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1. Solution: c)
There are Five waterways in India. For complete details and Maps, click the link
below.
http://iwai.nic.in/index1.php?lang=1&level=1&sublinkid=124&lid=143

2. Solution: d)
Two different sets of reasons can be given in favour of power sharing. Firstly,
power sharing is good because it helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between
social groups. Since social conflict often leads to violence and political instability,
power sharing is a good way to ensure the stability of political order (so no
arbitrariness, instability or divisiveness).
Power sharing is the very spirit of democracy. A democratic rule involves sharing
power with those affected by its exercise, and who have to live with its effects.
People have aright to be consulted on how they are to be governed. A legitimate
government is one where citizens, through participation, acquire a stake in the
system.
Reference: Page No. 6 (Democratic Politics Part 2)
3. Solution: b)
Chap14- page 243, NCERT 10th Science
4. Solution (d)
More than other forms of writing which came before, novels are about ordinary
people. They do not focus on the lives of great people or actions that change the
destinies of states and empires. Instead, they are about the everyday life of common
people. In the nineteenth century, Europe entered the industrial age. Factories came
up, business profits increased and the economy grew. But at the same time, workers
faced problems. Cities expanded in an unregulated way and were filled with
overworked and underpaid workers. The unemployed poor roamed the streets for
jobs, and the homeless were forced to seek shelter in workhouses. The growth of
industry was accompanied by an economic philosophy which celebrated the
pursuit of profit and undervalued the lives of workers. Deeply critical of these
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developments, novelists such as Charles Dickens wrote about the terrible effects of
industrialisation on peoples lives and characters. Dickens focused on the terrible
conditions of urban life under industrial capitalism. His Oliver Twist (1838) is the
tale of a poor orphan who lived in a world of petty criminals and beggars.
Reference : Page No. 181 (India and Contemporary World II), Class X)

5. Solution: a)
Iron deficiency anaemia during adolescence can impair physical growth,
cognitive development, reduce physical fitness and energy levels and can affect
concentration and work performance. Iron deficiency in girls has more serious
health consequences. It can have impact on their entire life cycle. Anaemic girls
have lower pre pregnancy stores of iron. Anaemic adolescent girls have a higher
risk of preterm delivery and having babies with low weight. Anaemia in
adolescent girls also increases the risk of maternal death. One third of all the
material deaths take place in young women in the age group of 15 to 24 years.
Therefore regular consumption of iron folic acid supplements along with
diet rich in micronutrients is essential for prevention of iron deficiency anaemia in
adolescent girls and boys.
It is in this context that a nation-wide Weekly Iron and Folic Acid
Supplementation (WIFS) programme was launched in January this year to address
this critical health issue.
The Weekly Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation (WIFS) programme is
currently reaching out to 13 crore school-going girls and boys (class VI XII) and
out-of-school adolescent girls in government/ aided and municipal schools
and Anganwadi Centres across all states in India.
There have been a few reports of minor side affects like nausea and
vomiting in the recent past although guidelines have been issued on the
consumption of these iron folic acid tablets to prevent side affect like nausea.
When iron tablet is taken for the first time, the body may find it little difficult to
digest and symptoms such as stomachache and nausea may occur. However, if
taken after food, the absorption will be little low but stomach ache and nausea will
not occur. These side effects will eventually disappear once the tablet is regularly
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taken for a few weeks as the body adjusts to the iron tablets. Hard stools after
consuming iron-folic acid tablet are harmless. The body takes the iron it needs and
the extra iron is removed through faeces. To reduce side affects IFA tablets should
be taken on full stomach. Taking any vitamin or nutrient is never restricted during
an illness. In fact, it helps speedy recovery from illness by improving immunity of
the body. Iron folic acid tablet can be taken during illness and even during
menstruation

6. Solution: b)
In order to strengthen the Pahchayati Raj system and also to address critical
gaps that constrain it, Ministry of Panchayati Raj has formulated the Scheme, Rajiv
Gandhi Panchayat Sashaktikran Abhiyan (RGPSA) which will be implemented
during the Twelfth Five Year Plan period. RGPSA aims to enable States to
strengthen their Panchayati Raj systems in their context by choosing from among a
menu of activities. States would have access to funds on the basis of perspective
and annual plans prepared under the scheme. States would be required to fulfill the
following essential conditions for accessing to funds:
Regular elections to panchayats or urban local bodies under the
superintendence of SEC
1/3 reservation for women in panchayats or other local bodies
Constitution of State Finance Commission(SFC) every five years and
placement of Action Taken Report (ATR) on the recommendations of the
SFC in the state Assembly
Constitution of District Planning Committees in all districts
RGPSA will provide performance linked funds from 2014-15 onwards.
Activities that would be supported under RGPSA include: Strengthening of State
Election Commission; Administrative and Technical Support at the Gram
Panchayat level; Construction /renovation of Gram Panchayat Buildings; Capacity
Building and Training of Elected Representatives and Functionaries; Institutional
Structure for Training at State, District & Block level; E-enablement of Panchayats,
etc.
The funding of RGPSA for State plans is envisaged on a 75:25 sharing basis by the
Central and State Governments respectively. For NE States, the ratio will be 90:10.

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7. Solution (d)
Sarojini Naidu, also known by the sobriquet as The Nightingale of India. She was a
child prodigy, Indian independence activist and poet. Sarojini Naidu was one of the
framers of the Indian Constitution and the first Governor of the United Provinces
from 1947 to 1949, the first woman to become the governor of an Indian state. Her
birthday is celebrated as Women's Day all over India.
Reference: Wikipedia

8. Solution (b)
Stories in prose were not new to India. Banabhattas Kadambari, written in Sanskrit
in the seventh century, is an early example. The Panchatantra is another. There was
also a long tradition of prose tales of adventure and heroism in Persian and Urdu,
known as dastan. However, these works were not novels as we know them today.
Prose is a form of language which applies ordinary grammatical structure and
natural flow of speech rather than rhythmic structure (as in traditional
poetry).Prose benefits the more informal metrical structure of verse that is almost
always found in traditional poetry. Poems usually involve a meter and/or rhyme
scheme. Prose, instead, comprises full, grammatical sentences, which then
constitute paragraphs and overlook aesthetic appeal.

9. Solution: c)
Resource planning is a complex process which involves : (i) identification and
inventory of resources across the regions of the country. This involves surveying,
mapping and qualitative and quantitative estimation and measurement of the
resources. (ii) Evolving a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology,
skill and institutional set up for implementing resource development plans. (iii)
Matching the resource development plans with overall national development plans.
India has made concerted efforts for achieving the goals of resource planning right
from the First Five Year Plan launched after Independence.
The availability of resources is a necessary condition for the development of any
region, but mere availability of resources in the absence of corresponding changes in
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technology and institutions may hinder development. There are many regions in
our country that are rich in resources but these are included in economically
backward regions. On the contrary there are some regions which have a poor
resource base but they are economically developed.

10. Solution: d)
The Limits to Growth is a 1972 book about the computer modeling of exponential
economic and population growth with finite resource supplies. The purpose of The
Limits to Growth was not to make specific predictions, but to explore how
exponential growth interacts with finite resources. Because the size of resources is
not known, only the general behavior can be explored.
The Club of Rome is a global think tank that deals with a variety of international
political issues. The Club of Rome raised considerable public attention with its
report Limits to Growth, which has sold 12 million copies in more than 30
translations, making it the best-selling environmental book in world history.

