 1979), 73.
George Weedon, Valley Forge Orderly Book of General George Weedon of the Continental Army under Command of
Genl. George Washington, in the Campaign of 1777-8 (New York, N.Y., 1971), 187, 214-216.

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
From Trussell, Birthplace of an Army: A Study of the Valley Forge Encampment, 73.
Valley Forge, January 1778: “Perhaps the most surprising case of an enlisted man punished by no more than a reprimand
was that of Private Edward Driver, 2d Virginia, who was convicted of mutiny and desertion by a division court martial
of Nathanael Greene’s division. Driver was involved in a conspiracy between Andrew Webb, 10th Virginia, and six other
members of the 2d Virginia – Thomas Pelton, Robert Edwards, Timothy Dreskill (who had already received 100 lashes
for attempted desertion less than a month before), William Cox, Jeremiah Bride, and Richard Johnson – along with his
Johnson’s wife, Mary. Also implicated were John Keyton, 10th Virginia; William McIntire, 2d Virginia; and McIntire’s
wife, Ann. These individuals were tried by a court martial, but the sentence (which has not been recorded) was
disapproved on January 28 as being in excess of what was authorized by the articles of war. On January 29, General
Greene approved 100 lashes each for Jeremiah Bride and Mary Johnson (who was also drummed out of the army by all
the fifes and drums of the division, and appears to have been the ringleader in the plot) and the previously noted
reprimand for Driver; John Keyton, and William and Ann McIntire were acquitted; the remaining six were sentenced to
100 lashes each, but in their cases the punishment was remitted.”
=================================

45
(Contributed by Steve Rayner)
Ann Nice, unknown Pennsylvania regiment, 1779/1780
“She Declarant, was in the Service and saw Anna Martha Elmore at Morristown at the time they were
Encamped together during the winter of seventeen hundred and seventy nine in a place called Jockey Hollow
[Note: the year was likely 1779-80, when the Pennsylvania line spent the winter at Jockey Hollow, [near
Morristown, New Jersey] and they washed together while there …”
BASIC FACTS
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army: born 1756 (23 years old in 1779)
Date of death: ?
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): ?
Names and birthdates of children: ?

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): unknown Pennsylvania regiment
Campaigns: ?
Garrison locations: Jockey Hollow winter camp, 1779-1780
Battles participated in/observed: ?
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: known 1779-1780 (perhaps longer)

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
Pension papers of Frederick Wilhelm Ellmore (Ilmer), 1777-1783 (R3325), Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty
- Land - Warrant Application Files, National Archives Microfilm Publication M804. Transcribed and annotated by
C. Leon Harris, “Southern Campaign Revolutionary War Pension Statements” http://revwarapps.org

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
See entry for Anna [Hannah] Martha Elmore/Ellmore/Ilmer
"State of Pennsylvania }
County of Philadelphia }
On this Twenty third day of May AD 1838 personally appeared before me an Alderman and Justice of the peace in
and for the said County and State aforesaid Ann Nice Aged Eighty two years Resident of the County, who being
first duly affirmed according to law, doth declare and say, that she was personally acquainted with Anna
Martha Elmore, before she was Married to Frederick Wilhelm Elmore, they both lived in the City and
County, and were in the habit of visiting each other; a few days after the Marriage of Anna Martha, she left
her Father’s house, and went with her husband the said Frederick Wilhelm Elmore into the Army. She
Declarant, was in the Service and saw Anna Martha Elmore at Morristown at the time they were Encamped
together during the winter of seventeen hundred and seventy nine in a place called Jockey Hollow [Note: the
year was likely 1779-80, when the Pennsylvania line spent the winter at Jockey Hollow, near Morristown,
New Jersey] and they washed together while there; and believes to the best of her knowledge it was just
before the Battle of Stony Point [16 Jul 1779], that Serjeant Frederick Wilhelm Elmore was transfered to
another Company and marched for the South; and then it was that she affirmant lost sight of them, and did
not see them again until the Troops were discharged and returned from the Southward. Ann herXmark Nice"
"Pension Application of Frederick Wilhelm Ellmore (Ilmer) R3325 Anna Martha Ellmore PA Transcribed and
annotated by C. Leon Harris." http://revwarapps.org/r3325.pdf
=================================

46
Sarah Osborn, 3d New York
“Deponent took her stand just back of the American tents, say about a mile from the town, and busied herself
washing, mending, and cooking for the soldiers, in which she was assisted by the other females; some men
washed their own clothing. She heard the roar of the artillery for a number of days, and the last night the
Americans threw up entrenchments, it was a misty, foggy night, rather wet but not rainy. Every soldier threw
up for himself, as she understood, and she afterwards saw and went into the entrenchments. Deponent’s said
husband was there throwing up entrenchments, and deponent cooked and carried in beef, and bread, and
coffee {in a gallon pot) to the soldiers in the entrenchment.”
BASIC FACTS
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army: 1744 (37 years old in 1781)
Date of death: 1858
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): Aaron Osborn (January 1780), John Benjamin (April 1787)
Names and birthdates of children: Phebe Osborn, born 20 February 1783 at New Windsor
Aaron Osborn, Jr., born 9 August 1784

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): 1st New York Regiment
Campaigns: Yorktown campaign and siege
Garrison locations: West Point, Pompton Plains, New Windsor
Battles participated in/observed: Yorktown siege
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: 1781-1783

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
Pension papers of Aaron Osborn, 3d and1st New York Regiments (W4558), Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty
- Land - Warrant Application Files, National Archives Microfilm Publication M804.

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
Sarah Osborn Recollects Her Experiences in the Revolutionary War, 1837
Sarah Osborn was a servant in a blacksmith’s household in Albany, New York, when she met and married Aaron
Osborn, a blacksmith and Revolutionary war veteran, in 1780. When he re-enlisted as a commissary sergeant without
informing her, Sarah agreed to accompany him. They went first to West Point, and Sarah later traveled with the
Continental army for the campaign in the southern colonies, working as a washerwoman and cook. Her vivid
description included a meeting with General Washington and memories of the surrender of British forces at
Yorktown. This account comes from a deposition she filed in 1837, at the age of eighty-one, as part of a claim under
the first pension act for Revolutionary war veterans and their widows.

