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HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT and FACILITATING LEARNING

GROWTH
Increase in body size and other parts of the human body
Pertains to quantitative changes in the body and can be measured
Takes place in the first twenty (20) years of life
Most rapid during infancy and growth spurt on adolescence/puberty
DEVELOPMENT
Pertains to qualitative change in the human body and cannot be measured
It happens from simple to more complex
Takes place even after 20 years of life
Refers to our maturation
(Remember that the process of Growth and Development cannot be compared!)
There are two (2) Factors affecting Growth and Development:
1. Heredity (Nature) - refers to the transfer of genes. It also puts limitation in growth and development.
2. Environment (Nurture) pertains to the interaction with the surroundings and proper nutrition acquired.
When a baby is newly born, it is covered with a cheese-like substance called vernix caseosa. Also covering the newborn
islanugo which is the fine hair-like structure covering the baby.
There are also different types of birth presentations. They are the ff:
1. Cephalic when the head of the baby is presented first during birth giving.
2. Breech when the legs/buttocks are presented, and
3. Transverse when the shoulders of the baby are presented during birth.
During infancy, babies tend to present reflexes. Reflexes are involuntary movements or actions. Some movements are
spontaneous, occuring as part of the babys usual activity. Others are responses to certain actions. Reflexes help identify normal
brain and nerve activity. Some reflexes occur only in specific periods of development. The following are some of the normal
reflexes seen on newborn babies:
1. Root reflex. This reflex begins when the corner of the babys mouth is stroked or touched. The baby will turn his/her head and
open his/her mouth to follow and root the direction of the stroking. This helps the baby find the breast or bottle to begin feeding.
2. Suck reflex. Rooting helps the baby become ready to suck. When the roof of the babys mouth is touched, the baby will begin
to suck. This reflex does not begin about the 32nd week of pregnancy and is not fully developed until about 36 weeks.
3. Moro reflex. The Moro reflex is often called as startle reflex because it usually occurs when a baby is startled by a loud
sound or movement. In response to the sound, the baby throws back his/her head, extends out his/her arms and legs, cries, then
pulls the arms and legs back in. A babys own cry can startle him/her and trigger this reflex.
4. Tonic neck reflex. When a babys head is turned to one side, the arm on that side stretches out and the opposite arm bends
up the elbow. This is often calles as the fencing position and lasts about 6 to 7 months.
5. Grasp reflex. Stroking tha palm of the babys hand causes the baby to close his/her fingers in a grasp. It lasts until about 5 to
6 months of age.
6. Babinski reflex. When the sole of the foot is firmly stroked, the big toe bends back toward the top of the foot and the other
toes fan out. This is a normal reflex until 2 years of age.
7. step reflex. This is also called as the walking or dance reflex because the baby appears to be dancing or taking steps when
held upright.
8. Cremasteric reflex. This reflex is much common to baby boys. When the thigh is stroked softly, the lower part of the tummy
tends to startle or move. This reflex is also observable during puberty or even among grown up men.
Principles of Growth and Development
1. Cephalocaudal refers to from head to tail development
2. Proximodistal a development that starts from the center of the body going outward
a. Gross motor skills pertains to larger skills that babies mmake with their arms, legs, feet or with his entire body such as
crawling, running and jumping.
b. Fine motor skills refers to smaller actions such as when a baby picks up things between his fingers or wriggles his toes on
the sand. T also includes moving his/her tongue, mouth and smaller parts of the body.
Periods of Development
1. Pre-natal period from conception to birth
2. Infancy from birth to 18 months old
3. Early childhood -18 months to 6 years
During 3-6 years old, boys tend to display Pseudomasturbation. During this period teachers must be very observant and
should not impose threat or punishment when such activity is observed. If the teacher do so, the child may develop castration
fear or the fear of having his genitals being removed. The BEST way to handle such situation inside the classroom is to ignore
the behavior, divert the attention of the child and after, explain to the child that masturbation should be done in private places.
4. Middle and late childhood from 6 to 13 years (slow growth)
5. Adolescence period from 13 to 19 years . secondary sex characteristics develops
Menarche menstruation
Thelarche breast budding
Pseudomenstruation withdrawal of maternal hormones
6. Early
7. Middle
8. Late

adulthood

20-45 years old


45-65 years old
65 years onwards (death)