11. Solution (a)


Power is shared among different organs of government, such as the legislature,
executive and judiciary. This horizontal distribution of power because it allows
different organs of government placed at the same level to exercise different
powers. Such a separation ensures that none of the organs can exercise unlimited
power. Each organ checks the others. This results in a balance of power among
various institutions.
Reference: Page No. 8 (Democratic Politics Part 2)
12. Solution (a)
Power is shared among different organs of government, such as the legislature,
executive and judiciary. This horizontal distribution of power because it allows
different organs of government placed at the same level to exercise different
powers. Such a separation ensures that none of the organs can exercise unlimited
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power. Each organ checks the others. This results in a balance of power among
various institutions.
Even though ministers and government officials exercisepower, they are
responsible to the Parliament or State Assemblies.
Similarly, although judges are appointed by the executive, they can check the
functioning of executive or laws made by the legislatures. This arrangement is
called a system of checks and balances.
Power can be shared among governments at different levels a general government
for the entire country and governments at the provincial or regional level. Such a
general government for the entire country is usually called federal
government.
Power may also be shared among different social groups, such as the religious and
linguistic groups. Community government in Belgium is a good example of this
arrangement.
Reference: Page No. 8, 9 (Democratic Politics Part 2)

13. Solution: d)
Concave mirrors converge the oncoming light beam to focus it on one point. It is
important to focus all the energy on one single point for generating the maximum
heat. Convex mirrors, on the other hand, diverge the energy beam. So, eneegy gets
de-concentrated instead of getting concentrated. Plane mirrors simply reflect the
energy beam without any divergence or convergence.

14. Solution: c)
Chap14- Page 250, NCERT 10th Science
15. Solution (c)
The modern novel form developed in India in the nineteenth century, as Indians
became familiar with the Western novel. The development of the vernaculars,
print and a reading public helped in this process. Some of the earliest Indian novels
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were written in Bengali and Marathi. The earliest novel in Marathi was Baba
Padmanjis Yamuna Paryatan (1857), which used a simple style of storytelling to
speak about the plight of widows.
Reference : Page No. 187 (India and Contemporary World II, Class X)
16. Solution (a)
Indian novelists of the nineteenth century wrote for a cause. Colonial rulers
regarded the contemporary culture of India as inferior.
On the other hand, Indian novelists wrote to develop a modern literature of the
country that could produce a sense of national belonging and cultural equality with
their colonial masters.
Reference : Page No. 187(India and Contemporary World II, Class X)

17. Solution (d)


The modern novel form developed in India in the nineteenth century, as Indians
became familiar with the Western novel; there was no fear of Western culture
invading Indian culture which could hinder the development of novel in India.
The development of the vernaculars, print and a reading public helped in this
process.
Translations of novels into different regional languages helped to spread the
popularity of the novel and stimulated the growth of the novel in new areas.
In the north, Bharatendu Harishchandra, the pioneer of modern Hindi literature,
encouraged many members of his circle of poets and writers to recreate and
translate novels from other languages. Many novels were actually translated and
adapted from English and Bengali under his influence.
Reference : Page No. 187, 188 (India and Contemporary World II, Class X)
18. Solution: c)
Agenda 21 is a non-binding, voluntarily implemented action plan of the United
Nationswith regard to sustainable development It is a product of the UN
Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio de
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Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992. It is an action agenda for the UN, other multilateral
organizations, and individual governments around the world that can be executed
at local, national, and global levels. The "21" in Agenda 21 refers to the 21st Century.
It has been affirmed and modified at subsequent UN conferences.
In 2012, at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development the
attending members reaffirmed their commitment to Agenda 21 in their outcome
document called "The Future We Want". 180 leaders from nations participated.

19. Solution. (b)


Customs duties were raised and income tax introduced to finance the war.
People hoped that their hardships would end after the war was over. But that did
not happen. In 1918-19 and 1920-21, crops failed in many parts of India, resulting in
acute shortages of food. This was accompanied by an influenza epidemic.
Reference: Page 54 India and the Contemporary World II 10th NCERT.

20. Solution.(c)
Mahatma Gandhi first experimented with Satyagraha in South Africa in his fight
against the racist regime. Satyagraha theory influenced Nelson Mandela's struggle in
South Africa under apartheid, Martin Luther King, Jr.'s and James Bevel's
campaigns during the civil rights movement in the United States, and many other
social justice and similar movements.
Reference: Page 55 India and the Contemporary World II 10th NCERT.
21. Solution. (d)
On that day a large crowd gathered in the enclosed ground of Jallianwalla Bagh.
Some came to protest against the governments new repressive measures. Others
had come to attend the annual Baisakhi fair.
The Government held an inquiry, chaired by Lord Hunter. While it was not
uncritical of Dyer, it held back from outright censure, and the Indian members of
his commission issued a more critical minority report.
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British newspapers in India attacked the findings of the Hunter commission and
dismissed as mere politicking the views of Indians demanding justice and
compensation. The British media strongly defended General Dyer (Source:internet)
Reference: Page 56 India and the Contemporary World II 10th NCERT.
22. Solution (c)
The Fundamental Rights in the constitution are important because they are
enforceable. We have a right to seek the enforcement of the above mentioned
rights. This is called the Right to Constitutional Remedies. This itself is a
Fundamental Right. This right makes other rights effective. It is possible that
sometimes our rights may be violated by fellow citizens, private bodies or by the
government. When any of our rights are violated we can seek remedy through
courts. If it is a Fundamental Right we can directly approach the Supreme Court or
the High Court of a state.
Courts also enforce the Fundamental Rights against private individuals and bodies.
The Supreme Court and High Courts have the power to issue directions, orders or
writs for the enforcement of the Fundamental Rights. They can also award
compensation to the victims and punishment to the violators.
Only the High Courts have the right to issue orders for the enforcement of both
Fundamental Rights and Legal rights, Supreme Court can issue orders or writs only
for the enforcement of the Fundamental right and not other rights.
Reference: Page No. 107, 108, 109 (Democratic Politics -I)

23. Solution: c
Sustainable development concept never says that the imperatives of economic
growth be neglected altogether. What it says that the needs of the coming
generation too should be taken care of in the allocation and use of resources.

24. Solution: c
Chap-14- Page 252, NCERT 10th Science

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25. Solution: d
Chap-14- Page 252, NCERT 10th Science

26. Solution: a)
Under the Special Industry Initiative of the Prime Minister, the National Skills
Development Corporation (NSDC) and Ministry of Home Affairs have been
mandated to work with the corporate sector in bringing about a positive change in
the employment and skills space of Jammu and Kashmir. The Special Industry
Initiative, known as Udaan, targets the youth of J&K, specifically graduates and
postgraduates, who are seeking global and local opportunities. Udaan thereby aims
to provide skills to 40 000 youth over a period of 5 years in high growth
sectors.Udaan has two objectives :
To provide exposure to the graduates and post graduates of Jammu and Kashmir to
the best of corporate India and
To provide corporate India with exposure to the rich talent pool available in the
state
27. Solution: a)
I respect women campaign:
The Ministry of Tourism organized a National Conference of State Tourism
Ministers on 18th July, 2013 in New Delhi.
The meeting passed the unanimous Resolution that the Departments of
Tourism of all States and Union Territories will work for ensuring safety and
security of the tourists especially of women tourists. Ministry of Tourism has also
launched a new campaign for the safety of women titled I respect women.
28. Solution: b)
The Eleventh Plan document mentions that the Plan will aim for inclusive growth
by introducing National Urban Health Mission (NUHM), which along with
National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) will form the Sarva Swasthya Abhiyan.
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The Union Cabinet gave its approval to launch a National Urban Health
Mission (NUHM) as a new sub-mission under the over-arching National Health
Mission (NHM). Under the Scheme the following proposals have been approved :
1.
2.
3.
4.

One Urban Primary Health Centre (U-PHC) for every fifty to sixty
thousand population.
One Urban Community Health Centre (U-CHC) for five to six UPHCs in big cities.
One Auxiliary Nursing Midwives (ANM) for 10,000 population.
One Accredited Social Health Activist ASHA (community link
worker) for 200 to 500 households.