...after deponent had married said [Aaron] Osborn, he informed her that he was returned during the war, and that he
desired deponent to go with him. Deponent declined until she was informed by Captain Gregg that her husband
should be put on the commissary guard, and that she should have the means of conveyance either in a wagon or on
horseback. That deponent then in the same winter season in sleighs accompanied her husband and the forces under
command of Captain Gregg on the east side of the Hudson river to Fishkill, then crossed the river and went down to
West Point. There remained till the river opened in the spring, when they returned to Albany. Captain Gregg’s
company was along, and she thinks Captain Parsons, Lieutenant Forman, and Colonel Van Schaick, but is not
positive.
Deponent, accompanied by her said husband and the same forces, returned during the same season to West Point.
Deponent recollects no other females in company but the wife of Lieutenant Forman and of Sergeant Lamberson.
Deponent further says that she and her husband remained at West Point till the departure of the army for the South,
a term of perhaps one year and a half, but she cannot be positive as to the length of time. While at West Point,
deponent lived at Lieutenant Foot’s, who kept a boardinghouse. Deponent was employed in washing and sewing for
the soldiers. Her said husband was employed about the camp. . . .
When the army were about to leave West Point and go south, they crossed over the river to Robinson’s Farms and
remained there for a length of time to induce the belief, as deponent understood, that they were going to take up
47
quarters there, whereas they recrossed the river in the nighttime into the Jerseys and traveled all night in a direct
course for Philadelphia. Deponent was part of the time on horseback and part of the time in a wagon. Deponent’s
said husband was still serving as one of the commissary’s guard.
. . . They continued their march to Philadelphia, deponent on horseback through the streets, and arrived at a place
towards the Schuylkill where the British had burnt some houses, where they encamped for the afternoon and night.
Being out of bread, deponent was employed in baking the afternoon and evening. Deponent recollects no females but
Sergeant Lamberson’s and Lieutenant Forman’s wives and a colored woman by the name of Letta. The Quaker ladies
who came round urged deponent to stay, but her said husband said, “No, he could not leave her behind.”
Accordingly, next day they continued their march from day to day till they arrived at Baltimore, where deponent and
her said husband and the forces under command of General Clinton, Captain Gregg, and several other officers, all of
whom she does not recollect, embarked on board a vessel and sailed down the Chesapeake. . . .They continued sail
until they had got up the St. James River as far as the tide would carry them, about twelve miles from the mouth, and
then landed, and the tide being spent, they had a fine time catching sea lobsters, which they ate.
They, however, marched immediately for a place called Williamsburg, as she thinks, deponent alternately on
horseback and on foot. There arrived, they remained two days till the army all came in by land and then marched for
Yorktown, or Little York as it was then called. The York troops were posted at the right, the Connecticut troops next,
and the French to the left. In about one day or less than a day, they reached the place of encampment about one mile
from Yorktown. Deponent was on foot and the other females above named and her said husband still on the
commissary’s guard. . . . Deponent took her stand just back of the American tents, say about a mile from the town,
and busied herself washing, mending, and cooking for the soldiers, in which she was assisted by the other females;
some men washed their own clothing. She heard the roar of the artillery for a number of days, and the last night the
Americans threw up entrenchments, it was a misty, foggy night, rather wet but not rainy. Every soldier threw up for
himself, as she understood, and she afterwards saw and went into the entrenchments. Deponent’s said husband was
there throwing up entrenchments, and deponent cooked and carried in beef, and bread, and coffee {in a gallon pot) to
the soldiers in the entrenchment.
On one occasion when deponent was thus employed carrying in provisions, she met General Washington, who asked
her if she “was not afraid of the cannonballs?”
She replied, “No, the bullets would not cheat the gallows,” that “It would not do for the men to fight and starve too.”
They dug entrenchments nearer and nearer to Yorktown every night or two till the last. While digging that, the
enemy fired very heavy till about nine o’clock next morning, then stopped, and the drums from the enemy beat
excessively. Deponent was a little way off in Colonel Van Schaick’s or the officers' marquee and a number of
officers were present, among whom was Captain Gregg, who, on account of infirmities, did not go out much to do
duty.
The drums continued beating, and all at once the officers hurrahed and swung their hats, and deponent asked them,
“What is the matter now?”
One of them replied, “Are not you soldier enough to know what it means?”
Deponent replied, “No.”
They then replied, “The British have surrendered.”
Deponent, having provisions ready, carried the same down to the entrenchments that morning, and four of the
soldiers whom she was in the habit of cooking for ate their breakfasts.
Deponent stood on one side of the road and the American officers upon the other side when the British officers came
out of the town and rode up to the American officers and delivered up [their swords, which the deponent] thinks were
returned again, and the British officers rode right on before the army, who marched out beating and playing a
melancholy tune, their drums covered with black handkerchiefs and their fifes with black ribbands tied around them,
into an old field and there grounded their arms and then returned into town again to await their destiny. Deponent
recollects seeing a great many American officers, some on horseback and some on foot, but cannot call them all by
name. Washington, Lafayette, and Clinton were among the number. The British general at the head of the army was a
large, portly man, full face, and the tears rolled down his cheeks as he passed along. She does not recollect his name,
but it was not Cornwallis. She saw the latter afterwards and noticed his being a man of diminutive appearance and
having cross eyes. . . .
After two or three days, deponent and her husband, Captain Gregg, and others who were sick or complaining
embarked on board a vessel from Yorktown, not the same they came down in, and set sail up the Chesapeake Bay
and continued to the Head of Elk, where they landed. The main body of the army remained behind but came on soon
48
afterwards. Deponent and her husband proceeded with the commissary’s teams from the Head of Elk, leaving
Philadelphia to the right, and continued day after day till they arrived at Pompton Plains in New Jersey. Deponent
does not recollect the county. They were joined by the main body of the army under General Clinton’s command,
and they set down for winter quarters. Deponent and her husband lived a part of the time in a tent made of logs but
covered with cloth, and a part of the time at a Mr. Manuel’s near Pompton Meetinghouse. She busied herself during
the winter in cooking and sewing as usual. Her said husband was on duty among the rest of the army and held the
station of corporal from the time he left West Point.
In the opening of spring, they marched to West Point and remained there during the summer, her said husband still
with her. In the fall they came up a little back of New-burgh to a place called New Windsor and put up huts on
Ellis’s lands and again sat down for winter quarters, her said husband still along and on duty. The York troops and
Connecticut troops were there. In the following spring or autumn they were all discharged. Deponent and her said
husband remained in New Windsor in a log house built by the army until the spring following. Some of the soldiers
boarded at their house and worked round among the farmers, as did her said husband also.
Deponent and her said husband spent certainly more than three years in the service, for she recollects a part of one
winter at West Point and the whole of another winter there, another winter at Pompton Plains, and another at New
Windsor. And her husband was the whole time under the command of Captain Gregg as an enlisted soldier holding
the station of corporal to the best of her knowledge.
In the winter before the army were disbanded at New Windsor, on the twentieth of February, deponent had a child by
the name of Phebe Osborn, of whom the said Aaron Osborn was the father. A year and five months afterwards, on
the ninth day of August at the same place, she had another child by the name of Aaron Osborn, Jr., of whom the said
husband was the father. . . .
About three months after the birth of her last child, Aaron Osborn, Jr., she last saw her said husband, who then left
her at New Windsor and never returned. He had been absent at intervals before this from deponent, and at one time
deponent understood he was married again to a girl by the name of Polly Sloat above Newburgh about fifteen or
sixteen miles. Deponent got a horse and rode up to inquire into the truth of the story. She arrived at the girl’s father’s
and there found her said husband, and Polly Sloat, and her parents. Deponent was kindly treated by the inmates of
the house but ascertained for a truth that her husband was married to said girl. After remaining overnight, deponent
determined to return home and abandon her said husband forever, as she found he had conducted in such a way as to
leave no hope of reclaiming him. About two weeks afterwards, her said husband came to see deponent in New
Windsor and offered to take deponent and her children to the northward, but deponent declined going, under a firm
49
belief that he would conduct no better, and her said husband the same night absconded with two others, crossed the
river at Newburgh, and she never saw him afterwards. This was about a year and a half after his discharge....
After deponent was thus left by Osborn, she removed from New Windsor to Blooming Grove, Orange County, New
York, about fifty years ago, where she had been born and brought up, and, having married Mr. [John] Benjamin . . .
she continued to reside there perhaps thirty-five years, when she and her husband Benjamin removed to Pleasant
Mount, Wayne County, Pennsylvania, and there she has resided to this day. Her said husband, John Benjamin, died
there ten years ago last April, from which time she has continued to be and is now a widow.
Source: Sarah Osborn’s application for Revolutionary War pension, Record Group 15, Records of the Veterans
Administration, National Archives, Washington, D.C., in John C. Dann, ed., The Revolution Remembered:
Eyewitness Accounts of the War for Independence (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980), 242–50.
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5833/
=================================

Mrs. Parker, 3d New York
Colonel Israel Shreve, 2nd New Jersey Regiment, was left with 250 men to the fort while Sullivan's united force
moved on into western New York. On 24 August Shreve was instructed, “It will ... be absolutely necessary to
send most of the Women and Children [by boat] to Wyoming, returning only such as may be applied to the use
of the Hospital, or may be deem'd necessary to keep the Soldier's clean at their Return. You will give orders to
the Commissary at Wyoming [Pennsylvania] to issue Rations to those Women & Children.”
BASIC FACTS
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army:?
Date of death: ?
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): Edward Parker (private)
Names and birthdates of children: ?

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): colonel’s company, 3d New York Regiment
Campaigns: 1779 campaign against the Iroquois
Garrison locations: Fort Sullivan, Tioga.
Battles participated in/observed: none
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: (known) May to October 1779
Pvt. Edward Parker, service in the 3d New York: (Compiled Service Records, National Archives), enlisted December
1776; stationed at Fort Schuyler [Fort Stanwix] December 1776 to September 1778; Albany, New York, December
1778; camp at Canajoharie, May/June 1779; Morristown winter camp 1779/1780; West Point, New York May to July
1780; no further information.

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
"A Return of the Women & Children Left in Charge of Baggage, Necessary to wash for Genl Clintons Brigade",
probably August 1779, Israel Shreve Papers, Rutgers University, Alexander Library, manuscript no. 287.

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
See Miss Austin, 5th New York (Sullivan’s Campaign 1779)
=================================

50
Sarah Parsell, cook and female relation of an artificer at Fishkill, New York, 1782
“Sarah Parsell cooked for the wheelwrights, Mrs. Cregier performed the same service for the blacksmiths,
and Mrs. Lloyd served up meals to the express riders.”
BASIC FACTS
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army: ?
Date of death: ?
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): ?
Names and birthdates of children: ?

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): Continental artificers, Fishkill, New York
Campaigns: ?
Garrison locations: Fishkill, New York
Battles participated in/observed: none
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: 1782

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
Holly A. Mayer, Belonging to the Army: Camp Followers and Community during the American Revolution (Columbia:
University of South Carolina Press, 1996), 140. Endnote for pertinent passage: “Voucher for Thomas’s cooking services
by Sgt. Mark ‘Rodes,’ Philadelphia, 3 November 1780, in Letters, Orders for Pay, Accounts, Receipts, and Other
Supply Records Concerning Weapons and Military Stores, 1776-1801, M927, National Archives. Cooks and artificers
are noted in Compiled Service Records of American Naval Personnel and Members of the Departments of the
Quartermaster General and the Commissary General of Military Stores Who Served During the Revolutionary War,
M880, National Archives, rolls 1 and 2, and listed on ‘Pay Roll of sundry Persons employed in the publick Service …’
in Revolutionary War Rolls, 1775-1783, M246, National Archives, roll 135. Kerber in Women and the Republic
mentions a few of these people on pages 56-57.” (Linda K. Kerber, Women of the Republic: Intellect and Ideology in
Revolutionary America, University of North Carolina Press, 1997)

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
“When some artificers gathered at Fishkill in 1782 to work for the army, they brought female relations with them.
The quartermaster department paid a few of them to cook for the men. Sarah Parsell cooked for the wheelwrights,
Mrs. Cregier performed the same service for the blacksmiths, and Mrs. Lloyd served up meals to the express
riders. Parsell and Cregier received twelve days pay, at two shillings per day, for work done that January, while
Lloyd worked from May through September at ten dollars in New York currency per month. Parsell and Cregier
received considerably less than their artisan relations, but Lloyd’s monthly pay as a cook equaled that of her hostler
husband.” Holly A. Mayer, Belonging to the Army: Camp Followers and Community during the American Revolution
(Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1996), 140.
=================================

Mrs. Penojer, 4th New York
Colonel Israel Shreve, 2nd New Jersey Regiment, was left with 250 men to the fort while Sullivan's united force
moved on into western New York. On 24 August Shreve was instructed, “It will ... be absolutely necessary to
send most of the Women and Children [by boat] to Wyoming, returning only such as may be applied to the use
of the Hospital, or may be deem'd necessary to keep the Soldier's clean at their Return. You will give orders to
the Commissary at Wyoming [Pennsylvania] to issue Rations to those Women & Children.”
BASIC FACTS
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army:?
Date of death: ?
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): Jesse Penoyer (fifer)
Names and birthdates of children: ?

51
MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): Titus’s company, 4th New York Regiment
Campaigns: 1779 campaign against the Iroquois
Garrison locations: Fort Sullivan, Tioga.
Battles participated in/observed: none
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: (known) May to October 1779
Fifer Jesse Penoyer, service in the 4th New York: (Compiled Service Records, National Archives), enlisted January
1777; camp near Loudon’s Ferry on the Mohawk River January to September 1777; Valley Forge winter camp
December 1777 to June 1778; sick absent January 1778; sick in quarters May 1778; sick in Pennsylvania June to
September 1778; on furlough “sick & at Nine partners” October 1778 to February 1779; Fort Plank March/April 1779;
“Camp on Cherry Valley road” May/June 1779; appointed fife major 1 May 1779; Morristown winter camp 1779/1780;
discharged 31 December 1779.

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
"A Return of the Women & Children Left in Charge of Baggage, Necessary to wash for Genl Clintons Brigade",
probably August 1779, Israel Shreve Papers, Rutgers University, Alexander Library, manuscript no. 287.

