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Applied Biology

Lecture

Applied Biology
Dr. Sabrina Schmeckebier
HTTG, Hannover Medical School
Working group Biohybrid Lung

Tecas Summer School
Hannover, 1st – 5th September 2014

Introduction

Applied Biology - Definition
What does Applied Biology mean ?
-definition BIOLOGY:
- „ ... is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms
including their structure, function, growth, evolution, distribution, taxonomy ... “
-branches of BIOLOGY:
-

Acarology, Anatomy, Arachnology, Biochemistry, Bioinformatics, Biomechanics, Bionomics, Biophysics, Biotechnology, Botany, Cell
biology, Ecology, Entomology, Evolution, Genetics, Gerontology, Herpetology, Histology, Ichnology, Ichthyology, Immunology,
Limnology, Marine biology, Microbiology, Molecular biology, Mycology, Myrmecology, Neurobiology, Ornithology, Paleontology,
Palynology, Parasitology, Photobiology, Phycology, Physiology, Plant physiology, Biological psychology, Radiobiology, Sociobiology,
Structural biology, Taxonomy, Virology, Zoology

-APPLIED BIOLOGY:
- transfer the basic knowledge of living systems and organisms to practical use to
develop new technologies and products
- AIM: to improve humans live and protect nature
 highly interdisciplinary

Introduction

Applied Biology - Application
Main areas of application:
-

increasing human welfare

-

improved use of natural resources

-

reduce environmental pollution

-

prevention of diseases

TECAS‐ITN Summer School 2014

Geographical distribution dedicated biotechnology companies biotechnologically acitive companies with main focus in medicine Main areas of activity in Biotechnology companies (only 1 classification per company) TECAS‐ITN Summer School 2014 .Applied Biology Introduction Fields of Applied Biology Popular branches Developmental Biology Bionics Biochemistry Molecular Biology Biotechnology Microbiology Ecosystem Theory Physiology Genetics Introduction Fields of Applied Biology Branches of Biotechnology Biotechnology application in Agriculture Medicine Pharmacy Environment Waste Management Use of Marine Organisms Background Biotechnology in Germany Biotech companies .

.one of the most famous examples of biomimetics 1948 Swiss engineer George de Mestral: after walk with his dog recognized burrs in the fur (hair) Burr showing tiny hooks Velcro hooks. social behaviour and organizational principles from nature - AIM: study and design of engineering systems and modern technology - strategies: - - basic science of general principles. Examples from Applied Biology Bionics Example 1 . biomimicry  application of biological principles. structural.. TECAS‐ITN Summer School 2014 . Lilienthal in 1894 general term not only construction of body parts. movement. Study of Bionics often emphasizes implementing functions found in nature rather than just imitating biological structures. sensoric. later identification of potential for ideas to transfer to technology direct analogy search subsections: design.Velcro: . neuronal. systems.1505 aimed to transfer the flight of birds to humans followed by O. evolutional. methods. Velcro loops. constructional.Applied Biology Background Biotechnological Research in Germany Biotech institutions & employes – Geographical distribution Examples from Applied Biology Bionics Bionics (german: Bionik) - English term existing since 1958 - attempts from early history: - - Leonardo da Vinci . also biomimetics.

http://www.youtube.Applied Biology Examples from Applied Biology BIONICS Example 2 .com/watc h?v=fZyf5LI8WII Examples from Applied Biology Bionics Example 3: TECAS‐ITN Summer School 2014 . VIDEO LOTUSEFFEKT BLATT Water and dirts perl off window with lotus effect as well as facade painted with lotus effect paint. The underlying mechnism behind the Lotus effect was investigated and could be transferred to practical use.Lotus Effect: Lotus flowers. REM image of lotus leafe surface.

youtube. https://www.Applied Biology Examples from Applied Biology Bionics Example 3: Commerzbank-Arena. Frankfurt What is the Bionic behind? Examples from Applied Biology Bionics Example 3: The roof was designed basing on the mechanism / statics of bat wings.com/watch?v=0uXEXN H8sCo TECAS‐ITN Summer School 2014 .