29. Solution (c)


Concurrent List includes subjects of common interest to both the Union
Government as well as the State Governments, such as education, forest, trade
unions, marriage, adoption and succession. Union List includes subjects of national
importance such as defence of the country, foreign affairs, banking,
communications and currency. They are included in this list because we need a
uniform policy on these matters throughout the country. State List contains
subjects of State and local importance such as police, trade, commerce, agriculture
and irrigation.
The Constitution originally provided for a two-tier system of government, the
Union Government or what we call the Central Government, representing the
Union of India and the State governments. Later, a third tier of federalism was
added in the form of Panchayats and Municipalities.
All States in the Indian Union do not have identical powers. Some States enjoy a
special status. Jammu and Kashmir has its own Constitution. Many provisions of
the Indian Constitution are not applicable to this State without the approval of the
State Assembly. Indians who are not permanent residents of this State cannot buy
land or house here. Similar special provisions exist for some other States of India as
well.
There are some units of the Indian Union which enjoy very little power.
These are areas which are too small to become an independent State but which
could not be merged with any of the existing States. These areas, like
Chandigarh, or Lakshadweep or the capital city of Delhi, are called Union
Territories. These territories do not have the powers of a State. The Central
Government has special powers in running these areas.
Reference: Page No. 16, 17 (Democratic Politics Part 2)
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30. Solution (b)


Federalism is a system of government in which the power is divided between a
central authority and various constituent units of the country.
Key features of federalism:
1 There are two or more levels (or tiers) of government.
2 Different tiers of government govern the same citizens, but each tier has its own
jurisdiction in specific matters of legislation, taxation and administration.
3 The jurisdictions of the respective levels or tiers of government are specified in
the constitution. So the existence and authority of each tier of government is
constitutionally guaranteed.
4 The fundamental provisions of the constitution cannot be unilaterally changed by
one level of government. Such changes require the consent of both the levels of
government.
5 Courts have the power to interpret the constitution and the powers of different
levels of government. The highest court acts as an umpire if disputes arise between
different levels of government in the exercise of their respective powers.
6 Sources of revenue for each level of government are clearly specified to ensure its
financial autonomy.
Reference: Page No. 15 (Democratic Politics Part 2)

31. Solution (a)


Bankim read out Durgeshnandini (1865), his first novel, to such a gathering of
people who were stunned to realise that the Bengali novel had achieved excellence
so quickly. Besides the ingenious twists and turns of the plot and the suspense, the
novel was also relished for its language. The prose style became a new object of
enjoyment. Initially the Bengali novel used a colloquial style associated with urban
life. It also used meyeli, the language associated with womens speech. This style
was quickly replaced by Bankims prose which was Sanskritised but also contained
a more vernacular style. The novel rapidly acquired popularity in Bengal. By the
twentieth century, the power of telling stories in simple language made Sarat
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Chandra Chattopadhyay (1876-1938) the most popular novelist in Bengal and
probably in the rest of India.
Vandhe Mataram was taken from Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyays Anandamath.
Reference : Page No. 190 (India and Contemporary World II, Class X)
32. Solution (c)
Colonial administrators found vernacular novels a valuable source of information on
native life and customs. Such information was useful for them in governing Indian
society, with its large variety of communities and castes. As outsiders, the British
knew little about life inside Indian households. The new novels in Indian languages
often had descriptions of domestic life. They showed how people dressed, their
forms of religious worship, their beliefs and practices, and so on. Some of these
books were translated into English, often by British administrators or Christian
missionaries. Indians used the novel as a powerful medium to criticise what they
considered defects in their society and to suggest remedies. Writers like
Viresalingam used the novel mainly to propagate their ideas about society among a
wider readership.
Novels also helped in establishing a relationship with the past. Many of them told
thrilling stories of adventures and intrigues set in the past. Through glorified
accounts of the past, these novels helped in creating a sense of national pride among
their readers. At the same time, people from all walks of life could read novels so
long as they shared a common language. This helped in creating a
sense of collective belonging on the basis of ones language.
Reference : Page No. 191 (India and Contemporary World II, Class X)

33. Solution: c)
The Himalayan Yew in trouble
The Himalayan Yew (Taxus wallachiana) is a medicinal plant found in various
parts of Himachal Pradesh and Arunachal Pradesh. A chemical compound called
taxol is extracted from the bark, needles, twigs and roots of this tree, and it has
been successfully used to treat some cancers the drug is now the biggest selling
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anti-cancer drug in the world. The species is under great threat due to overexploitation. In the last one decade, thousands of yew trees have dried up in various
parts of Himachal Pradesh and Arunachal Pradesh.

34. Solution: c)
Habitat destruction, hunting, poaching, over-exploitation, environmental pollution,
poisoning and forest fires are factors, which have led to the decline in Indias
biodiversity. Other important causes of environmental destruction are unequal
access, inequitable consumption of resources and differential sharing of
responsibility for environmental well-being. Over-population in third world
countries is often cited as the cause of environmental degradation. However, an
average American consumes 40 times more resources than an average Somalian.
Similarly, the richest five per cent of Indian society probably cause more ecological
damage because of the amount they consume than the poorest 25 per cent. The
former shares minimum responsibilities for environmental well-being.

35. Solution: b)
In India, much of its forest and wildlife resources are either owned or managed by
the government through the Forest Department or other government departments.
These are classified under the following categories.
(i) Reserved Forests: More than half of the total forest land has been declared
reserved forests. Reserved forests are regarded as the most valuable as far as the
conservation of forest and wildlife resources are concerned.
(ii) Protected Forests: Almost one-third of the total forest area is protected forest,
as declared by the Forest Department. This forest land are protected from any
further depletion.
(iii) Unclassed Forests: These are other forests and wastelands belonging to both
government and private individuals and communities. Reserved and protected
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forests are also referred to as permanent forest estates maintained for the purpose
of producing timber and other forest produce, and for protective reasons.
Madhya Pradesh has the largest area under permanent forests, constituting 75 per
cent of its total forest area.
Jammu and Kashmir, Andhra Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, West
Bengal, and Maharashtra have large percentages of reserved forests of its total forest
area whereas Bihar, Haryana, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Orissa and Rajasthan have
a bulk of it under protected forests. All North-eastern states and parts of Gujarat
have a very high percentage of their forests as un-classed forests managed by local
communities.

36. Solution (a)


The first proper modern novel was written by Srinivas Das of Delhi. Srinivas Dass
novel, published in 1882, was titled Pariksha-Guru (The Master Examiner). It
cautioned young men of well-to-do families against the dangerous influences of bad
company and consequent loose morals. Pariksha-Guru reflects the inner and outer
world of the newly emerging middle classes. The characters in the novel are caught
in the difficulty of adapting to colonised society and at the same time preserving
their own cultural identity.
Reference : Page No. 188 (India and Contemporary World II, Class X)

37. Solution: c
Chap-16- Page 275, NCERT 10th Science

38. Solution: b
Chap-16- Page 276 , NCERT 10th Science
( Groundwater sources can not always be free of contaminants. However, it usually
contains lesser contaminants.)
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39. Solution: d
Chap-16- Page 274-275, NCERT 10th Science

40. Solution.(a)
Explanation: Rowlatt Act gave the government enormous powers to repress
political activities, and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two
years.
Khilaf issue, the repressive Rowlatt act and the Jallianwalla Bagh massacre were
the 3 important causes for the Non-Cooperation Movement.
Reference : page No.55-56 chapter 3 (India and the Contemporary World II)

41.