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
See Miss Austin, 5th New York (Sullivan’s Campaign 1779)
=================================

(Contributed by Steve Rayner)
Elizabeth Robeson, 1st New York Regiment, 1777-1778
Testimony of John Brown, “when he went from this Town to go on Said Command he left Sundrey Articles
Viz a fether bed & bedding Shirts & Stockings two brass Cooking Kettles on[e] Tin kettle Teapott &c in the
Care of Elizabath Robeson whom he kep as a Compenion for Some time and that on his Return to Town from
Said Command he was informed that the Said Elizabath Robeson had imbazled & Made away with all his
Effects and was her Self gon to Fort Schuyler Along with another Man.”
BASIC FACTS
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army: ?
Date of death: ?
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): consort of Pvt. John Brown
Names and birthdates of children: ?

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): Capt. Graham’s company, Col. Goose Van Schaick's 1st New York Regiment
Campaigns: Saratoga campaign
Garrison locations: Fort Schuyler (Stanwix), Albany, Schenectady
Battles participated in/observed: Siege of Fort Schuyler (Stanwix), autumn 1777
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: 1777/1778

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
Alexander C. Flick, ed., Minutes of the Albany Committee of Correspondence 1775-1778 - Minutes of the
Schenectady Committee 1775-1779, vol. II, (Albany: Division of Archives and History, The University of the State
of New York, 1925), 1141-1142. https://archive.org/stream/minutes1775177802albauoft#page/1141/mode/1up
See also, T.W. Egly, Jr., History of the First New York Regiment, 1775-1783 (Hampton, N.H.: Peter E. Randall
Publisher, 1981)

52
NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
“Before the Schenectady Committee …
At a meeting of the Committee 3d Febry 1778
Present
John Cuyler
Hugh Mitchell
Alexander Vedder
John Brown Soldier in Colonel Van Skeuks Regiment & Captain Grahams Company Complains to this board and
Says that he hase been lately on Command Along with the Rest of his Company at Sarratoga and when he went from
this Town to go on Said Command he left Sundrey Articles Viz a fether bed & bedding Shirts & Stockings two brass
Cooking Kettles on[e] Tin kettle Teapott &c in the Care of Elizabath Robeson whom he kep as a Compenion for
Some time and that on his Return to Town from Said Command he was informed that the Said Elizabath Robeson
had imbazled & Made away with all his Effects and was her Self gon to Fort Schuyler Along with another Man.
On making inquirey After his Said Effects he has found the bed and bed Clothes in the possesion of Sarah
Culberson a kettle in the Custody of Petter Adair, Another Kettle in the Custody of Mrs Liddle a black Silk
handkertchief in the Custody of John the butcher a british Soldier who lodges at the house of Sarah Culberson, which
they refuse to deliver up to him"
Alexander C. Flick, ed., Minutes of the Albany Committee of Correspondence 1775-1778 - Minutes of the
Schenectady Committee 1775-1779, vol. II, (Albany: Division of Archives and History, The University of the State
of New York, 1925), 1141-1142. https://archive.org/stream/minutes1775177802albauoft#page/1141/mode/1up
=================================

(Contributed by C. Leon Harris)
Rosanna Shelley (née Lindy), Armand’s Legion, 1777-1783?
Testimony of Elizabeth Swartzwalter (née Lindy), “My sister (Rossanna) and Lewis Shelley where married in
the year 1777 – it was but a short time after Independence was declared. It was early in the Spring of that
year (1777) that they where married – my sister gave birth to a male child the following year (1778 – it was
born in Camp. Shortly after his marriage to my sister, he joined Armands Legion and my sister went with the
army. She travelled in a baggage wagon – it was well on to two years when she returned with her child, to
York. Further Deponent saith not. Elizabeth her X mark Swartzwalter”
BASIC FACTS
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army: born about 1757/ entered service early 1777, 19 or 20 years
of age
Date of death: 29 May 1843
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): Lewis Shelley (trumpeter), 3 Jan 1777
Names and birthdates of children: Lewis Shelley, Jr. 1778 (“born in Camp”), died at age four or five; Elizabeth
Shelley Ehler 20 April 1784; Jacob Shelley 6 June 1786.

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): Col. Charles Armand’s Legion
Campaigns: Saratoga campaign
Garrison locations: York, Pennsylvania.
Battles participated in/observed:
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: 1777-1779

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
Pension record http://revwarapps.org/w4513.pdf

53
NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
Pension Application of Lewis Shelley W4513 Rosanna Shelley PA Transcribed and annotated by C. Leon Harris.
State of Pennsylvania } Ss: Lancaster County }
On this 9th day of January AD 1843 Personally appeared before me, Emanuel Schaeffer, one of the associate Judges
of the court of Common Pleas in and for the county of Lancaster, Rosanna Shelly, a resident of the city of Lancaster
in the county and state aforesaid, aged 85 years and upwards, who being first duly sworn according to law, doth on
her oath make the following declaration in order to obtain the benefit of the provision made by the act of Congress
passed July 4, 1836. To the best of declarants recollection my husband Lewis Shelly, joined the Army of the
revolution in the year 1777 (shortly after we were married) as Bugleman in Armongs [sic: Charles Armand’s] Legion
of the Borough of York, he belonged to Captain Stark’s [sic: John Sharp] Company and his Major was [George]
Shaffner – this Legion was raised in York Borough – they joined the Legion during the revolutionary war – my
husband returned to the Borough of York in the year 1783 when he and Leonard Bumgardner [Leonard Baumgartner
(Baumgartel) BLWt1305-100] (who joined the Legion at the same time that my husband did) and both belonged to
one Company and were discharged together. She further states that she was married to the said Lewis Shelly on the
third day of January AD 1777 and that her husband the aforesaid Lewis Shelly died on the seventh day of July AD
1787 and that she was married to him prior to his leaving the service – we were married in York County by a Justice
long since dead. Rosanna her X mark Shelly

State of Pennsylvania }
On the twenty fifth day of February Anno Domini one thousand eight York County SS. } hundred and thirty eight
personally appeared before Jacob Gessner a Justice of the Peace in & for the Borough of York in said County of
York Leonard Baumgardner a resident of the said Borough of York who being duly sworn according to law deposeth
& saith as follows. That he was taken prisoner at the battle of [blank; see endnote] and marched by a guard to
Winchester in Virginia where he remained untill he was regularly exchanged & being desirous of remaining in the
United States, he enlisted in the service of the United States in Captain Shorbs [sic: Sharp’s] Company that he then
became acquainted with Lewis Shelly late of the Borough of York aforesaid deceased who was a Soldier of the
Revolution belonging to Armong’s legion under Major Shaffner and attached to Cap’n Shorbs Company and was
enlisted sometime before deponent was enlisted deponent further says that Lewis Shelly belonged to Armongs legion
Cap’n Shorbs Company & was Bugleman of said Company when he deponent enlisted at Winchester Virginia where
they remained from the time he enlisted untill they were marched to the Borough of York Pennsylvania sometime in
the month of [blank] and discharged in the month of November 1783, that they had enlisted for three years and
detained as he deponent was informed by the Officers for during the war, that they deponent & Lewis after remaining
there during the winter, we returned to Lancaster, and was regularly discharged in 1779. Shortly after my discharge
in 1779 I went to the Borough of York, and there joined Armond’s Legion, under Captain Sharpe (or Shorpe) a
company of Dragoons, and remained in service for about two years and after many skirmishes with the enemy
fatiguing marches and bearing a full share of the hardships which were sustained by the soldiers I was regularly
discharged. Shortly after joining Armonds Legion, I became acquainted with Lewis Shelly, the trumpeter of our
Company (Sharpe’s) he was the trumpeter of our company, until we were discharged, which was not less than two
years. The said Lewis Shelly served faithfully during the two years as the trumpeter of said company of Dragoons
Colonel Armond’s corps consisted of two companies of Infantry Three companies of Dragoons and one company of
Grenadiers. During this campaign I often seen the wife of Lewis Shelly the present applicant, in the Legion with her
husband, she was with the Legion during the whole Campaign, I seen her almost every day during the two years. [see
endnote] Deponent further states that Rossanna Shelly is the widow of Lewis Shelly, who died on the seventh day of
July AD 1787. Sworn to and subscribed the day and year above mentioned.

State of Pennsylvania } Ss: Lancaster County }
On this 18th day of March AD 1843 Personally appeared before me George Musser an Alderman duly
Commissioned in and for the City of Lancaster, Elizabeth Swartzwalter a resident of the Borough of Columbia in the
County and State aforesaid, aged 83 and upwards, who being first sworn according to law, depose and says as
follows. I am the Sister or Rossanna Shelley, (widow of Lewis Shelley a soldier of the revolution deceased – my
father’s name was John Lindy he resided in the Borough of York (now dead about sixty years). my sister Rossanna
was the eldest of my father’s children, and I was next eldest. I was last July eighty three years of age. I was present at
the solemnization of my sister Rossanna’s marriage to the aforesaid Lewis Shelley – my partner was Jacob Myers
54
(now deceased) of the Borough of York, we had gone from York to Hanover in York County and stoped at a tavern
kept by Powell Metzgar – the ceremony was performed by a Justice of the Peace of said village by the name of —
Schlegal – (both Metzgar and Schlegal have died some years ago). My sister (Rossanna) and Lewis Shelley where
married in the year 1777 – it was but a short time after Independence was declared. It was early in the Spring of that
year (1777) that they where married – my sister gave birth to a male child the following year (1778 – it was born in
Camp. Shortly after his marriage to my sister, he joined Armands Legion and my sister went with the army. She
travelled in a baggage wagon – it was well on to two years when she returned with her child, to York. Further
Deponent saith not. Elizabeth her X mark Swartzwalter
NOTES: It was not unusual for wives and other “camp followers” to accompany the troops. It is likely that
Leonard Baumgartner was one of the Hessian soldiers captured at Saratoga on 17 Oct 1777 and kept at
Albemarle Barracks near Charlottesville VA until February 1781, when they were transferred to Winchester.
Alternatively, Baumgartner may have been captured at Yorktown on 19 Oct 1781. A letter dated 5 June 1843
states that the first child of Lewis and Rosanna Shelley was born in camp and named Lewis Shelley, and that
he died at four or five years of age. On 5 June 1843 John Leonard stated that Rosanna Shelley died on the
morning of 29 May 1843 leaving the following two children: “Elizabeth intermarried with Jacob Ehler who
resides with his wife in Church Street in the City of Lancaster – and Jacob Shelley resides in Monagen
Township York County.” John Leonard also stated that the family record shows that Elizabeth Shelley was
born on 20 April 1784, and Jacob Shelley was born on 6 June 1786.
=================================

55
William Laffan, ed., The Cries of Dublin: Drawn from the Life by Hugh
Douglas Hamilton, 1760 (Dublin: Irish Georgian Society, 2003), 107.

