You are on page 1of 7

Hot Cracking Resistance of Austenitic

Stainless Steel W e l d Metals


Increasing Mn and Mo content and avoiding multiple thermal cycles on
weld metal HAZ can reduce hot cracking tendency of
fully austenitic stainless steel weld metals

BY C. D. L U N D I N , C.-P. D. C H O U , A N D C. J. SULLIVAN

ABSTRACT. The fissure bend test originally developed and evaluated for
determining the cracking resistance of
SMA deposited austenitic weld metals
has been extended to evaluate GTA
and GMA deposited filler metals. Fissure bend tests were run on several
commercial fully austenitic and ferritecontaining stainless welds deposited
by GTA, SMA and GMA welding processes. The fully austenitic filler metals
are basically AISI Type 310 or 316 c o m position w i t h a difference in the alloying elements M n , M o , and C.
The effect of nitrogen additions to
the shielding gas, in the GTA process,
on the ferrite content of the deposited
weld metal has been defined. The
nitrogen addition technique shows
that it is an effective way of reducing
and/or controlling ferrite content.
Further, that nitrogen additions have
relatively little effect on fissuring tendency in the materials evaluated. In
fact, it was possible to reduce the
ferrite content from 5 FN to 0.5 FN and
maintain fissuring resistance.
The nature and morphology of the
fissuring in fully austenitic stainless
steel weld metals is similar to that of
the partially ferritic weld metals. The
location, extent and magnitude of the
cracking is dependent upon procedure
characteristics as well as composition.
The weld metal heat-affected zone
thermal history plays an important role
in controlling fissuring tendency in the
fully austenitic weld metals. This effect
has been evaluated using a multiple
thermal cycle technique in the fissure
bend test.

Introduction
Austenitic stainless steels are generally regarded as readily weldable mate226-s I A U G U S T 1980

rials, w i t h considerable tolerance for


variations in welding conditions w i t h out risk of cracking. Nonetheless, fully
austenitic weld metals may crack during deposition of a single pass and in
underlying weld runs reheated by subsequent passes. Susceptibility to these
forms of cracking can be minimized by
using consumables w i t h compositions
such that a small amount of the high
temperature delta phase is retained in
deposited weld metal. 1 Unfortunately,
in certain corrosive environments, the
ferrite may lead to preferential attack
in the weld metal, 2 and in high temperature service, ferrite may promote
rapid transformation to the embrittling
sigma phase.3 Thus, for critical applications, fabricators are frequently required to use fully austenitic weld
metal.
It is k n o w n that welding procedure
as well as the composition of the
consumables has a significant effect
on the hot cracking tendency of fully
austenitic stainless steel weld metal. It
has been confirmed that M n and M o
have beneficial effects in reducing hot
cracking 4 ' and that the cracking susceptibility increases as Si, P and S
contents increase.6-7 In addition, heat
input should be minimized to avoid
cracking. Low arc energy together w i t h
a fairly high welding speed is consid-

Paper presented at the AWS 61st Annual


Meeting held in Los Angeles, California,
during April 14-18, 1980.
C D. LUNDIN is Professor of Metallurigical
Engineering and Director of Welding
Research Laboratory, C-P. D. CHOU is
Graduate Research Assistant, Department
of Metallurgical Engineering, University of
Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee; and C j.
SULLIVAN is with Ebasco Services, Inc.,
Forrestal Campus, Princeton, New jersey.

ered effective in reducing microcracking by reducing the weld pool size and
the extent to which underlying runs
are heated. 8
The fissure bend test was originally
developed and evaluated for determining the cracking resistance of SMA
deposited austenitic weld metals. 9 1 0 1 1
It has the favorable features desired in
a weldability test in that it is economical, easy to conduct, reproducible, and
capable of evaluating fissuring in multipass weldments very similar to those
used in current fabrications.
In this study the test was extended
to the GTAW and G M A W processes
and was used to evaluate the effect of
alloying elements, welding procedures, and multiple weld metal HAZ
thermal cycles on the fissuring propensity of austenitic weld metals.