Solution.(d)

Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not
permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission. When they heard of the
Non-Cooperation Movement, thousands of workers defied the authorities, left the
plantations and headed home. They believed that Gandhi Raj was coming and
everyone would be given land in their own villages.
Tribal peasants interpreted the message of Mahatma Gandhi and the idea of swaraj
in yet another way. In the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh, for instance, a militant
guerrilla movement spread in the early 1920s under the leadership of Alluri
Sitaramaraju.
The movement drew into its fold the struggles of peasants and tribals.In Awadh,
peasants were led by Baba Ramchandra a sanyasi led the movement against
talukdars and landlords who demanded from peasants exorbitantly high rents and a
variety of other cesses.
Reference page 58, chapter 3 (India and the Contemporary World II)
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42. Solution: b)
The National e-Governance Plan (NeGP), being coordinated by
the Department of Electronics & Information Technology (DeitY), Ministry of
Communications & Information Technology, was approved in May 2006 with a
vision to Make all Government services accessible to the common man in his
locality, through common service delivery outlets and ensure efficiency,
transparency & reliability of such services at affordable costs to realise the basic
needs of the common man. Originally, the NeGP comprised of 27 Mission
Mode Projects (MMPs) and 8 components. However, in 2011 it was augmented
by adding 4 more projects - Health, Education, PDS and Posts to increase the
list of 27 MMPs to 31 MMPs.
An MMP is an individual project within the NeGP that focuses on one
aspect of electronic governance, such as banking, land records or commercial
taxes etc. Within NeGP, Mission Mode implies that projects have clearly
defined objectives, scopes, and implementation timelines and milestones, as
well as measurable outcomes and service levels.
The 31 MMPs comprising the NeGP are further classified as State,
Central or Integrated projects. Each state government can also define five MMPs
specific to its individual needs.
The List of the 3 types of MMPs is as follows:
Central MMPs under NeGP
Banking
Central Excise & Customs
Income Tax (IT)
Insurance
MCA21
Passport
Immigration,Visa and Foreigners Registration& Tracking
Pension
e-Office
Posts
UID

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State MMPs under NeGP
Agriculture
Commercial Taxes
eDistrict
Employment Exchange
Land Records(NLRMP)
Municipalities
e-Panchayats
Police(CCTNS)
Road Transport
Treasuries Computerization
PDS
Education
Health
Integrated MMPs under NeGP
CSC
e-Biz
e-Courts
e-Procurement
EDI For eTrade
National e-governance Service Delivery Gateway
India Portal

43. Solution: a)
The scheme of Seekho aur Kamao is the Skill Development initiative. It is a 100%
Central Sector Scheme for Skill Development of minorities to be implemented
from the current financial year onwards. It is being implemented by the ministry of
minority affairs.

44. Solution.(b).
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Lord Irwin announced in October 1929, a vague offer of dominion status for
India in an unspecified future.
All the political parties in India including the Muslim League participated in Go
back Simon demonstrations.
Reference: page 62, chapter 3 (India and the Contemporary World II)

45.

Solution.(c)

Reference: page 96-97 chapter 4 (India and the Contemporary World II)

46. Solution: a)
In India joint forest management (JFM) programme furnishes a good example for
involving local communities in the management and restoration of degraded forests.
The programme has been in formal existence since 1988 when the state of Orissa
passed the first resolution for joint forest management. JFM depends on the
formation of local (village) institutions that undertake protection activities mostly
on degraded forest land managed by the forest department. In return, the members
of these communities are entitled to intermediary benefits like non-timber forest
produces and share in the timber harvested by successful protection.

47. Solution.(a)
Dr B.R. Ambedkar, who organised the dalits into the Depressed Classes Association
in 1930, clashed with Mahatma Gandhi at the second Round Table Conference
by demanding separate electorates for dalits. When the British government
conceded Ambedkar s demand, Gandhiji began a fast unto death. He believed that
separate electorates for dalits would slow down the process of their integration into
society. Ambedkar ultimately accepted Gandhiji s position and the result
was
the Poona Pact of September 1932.It gave the Depressed Classes (later to be known
as the Schedule Castes) reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils,
but they were to be voted in by the general electorate.
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Reference:page 68 chapter 3 (India and the Contemporary World II)

48. Solution: d)
http://pib.nic.in/newsite/erelease.aspx?relid=91316

49. Solution: d)
http://minorityaffairs.gov.in/sites/upload_files/moma/files/jiyoparsis_0.pdf
50. Solution: b)
http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2013-0106/lucknow/36173792_1_minority-women-muslim-women-sachar-committee
http://minorityaffairs.gov.in/sites/upload_files/moma/files/Revised%20Leadership.
pdf

51. Solution: c)
The NULM is actually an improved version of the earlier poverty alleviation
programme for the urban poor titled Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana
(SJSRY) which was found to be wanting for a variety of reasons.
Having identified the problem areas in the implementation of the SJSRY and
recognising the need to address the needs of the growing population flocking to
cities in search of a better livelihood, the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty
Alleviation (HUPA) restructured the old scheme and unveiled it in its new avatar
as the NULM.
To begin with, the UPA government did not hold back on the funding. A
budget of a whopping Rs. 6404 crore has been provided for the remaining period of
the 12th five year plan for cities with a population of one lakh or more with Rs. 950
crore being allocated for 2013-2014.
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It has also expanded the beneficiaries of urban poor to include the homeless
and street vendors who are invariably ignored in government programmes. A
special provision has been made for the funding of all-weather 24/7 shelters with all
essential facilities for the urban homeless. In addition, up to five per cent of the
NULM budget has been earmarked to provide support to urban street vendors
which will include skill upgradation and development of vendor markets.

52. Solution: c)
The Programme is a joint initiative of the National Rural Health Mission and the
State Departments of Health and Education. The new initiative will complement a
peer programme titled Amrutham, Arogyam for adults in the State. About 70 lakh
adults were screened as a part of Amrutham, Arogyam programme.
Changing Lifestyle and its Multiple Effects
The World Health Assembly organized by World Health
Organisation(WHO) in 2010 at Geneva cautioned in its report that non
communicable diseases -mainly cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic respiratory
diseases and diabetes, kill nearly 35 million people per year. The report also says
that almost 90% of fatalities before the age of 60 occur in developing countries and
are largely preventable. (Courtesy: WHO website)
Unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, stress and excess use of junk food are
the main causes that lead to lifestyle diseases at an early age. The cut-throat
competition in academics forces students to distance themselves from sporting
activities in and outside the school premises. India with its majority young
population is more vulnerable to such non-communicable diseases.
LEAP- An Introduction
The LEAP initiative will help educate teachers and students on lifestyle
diseases. Continuous awareness campaigns will be conducted across the schools as
a part of this programme. Medical Officers, dietitians and other health workers will
lead the classes which lay emphasis on healthy diet, exercise and good eating habits.
Main Objectives of LEAP:
Awareness classes for students and teachers on regular exercise and healthy
diet.
Facilities for exercise at schools.
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Encourage students to reach schools either by walking or by cycling.
Training for students in vegetable farm making and making healthy diet.
Encourage Yoga and Sports in Schools.
Regular screening of school students to identify lifestyle diseases.
Awareness among students regarding lifestyle disease control.

53. Solution (a)


Indian Constitution did not give the status of national language to any one language.
Hindi was identified as the official language. But Hindi is the mother tongue of only
about 40 per cent of Indians. Therefore, there were many safeguards to protect
other languages. Besides Hindi, there are 21 other languages recognized as Scheduled
Languages by the Constitution (8th Schedule contains a list of 22 languages
recognized by the constitution).
According to the Constitution, the use of English for official purposes was to
stop in 1965. But the Central Government continues to use of English along with
Hindi for official purposes. Promotion of Hindi continues to be the official policy
of the Government of India. Promotion does not mean that the Central
Government can impose Hindi on States where people speak a different language.
Of the 22 languages that are included in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian
Constitution and are therefore called Scheduled Languages. Others are called nonScheduled Languages.
The States reorganization Commission under the chairmanship of Fazl Ali, which
created states on linguistic basis rejected the theory one language- one state
Reference: Page No. 20, 22 (Democratic Politics Part 2)
54. Solution (d)
After 1990- This period saw the rise of regional political parties in many States of
the country. This was also the beginning of the era of Coalition Governments at the
Centre. Since no single party got a clear majority in the Lok Sabha, the major
national parties had to enter into an alliance with many parties including several
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regional parties to form a government at the Centre. This led to a new culture of
power sharing and respect for the autonomy of State Governments. This trend was
supported by a major judgement of the Supreme Court that made it difficult for
the Central Government to dismiss state governments in an arbitrary manner. Thus,
federal power sharing is more effective today than it was in the early years after the
Constitution came into force.
Reference: Page No. 20, 21 (Democratic Politics Part 2)
55. Solution (b)
A major step towards decentralization was taken in 1992. The Constitution was
amended to make the third-tier of democracy more powerful and effective. Now it
is constitutionally mandatory to hold regular elections to local government bodies.
Seats are reserved in the elected bodies and the executive heads of these
institutions for the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward
Classes.
At least one-third of all positions are reserved for women. No reservation for
minorities.
An independent institution called the State Election Commission (SEC) has been
created in each State to conduct panchayat and municipal elections and though
SEC is appointed by the Governor of the state, he can only be removed by the
President of India.
The panchayat works under the overall supervision of the gram sabha.
Reference: Page No. 24, 25 (Democratic Politics Part 2)

56. Solution: c)
The salient features of the Scheme of Tourist Visa on Arrival (TVOA) are:
The TVOA is allowed for a maximum validity of 30 days with single entry
facility.