=================================

Miss Sherlock. 3d New York
Colonel Israel Shreve, 2nd New Jersey Regiment, was left with 250 men to the fort while Sullivan's united force
moved on into western New York. On 24 August Shreve was instructed, “It will ... be absolutely necessary to
send most of the Women and Children [by boat] to Wyoming, returning only such as may be applied to the use
of the Hospital, or may be deem'd necessary to keep the Soldier's clean at their Return. You will give orders to
the Commissary at Wyoming [Pennsylvania] to issue Rations to those Women & Children.”
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army:?
Date of death: ?
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): John Sherlock (private)
Names and birthdates of children: ?

56
MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): Aorson's company, 3d New York Regiment
Campaigns: 1779 campaign against the Iroquois
Garrison locations: Fort Sullivan, Tioga.
Battles participated in/observed: none
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: (known) May to October 1779
Pvt. John Sherlock, service in the 3d New York: (Compiled Service Records, National Archives), enlisted December
1776; stationed at Fort Schuyler [Fort Stanwix] December 1776 to November 1778; Albany, New York, December
1778; Fort George January/February 1779; Canajoharie, May/June 1779; Morristown winter camp 1779/1780; West
Point, New York May to July 1780; Saratoga September to December 1780; no further information.

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
"A Return of the Women & Children Left in Charge of Baggage, Necessary to wash for Genl Clintons Brigade",
probably August 1779, Israel Shreve Papers, Rutgers University, Alexander Library, manuscript no. 287.

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
See Miss Austin, 5th New York (Sullivan’s Campaign 1779)
=================================

Miss Smith and child, 4th New York
Colonel Israel Shreve, 2nd New Jersey Regiment, was left with 250 men to the fort while Sullivan's united force
moved on into western New York. On 24 August Shreve was instructed, “It will ... be absolutely necessary to
send most of the Women and Children [by boat] to Wyoming, returning only such as may be applied to the use
of the Hospital, or may be deem'd necessary to keep the Soldier's clean at their Return. You will give orders to
the Commissary at Wyoming [Pennsylvania] to issue Rations to those Women & Children.”
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army:?
Date of death: ?
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): Josiah Smith (sergeant)
Names and birthdates of children: ?

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): Titus’s company, 4th New York Regiment
Campaigns: 1779 campaign against the Iroquois
Garrison locations: Fort Sullivan, Tioga.
Battles participated in/observed: none
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: (known) May to October 1779
Sgt. Josiah Smith, service in the 4th New York: (Compiled Service Records, National Archives), enlisted June 1778 nine
months levy; camp at North Castle July 1778; White Plains August/September 1778; Peekskill September 1778; camp at
Continental Village October 1778; appointed sergeant 21 October 1778; Fort Plank November 1778 to May 1779; sick
in regimental hospital November 1779; Morristown winter camp 1779/1780; deserted 11 February 1780)

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
"A Return of the Women & Children Left in Charge of Baggage, Necessary to wash for Genl Clintons Brigade",
probably August 1779, Israel Shreve Papers, Rutgers University, Alexander Library, manuscript no. 287.

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
See Miss Austin, 5th New York (Sullivan’s Campaign 1779)
=================================

57
Miss Smith & 2 children, 2d New York (Sullivan’s Campaign 1779)
Colonel Israel Shreve, 2nd New Jersey Regiment, was left with 250 men to the fort while Sullivan's united force
moved on into western New York. On 24 August Shreve was instructed, “It will ... be absolutely necessary to
send most of the Women and Children [by boat] to Wyoming, returning only such as may be applied to the use
of the Hospital, or may be deem'd necessary to keep the Soldier's clean at their Return. You will give orders to
the Commissary at Wyoming [Pennsylvania] to issue Rations to those Women & Children.”
BASIC FACTS
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army: ?
Date of death: ?
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): possibly John Smith (sergeant)
Names and birthdates of children: ?

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): 4th company, 2d New York Regiment
Campaigns: 1779 campaign against the Iroquois
Garrison locations: Fort Sullivan, Tioga.
Battles participated in/observed: none
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: (known) May to October 1779
Sgt. John Smith, service in 2d New York: (Compiled Service Records, National Archives), served one year in 1775,
reenlisted 1 February 1777; March/April 1778 sick at Fishkill; April-June 1778 at Valley Forge; camp at White Plains
July/August 1778; camp at Jacob’s Plains, New York, June 1779; Morristown winter camp 1780; deceased 29 January
1781.

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
"A Return of the Women & Children Left in Charge of Baggage, Necessary to wash for Genl Clintons Brigade",
probably August 1779, Israel Shreve Papers, Rutgers University, Alexander Library, manuscript no. 287.
NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
See Miss Austin, 5th New York (Sullivan’s Campaign 1779)
=================================

Hannah Thomas, cook in the Quartermaster General’s department, October 1780
“Hannah Thomas … received fifty-eight pounds, two shillings, and sixpence in payment for cooking for
twelve men in the quartermaster general’s department during … October 1780.”
BASIC FACTS
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army: ?
Date of death: ?
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): ?
Names and birthdates of children: ?

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): Quartermaster General’s department, October 1780
Campaigns: ?
Garrison locations: ?
Battles participated in/observed: none
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: October 1780

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
Holly A. Mayer, Belonging to the Army: Camp Followers and Community during the American Revolution (Columbia:
University of South Carolina Press, 1996), 140. Endnote for pertinent passage: “Voucher for Thomas’s cooking services
by Sgt. Mark ‘Rodes,’ Philadelphia, 3 November 1780, in Letters, Orders for Pay, Accounts, Receipts, and Other
58
Supply Records Concerning Weapons and Military Stores, 1776-1801, M927, National Archives. Cooks and artificers
are noted in Compiled Service Records of American Naval Personnel and Members of the Departments of the
Quartermaster General and the Commissary General of Military Stores Who Served During the Revolutionary War,
M880, National Archives, rolls 1 and 2, and listed on ‘Pay Roll of sundry Persons employed in the publick Service …’
in Revolutionary War Rolls, 1775-1783, M246, National Archives, roll 135. Kerber in Women and the Republic
mentions a few of these people on pages 56-57.” (Linda K. Kerber, Women of the Republic: Intellect and Ideology in
Revolutionary America, University of North Carolina Press, 1997)

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
“Hannah Thomas … received fifty-eight pounds, two shillings, and sixpence in payment for cooking for twelve
men in the quartermaster general’s department during … October 1780.”
Holly A. Mayer, Belonging to the Army: Camp Followers and Community during the American Revolution (Columbia:
University of South Carolina Press, 1996), 140.
=================================

(Contributed by Steve Rayner)
Dorcas Towers/Henderson (née Godfry), 1st Virginia Regiment, 1777-1778
“… after the Battle of Brandywine [11 Sep 1777] he (Towers) served in the States of Pensylvania New Jersey &
that quarter, and was at Brandywine [11 September 1777], Valley Forge, Trenton & Monmouth [28 June 1778] as
she herself knows being personally present & being greatly injured in his health was turned over to the
Laboratory and discharged … she was legally married to said Towers by Parson Braken at his House near
Williamsburg in Virginia on the 22 day of June 1780”
BASIC FACTS
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army: 1761 (16 years old in 1777)
Date of death: 3 February 1841
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): John Towers (22 June 1780), Towers died 25 December 1803;
remarried to another veteran, William Henderson
Names and birthdates of children: Margaret (Peggy) and Ann (Nancy)

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): Companies of Captains Hamilton and Mabrey (Mawbry), 1st Virginia
Regiment
Campaigns: 1777 Philadelphia and 1778 Monmouth campaigns
Garrison locations: Valley Forge
Battles participated in/observed: Brandywine, Germantown, and Monmouth
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: 1777-1778

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
Pension papers of John Towers, 1st Virginia Regiment, 1777-1781 (W14896), Revolutionary War Pension and
Bounty - Land - Warrant Application Files, National Archives Microfilm Publication M804, reel 695. Transcribed
and annotated by C. Leon Harris, “Southern Campaign Revolutionary War Pension Statements”
http://revwarapps.org

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
(Pension Application of John Towers W14896
Transcribed and annotated by C. Leon Harris)
This day personally appeared before the subscriber William Cranch one the Judges for the County
of Washington in the District of Columbia Mrs. Dorcas Henderson aged 76 years, who being duly sworn
makes the following Declaration, for the purpose of obtaining the benifit of the acts of Congress
approved the 4 July 1836 & 3 of March 1837. that she was the widow of John Towers rd an enlisted soldier
of the Revolutionary War in the 1st Virginia Reg. commanded by Col. George Gibson, and was in the
company of Capt. Hamilton [Thomas Hamilton, company raised in Fairfax County] & Capt Marbury or

59
Mabary & a part of his time in the light infantry. That after the Battle of Brandywine [11 Sep 1777] he
served in the States of Pensylvania New Jersey & that quarter, and was at Brandywine, Valley Forge,
Trenton [Battle of Trenton NJ, 26 Dec 1776] & Monmouth [28 June 1778] as she herself knows being
personally present & being greatly injured in his health was turned over to the Laboratory [see endnote]
and discharged as the certificate annexed dated Richmond 16 May 1783 and did receive as a during the
war soldier 200 acres of Land from Virginia. She farther declares that she was legally married to said
Towers by Parson Braken at his House near Williamsburg in Virginia on the 22 day of June 1780 agreeably
to the accompanying certificate which she has held in her possession ever since, and that John Towers
died at Fairfax County State of Virginia on the 25 day of December 1803. that she remained a widow
about 6 months & married William Henderson [pension application X344] who died about 2 years before
the 4th of July 1836 but cannot say the day, & since has remained a widow. Signed this 28 th day of March
1837. [signed] Dorcas Henderson
John Towers an invaleed Soldier of this State Line and of the Laboratory Department having duly and
faithfully serv’d during the late war against Great britan is hereby Discharg’d the service, by Order
Government, The behaviour and good Conduct of the above Soldier entitles him to the Respect and
esteem of all his Countrymen —
Given under my hand 16th day of May 1783 in the seventh year of the Commonwealth D. Mann Lt. S.L.
NOTE:
The Laboratory Department was typically engaged in manufacturing gunpowder.
The certificate of marriage referred to in the application reads as follows:
“Wmsburg June 22 1780. I certify that John Towers & Dorcas Godfry were on this day joined together in
Marriage by me John Bracken Rector of Bruton Parish”
On 31 Mar 1837 Abraham Butler of Washington, DC deposed that his mother-in-law, Dorcas
Henderson, was “confined at his House in sick bed, and she has spent much of her time the last [illegible]
years at his House and in Alexandria.” The file includes a copy of the will of John Towers dated 27 Aug
1800 leaving everything to “my dear Beloved wife Darky Towers” except for items bequeathed to the
following: daughter Peggy, wife of John Simms; daughter Nancy, not yet of age; daughter Polly, not yet
of age. On 29 June 1847 daughters Margaret (Peggy) Simms and Ann (Nancy) Simms applied for bounty
land as heirs of John Towers. Other documents indicate that Dorcas Towers Henderson died on 3 Feb
1841.
=================================

