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9.4 A cylindrical tank (1.22m diameter) is filled with water to an operating level equal to the tank

diameter. The tank is equipped with four equally spaced baffles, the width of which is one tenth

of the tank diameter. The tank is agitated with a 0.36 m diameter, flat-blade disk turbine. The

impeller rotational speed is 4.43 rps. The air enters through an open ended tube situated below

the impeller and its volmetric flow rate is 0.0217 m3/s at 1.08 atm and 25 deg C.

density= 997.08 kg/m3

Calculate:

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

Power Requirement

Gas Hold-up

Sauter-mean Diameter

Interfacial area

Volumetric mass-transfer coefficient

Given:

DT = 1.22 m

W = 1/10 DT

DI = 0.36 m

N = 4.43 rps

Q = 0.0217 m3/s

Required:

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

Pm

H

D32

a

kla

Solution:

a. Nre = (997.08)(4.43)(.36)^2

d. Interfacial Area:

8.904 x 10^-4

Nre = 642,915.034 > 10,000

a =6H/ D32

a= 98.5447 /m

= 3144.8862 W

Kl = 4.58x10^-4 m/s

Pm= 1341.3218 W

b. v= (/4)(1.22)(1.22)^2

v= 1.43 m3

Vs= (4x .0217) / (1.22)^2

= 0.0186 m/s

<

0.02 m/s

Using equation 9.48 of James Lee

H = 0.0790

c. Using equation 9.42

D32= 4.8132 x 10^-3 m

D32= 4.8132 mm

Kla = 0.0451 /s

9.5 Estimate the volumetric mass-transfer coefficient kLa for the gas-liquid contractor described

in Problem 9.4 by using a correlation for kLa and compare the result with the experimental value.

Given:

Reactor volume, v= 1.43m3

Vs= 0.0186 m/s

PM= 1342 Watts

Required:

kLa (using equation 9.71 by James Lee)

% kLa compared with experimental value

Solution:

1342

Experimental

% for volumetric mass-transfer coefficient =

( 0.05480.0451 ) x 100

= 17.7007% error

(0.0548)

9.6 The power consumption by an agitator in an unbaffled vessel can be expressed as

2

( )

P mo

ND I

=f

3

5

N D I

Can you determine the power consumption and impeller speed of a 1,000-gallon fermenter

based on findings of the optimum condition from a one-gallon vessel by using the same fluid

system? Is your conclusion reasonable? Why or why not?

Given:

P mo

ND2I

=f

N 3 D5I

( )

VP =1000 gallons

Vm=1 gallon

Required:

Can the power consumption and impeller speed of VP be determined on findings of the

optimum condition from Vm by using the same fluid system? Why?

Solution:

VP

=1000

Vm

The scale ratio is

1

DI , P

=1000 3 =10

DI,m

To achieve dynamic similarity, the three numbers for the prototype and model must be

equal

Pmo

3

N D

] [

5

I P

P mo

N 3 D5I

[ ] [ ]

ND 2I

ND 2I

=

P

5

( Pmo )p =10 [ P mo ] m

P =m

[ ]

NP

Nm

N P =0.01 N m

while the equality of Froude number requires

N P=

1

Nm

10

If

P m ;

[]

P m ;

[]

1

=

m 31.6

the fluid which needs to be employed for the model should be 1/31.6 of the kinematic

viscosity of water. It is impossible to find the fluid whose kinematic viscosity is that small.

As a conclusion, if all three dimensionless groups are important, it is impossible to

satisfy the dynamic similarity.

GAS HANDLING WITH RUSHTON TURBINE

A fermenter of diameter and liquid height 1.4m is fitted with a Rushton impeller of diameter 0.5m

and off-bottom clearance 0.35m operated at 75 rpm. The fermentation broth is sparged with air

at a volumetric flow rate of 0.28m3/min. Half-way through the culture some bearings in the

stirrer drive begin to fail and stirrer speed must be reduced to a maximum of 45 rpm for the

remainder of the process.

a. Under the normal operating conditions, is the gas completely dispersed?

b. After the stirrer speed is reduced, is the impeller flooded or loaded?

Solution:

a) Ni =

75/min

Fr =

Di

g

( 160mins )

= 1.25s-1

1.25 s1 2 (0.5 m)

=

= 0.0796

Flg = 0.2

DI

DT

0.5

( )

Fr 0.5 = 0.2

0.5 m

1.4 m

0.5

*Fg, volumetric flowrate of gas greater than the operating flow rate, we can conclude that

the air provided is completely dispersed under normal conditions.

b)

Ni =

45 /min (

Fr =

Di

g

1 min

) = 0.75s-1

60 s

0.75 s1 2(0.5 m)

=

= 0.0287

*Flooding-loading transition

Flg = 30

DI

DT

3.5

( )

Fr

= 30

0.5 m

1.4 m

3.5

= 0.0234

*At reduced stirrer speed, maximum air flow rate can be handled without impeller

flooding as operating flow rate (0.28m3/min) is greater than this. The impeller is

FLOODED.

Clostridium acetobutylicum carries out anaerobic fermentation and converts glucose into

acetone, butanol along with smaller concentrations of butyrate, acetate, etc. In fermentation the

following products were obtained from 100 moles of glucose and 11.2 moles of NH 3, as nitrogen

source. Products formed:

Cells = 13moles

Butanol= 56moles

Acetone= 22moles

Butyric acid = 0.4 moles

CO2= 221 moles

H2= 135moles

Ethanol= 0.7 moles

By performing a carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, and oxygen balance, determine the chemical

composition of the cells.

Solution:

By performing a carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen balance, determine the element

composition of the cells.

100C6H12O6 + 11.2 NH3 13CaHbOcNd + 56C4H10O (butanol) + 22C3H6O(acetone) +

* where CaHbOcNd represents elemental composition of clostridium cells

Carbon Balance:

100(6) + 11.2(0) = 13(a) + 56(4) + 22(3) + 0.4(4) + 14(2) + 221(1) + 0.7(2) : a = 4.46

Hydrogen Balance:

100(12) + 11.2(3) = 13(b) + 56(10) + 22(6) + 0.4(8) + 14(14) + 135(2) + 0.7(6) : b = 16.02

Oxygen Balance:

100(6) + 11.2(0) = 13(c) + 56(1) + 22(1) + 0.4(2) + 14(2) + 221(2) + 0.7(1) : c = 3.88

Nitrogen Balance:

11.2(1) = 13(d) : d = 0.86

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