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The TVOA is available to foreign nationals arriving from Japan, Singapore,
Finland, Luxembourg, New Zealand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Philippines,
Myanmar and Indonesia at Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata
Airports. With effect from August 15, 2013 it has also been introduced at the
Kochi, Thiruvananthapuram, Hyderabad and Bangalore airports.
The fee for the TVOA is US $ 60/- or equivalent amount in Indian rupees
per passenger (including children).
The TVOA is allowed for a maximum of two times in a calendar year to a
foreigner with a minimum gap of two months between each visit. TVOA is
non-extendable and non-convertible.
Tourists from the above mentioned countries may also avail of TVOA for
up to 30 days for medical treatment, for casual business or to visit
friends/relatives, etc.
The TVOA facility is not applicable to the holders of Diplomatic/Official
Passports. Further, TVOA shall not be granted to the foreigners who have
permanent residence or occupation in India. Such persons can visit India on
normal visa, as applicable.

57. Solution: b)
Distinguishing Features of NPS -Swavalamban:
Voluntary - Open to eligible citizens of India, in the age group of 1860 years.
Subscriber is free to choose the amount he/she wants to invest every year.
Simple Eligible individuals in the unorganized sector can open an account
through their Aggregator and get an Individual subscriber (NPS - Swavalamban)
Account.
Safe - Regulated by Pension Fund Regulatory Development Authorities
(PFRDA), with transparent investment norms, regular monitoring and
performance review of fund managers by NPS Trust.
Economical Ultra-low cost structure with no minimum amount required per
annum or per contribution
"NPS -Swavalamban Model" is designed to ensure ultra-low administrative and
transactional costs, so as to make small investments viable.
Swavalamban Yojana is a scheme announced by the Government of India
under which Government will contribute Rs. 1000 per year to each NPS
Swavalamban account opened in year 2010-11,2011-12 ,2012-13 for five years as
under .
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Account opened in 2010-2011 will get the benefit till 2014-2015
Account opened in 2011-2012 will get the benefit till 2015-2016
Account opened in 2012-2013 will get the benefit till 2016-2017
NPS Swavalamban account opened in the period 2013-2014 to 2016-2017 will
get the Swavalamban benefit up to 2016-17.
NPS - Swavalamban is a pension product to ensure a monthly income after the
retirement age has been attainted.
NPS - Swavalamban invests a portion of the contributions in the equity (stock)
market and hence there are possibilities of returns much higher than what banks
and similar financial institutions are able to offer. A portion of the corpus is
invested in equity markets which enables the corpus to grow quickly. However,
unlike other equity based investment schemes where risk of losing the money is
high, in NPS - Swavalamban; the risk is reduced considerably as up to 55% of
money is invested in Government securities and up to 40% in corporate bonds.

58. Solution: d)
The Minister of Petroleum & Natural Gas, Dr M. Veerappa Moily, has
approved the launch of Portability of LPG connections from today onwards across
Oil Marketing Companies/distributors covering 480 districts in the country. These
districts cover all possible LPG markets which have multiple LPG distributors of
various ratings.
With this, an LPG consumer in these markets can now switch to the
distributor of his/her choice within a cluster of LPG distributors in the vicinity
under the LPG Connection Portability Scheme. This measure will bring great relief
to those LPG consumers who are unhappy with the services of their current
distributor or want to move to an LPG distributor closer to their home.
As a pilot project, the Oil Marketing Companies (OMCs) together launched
LPG connection portability scheme in 24 districts covering 13 States in October
2013. Today, this scheme is being launched on a full-fledged all-India basis by
expanding its coverage to over 480 districts and a population of over 8.2 crore LPG
consumers across the country.

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59. Solution: d)
Water scarcity is the lack of sufficient available water resources to meet the
demands of water usage within a region. It already affects every continent and
around 2.8 billion people around the world at least one month out of every year.
More than 1.2 billion people lack access to clean drinking water.
Water scarcity involves water stress, water shortage or deficits, and water crisis.
While the concept of water stress is relatively new, it is the difficulty of obtaining
sources of fresh water for use during a period of time and may result in further
depletion and deterioration of available water resources. Water shortages may be
caused by climate change, such as altered weather patterns
including droughts or floods, increased pollution, and increased human demand and
overuse of water. A water crisis is a situation where the available potable,
unpolluted water within a region is less than that region's demand. Water scarcity is
being driven by two converging phenomena: growing freshwater use and depletion
of usable freshwater resources.
The per capita availability of water in the country is 1545 cubic meters as per
the 2011 census. The average annual per capita availability of water in the country,
taking into consideration the population of the country as per the 2001 census,was
1816 cubic meters which reduced to 1545 cubic meters as per the 2011
census,denoting that the per capita water availability in the country is reducing
progressively due to increase in population.Also there are reports that demand for
water in India would rise dramatically to about 833 cubic kilometers in 2025 and
899 cubic kilometers in 2050 due to increase in population, rapid urbanization and
a growing GDP with significant lifestyle changes

60. Solution: d)
Kharif crops are grown with the onset of monsoon in different parts of the country
and these are harvested in September-October. Important crops grown during this
season are paddy, maize, jowar, bajra, tur (arhar), moong, urad, cotton, jute,
groundnut and soyabean. Some of the most important rice-growing regions are
Assam, West Bengal, coastal regions of Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala
and Maharashtra, particularly the (Konkan coast) along with Uttar Pradesh and
Bihar.

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Recently, paddy has also become an important crop of Punjab and Haryana. In
states like Assam, West Bengal and Orissa, three crops of paddy are grown in a year.
These are Aus, Aman and Boro.
In between the rabi and the kharif seasons, there is a short season during the
summer months known as the Zaid season. Some of the crops produced during
zaid are watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber, vegetables and fodder crops.

61. Solution: a)
Pulses: India is the largest producer as well as the consumer of pulses in the world.
These are the major source of protein in a vegetarian diet. Major pulses that are
grown in India are tur (arhar), urad, moong, masur, peas and gram. Pulses need less
moisture and survive even in dry conditions. Being leguminous crops, all these crops
except arhar help in restoring soil fertility by fixing nitrogen from the air.
Therefore, these are mostly grown in rotation with other crops. Major pulse
producing states in India are Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan,
Maharashtra and Karnataka.

62. Solution.(b)
The printing press first came to Goa with Portuguese missionaries in the midsixteenth century.
Reference: Page 168 India and the Contemporary World II 10th NCERT
63. Solution: a)
Page no. 244, NCERT 10th Science

64. Solution: b)
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Cotton: India is believed to be the original home of the cotton plant. Cotton is one
of the main raw materials for cotton textile industry. India is the third-largest
producer of cotton in the world. Cotton grows well in drier parts of the black
cotton soil of the Deccan plateau. It requires high temperature, light rainfall or
irrigation, 210 frost-free days and bright sunshine for its growth. It is a kharif crop
and requires 6 to 8 months to mature.

65. Solution: c)
The newly launched Rashtriya Bal Swaasthya Karyakram of the Ministry of
Health & Family Welfare assures a package of health services for children up to 18
years of age. The initiative, which is part of the National Rural Health Mission, was
launched on February 6, in Palghar, a tribal dominated block of Thane district in
Maharashtra. The programme will be extended to cover all districts of the country
in a phased manner.
Early Detection; Early Intervention
Rashtriya Bal Swaasthya Karyakram, also known as Child Health Screening
and Early Intervention Services aims at early detection and management
of 4Ds prevalent in children. These are Defects at birth, Diseases in children,
Deficiency conditions and Developmental delays including Disabilities. The health
screening of children is a known intervention under School Health Programme. It is
now being expanded to cover all children from birth to 18 years of age. The services
aim to cover all children of 0-6 years of age group in rural areas and urban slums, in
addition to children enrolled in classes 1st to 12th in Government and Government
aided schools. A set of 30 common ailments / health conditions have been
identified for screening and early intervention.