Jemima Warner, Hendricks’ Pennsylvania Rifle Company, 1775
“The story Mrs. Jemima Warner told, was extremely affecting, and may be worth remembering, as it is
something like a sample of the whole of our distresses and intolerable disasters.
The husband was a great eater His stores of provisions, after the partition, at the head of the Chaudiere,
were in a little time consumed. The consummate wife ran back from the marsh, and found her beloved
husband sitting at the foot of a tree, where he said he was determined to die.
The tender-hearted woman, attended her ill-fated husband several days, urging his march forward ; he
again sat down. Finding all her solicitations could not induce him to rise, she left him, having placed all the
bread in her possession, between his legs with a canteen of water. She bore his arms and ammunition to
Quebec, where she recounted the story. The nephews of Natanis, afterwards at Quebec, confirmed the
relation of this good woman.”
BASIC FACTS
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army: ?
Date of death: ?
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): Joseph Grier (sergeant)
Names and birthdates of children: ?

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): Capt. William Hendricks’ Rifle Company from Cumberland County,
Pennsylvania
Campaigns: 1775 march to Boston, Boston siege, Arnold’s march through Maine to Quebec, siege of Quebec
Garrison locations: Boston, August/September 1775
Battles participated in/observed: siege of Quebec 1775/1776, attack on Quebec 31 December 1775
60
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment:
1775/1776

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
John Joseph Henry, An Accurate and Interesting Account of the Hardships and Sufferings of That Band of Heroes
Who Traversed the Wilderness in the Campaign Against Quebec in 1775 (Lancaster: Printed by William Greer,
1812), 65-66, 198.

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
Army followers occasionally were exposed to battlefield dangers, though such was the exception rather than
the rule. Women were already present with the troops in 1775, though numbers were much less than in the
later war years. At least two Pennsylvania rifle companies had female followers on their march through the
Maine wilderness with Col. Benedict Arnold in 1775. John Joseph Henry leaves the only account of these
women; curiously, his narrative is one of the few providing some insight into the characters of individual
followers.

This morning, the first of November [1775], breakfasting on our bleary, we took up the line of march
through a flat and boggy ground. About ten o'clock A. M. we arrived, by a narrow neck of land at a marsh
which was appalling. It was three fourths of a mile over, and covered by a coat of ice, half an inch thick.
Here Simpson concluded to halt a short time for the stragglers or maimed of [Capt. William] Hendrick’s
and [Capt. Matthew] Smith's companies to come up. There were two women attached to those companies,
who arrived before we commenced the march. One was the wife of Serjeant Grier, a large, virtuous and
respectable woman. The other was [Jemima Warner] the wife of a private of our company, a man who
lagged upon every occasion. These women being arrived, it was presumed that all our party were up. We
were on the point of entering the marsh, when some one cried out “Warner is not here.” Another said he had
"sat down sick under a tree, a few miles back." His wife begging us to wait a short time, with tears of
affection in her eyes, ran back to her husband. We tarried an hour. They came not. Entering the pond,
(Simpson foremost,) and breaking the ice here and there with the huts of our guns and feet, as occasion
required, we were soon waist deep in the mud and water. As is generally the case with youths, it came to my
mind, that a better path might be found than that of the more elderly guide. Attempting this, in a trice the
water cooling my armpits, made me gladly return into the file. Now Mrs. Grier had got before me. My
mind was humbled, yet astonished, at the exertions of this good woman. Her clothes more than waist high,
she waded before me to the firm ground. No one so long as she was known to us, dared intimate a
disrespectful idea of her. Her husband, who was an excellent soldier, was on duty in Hendricks' boat, which
had proceeded to the discharge of the lake with lieutenant M`Cleland.

Henry wrote more in an afterward to his narrative:

The fate of James Warner, among others, was really lamentable. He was young, handsome in appearance,
not more than twenty-five years of age; he was athletic and seemed to surpass in bodily strength. Yet withal,
he was a dolt. His wife was beautiful, though coarse in manners. The husband on the other hand, was a poor
devil, constantly out of view, or in the back ground of the picture.
We heard nothing of them after entering the marsh, and until a month had elapsed at Quebec. In
December, the wife or widow of poor James Warner, came to our quarters on the Low-grounds, bearing her
husband's rifle, his powder-horn and pouch. She appeared fresh and rosy as ever. This arose from the
religious and gratuitous spirit of the Canadians.
The story Mrs. Jemima Warner told, was extremely affecting, and may be worth remembering, as it is
something like a sample of the whole of our distresses and intolerable disasters.
The husband was a great eater His stores of provisions, after the partition, at the head of the Chaudiere,
were in a little time consumed. The consummate wife ran back from the marsh, and found her beloved
husband sitting at the foot of a tree, where he said he was determined to die.
The tender-hearted woman, attended her ill-fated husband several days, urging his march forward ; he
61
again sat down. Finding all her solicitations could not induce him to rise, she left him, having placed all the
bread in her possession, between his legs with a canteen of water. She bore his arms and ammunition to
Quebec, where she recounted the story. The nephews of Natanis, afterwards at Quebec, confirmed the
relation of this good woman. For when going up, and returning down the river with our inestimable friend
M`Cleland, she urged them, suffused in tears to take her husband on board. They were necessarily deaf to
her entreaties.
John Joseph Henry, An Accurate and Interesting Account of the Hardships and Sufferings of That Band of Heroes
Who Traversed the Wilderness in the Campaign Against Quebec in 1775 (Lancaster: Printed by William Greer,
1812), 65-66, 198.
=================================

Miss Weymyre, 5th New York
Colonel Israel Shreve, 2nd New Jersey Regiment, was left with 250 men to the fort while Sullivan's united force
moved on into western New York. On 24 August Shreve was instructed, “It will ... be absolutely necessary to
send most of the Women and Children [by boat] to Wyoming, returning only such as may be applied to the use
of the Hospital, or may be deem'd necessary to keep the Soldier's clean at their Return. You will give orders to
the Commissary at Wyoming [Pennsylvania] to issue Rations to those Women & Children.”
BASIC FACTS
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army: ?
Date of death: ?
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): Frederick Wemire (private)
Names and birthdates of children: ?

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): Godwin’s company, 5th New York Regiment
Campaigns: 1779 campaign against the Iroquois
Garrison locations: Fort Sullivan, Tioga.
Battles participated in/observed: none
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: (known) May to October 1779

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
"A Return of the Women & Children Left in Charge of Baggage, Necessary to wash for Genl Clintons Brigade",
probably August 1779, Israel Shreve Papers, Rutgers University, Alexander Library, manuscript no. 287.

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
See Miss Austin, 5th New York (Sullivan’s Campaign 1779)
=================================

Catherine Wilson, 12th Pennsylania
July 14 1777: “WAS taken in the custody of a certain Catherine Wilson, wife of James Wilson, who was
inlisted in Captain Alexander Patterson company, the following articles, supposed to be stolen from the
continental army in the Jersey, viz. a small roan HORSE, about four years old …”
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army:?
Date of death: ?
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): James Wilson, enlisted in the 12th Pennsylvania Regiment 9 December
1776; Alexander Patterson was captain in the regiment from 1 October 1776 to 1 July 1778.
Names and birthdates of children: ?

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): Patterson’s company, 12th Pennsylvania Regiment
Campaigns: 1777 New Jersey campaign
62
Garrison locations:.
Battles participated in/observed: none
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: June/July 1777

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
The Pennsylvania Gazette, Mount Bethel, July 14, 1777. “WAS taken in the custody of a certain Catherine Wilson,
wife of James Wilson, who was inlisted in Captain Alexander Patterson’s company, the following articles, supposed
to be stolen from the continental army in the Jersey, viz. a small roan HORSE, about four years old, shod before, his
hind feet white; a Hessian cutlass, with a brass handle; a regimental blue coat, turned up with red, a blue vest,
without sleeves, and 2 white ditto, 2 white hunting shirts, 8 linen and tow shifts , two pair of ticken breeches, and one
leather ditto, 17 pair of stockings, and leggings, old and new, 6 half worn Indian blankets; all the above are supposed
to be stolen. Any person or persons proving their property, and paying the charges, may have their goods again, by
applying to the subscriber, in Mount Bethel township, Northampton county, Pennsylvania. I am informed that the
said woman hath brought from near the camp, on Matutchen in the Jersey, a middle sized bay horse, who is now in
this township, supposed also to be stolen; as likewise sundry other goods not specified.”
SAMUEL REA.
See also Compiled Service Records, National Archives, for James Wilson’s enlistment.

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
=================================
Pennsylvania Gazette

63
Officers’ Wives and Nurses

Elizabeth Brewer, nurse and spy (April-June 1777)
"Elizabeth Brewer whose Deposition you have Inclosed, was taken coming out of Brunswick and brought before
me ... [she] has an Inclination of entering the Hospital as a Nurse, in which employment she has been before
employ'd at this place [i.e., Princeton, New Jersey], and the Surgeon giving her a good Character I have thot
proper to detain her here for that purpose ..."
BASIC FACTS
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army: ?
Date of death: ?
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): ?
Names and birthdates of children: ?