Applied Biology Examples from Applied Biology Biotechnology – Green Environmental Technology Example: Examples from Applied Biology Biotechnology – Green Environmental Technology Example: -Project RUBIN „Aufbruch zur Industrialisierung von Naturkautschuk aus Löwenzahn“ Video Continental TECAS‐ITN Summer School 2014 .

Examples from Applied Biology Biotechnology – Food Technology Functional Food / Nutrigenomic: -Increasing world population ( increase of ∼80 Mio people/year) increasing need for food optimising the yield gain additional benefit from food functional food . - folates omega-3 fatty acids latic acid bacteria prebiotics TECAS‐ITN Summer School 2014 .development of an economically optimized wheel with consistent quality -alternatives to use of fossile materials for rubber production -kautschuk from dandelion (Löwenzahn)  more weather-independent cultivation than rubber tree -comparable quality was achieved by using russian dandelion -able to grow on fallow land (unused fields) . microorganisms.Applied Biology Examples from Applied Biology Biotechnology – Green Environmental Technology Project RUBIN -general aim of Continental: .supplementation with e.does thereby not compete with other plants .g. enzymes metabolites enzymatic hydrolysis synthesis gas fermentation - Examples: Scanning electron microscope image of a yeast cluster Yeast is a single-cell organism using alcoholic fermentation to draw ist energy by converting glucose into ethanol and carbondioxide by using enzymes pyruvate carboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.g.only one growth period until harvest -ecologically friendly Examples from Applied Biology Biotechnology – Food Technology Bioconversion: - synonym biotransformation chemical reaction takes place that brings out chemical compound  those cannot be produced by other methods - - use of organic materials into usable products or energy sources by applying biological processes or agents e.

nubilatis  weather tolerance  product yield e. corn  herbicide tolerance Ostrinia nubilatis  insect resistance Caterpillar of O. bioethanol  storage potential  nutrient content e. treatment of vitamin deficiencies Corn borer in corncob.Applied Biology Examples from Applied Biology Biotechnology – Agricultural Technology Genetic Engineering in Agriculture Production of: - vaccines antibiotics flowers biofuels plant and animal breeding prest resistant crops pesticide resitant crops nutrient supplementation abiotic stress resistance industrial stength fibres Examples from Applied Biology Biotechnology – Agricultural Technology Genetically modified crop  Optimisation potential for crop e.g. different genetically modified varieties  "SmartStax" multiple artificial features Crop is infected by European corn borer TECAS‐ITN Summer School 2014 Pest dies when feeding on any plant part . Examples from Applied Biology Biotechnology – Agricultural Technology Genetically modified crop  1997 first transgenic corn  Bt-corn .g. naturally producing the insecticide (Bt-toxine)  new popular modification Monsato corn bacillus thuringiensis Bt gene is inserted into crop  crossing btw.g.resistent against certain plant harming insects by producing a poison  protein known from Bacillus thuringiensis.

g. pharmacogenomics. tissues. Watson. genetic engineering. not working therapy due to a genetic defect biochips for development of new drugs and early disease diagnosis individual therapy and drug dosages - prenatal diagnosis for the detection of heriditary genetic diseases - paternity test / relationship testing - crime investigations / forensics TECAS‐ITN Summer School 2014 . organs for research and treatment of disease or injury -important hallmarks: - discovery of microbes .end of 15th century discovery of penicillin (A. genetically manipulated wheat. resistant against herbicide (Glyphosat) treatment is not allowed be grown on free fields  potential for overgrowth Examples from Applied Biology Biotechnology – Medicine & Pharmacy Development of technologies & products for application in medicine / pharma -for research & treatment of disease or injury -technologies e. cultivation of cells.1928 description of DNA-structure (J.1953 human genome sequence – 2000 Examples from Applied Biology Biotechnology – Medicine & Pharmacy Technologies for medical & genetic diagnostics - detection of genetic profiles.g. vaccines) and implants. F.g. Fleming) . organs -modell organisms. cells. defects and diseases by: - proof of infections - pharmacogenomics  personalised medicine - drug screening e. Crick) . tissues. needed to develop medical products -production of pharmaceutical substances by genetically modified organisms -products: medical drugs (therapeutics.Applied Biology Examples from Applied Biology Biotechnology – Agricultural Technology Genetically modified crop & food  controversial discussions about • need • political aspects • health aspects • ecological aspects  e.