66. Solution: d
The Government of India is taking fresh measures to bolster the Jan
Aushadhi Campaign, as a public welfare programme, to supply quality medicines at
affordable prices to the common man through dedicated outlets. It is also a part of
direct market intervention strategy by making generic medicines easily available and
accessible in the market. A key initiative under the campaign is opening of Jan
Aushadhi Stores', where quality generic medicines, which are equivalent to the
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expensive branded drugs, in terms of their potency and efficacy, are sold at cheaper
prices.
To know what these generic drugs are, we have the definition by the World Health
Organization (WHO). According to it, a generic drug is a pharmaceutical product
that is manufactured without a license from the innovator company and marketed
after the expiry date of the patent or other exclusive rights. These Generic drugs
are subject to the same regulations over manufacturing, packaging, testing and
quality standards, as their patented/branded equivalent. They have the same form,
strength, dosages, intended use, safety, and route of administration, performance
characteristics and quality on every count. Prices of the branded/patented drugs are
generally quite high, due to the temporary monopoly over the product, bestowed
by the patent. Once available in the market, without a patent right, they are
normally then sold by various pharmacy companies under different brand or
company given names. These are expected to be much cheaper due to the market
competition as they are sold by various manufacturers. These are normally referred
by its chemical or its salt name by the chemists/pharmacists.

67. Solution: c)
On 9th January 2013 the Prime Minister launched the National Electric
Mobility Mission Plan (NEMMP) 2020 which is a roadmap for progressive
induction and expansion of efficient and environmentally friendly electric and
hybrid vehicles in the country.
The National Electric Mobility Mission Plan 2020 is a culmination of
extensive and detailed exercise by the government and the industry covering a span
of one and a half years; also involving an international knowledge, that carried out a
primary data based survey among seven thousand respondents, to understand the
needs and aspirations of the Indian consumer with respect to clean, energy-efficient
and affordable transportation, and the state of preparedness of the Indian
automobile industry in this regard. The study took into consideration the current
international best practices, particularly in Europe, USA, Japan and China, and also
recent developments within the country, particularly steps being taken by the
government to encourage the use of electric and hybrid vehicles, for example the
subsidy scheme for electric vehicles ran by the Ministry of New and Renewable
Energy Resources.
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The National Electric Mobility Mission Plan 2020 emanates from the
National Mission on Electric Mobility (NMEM) which was approved by the
Cabinet as the core vision document that has National energy security, mitigation
of the adverse impact of vehicles on the environment and growth of domestic
manufacturing capabilities as its principal end objectives.
The NEMMP 2020 is a well researched, comprehensive action plan which indicates
that high latent demand for environmentally friendly electric vehicle technologies
exists in the country. As per these projections, co-ordinated efforts are required by
the government and industry which would eventually result, by the year 2020, 6-7
million units of new vehicle sales of the full range of electric vehicles, along with
resultant liquid fuel savings of 2.2 2.5 million tones. This will also result in
substantial lowering of vehicular emissions and decrease in carbon di-oxide
emissions by 1.3% to 1.5% in 2020.

68. Solution: d)
Detailed guidelines were issued to the States/UTs for identification of
the Antyodaya families under the AAY and additional Antyodaya families under
the expanded AAY. In order to identify the households criteria adopted:- Landless
agriculture labourers, marginal farmers, rural artisans/craftsmen, such as potters,
tanners, weavers, blacksmiths, carpenters, slum dwellers and persons earning their
livelihood on daily basis in the informal sector like porters, coolies, rickshaw
pullers, hand cart pullers, fruit and flower sellers, snake charmers, rag pickers,
cobblers, destitute and other similar categories in both rural and urban areas.
Households headed by widows or terminally ill persons/disabled
persons/persons aged 60 years or more with no assured means of subsistence or
societal support.
Widows or terminally ill persons or disabled persons or persons aged 60
years or more or single women or single men with no family or societal support or
assured means of subsistence.
All primitive tribal households.

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The above guidelines have further been amended vide letter dated 3rd June, 2009 to
include all eligible BPL, families of HIV positive persons in the AAY list of on
priority.

69. Solution: d)
Government believes that the Direct Cash Transfer or Direct Benefits
Transfer is likely to be a game-changer in more than one way.
The Centre releases as much as Rs 2, 00,000 crore as subsidies under various
schemes for the targeted sections across the country. Therefore it is within its right
to devise methods to reach beneficiaries the way it wants.
Firstly, the Direct Benefits Transfer (DBT) scheme is aimed at cutting the
bloated subsidy bill of Rs.1, 64,000 crore. Indias budget deficit was 5.8 per cent of
gross domestic product in the financial year ending 2012 March.
Secondly, unlike other welfare scheme launched so far by the Centre, DBT
helps in timely and quick transfer to intended beneficiaries.
Thirdly, the transfer of direct cash into account of targeted beneficiary is a
winning proposition for the recipients as it aims to eliminate middlemen in various
government sponsored welfare schemes and subsidized food, fuel and fertiliser
schemes. Take for instance, it's estimated that public coffers can be richer by
several crore yearly just by switching to cash handouts for LPG and kerosene, a
proposed move that would also curb diversion of subsidised cylinders for
commercial use and diesel adulteration with inexpensive kerosene. Bringing all
subsidies under DBT's ambit can be the major fiscal game-changer the economy
needs very much.
Fourthly, the Direct Benefits Transfer scheme is likely to be simple and error
free. On the basis of Aadhar cards money is deposited in beneficiaries accounts.
Fifthly indirect transfers are more prone to leakages than direct cash transfers.
So, that is why the Central Government has put in a mechanism of direct cash
transfer. According to Planning Commission the Public Distribution System has
become so inefficient that 58 per cent of the subsidized grains do not reach targeted
beneficiaries while one-third of it siphoned from the system.
Sixthly, the Aadhar based DBT helps eliminate duplicate cards and cards for
non-existent persons or ghost beneficiaries often found in schemes such as the PDS
and MNREGS.
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Seventhly, with the actual transfer of cash taking place with the help of
micro automated teller machines (ATMs) it would infuse financial inclusion on a
greater scale in rural India. Quoting a World Bank Study the Reserve Bank of India
last year in its annual report has said, in India only 35 per cent have formal accounts
versus an average of 41 per cent in developing economies. With the implementation
of DBT, it could fuel financial inclusion.
Eighthly, aided by Aadhar technology Direct Benefits Transfer will not be a mere
welfare scheme but also the world's largest experiment in administrative reform. It
will revolutionise the delivery of welfare measures in worlds populous democracy.

70. Solution: c)
It was to involve the youth in constructive activities, enable them to get
employment that a major initiative Youth Employment and Guidance Node
(YEGN) programme was launched a few years back in border and remote areas of
Jammu and Kashmir .
The YEGN guidance and training to young men and women in various
skills to equip them to either get a job or start their own enterprise , prepare
them for recruitment in the army and other security agencies including paramilitary
forces and help them acquire some expertise for self employment .
Thanks to the YEGN under the Sadbhawna programme today many a
youth have been recruited in army, paramilitary forces, railways, banks and many
trained to earn a livelihood on their own.
The YEGN centres have computer training facilities, facilities for training in
different skills and competent personnel and expertees to guide the youth in getting
gainful employment or seeking higher education or sitting for exams for
recruitment in bank, railways and other fields.
The youth that include a large number of students have also access to
magazines and journals on general knowledge and competitive exams in various
sectors besides Employment News magazine.