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): nurse, army hospital, Princeton, New Jersey, spring 1777
Campaigns: none
Garrison locations: Princeton, New Jersey
Battles participated in/observed: none
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: April to June 1777

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
William Shippen was "Director of the Hospital in the flying camp" from 15 July 1776 to 1 December 1776, then
Director-General of all Continental army hospitals from 11 April 1777 to3 January 1781.
"The department under my direction has been & continues to be very healthy, & our treatment of the sick very
successful ... I have met with much difficulty in procuring Houses & Nurses, particularly the latter, & in order to engage
any of them in ye Service have been obliged to deviate from the [?] & allow them 10/ p week instead of 3/9 - the most
ordinary woman here is able to earn much more, as there are so few women & so many men to wash for &C."
William Shippen letter from Perth Amboy, New Jersey, 19 September 1776, The Papers of the Continental Congress
1774-1789, (National Archives Microfilm Publication M247 reel 102); Record Group (RG) 360, National Archives
(NA), Washington, DC, 1958: 55).
________________
"Elizabeth Brewer whose Deposition you have Inclosed, was taken coming out of Brunswick and brought before me ...
[she] has an Inclination of entering the Hospital as a Nurse, in which employment she has been before employ'd at this
place [i.e., Princeton, New Jersey], and the Surgeon giving her a good Character I have thot proper to detain her here for
that purpose ..." Israel Putnam to William Livingston, 25 April 1777, Sol Feinstone Collection of the American
Revolution, MSS no. 1175, David Library of the American Revolution, on deposit at the American Philosophical
Society, Philadelphia,
________________
"Head Quarters Princeton 11th [June] 1777 At a General Courtmartial "Elizabeth Brewer [was] try'd ... & found
guilty of acting as a Spy in the Service of the Enemy, do Sentence her to be Confin'd During the War, the Genl Apporves
the Sentence & orders her to be Sent to Morrow ... to Philada with a Coppy of her Sentence & to be there Confin'd in
Such place as the Commanding off[icer]. Shall direct during the War."
Joseph Brown Turner, ed., The Journal and Order Book of Captain Robert Kirkwood of the Delaware Regiment of the
Continental Line (Port Washington, N.Y., 1970), 83.
=================================

64
(Contributed by Matthew C. White)
Margaret Jane Peale Ramsey, Smallwood’s Maryland Regiment and 3d Maryland Regiment (1776, 1778)
“She said she would rather be with the army whatever might be her suffering, than be at a distance and so
much tormented, for if she was near the army in case of misfortunes she possibly might be aiding to help those
most dear to her.”
BASIC FACTS
Date of birth/age at time of first service with the army: 1743 (33 years old in 1776)
Date of death: 1788
Names of spouse(s) and date of marriage(s): James McMordie (died 1767; Nathaniel Ramsey (married 1771)
Names and birthdates of children: none

MILITARY FACTS
Unit (army, regiment, company, etc.): Smallwood’s Maryland Battalion, 1776; 3d Maryland Regiment, 1778
Campaigns: Autumn 1776 New York, New Jersey
Garrison locations: Valley Forge winter camp
Battles participated in/observed: uncertain
Active dates, during which she was part of the military establishment: late summer and autumn 1776; Valley Forge
winter camp, early 1778.

DOCUMENTATION
(Personal account, pension record, company or other returns, etc.)
Charles Willson Peale, The Autobiography of Charles Willson Peale, vol. 5 of The Selected Papers
of Charles Willson Peale and his family, ed. Lillian B. Miller and Sidney Hart (New Haven and
London: Yale University Press, 2000), 123-127.

NARRATIVE(S) and/or WEBLINK(S)
Margaret Jane “Jenny” Peale McMordie Ramsey, with Col. William Smallwood's Maryland Battalion (1776),
and Lt. Col. Nathaniel Ramsey's 3d Maryland Regiment (1778). Matthew C. White
Charles Willson Peale’s sister was Margaret Jane Peale Ramsey, affectionately referred to by the soldier/artist
throughout his diaries as “Jenny.” Jenny was married to Nathaniel Ramsey, a captain in Smallwood’s Maryland
Battalion and the “Mr. Ramsay” mentioned in Peale’s December 8th, 1776 journal entry. Incredibly, at some point
during the winter of 76-77, Margaret Jane Peale Ramsey joined her husband.
In 1825, Charles Peale diligently wrote his memoirs. In it, he included pages worth of stories related to his long
deceased and beloved sister. According to Peale, after his brother James and Nathaniel Ramsey left for the seat of
war in New York in 1776 with Smallwood’s Regiment, Jenny came to live with his family in Philadelphia but “when
the battle of Long Island happened, the reports were so variable and her anxiety so much on the rack, that she said
would rather be with the army whatever might be her suffering, than be at a distance and so much tormented, for if
she was near the army in case of misfortunes she possibly might be aiding those most dear to her.” (CWPA 123)
According to CWP, “Mrs. Ramsey was provided with a Gig or chaise and carried with her a complete though small
military chest, and in her progress with that part of the army where [her] husband had command she followed at
convenient distance in the rear of their march—and when encamped she went to some farm house in the rear to take
up her quarters.” (CWPA 123)
The exact moment Jenny Ramsey left Philadelphia and joined her husband is hard to pin down, even with Peale’s
journal entries. He mentions Jenny in his August 27, 1776 journal entry and not again until June 18, 1777, though it
should be mentioned that there is a gap in his extent diaries between January and June of 1777. In his June 18 th
journal entry he noted that “I had some difficulty to find where my Sister had taken up her Board, on her Retreat
from the Jersies.- after much enquiry I found her at Mr. Paxton’s 1 ½ mile (on this Pennsylvania side) from Correl
Ferry [New Hope, Pennsylvania].” (CWPJ 231) Peale then mentions in June 27, 1777 entry that after General Sir
William Howe’s army had advanced towards General George Washington forces in New Jersey, he collected his
sister at “Mr. Paxxons” and they returned to Philadelphia in the “chaize” that Ramsey had purchased for his sister at
some point during the winter. (CWPJ 237) In his autobiography, Peale relates that Jenny Ramsey was with the army
around White Plains, so it would appear that she joined Nathaniel before the retreat through New Jersey.
65
So there is little doubt that Jenny Peale joined her husband during the winter. There is, however, some question of
when she joined her husband and what parts of that fall and winter she was with her husband and when in that same
timeframe she took up lodgings to be closer to her husband. Unfortunately, all we know is that Jenny Peale “had
occasion often to be moving from place to place to avoid danger or to obtain what she wanted either for herself or
her husband and his particular friends, and generally she had a servant to attend her.” (CWPA 125) When Ramsey
was elevated to regimental command, there is evidence that Jenny Ramsey was with her husband constantly even
during campaign. (CWPJ 244-245)
(Note: In his autobiography, when Charles Willson Peale told the story of Jenny arriving in White Plains, New York
he mentioned that the people of that locale “had been much harassed and striped [sic] of their provisions and other
necessaries by various parties of each army and the followers of a camp.” (CWPA 124) In short, he was emphasizing
that there were indeed camp followers with the army at the time.)
CWPA - Autobiography of Charles Willson Peale Autobiography
Charles Willson Peale, The Autobiography of Charles Willson Peale, vol. 5 of The Selected Papers of
Charles Willson Peale and his family, ed. Lillian B. Miller and Sidney Hart (New Haven and London: Yale
University Press, 2000)
CWPJ – Charles Willson Peale Journal, Lillian B. Miller, ed., The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and
His Family, Volume 5, Charles Willson Peale: Artist in Revolutionary America, 1735-1791 (New Haven: Yale
University Press, 1983), 209.
_______________

Charles Willson Peale, The Peale Family, begun 1772–73, completed 1808. Collection of The New-
York Historical Society (1867-298). Margaret Jane “Jenny” Peale is standing at center.
_______________

66
Addendum
“Margaret Jane Peale, known to the family as Jenny, had been married to Nathaniel Ramsay for five years when he
became the captain of the Fifth Company of Smallwood’s Regiment. Charles Willson Peale wrote that Jenny “was
noted for her excellent embroadery & the most tastefull needle work, and having a fondness for reading… she
became as refined her intellects and she was beautiful in her Person… when she was seventeen years old, she had
many admirers, some of them, afterwards became men of great note in the revolution.” 1 When the war began she
moved to Charles Willson Peale’s house in Philadelphia with the intention of staying with his family until the end of
the war.
Before long, news of the overwhelming loss at the Battle of Brooklyn reached Philadelphia, and Margaret Jane
worried for her husband and her brother. She had already been widowed once; she was first married to James
McMordie, an Irish tavern and mill owner. Margaret Jane decided to leave Philadelphia, “She said she would rather
be with the army whatever might be her suffering, than be at a distance and so much tormented, for if she was near
the army in case of misfortunes she possibly might be aiding to help those most dear to her.” 1 After the Battle of
Brooklyn, Margaret Jane Ramsey began to follow the Continental Army. She traveled in a small horse drawn
carriage with a trunk and a servant.
As the wife of a captain, Margaret Jane Ramsey’s role in the Continental Army did not involve manual labor. She
took on the role of a hostess; her quarters would often become the center of social life for the Maryland officers. She
lodged in homes near the encampments, making connections with the families she stayed with that would later be of
use to her family. Because of her husband’s status she also had the authority to protect her hosts from the risks of
wartime plunder and abuse, one woman “entreated her to stay… for you can aid me in my many difficulties, for
every body seems to pay more regard to what you say than I have ever seen before… oh! do not leave me.” 3
One year later, during the winter of 1777-1778 at Valley Forge, the Continental Army was in danger of collapse.
Wars were not fought during the winter, but the horrendous conditions created by the weather and lack of supplies
resulted in illness and desertion. During that bleak winter the Ramseys lived in a log hut, and once again Margaret
Jane’s home was opened to the officers of the Maryland line, who “spent many agreable hours sometimes
accompanied with officers belonging to other corps.”4
At the Battle of Monmouth [28 June 1778] Colonel Ramsey was taken prisoner. Tradition holds that he was saved
from being bayoneted by an officer who recognized his masonic ring. Charles Willson Peale’s account asserts that he
avoided the bayonets after he was wounded by smearing blood and mud on himself and playing dead, until he found
a British officer to mercifully take him prisoner. After he had recovered from his wounds he was sent as a prisoner of
war to Long Island, Margaret Jane again accompanied her husband. Captivity for officers was much less harsh than
the experiences of privates. Ramsey and his wife entertained the other officers of the Maryland line who had been
taken prisoner, and they “endeavoured to make themselves as happy as their situation permited.” 5 Colonel Ramsey
even bought a house on Calvert Street in Baltimore while he was a prisoner at Long Island, ultimately reselling the
house after the war and using the profit to buy a home in Annapolis. After a long period of captivity Colonel Ramsey
was finally exchanged on December 14, 1780. Shortly after his release he retired from the military on January 1,
1781.”
1. Charles Willson Peale, The Autobiography of Charles Willson Peale, vol. 5 of The Selected Papers of Charles
Willson Peale and his family, ed. Lillian B. Miller and Sidney Hart (New Haven and London: Yale University Press,
2000), 119.
2. Peale, 123.
3. Peale, 124.
4. Ibid. 125.
5. Peale, 126.
“The Peale Family: Picturing the Maryland Line,” Finding the Maryland 400, 11 October 2013
https://msamaryland400.wordpress.com/2013/10/11/the-peale-family-picturing-the-maryland-line/