Experimental Procedures
Welds utilizing commercial austenitic stainless steel consumables were
evaluated in this study. Five weld metals were deposited by the automatic
GTAW process and three weld metals
were deposited by the SMAW process.
In addition, one of the GTA consumables was evaluated in the G M A W
mode. Table 1 shows the chemical
composition and calculated Ferrite
Number (FN) of these weld metals.
The base metal used was Vi x 2 x 9 in.
(1.27 X 5.08 X 22.86 cm) Type 304LN
or Type 304 plate.
The welding parameters are shown
in Table 2. Since the filler metal wires
used for evaluation varied in diameter,
the wire-feed rate was adjusted to
deposit the same amount of wire per
inch of weld. The base plates were
characterized by autogenously fusing
the sample surface w i t h six overlap-

Table 1Chemical Composition of Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld Metals

Weld metal
designation

W1 l b l
W2""
W3<b)
W4 ,bl
W5"
E1

(c,

E2

(cl

E3 (.)

B1"

Chemical composition, w t - %
C

Si

Mn

0.014
0.017
0.013
0.093
0.090
0.032
0.025
0.100
0.022

0.15
0.44
0.36
0.37
0.43
1.00
0.28
0.26
0.56

4.57
2.20
5.26
1.49
1.90
5.20
1.94
1.55
1.66

" C a l c u l a t e d FN using DeLong diagram.


"'GTA deposit.
L
~'SMA deposit.

0.009
0.009
0.011
0.013

0.009
0.007
0.014
0.009

0.019
0.021
0.032
0.024

0.000
0.012
0.016
0.004

Cr

Ni

Mo

Ferrite""
Number

25.09
18.50
19.03
27.18
27.00
18.50
17.80
26.14
19.02

21.98
15.20
16.74
20.27
21.10
17.40
13.00
20.99
8.25

2.12
2.80

0.06
0.06
0.13
0.06
0.08
0.08
0.08
0.08
0.13

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
5.8

Electrode diameter
Polarity
Current
Voltage
Travel speed
Interpass temperature
Argon flow rate
Heat input

2.60
2.22
0.40
0.35

"Base plate (autogenous).


" N o t available.

Table 3Fissure Bend Test Results and


Measured Ferrite Number of Austenitic
Stainless Steel Weld Metals

Table 2Welding Parameters for Fissure Bend Test


Parameter

2.57
0.09

SMAW
Vs in. (3.18 mm)
dcrp
90-100 A
25 V
8 ipm (0.34 cm/s)
200 F (93C)
16-17 k j / i n (630-670 k j / m )

GTAW
0.047 in. (1.19 mm)
0.063 in. (1.60 mm)
dcsp
180 A

10.8 V
8 ipm (0.34 cm/s)
250F (121C)
25 cfh (11.8 liters/min)
15 k j / i n . (590 k j / m )

Before
bending
Designation

FN

Cracks

Weld:
W1
0.1
0
W2
0.2
0
W3
0.0
0
W4
0.0
0
2
W5
0.0
SMA Weld:
El
0.1
0
E2
0
0.6
E3
10
0.0
CTA Autogenous
Weld:
B1
6.3
0

After bending
FN

Cracks

0.3
0.4
0.0
0.1
0.0

0
1
3
4
11

0.1
0.9
0.0

0
1
55

7.3

GTA

p i n g b e a d s so t h a t f e r r i t e p o t e n t i a l
could
be
measured
and
dilution
effects c h e c k e d .
T h e fissure b e n d test m e t h o d s w e r e
used t o e v a l u a t e t h e w e l d s . W e l d pads
were g r o u n d , bent, penetrant tested,
and e x a m i n e d by optical microscopy.
T h r e e layer p a d s w e r e u s e d f o r t h e
G T A d e p o s i t s t o e l i m i n a t e base p l a t e
d i l u t i o n effects.

V.

