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Tangential and Normal Components

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We know that the velocity of a particle is a vector tangent to the path of the particle but

that, in general, the acceleration is not tangent to the path. It is sometimes convenient to

resolve the acceleration into components directed, respectively, along the tangent and the

normal to the path of the particle.

moves along a curve contained in the plane of the figure. Let P be the

position of the particle at the given instant. We attach at P a unit

vector tangent to the path of the particle and pointing in the

direction of motion (Fig. 11.21a). Let be the unit vector

corresponding to the position P of the particle at a later instant.

Drawing both vectors from the same origin O, we define the vector

= (Fig. 11.21b). Since and are of unit length, their

tips lie on a circle of radius 1. Denoting by the angle formed by

and , we find that the magnitude of is 2 sin(/2). Considering

now the vector , we note that approaches zero, this vector

becomes tangent to the unit circle of Fig. 11.21b, i.e., perpendicular

to , and that its magnitude approaches

2 sin(/2)

sin(/2)

= lim

=1

0

0

2

lim

Thus, the vector obtained in the limit is a unit vector along the normal to the path of the

particle, in the direction toward which turns. Denoting this unit vector by , we write

= lim

=

Since the velocity v of the particle is tangent to the path, it can be expressed as the product

of the scalar and the unit vector . We have

=

To obtain the acceleration of the particle, the equation above will be differentiated with

respect to time t. Applying the rule of differentiation of the product of a scalar and a vector

function, we write

=

=

+

But

=

Recalling that = , that = , and from

elementary calculus that is equal to 1, where is

the radius of curvature of the path at P (Fig. 11.22), we have

=

Thus, we have

2

=

+

Thus the scalar components of acceleration are

=

component of the acceleration is equal to the rate of change

of the speed of the particle, while the normal component is

equal to the square of the speed divided by the radius of

curvature of the path at P. If the speed of the particle

increases, at is positive and the vector component at points

in the direction of motion. If the speed of the particle

decreases, at is negative and at points against the direction

of motion. The vector component an, on the other hand, is

always directed toward the center of curvature C of the path

(Fig. 11.23).

We conclude from the above that the tangential component of the acceleration reflects a

change in the speed of the particle, while its normal component reflects a change in the

direction of motion of the particle. The acceleration of a particle will be zero only if both its

components are zero. Thus, the acceleration of a particle moving with constant speed along

a curve will not be zero unless the particle happens to pass through a point of inflection of

the curve (where the radius of curvature is infinite) or unless the curve is a straight line.

Reference:

Beer, F.P., Johnston, E.R., Cornwell, (2013) P.J. Vector Mechanics For Engineers DYNAMICS.

Philippines: McGraw-Hill Education.

EXAMPLES

EXAMPLE 17

A motorist is traveling on a curved section of highway of radius 750 m at the speed of 90

km/h. The motorist suddenly applies the brakes, causing the automobile to slow down at a

constant rate. Knowing that after 8 s the speed has been reduced to 72 km/h, determine the

acceleration of the automobile immediately after the brakes have been applied.

EXAMPLE 18

Determine the minimum radius of curvature of the trajectory in Example 13.

Example 13

A projectile is fired from the edge of a 150-m cliff with an initial velocity of 180 m/s at an

angle of 30o with the horizontal.

EXAMPLE 19

A motorist starts from rest at point A on a circular entrance ramp when t = 0, increases the

speed of her automobile at a constant rate and enters the highway at point B. Knowing that

her speed continues to increase at the same rate until it reaches 100 km/h at point C,

determine

a) the speed at point B,

b) the magnitude of the total acceleration when t = 20 s.

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