=================================

67
Afterward

1. Women in Hospital as Nurses and Patients
Nurses
(Courtesy of C. Leon Harris)
The following are on a Return of the Sick & Wounded in the Hospital at Camden [SC] May 25th 1781
transcribed by Will Graves http://revwarapps.org/b21.pdf
Note: On 25 April 1781 Gen. Nathanael Greene fought the British at the battle of Hobkirk Hill at
Camden. The British evacuated Camden on 9 May 1781.
Nurses
Mary Richardson
Elizabeth Ashmore
Elizabeth Billings
Sarah Ringer

Forty-nine officers and enlisted men were also in the hospital, suffering from wounds and illness.

Patients
Note: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were a problem in the armies of the War for American
Independence, though not a chronic one. As we know, they can be passed both ways, man to woman,
woman to man, and is NOT evidence of prostitution

(Courtesy of C. Leon Harris)
The following are on “A Genl. Return of the State of the Hospital in the So. [Southern] Department from
the 9th May 1781 Till the 9th June” transcribed by Will Graves http://revwarapps.org/b18.pdf
(Note: This hospital appears to have been at the home of Col. Peter Perkins at Berry Hill in Pittsylvania
County VA.)
Total, 125 men, 7 women, and 1 child.
Susannah Ball, venereal disease, admitted May 15 1781, discharged 1 June 1 1781
May Lucas, venereal disease, admitted May 15 1781, discharged June 1
Wm Freshold Campbell’s Regt.*, venereal admitted, April 20, discharged May 5
Auguston Carson, Benson’s company, Gunby’s Regt.*, venereal, admitted May 15, discharged
June 5
William Plowman, Jacquett’s company, Ford’s Regt.*, venereal, admitted May 15, discharged
June 5
Henry Lord, Armstrong’s company, Gunby’s Regt.*, venereal, admitted May 15
Jacob Blythe, Anderson’s company, Gunby’s Regt.*, venereal, admitted May 15
Linn Turner, Armstrong’s company, Gunby’s Regt.*, venereal, admitted June 7

Five women were admitted and still in hospital, but their illnesses were not given. They were:
Susannah Ball, admitted May 15, discharged June 1
May Lucas , admitted May 15, discharged June 1
Elizabeth Higgins, admitted May 15
Catharine Auber, admitted April 20
Deborah Jones, admitted May 15
Mary Brumett, admitted March 21
The last woman on the list was Nancy Karr, pregnant, admitted May 10.
Following her entry is her newborn, John Karr (“Child of Nancy”), admitted (i.e., born) May 21
1781
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* Col. William Campbell commanded a rifle corps at the Battle of Guilford Courthouse.
Lt. Col. John Gunby commanded the 1st Maryland Regiment at the Battle of Guilford Courthouse.
Lt. Col. Benjamin Ford, commander, 2d Maryland Regiment.

2. Names Not Added to the List of Female Followers

Discarded due to unreliable information and lack of confirmation of service.
Mary Cockron, “… she drew her rations as other soldiers did.” Mary Cockron, pension narrative, 1837.
Source: Holly A. Mayer, Belonging to the Army: Camp Followers and Community during the American
Revolution (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1996), 122, 152 (chapter endnote, Thomas Hord,
Virginia, to Pennsylvania Secretary of State, Harisburg, 15 September 1837, Schoff Revolutionary War
Collection at William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
p. 122
“Mary Cockron, and old and needy widow in 1837, was in the process of applying for a pension when
her advocate wrote to Pennsylvania’s secretary of state requesting service information on her late
husband. William Cockron had enlisted in Captain Robert Kirkwood’s company of the Delaware
Regiment in the Pennsylvania line [editor’s emphasis; the Delaware Regiment was not assigned to the
Pennsylvania line, either Mrs. Cockron or her advocate were mistaken or lying] and had served for over
five years. His wife, with her name enrolled on the company roster so that she could draw rations, had
essentially soldiered along with him.”
There is no information for a William Cockron/Cochran, Delaware Regiment, in the Revolutionary
Soldiers’ Compiled Service Records, National Archives.

Discarded due to incorrect and unreliable information and lack of confirmation of service.
Mrs. Milliner (Alexander, son, drummer). As per Don N. Hagist’s work, The Revolution's Last
Men: The Soldiers Behind the Photographs (Yardley, Pa.: Westholme Publishing, 2015),
Alexander Milliner’s recollection of being present at Valley Forge was mistaken, as was his
mother’s presence there.
Sources: John B.B. Trussell, Jr., Birthplace of an Army: A Study of the Valley Forge Encampment
(Harrisburg, Pa.: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1979), 85.
Rev. E.B. Hilliard, The Last Men of the Revolution (Barre, Ma.: Barre Publishers, 1968), 71.

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_______________________

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Resources:

Articles on Women Following the Armies, 1775-1783
(American, French, British, German, and Loyalist followers)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/125414053/J-U-Rees-Article-List-Women-Following-the-Army-1775-
1783

"`The multitude of women': An Examination of the Numbers of Female Followers with the
Continental Army":
Contents
1777 and 1780: A Common Thread?
1776 to 1782: “Necessary to keep the Soldier's clean"
1781: "Their Wives all of whom ... Remained": Women on Campaign With the Army
1781: "The women with the army who draw provisions"
1782: "Rations ... Without Whiskey": Col. Henry Jackson's Regimental Provision Returns
1783: "The proportion of Women which ought to be allowed ..."
Appendices
A. Images, Articles and Additional Information Related to Sullivan’s 1779 Campaign
and Fort Sullivan, Tioga.
B. Articles Providing Contextual Information on the 1781 Virginia Campaign
C. Miscellaneous References to Army Women
1. 1775, 1776, and 1781: “Fire Ships,” “Veneral Disorder,” and Women in Hospital
2. A Woman with the Continental Army, 1777-1783
3. Hospitals, Nurses and a Female Spy, 1776 and 1777
4. Orders Concerning Female Followers, Maj. Gen. John Sullivan’s Division, 1777
5. Horses Belonging to Camp Followers
6. Women Riding Pack Horses on Maj. Gen. John Sullivan's 1779 Expedition
7. Women, 1778-1782: On the March, Doing Laundry, Selling Military Goods, and Sergeant's
Responsibility For Followers
8. Army Orders and George Washington Correspondence Concerning Female Followers
9. Link to Second Study Examining Numbers of Continental Army Female Followers
D. Additional Articles on Continental Army Female Followers by the Author
The Brigade Dispatch (Journal of the Brigade of the American Revolution)
Three parts: vol. XXIII, no. 4 (Autumn 1992), 5-17; vol. XXIV, no. 1 (Winter 1993),
6-16; vol. XXIV, no. 2 (Spring 1993), 2-6 (Reprinted in Minerva: Quarterly Report
on Women and the Military, vol. XIV, no. 2 (Summer 1996)).
https://www.academia.edu/36174985/_The_multitude_of_women_An_Examination_of_the_Numbe
rs_of_Female_Followers_With_the_Continental_Army and
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/wnumb1.htm

"`The number of rations issued to the women in camp.': New Material Concerning Female
Followers With Continental Regiments":
Female Followers with the Troops at Wyoming: Prelude to Sullivan's Campaign, 1779
"Provisions and Stores Issued to the Grand Army": Female Followers at
Middlebrook, 1779
“The women belonging to their respective corps": Further Analysis and Comparison of the
Returns of Women
The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXVIII, no. 1 (Spring 1998), 2-10; vol. XXVIII, no. 2
(Summer 1998), 2-12, 13. http://revwar75.com/library/rees/wnumb2.htm

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"'`Some in rags and some in jags,’ but none ‘in velvet gowns.’ Insights on Clothing Worn by
Female Followers of the Armies During the American War for Independence," ALHFAM
Bulletin (Association of Living History, Farm and Agricultural Museums), vol. XXVIII, no. 4
(Winter 1999), 18-21. http://www.scribd.com/doc/122521121/Some-in-rags-and-some-in-
jags-%E2%80%99-but-none-%E2%80%98in-velvet-gowns-%E2%80%99-Insights-
on-Clothing-Worn-by-Female-Followers-of-the-Armies-During-the-American-War-for

"’The proportion of Women which ought to be allowed...’: An Overview of Continental Army
Female Camp Followers”
1. “A clog upon every movement. “: Numbers
2. "Rations... Without Whiskey": Women’s Food Allowance
3. "Some men washed their own clothing.": Women's Duties and Shelter
4. Orders Concerning Women in the Summer of 1777 (Delaware Regiment of Maj. Gen. John Sullivan’s
Division
5. "Coming into the line of fire.": Women on the March or on Campaign
Appendices
A. An Estimate of Females with Continental Army Units
on the March to Yorktown, 1781
B. Mess Roll of Capt. John Ross’s Company, 3d New Jersey Regiment
C. Tent Assignments in Lt. Col. John Wrottesley’s (3d) Company, 1st Battalion,
Brigade of (British) Guards (Including “British Army orders regarding female
followers, summer 1777”)
D. Period Images of Army Followers or Poor to Middling Female Civilians
E. Photographs of Army Women at Living History Events
F. Online Articles Pertaining to Female Camp Followers and Related Subjects
During the War for American Independence
G. Other Authors’ Monographs (Women Following the Army)
The Continental Soldier, vol. VIII, no. 3 (Spring 1995), 51-58. ALHFAM Bulletin (Association of
Living History, Farm and Agricultural Museums), vol. XXVIII, no. 4 (Winter 1999), 18-21.
https://www.scribd.com/doc/255868431/The-proportion-of-Women-which-ought-to-be-
allowed-An-Overview-of-Continental-Army-Female-Camp-Followers