71. Solution: d)
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The denudation of the soil cover and subsequent washing down is described as soil
erosion. The processes of soil formation and erosion, go on simultaneously and
generally there is a balance between the two. Sometimes, this balance is disturbed
due to human activities like deforestation, over-grazing, construction and mining
etc., while natural forces like wind, glacier and water lead to soil erosion.
The running water cuts through the clayey soils and makes deep channels as gullies.
The land becomes unfit for cultivation and is known as bad land. In the Chambal
basin such lands are called ravines. Sometimes water flows as a sheet over large
areas down a slope. In such cases the top soil is washed away. This is known as
sheet erosion. Wind blows loose soil off flat or sloping land known as wind erosion.
Soil erosion is also caused due to defective methods of farming. Ploughing in a
wrong way i.e. up and down the slope form channels for the quick flow of water
leading to soil erosion.

72. Solution: a)
The Leatherback turtle is a critically endangered species.
The Leatherback Turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) is the largest of the living sea
turtles, weighing as much as 900 kg. Adult leatherback turtles are excellent
swimmers. They swim an average of 45-65 km a day, travel upto 15,000 km per
year and can dive as deep as 1200 m. Jellyfish is their primary food.
The population spikes of leatherbacks coincide with abundance of jellyfish,
making them important top-predators in marine environments.
Habitat: Tropical and subtropical oceans.
Distribution: Found in tropical and temperate waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and
Indian Oceans.
Threats: High sea fishing operations, harvesting of eggs, destruction of nests by wild
predators and domesticated species such as cats, dogs and pigs. Artificial lighting
disorients hatchlings and adults and causes them to migrate inland rather
http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/news/15-bird-species-in-india-in-criticallyendangered-list/article5393581.ece
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http://www.moef.nic.in/downloads/publicinformation/critically_endangered_booklet.pdf

73. Solution: b)
Critically endangered is the highest risk category assigned by the IUCN
(International Union for Conservation of Nature) red lIst to wild species. There are
five quantitative criteria to determine whether a taxon is threatened. A taxon is
critically endangered when the best availabile evidence indicates that it meets any
of the following criteria:
I. Populations have declined or will decrease, by greater than 80% over the last 10
years or three generations.
II. Have a restricted geographical range.
III. Small population size of less than 250 individuals and continuing decline at 25%
in 3 years or one generation.
IV. Very small or restricted population of fewer than 50 mature individuals.
V. High probability of extinction in the wild.
http://www.moef.nic.in/downloads/publicinformation/critically_endangered_booklet.pdf
Based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural
Resources (IUCN), we can classify as follows
Normal Species: Species whose population levels are considered to be normal for
their survival, such as cattle, sal, pine, rodents, etc.
Endangered Species: These are species which are in danger of extinction. The
survival of such species is difficult if the negative factors that have led to a decline
in their population continue to operate. The examples of such species are black

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buck, crocodile, Indian wild ass, Indian rhino, lion tailed macaque, sangai (brow
anter deer in Manipur), etc.
Vulnerable Species: These are species whose population has declined to levels from
where it is likely to move into the endangered category in the near future if the
negative factors continue to operate. The examples of such species are blue sheep,
Asiatic elephant, Gangetic dolphin, etc.
Rare Species: Species with small population may move into the endangered or
vulnerable category if the negative factors affecting them continue to operate. The
examples of such species are the Himalayan brown bear, wild Asiatic buffalo,
desert fox and hornbill, etc.
Endemic Species: These are species which are only found in some particular areas
usually isolated by natural or geographical barriers. Examples of such species are the
Andaman teal, Nicobar pigeon, Andaman wild pig, mithun in Arunchal Pradesh.
Extinct Species: These are species which are not found after searches of known or
likely areas where they may occur. A species may be extinct from a local area,
region, country, continent or the entire earth. Examples of such species are the
Asiatic cheetah, pink head duck.

74. Solution (a)


These social differences are mostly based on accident of birth. Normally we dont
choose to belong to our community. We belong to it simply because we were born
into it. We all experience social differences based on accident of birth in our
everyday lives. People around us are male or female, they are tall and short, have
different kinds of complexions, or have different physical abilities or disabilities.
But all kinds of social differences are not based on accident of birth. Some of the
differences are based on our choices. For example, some people are atheists. They
dont believe in God or any religion. Some people choose to follow a religion other
than the one in which they were born. Most of us choose what to study, which
occupation to take up and which games or cultural activities to take part in. All
these lead to formation of social groups that are based on our choices.
Every social difference does not lead to social division. Social differences divide
similar people from one another, but they also unite very different people.
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Democracy does not always leads to disintegration of society on the basis of social
divisions. Actually democracy is one of the best wayto accommodate social
diversity (as in India).
Reference: Page No. 32, 33 and 34 (Democratic Politics Part 2)

75. Solution (b)


There are various kinds of social differences that can take the form of social
divisions and inequalities. These are social differences based on gender, religion,
caste, wealth.
Womens reservation Bill has not yet been passed by the parliament. Hence it
cannot be considered as a step to reduce social difference.
Our Constitution did not give the status of nationallanguage to any one language.
Hindi was identified as the official language only and not National language. Hindi
as a national language will only create more social difference in the society.
Constitution allows the state to intervene in thematters of religion in order to
ensure equality within religious communities. For example, it bans untouchability.
Enactment of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act
(MGNREGA) would not only reduce the economic inequality but also social
inequality.
Reference: Based on the concepts of Chapter 4(Democratic Politics Part 2)
76. Solution (d)
Communalism involves thinking along the following lines. The followers of a
particular religion must belong to one community. Their fundamental interests are
the same. Any difference that they may have is irrelevant or trivial for community
life. It also follows that people who follow different religions cannot belong to the
same social community.
If the followers of different religion have some commonalities these are superficial
and immaterial. Their interests are bound to be different and involve a conflict. In
its extreme form communalism leads to the belief that people belonging to
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different religions cannot live as equal citizens within one nation. Either, one of
them has to dominate the rest or they have to form different nations.
Reference: Page No. 47 (Democratic Politics Part 2)
77. Solution (c)
The Constitution of India ensures equality of citizens within religious communities
(as provided under Fundamental Rights Articles 25 to 28).
There is one respect in which democratic government is certainly better than its
alternatives: democratic government is legitimate government. It may be slow, less
efficient, not always very responsive or clean. But a democratic government is
peoples own government. That is why there is an overwhelming support for the
idea of democracy all over the world.
The preamble is not an integral part of the Indian constitution was first decided by
the Supreme Court of India in Beru Bari case therefore it is not enforceable in a
court of law. However, Supreme Court of India has, in the Kesavananda case,
recognised that the preamble may be used to interpret ambiguous areas of the
constitution where differing interpretations present themselves. In the 1995 case of
Union Government Vs LIC of India also the Supreme Court has once again held
that Preamble is the integral part of the Constitution.
Democracy stands much superior to any other form of government in promoting
dignity and freedom of the individual. Every individual wants toreceive respect
from fellow beings. Often conflicts arise among individuals because some feel that
they are not treated with due respect. The passion for respect and freedom are the
basis of democracy.
Reference: Page No. 92, 97 (Democratic Politics Part 2)
78. Solution (c)
Pressure groups are organisations that attempt to influence government policies.
But unlike political parties, pressure groups do not aim to directly control or share
political power. These organisations are formed when people with common
occupation, interest, aspirations or opinions come together in order to achieve a
common objective. Their decision-making is more informal and flexible.
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Usually interest groups seek to promote the interests of a particular section or


group of society. Trade unions, business associations and professional (lawyers,
doctors, teachers, etc.) bodies are some examples of this type. They are sectional
because they represent a section of society: workers, employees, business persons,
industrialists, followers of a religion, caste group, etc. Their principal concern is the
betterment and well being of their members, not society in general.
On balance, however, pressure groups and movements have deepened democracy.
Putting pressure on the rulers is not an unhealthy activity in a democracy as long as
everyone gets this opportunity.
While interest groups and movements do not directly engage in party politics, they
seek to exert influence on political parties. Most of the movement groups take a
political stance without being a party. They have political ideology and political
position on major issues. The relationship between political parties and pressure
groups can take different forms, some direct and others very indirect.
Reference: Page No. 63, 64,67, 68 (Democratic Politics Part 2)

79. Solution: b
Chap-15, Pages 262, NCERT Class 10 Science
80. Solution: d
Chap-16, Page 266, 267 (Besides, acids have low pH value. Potable water has
moderate pH value between 6.5-7.5. Also, no natural water source can be metal
free. Metals like Iron, magnesium etc. are actually useful to the human body.)