THEORIES OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT


All theories of human growth and development has an effect upon decisions made in the classroom and parental
management.
SIGMUND FREUD believes that all human beings pass through a series of Psychosexual Development. This theory includes
pleasure-giving bodies per stages and may result to fixation if cannot be able to move on.
The Psychosexual Development Theory
Stages
1. Oral

Age
From birth to 18
months

Overstimulation
Gullible
Easy to be fooled

Understimulation
Mistrust, alcoholic
drinker, smoker and
gossiper
Messy, clumsy,
disobedient and
rebellious

Characteristics
Mouth is the center of pleasure and
major source of gratification and
exploration
Anus and bladder as pleasuregiving bodies

2. Anal
(toilet training)

18 months to 3
years

3. Phallic
(Penis)

3-6 years old

Obsessive
Compulsive
Personality Disorder,
too obedient
Pervert

Frigid impotence, too


shy

Genitalia as the source of pleasure


(masturbation). Develops Elektra
and Oedipus complex
Energy directed to physical and
intellectual activities. Sexual
responses are repressed. Normal
homosexual stage (relationship
with same sex or barkada
Energy towards full sex maturity.
Reappearance of Oedipus and
Elektra complex but directed to
opposite sex

4. Latency
(school age)

6- puberty

Workaholic

Failing grades

5. Genital

Puberty onwards

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*Oedipus Complex means that the son is more into the mother while Elektra Complex means that the daughter is more into the
father.
*Overstimulation means that when the child during the given age of a particular stage is given something too much may result to
something negative. For example, during the Oral stage, if the baby doesnt need a breastfeed but the mother still gives him milk
he will become too used to it resulting to being gullible when he grow up. On the other hand, if the baby is understimulated or
wants milk to the point that he/she is crying but the mother always ignore him/her, then the baby will grow up as if he/she always
wanted to have something in his mouth for he/she was deprived of it. This may result for him/her to be a drinker, a smoker or
gossiper.
Sigmund Freud also developed the differences between our id, ego, and superego.
( moral principle;
conscience) EGO

SUPEREGO (reality principle; balances id and ego)


ID (evil; the I principle; self-centered
Teachers should be aware of the Psychosexual Development Theory in order for us to fully understand why some of our
pupils/students behave the way they do.
ERIK ERIKSON proposed the Psychosocial Development Theory. According to him under this theory, crisis must be resolved in
order to develop a healthy direction. Take note that the focus on Psychosocial Development Theory is an important sociocultural
determinance of human development.
The Psychosocial Development Theory
1. Infancy
Psychosocial conflict: Trust VS Mistrust
Task: attachment to the mother/caregiver
If successful: trust in persons/faith and hope about the environment and future
If unsuccessful: difficulties in relating to persons effectively. Fear of the future
2. Toddlerhood (18 months 3 years)
Psychosocial conflict: Autonomy VS Shame and Doubt
Task: gaining some basic control over self and environment
If successful: sense of self-control
If unsuccessful: severe feeling of self-doubt. Always thinking that he cannot do something.
3. Preschool Age (3 6 years)
Psychosocial conflict: Initiative VS Guilt
Task: children areasked to assume more responsibilities, becoming purposeful and directive