“’Remember[ing] the Ladies’: Margaret Johnson and Elizabeth Evans, Women of the New Jersey Brigade”
http://www.scribd.com/doc/235418684/Remember-ing-the-Ladies-Margaret-Johnson-and-Elizabeth-Evans-
Women-of-the-New-Jersey-Brigade

“`To Cash paid the Revrd. John Mason for Servant Hannah’s wages …': Hannah Till, General
Washington’s Wartime Cook"
https://www.scribd.com/document/330715949/To-Cash-paid-the-Revrd-John-Mason-for-Servant-
Hannah-s-wages-Hannah-Till-General-Washington-s-Wartime-Cook

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"`Sospecting the prisner to be a tory ...': A Continental Army Court Martial, July 1777,"
This court martial of a civilian took place in Brigadier General Prudhomme de Borre's 2nd
Maryland Brigade, Major General John Sullivan's Division. De Borre’s brigade contained the 2nd,
4th, and 7th Maryland Regiments, along with the German Regiment and Hazen's 2nd Canadian
Regiment. Of particular interest in these proceedings are the arguments used to entice the soldiers
to desert, reasons for their dissatisfaction, and the testimony of Alice Wood, attached to Hazen's
Regiment, who had left her children behind when she followed her husband into the army.
The Continental Soldier, vol. IX, no. 1 (Winter/Spring 1997), 45-46, and,
Military Collector & Historian, vol. 60, no. 3 (Fall 2008), 167.
https://www.scribd.com/document/364103303/Sospecting-the-prisner-to-be-a-tory-A-Continental-
Army-Court-Martial-July-1777

“Reading List: Women and the Military During the War for Independence," The
Continental Soldier, vol. IX, no. 1 (Winter/Spring 1997), 52.
http://revwar75.com/library/rees/wread.htm

Other Authors’ Monographs
(Women Following the Army)

Don N. Hagist, “The Women of the British Army in America”
Contents
1. A Look at the Numbers
2. Married to a Soldier
3. Widows and Orphans
4. Restrictions on Marriage
5. Employment
a. Women as Sutlers
b. Women as Nurses
c. Women as Laundresses
d. Women as Seamstresses
e. Other Employment
6. Occupations and Numbers
7. Habitation in Garrison
8. Habitation on Campaign
9. Life on Campaign
10. Women in Battle
11. Hazards
12. Domestic Distress
13. Notes on Clothing and Behavior
14. Notes on Children
Conclusion
https://www.academia.edu/36119670/Don_N._Hagist_The_Women_of_the_British_Army_in_America_

Celena M.Meloche (2014) "British Army Women in the Seven Years' War," The Great Lakes
Journal of Undergraduate History:, vol. 2, no. 1 (2014)
Available at: http://scholar.uwindsor.ca/gljuh/vol2/iss1/1
http://scholar.uwindsor.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1018&context=gljuh

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Charlotte Brown, “The Journal of Charlotte Brown, Matron of the General Hospital, with the
English Forces in America, 1754-1756,” in Isabel M. Calder, Colonial Captivities, Marches and
Journeys (Port Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Press, Inc., 1935; reprinted 1967), 169-198 (French
and Indian War).
https://www.scribd.com/doc/274738578/Charlotte-Brown-The-Journal-of-Charlotte-Brown-
Matron-of-the-General-Hospital-with-the-English-Forces-in-America-1754-1756

Holly Mayer, “From Forts to Families: Following the Army into Western Pennsylvania, 1758-1766.” The
Pennsylvania Magazine of History andBiography 130 (January 2006): 5-43.
https://www.scribd.com/doc/273462949/Holly-Mayer-From-Forts-to-Families-Following-the-
Army-into-Western-Pennsylvania-1758-1766

Elizabeth Cometti, “Women in the American Revolution,” The New England Quarterly, vol. XX,
no. 3 (September 1947), 335-337.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/213814242/Elizabeth-Cometti-%E2%80%9CWomen-in-the-American-
Revolution-%E2%80%9D-The-New-England-Quarterly-vol-XX-no-3-September-1947-335-337

(Part 1) Bruce E. Burgoyne, “Women with the Hessian Auxiliaries during the American Revolutionary War,”
The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXVI, no. 1 (Spring 1996), 2-8.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/214066869/Bruce-E-Burgoyne-%E2%80%9CWomen-with-the-
Hessian-Auxiliaries-during-the-American-Revolutionary-War-%E2%80%9D-The-Brigade-
Dispatch-vol-XXVI-no-1-Spring-1996-2

(Part 2) Bruce E. Burgoyne, “Women with the Hessian Auxiliaries during the American Revolutionary War,”
The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXVI, no. 1 (Spring 1996), 19-23.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/214077163/Part-2-Bruce-E-Burgoyne-%E2%80%9CWomen-with-the-
Hessian-Auxiliaries-during-the-American-Revolutionary-War-%E2%80%9D-The-Brigade-
Dispatch-vol-XXVI-no-1-Spring

Bruce E. Burgoyne, “Women with Hessian Military Units” (being a compendium of women identified as
having followed German corps during the American War, 1775-1783), The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXVI, no.
3 (Autumn 1996), 2-10.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/214347053/Part-1-Bruce-E-Burgoyne-%E2%80%9CWomen-with-
Hessian-Military-Units%E2%80%9D-being-a-compendium-of-women-identified-as-having-
followed-German-corps-during-the-Amer

Paul E. Kopperman, "The British High Command and Soldiers' Wives In America, 1755-1783," Journal of
the Society for Army Historical Research, no. 60 (1982), 14-34. Married women, 14; women's duties, 15-16, 21;
number of women in the Continental Army, 16; the thoughts of the high command concerning women, 16; the
number of women in the army and individual regiments, 19-20, 26-28; women's rations, 22-23; women as
patients in hospital, 31, 33.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/214779011/Paul-E-Kopperman-The-British-High-Command-and-
Soldiers-Wives-In-America-1755-1783-Journal-of-the-Society-for-Army-Historical-Research-no-60

Don N, Hagist, “Women on Burgoyne’s Campaign,” The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXX, no. 4 (Winter 2000), 18-
20
http://www.scribd.com/doc/213934713/Don-N-Hagist-%E2%80%9CWomen-on-
Burgoyne%E2%80%99s-Campaign-%E2%80%9D-The-Brigade-Dispatch-vol-XXX-no-4-Winter-
2000-18-20

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Mrs. Middleton and Mary Driskill, the Experiences of Two Women with British Regiments
Don N. Hagist, “Mrs. Middleton Takes Prisoners,” The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXIX, no. 3 (Autumn 1999), 17
(a British Army woman’s experiences, from a primary source).
Don N. Hagist, “Mary Driskill, 10th Regiment of Foot,” The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXX, no. 2 (Summer 2000),
15 (a British Army woman’s experiences, from a primary source).
http://www.scribd.com/doc/214783573/Mrs-Middleton-and-Mary-Driskill-the-Experiences-of-
Two-Women-with-British-Regiments-Don-N-Hagist-%E2%80%9CMrs-Middleton-Takes-
Prisoners-%E2%80%9D-The-Brigade

Apparel and Goods Issued to Female Followers of American Troops
Don N. Hagist, “She was very fond of soldiers,” The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXIX, no. 2 (Summer 2000), 15-16.
Don N. Hagist, “The Women of Fort Jefferson” (goods issued to individuals at a Kentucky fort, 1780-1781),
The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXX, no. 1 (Spring 2000), 21-23.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/214790248/Apparel-Worn-by-and-Goods-Issued-to-Female-Followers-of-
American-Troops-Don-N-Hagist-She-was-very-fond-of-soldiers-The-Brigade-Dispatch-vol-XXI

French Troops and Female Followers
René Chartrand, “Notes Concerning Women in the 18th Century French Army,” The Brigade Dispatch, vol.
XXV, no. 3 (Summer 1995), 2 (explanation of the relative paucity of women with French forces in America).
Donald J. Brandt, “Rochambeau's Army, and Women in America,” The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXV, no. 3
(Summer 1995), 3 (insights on women with and around a French regiment).
http://www.scribd.com/doc/214927135/French-Troops-and-Female-Followers-Rene-Chartrand-
%E2%80%9CNotes-Concerning-Women-in-the-18th-Century-French-Army-%E2%80%9D-The-
Brigade-Dispatch-vol-XXV-no

Refugees and Women following Loyalist Regiments (Part 1)
Todd W. Braisted, "Refugees & Others: Loyalist Families in the American War for Independence," The Brigade
Dispatch (Journal of the Brigade of the American Revolution), two parts: vol. XXVI, no. 4 (Winter 1996), 2-7;
vol. XXVII, no. 2 (Summer 1997), 2-6.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/214984897/Refugees-and-Women-following-Loyalist-Regiments-Part-
1-Todd-W-Braisted-Refugees-Others-Loyalist-Families-in-the-American-War-for-Independence

Refugees and Women following Loyalist Regiments (Part 2)
Todd W. Braisted, "Refugees & Others: Loyalist Families in the American War for Independence," The Brigade
Dispatch (Journal of the Brigade of the American Revolution), two parts: vol. XXVI, no. 4 (Winter 1996), 2-7;
vol. XXVII, no. 2 (Summer 1997), 2-6.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/214995035/Refugees-and-Women-following-Loyalist-Regiments-Part-
2-Todd-W-Braisted-Refugees-Others-Loyalist-Families-in-the-American-War-for-Independence

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Artwork by Don Troiani

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Captain Fitch’s company, 4th Connecticut Regiment, advancing to Monmouth Courthouse.
"Order out of confusion": Marching to Monmouth Courthouse event.
Monmouth Battlefield State Park, June 2016
https://www.scribd.com/doc/311408294/Weekend-Schedule-Draft-3-May-2016-Monmouth-Battle-Special-
Event-24-26-June-2016-Model-Company

“Spent the winter at Jockey Hollow, and … washed together while there …”
American Revolution Army Women Names Project
Continental Army
https://www.scribd.com/document/322026319/American-Revolution-Army-Women-Names-
Project-Continental

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