1 from the mother) could differ in length.short repeating pieces of non-coding DNA . plants) . Boyer. treatment of diabetes TECAS‐ITN Summer School 2014 . peptide hormone insulin. against poisons. for diagnostic approaches  enzymes e. sometimes sequence measured are 15 STR + 1 sex determining STR combination of marker sizes found in each person = genetic profile amplification of STRs by PCR the repeat reagion is variable btw.g.Aim: change of organisms phenotype . vaccination / immunisation against  antibodies e.length dependent specific band profile Examples from Applied Biology Biotechnology – Medicine & Pharmacy Technologies for Genetic Engineering .Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) . lactase to digest lactose  hormones e.g. samples flanking region are constant  primer binding .g.from 1970s invention of tools for combining DNA of different species  e. Cohen) Schematic overview for potential strategies to clone a gene of interest.Products from Pharming   Genetic Engineering in pharmaceutical biotechnology = Pharming insertion of genes into host organism to facilitate its expression  production of recombinant therapeutics like proteins or metabolic products  to produce alternatives to natural substances that can     be only available from other organisms be rare be difficult to derive vary in quality  antigenes e.g.Applied Biology Examples from Applied Biology Biotechnology – Medicine & Pharmacy Example .g.Analysis of STRs - repeat patterns differ among individuals each persons DNA contains 2 copies (1 inherited from the father.g. Examples from Applied Biology Biotechnology – Medicine & Pharmacy Transgenes .Relationship testing by DNA profiling .historically genetic engineering performed since first breeding of organisms (e.transgenic: genetic material that has been transferred from one organism to another . S. transfer of antibiotic resistance (H.

zebrafish. knock-out) – disease study. Escherichia coli – general gene function . house mouse. Fluorescent coral Examples from Applied Biology Biotechnology – Medicine & Pharmacy Model Organisms in Biotech Research and Regenerative Sciences -examples: . fruit fly.g.drosophila – basic studies e.mouse Nude mouse. antibiotic resistance X-Gal hydrolysis with β-galactosidase Aequorea victoria . . developmental biology . knock out of Foxn1 gene.5 locus. general embryonic. expressing different flurescent proteins.g. Examples from Applied Biology Biotechnology – Medicine & Pharmacy Model Organisms in Biotech Research and Regenerative Sciences . drug testing Danio rerio. . staining by certain dyes  fluorescence labelled antibodies  immunohistochemical staining  express additional genes e.microorgansims Bacteria.g.Applied Biology Examples from Applied Biology Biotechnology – Medicine & Pharmacy Transgenes – Visualisation of gene expression   direct proof gene expression  e. electron microscopy image.g.zebrafish – genetic studies.g. fluorescent proteins indirect proof  e. Mouse embryo shows green fluorescence of heart due to knoch in of GFP in Nkx 2.axolotl – regeneration studies . TECAS‐ITN Summer School 2014 LacZ activity marks the cells of the developing myotome. immunological mechanisms .microorganimsm – e. Mus musculus. coli. E. . . gain / loss of function studies. Drosophila melanogaster.mice (knock-in. metabolic.

Induced Regeneration .(Stem) Cell Therapy . tissues.Gene Therapy . organs and facilitate the respective application .Biohybrid devices Examples from Applied Biology Biotechnology – Regenerative Medicine Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine Embryonic stem cells Induced pluripotent stem cells Adult stem cells  promising potential for application in Regenerative Medicine TECAS‐ITN Summer School 2014 .Tissue Engineering .Applied Biology Model Organisms in Biotech Research and Regenerative Sciences .axolotl Examples from Applied Biology Biotechnology – Medicine & Pharmacy Approaches of Regenerative Medicine .regeneration of diseased cells.

Translation - Research & development - University institutions - Industry companies - Publication - Animal experiments - Clinical trials - Patents - Process of Approval - Product to market Thank you for your attention ! TECAS‐ITN Summer School 2014 .Applied Biology Examples from Applied Biology Biotechnology – Medicine & Pharmacy Strategies for applying Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine Examples from Applied Biology From Research to Application .