If successful: ability to initiate ones activities


If unsuccessful: sense of inadequacy/guilt
4.School Age (6 12 years)
Psychosocial conflict: Industrious VS Inferiority
Task: developing social, physical and learning skills
If successful: competence and ability to work and learn
If unsuccessful: sense of inferiority or difficulty in working and learning
5. Adolescence period (12 20 years)
Psychosocial conflict: Identity VS Role Confusion
Task: developing sense of identity
If successful: sense of personal identity
If unsuccessful: role confusion
6. Young Adulthood (20 35 years)
Psychosocial conflict: Intimacy VS Isolation
Task: establishing intimate bonds of love and friendship
If successful: ability to love deeply and commit oneself
If unsuccessful: emotional isolation, egocentric (self-directed)
7. Middle Adulthood (35 -65 years)
Psychosocial conflict: Generativity VS Stagnation
Task: fulfilling life goals (family, career, society)
If successful: ability to give and care for others
If unsuccessful: self-absorption, inability to grow as a person
8. Late Adulthood (65 years death)
Psychosocial conflict: Integrity VS Despair
Task: looking back over ones life and accepting its meaning
If successful: sense of fulfillment
If unsuccessful: Dissatisfaction with life
As professional teachers, we should know how to prevent crisis to occur on every aspect of growth and development,
especially stages 1-5 for these are the stages where an individual learner is at school. We should make every tasks given on
every aspect of the learners life successful.
JEAN PIAGET developed the Cognitive Development Theory wherein according to him, knowledge is based from prior learning
(schema). He also stressed that Constructivism (realting past knowledge to new ones) is important to the learners development.
The Cognitive Development Theory

1. Sensorimotor Stage (birth 2 years)


Sensory organs and muscles become more functional
Movements are primarily reflexive
All are extensions of oneself
Routines should be established

2. Preoperational Stage (2 7 years)


Starts to think
Egocentric
Cannot accept defeat
Animism (considering that objects have life)
Role of playing is emphasized (enhances imagination)
No sense of conservation and reversibility

3. Concrete Operational Stage (7 12 years)


Knows how to reason out
Learns the law of conservation
Learns to follow abstract reasoning but limited
They have problems in hypothetical reasoning

4. Formal Operation Stage (12 years onwards)


Able to solve abstract problems
Learner is rational and logical
LAWRENCE KOHLBERG based his ideas on the findings of Jean Piaget in studying Cognitive Development and proposed the
Moral Development Theory. According to him, our ability to choose right from wrong is tied with our ability to understand and
reason logically.
The Moral Development Theory

Level 1. Pre-Conventional (Authority figures are obeyed) (birth 9 years)


Stage 1. Punishment-Obedience Orientation
[if you do good, no punishment]
[if you do wrong, there will be punishment]
Stage 2. Instrumental-Relativist
[I will do good to you if you are good to me]
[I will do bad to you if you are bad to me]
Level 2. Conventional (9 13 years)
Stage 3. Interpersonal Concordance (Good Boy Nice Girl Orientation; Morality of Cooperation)
[I am doing this because everyone is doing the same thing]
Stage 4. Law and Order Orientation
Morality of Constraints
Behavior is right when it conforms to the Law
Level 3. Post Conventional (13 years onwards)
Stage 5. Social Contratc Orientation (Morality of Cognition)
Respect the differences in ideas, concepts, orality and religious affiliation
It is wrong to violate others rights
Stage 6. Universal Ethics Orientation
[I will do it because I know it is right to do it]
Knowing the Moral Developement Theory, teachers can be guided on making disciplinary measures in the classroom and
managerial processes.
LEV VYGOTSKY proposed the Socio-Cultural Theory. He emphasized that social interaction plays a very important role in
cognitive development. He also believed that individual development could not be understood without looking into the social and
cultural context within which development happens.
Scaffolding is Vygotskys term for appropriate assistance given by the teacher to assist the learner accomplish a specific task.
Language Development *the best definition of the word is based on how it is being used.
There are four (4) major theorists on Language Developement.

1. BURRHUS FREDERICK SKINNER


Proposed Operant Conditioning
Involves reinforcements (rewards)
Talk to the child in an adult way
Playing Damn Technique let the child talk