81. Solution: b
Chap-16, Pages 270, NCERT Class 10 Science

82. Solution: a
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Chap-16, Pages 273, NCERT Class 10 Science

83. Solution: d)
http://eands.dacnet.nic.in/PDF_LUS/Concepts_&_Definitions.pdf

84. Solution: d)
Page 8 and 10, Class X NCERT Geography.
85. Solution (d)
The multi-party system often appears very messy and leads to political instability.
At the same time, this system allows a variety of interests and opinions to enjoy
political representation and thereby deepens democracy. Multi-party system creates
a natural system of checks and balance, which helps to check the emergence of
dictatorial tendencies (which may happen in single or a two-party system). Since
there is no real control or limited control of number of parties in India, no single
party is able to get a majority and leads to hung parliament (where no party wins
the majority seats and thus cannot form a government).
Reference:Chapter 6 (Democratic Politics Part 2)
86. Solution (a)
The Answer is either the First statement and Fourth Statement together (or)
Second statement alone, but since the answer option does not have 2 Only, option
(a) is correct.
Conditions for recognition as a National party:
A political party shall be treated as a recognised National party, if, and only if,
either (A)(i) the candidates set up by it, in any four or more States, at the last
general election to the House of the People, or to the Legislative Assembly of the
State concerned, have secured not less than six percent of the total valid votes
polled in their respective States at that general election; and (ii) in addition, it has
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returned at least four members to the House of the People at the aforesaid last
general election from any State or States; or (B) (i) its candidates have been elected
to the House of the People, at the last general election to that House, from at least
two percent of the total number of parliamentary constituencies in India, any
fraction exceeding one half being counted as one; and (ii) the said candidates have
been elected to that House from not less than three State
Reference: Election commission website
87. Solution (c)
The Constitution was amended to prevent elected MLAs and MPs from changing
parties. This was done because many elected representatives were indulging in
Defection in order to become ministers or for cash rewards. Now the law says that
if any MLA or MP changes parties, he or she will lose the seat in the legislature.
This new law has helped bring defection down. At the same time this has made any
dissent even more difficult. MPs and MLAs have to accept whatever the party
leaders decide.
The Supreme Court passed an order to reduce the influence of money and
criminals. Now, it is mandatory for every candidate who contests elections to file an
Affidavit giving details of his property and criminal cases pending against him.
The new system has made a lot of information available to the public. But there is
no system of check if the information given by the candidates is true.
The Election Commission passed an order making it necessary for political parties
to hold their organizational elections and file their income tax returns.
The parties have started doing so but sometimes it is mere formality.
When Political parties are brought under the ambit of Right to Information Act,
there is transparency and is a measure of good governance.
Reference:Page No. 85, 86 (Democratic Politics Part 2)

88. Solution: b)
Sustainable development ties together concern for the carrying capacity of natural
systemswith the social and economic challenges faced by humanity. As early as the
1970s, 'sustainability' was employed to describe an economy "in equilibrium with
basic ecological support systems."[1] Scientists in many fields have highlighted The
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Limits to Growth,[2] and economists have presented alternatives, for example a
'steady state economy',[3] to address concerns over the impacts of expanding human
development on the planet.
The term 'sustainable development' rose to significance after it was used by
the Brundtland Commission in its 1987 report Our Common Future. In the report,
the commission coined what has become the most often-quoted definition of
sustainable development: "development that meets the needs of the present
without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs."
The carrying capacity of a biological species in an environment is the maximum
population size of the species that the environment can sustain indefinitely, given
the food, habitat, water and other necessities available in the environment.
In population biology, carrying capacity is defined as the environment's maximal
load,[1] which is different from the concept of population equilibrium.
The United Nations 2005 World Summit Outcome Document refers to the
"interdependent and mutually reinforcing pillars" of sustainable development as
economic development, social development, and environmental
protection.[10] Based on this 'triple bottom line', numerous sustainability standards
and certification systems have been established in recent years, in particular in the
food industry.

89. Solution: b
Chap-14, Pages 246, NCERT Class 10 Science

90. Solution: a
Chap-14, Pages 250, NCERT Class 10 Science

91. Solution: d

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Chap-15, Pages 259, NCERT Class 10 Science

92. Solution: a
Chap-15, Pages 260-61, NCERT Class 10 Science

93. Solution (c)


A political party shall be treated as a recognised political party in a State, if and
only if either the conditions satisfy:
a) A political party should secure at least six percent of the total valid votes
polled during general election to a State Legislative Assembly and should, in
addition, win at least two seats in that Assembly, or the party should win at
least three percent of the total number of seats or three seats in the
Legislative Assembly, whichever is more;
(Or)
b) A political party should secure at least six percent of the total valid votes
polled in a State during a general election to Lok Sabha and win at least one
seat in the Lok Sabha from that State, or the party should win at least one
seat in the Lok Sabha for every 25 seats or any fraction thereof allotted to
that State(or, at least one member to the Legislative Assembly of that State
for every 30 members of that Assembly or any fraction of that number)
Reference : Election Commission website

94. Solution (d)


Every party in the country has to register with the Election Commission. While the
Commission treats all parties equally, it offers some special facilities to large and
established parties. These parties are given a unique symbol only the official
candidates of that party can use that election symbol. Parties that get this privilege
and some other special facilities are recognised by the Election Commission for
this purpose. That is why these parties are called, recognised political parties. The
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Election Commission has laid down detailed criteria of the proportion of votes and
seats that a party must get in order to be a recognised party.
All political parties must register themselves with the EC. However, not all parties
that are registered with the EC are 'recognised' by it preference in the matter of
allotment of free symbols. Further, registered political parties, in course of time, can
get recognition as `State Party or National Party subject to the fulfillment of the
conditions prescribed by the Commission in the Election Symbols (Reservation and
Allotment) Order, 1968, as amended from time to time.
Recognised `State and `National parties need only one proposer for filing the
nomination and are also entitled for two sets of electoral rolls free of cost and
broadcast/telecast facilities over Akashvani/Doordarshan during general elections.
Reference: Page No. 79, Election Commission website (Democratic Politics Part 2)

95. Solution: d,
Page no. 244, Chapter 14, NCERT 10th Science
96. Solution: a)
Page no 244-245, Chapter 14, NCERT 10th Science
97. Solution. (c)
The members of the Constituent Assembly were notelected on the basis of
universal franchise. In thewinter of 1945-46 provincial elections were held inIndia.
The Provincial Legislatures then chose the representatives to the Constituent
Assembly. The Constituent Assembly that came into being was dominated by one
party: the Congress.The Congress however was not a party with one voice. Its
members differed in their opinion on critical issues. Some members were inspired
by socialism while others were defenders of landlordism. Some were close to
communal parties while others were assertively secular.
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Reference: Page 407-408 HISTORY-III 11th NCERT

98. Solution: c
99. Solution. (a)
India had a very rich and old tradition of handwritten manuscripts
in Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian, as well as in various vernacular languages. Manuscripts
continued to be produced till well after the introduction of print, down to the late
nineteenth century. Manuscripts, however, were highly expensive and fragile. They
had to be handled carefully, and they could not be read easily as the script was
written in different styles. So manuscripts were not widely used in everyday life.
100. Solution. (d)
Painters like Raja Ravi Varma produced images for mass circulation. Poor wood
engravers who made woodblocks set up shop near the letterpresses, and were
employed by print shops. Cheap prints and calendars, easily available in the bazaar,
could be bought even by the poor to decorate the walls of their homes or places of
work. These prints began shaping popular ideas about modernity and tradition,
religion and politics, and society and culture.
Reference: Page 171 India and the Contemporary World II 10th NCERT

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