CHOMSKY developed the Language Acquisition Device or Mother Tongue-Based Technique. He is also the major proponent of the Innatist Theory,
which postulates that humans have innate ability to acquire language; they are genetically preprogrammed for it. All normally
developing children acquire language. He also maintains that language and thought are separate.
3. SOCIAL CONTEXTUAL THEORY. This theory is primarily proposed by Lev Vygotsky which states that social interaction
influences both language and cognitive development
4. COGNITIVIST THEORY (Jean Piaget) maintained that language acquisition cannot take place until cognitive development has
paved the way for it. It asserts taht children develop knowledge of the world and then map thixs knoowledge onto language
categories and relations. From this viewpoint, language development depends on cognitive development, but not vice versa.
Who are the Exceptional Children? They are children with the following conditions and difficulties:
1. Aphasia impairment of any language modality (sound production)
2. Dysphasia partial impairment of language
3. Dyslexia special learning disability with written language
4. Dyscalculia special learning disability with numerical operations
5. ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) impulsivity in attention and being hyperactive.
Ritalin medicine for ADHD. It makes the hyperactive child more hyperactive to make him/her tired and tend to take a rest.
PAULO FREIRE proposed the Banking Concept of Education. According to him, a child is like a bank which the teacher
deposits knowledge. This is almost the same with John Lockes Theory of Tabula Rasa wherein the child is like a blank tablet
which during the learning process becomes filled with knowledge. Apparently, Jean Piaget opposed these for according to him,
the child has prior knowledge already and the teacher gives new knowledge then the child relates it to what he already know
(Theory of Constructivism).
THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE AND LEARNING STYLES
1. Two-Factor Theory by Charles Spearman. It supports that intelligence has two factors: a general mental ability factor (g)
which represents what different cognitive tasks have in common; and many specific factors (s) which include mental abilities
(mathematical, mechanical or verbal skills). Spearman is also the first one to use Psychometric approach to measure or quantify
cognitive abilitiesm or factors taht are thought to be involved in intellectual performance. Let me give you an example:

Who is more intelligent, an examinee who garnered Top 1 in the Licensure Examination for Teachers or a dancer who won
champion in a national dance competition?
From the example given, we can see that both have exceptional abilities. But in terms of asking who is more intelligent
then it depends on how intelligence is defined. If intelligence is defined in terms of cognitive abilities, we should say that the
examinee who topped the LET is more intelligent. However, if intelligence is defined in terms of motor skills and bodily
kinesthetics, then the champion dancer is more intelligent.
2. Multiple Intelligence Theory by Howard Gardner. It argues that there are different kinds of mental abilities that make up
different kinds of intelligence. Instead of having only two factors, there are 9 kinds which include verbal intelligence, musical
intelligence, logico-mathematical intelligence, spatial intelligencce, body kinesthetics intelligence, intrapersonal and interpersonal
intelligence, naturalistic intelligence and existential or moral intelligence.
3. Sternbergs Triarchic Theory of Intelligence. This is divided into three sub theories:
a. Experiential intelligence which is the ability to formulate new ideas;
b. Contextual intelligence which is the ability to adapt to a changing environment; and
c. Componential intelligence which is the ability to think abstractly and process information.
4. Jean Piagets Dynamic View. According to him, a persons intelligence is dynamic, that is, it changes as a persons
interaction with his or her environment changes.
5. Wechslers Global View. David Wechsler made his fame as the developer of the IQ Tests. He devised teh Wechsler
Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WESC-R). He stressed that intelligence is the aggregate ot global capacity of the
individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with te environment.
RELEVANT LAWS (Rights of the Child)
1. Republic Act No. 9344, the act establishing a Comprehensive Juvenile Justice and Welfare System. It exempts children
below 18 years of age from criminal liability.
2. Republic Act No. 7610,The Special Protection of Children against Child Abuse.
3. Republic Act No. 7658, known as An Act Prohibiting the Employment of Children below 15 Years of Age.
4. Filipino Children: Child 21. This is a strategic programming network that promotes and safeguards the rights of the Filipino
children.,
5. Republic Act No. 8049. It is known as An Act Regulating Hazing and Other Forms of Initiation Rites in Fraternities,
Sororities, and Other Organizations and Providing Penalties Therefore.
6. Republic Act No. 8353. Also known as The Anti-Rape Law of 1997. An act expanding the definition of Rape, Reclassifying
the same as Crime Against Person, amending the purpose Act No. 3815, as amended, otherwise known as the Revised Penal
Code.