Ferrite N u m b e r (FN) r e a d i n g s w e r e
m a d e o n all g r o u n d p a d s u s i n g an
A m i n c o - B r e n n e r M a g n e G a g e . In o r d e r
to m i n i m i z e the error d u e t o w e l d m e t al i n h o m o g e n e i t y , t h e a v e r a g e v a l u e o f
15 d e t e r m i n a t i o n s t a k e n f r o m d i f f e r e n t
l o c a t i o n s in t h e c e n t e r f o u r i n c h e s
along t h e pad surface was used.
Selected specimens w e r e sectioned
in
three
perpendicular
planes,
m o u n t e d and polished. The specimens
w e r e t h e n e l e c t r o l y t i c a l l y e t c h e d at
7 - 9 v o l t s (V) u s i n g a stainless steel
c a t h o d e f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 60 s e c o n d s
(s). T h e e t c h i n g s o l u t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f
25 g r a m s C r O a , 133 m l g l a c i a l a c e t i c
acid, and 7 ml distilled water.

Fig. 1Microstructures
metal. X500

of as-deposited

SMA austenitic

stainless steel El

weld

The m i c r o s t r u c t u r e of t h e e t c h e d
specimens w e r e examined by optical
m i c r o s c o p y a n d by e l e c t r o n m i c r o s c o p y . E n e r g y d i s p e r s i v e X-ray analysis
w a s also a p p l i e d in o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e
elemental d i s t r i b u t i o n s in
selected
regions.

WELDING RESEARCH SUPPLEMENT | 227-s

y
y%.
%:

- A

F/g. 2Hot cracks in the SMA austenitic stainless steel E3 weld metaltop face view;
A-unbent, polished and etched (optical); B-bent, ground and unetched (SEM). Strain
direction indicated by arrows. X500 (reduced 50% on reproduction)

Results and Discussion

weld metals exhibited


significant
cracking. The W2, W3, and W4 weld
metals also exhibited cracking although not as extensive as the E3 w e l d
deposit.
Comparing the data in Table 1 and
Table 3, it can be seen that the alloying
elements M n and M o apparently play
an important role in mitigating hot
cracking. W i t h increased amounts of
both M n (of approximately 4-5%) and
M o (of 2-2.5%), cracking was e l i m i - '
nated in all weld metals except W3
weld metal which had slightly higher P
and S contents. This is consistent w i t h
the observations of others.'- 5
The microstructures typical of unfis-

Fissure Bend Tests of Fully Austenitic Stainless Weld Metal


The fissure bend test results on the
fully austenitic stainless steel weld
metals are shown in Table 3. All c o n sumables were evaluated in duplicate
and the tests showed good reproducibility. The number of cracks shown in
Table 3 is the average of the total
number of cracks in the center four
inch region of the ground weld pad.
Ail deposited weld metals showed
essentially 0 FN but different.cracking
tendencies. The W1 and El weld metals did not crack while the E3 and W 5

Fig. 3Microstructures oi as-deposited fully


austenitic stainless steel welds: AGTA Wl
weld metal, longitudinal direction; BSMA
E3 weld metal, transverse direction. Note
fusion boundary at left in micrographs.
X 200 (reduced 50% on reproduction)

sured fully austenitic weld metals are


shown in Fig. 1. The cellular dendritic
solidification mode with segregation
pattern is clearly seen in this three-

6-S

IA

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

23 29

CHROMIUM EQUIVALENT = %Cr + %Mo + 1.5x%Si + 3,5x%Cb


Fig. 4Calculateld weld metal composition locations in DeLong diagram
228-sl A U G U S T 1980

30

31

Table 4-Results of the Fissure Bend Tests With W l Weld Metal


Number of cracks
Welding methods

Before bending

After bending

0
8
10
0

0
66
95
4

GTAW with cold wire feed (Ar) "


GMAW (Ar)
GMAW (Ar + 2% 0 2 )
GMAW deposit plus GTAW remelting (Ar)
"Ar = argon.

mixed z o n e " characterized by the ferrite potential of the base plate. Some
dilution is also to be expected adjacent to the fusion line, and in the
multilayer GTA pads the first layers
averaged Vi to 1 FN. The second layers
were essentially ferrite-free. Thus, in
our testing, (with t w o or three layer
pads) the undiluted weld metal was
evaluated.
In order to determine the relationship between hot cracking tendency
and the ferrite potential, the DeLong
diagram, as shown in Fig. 4, was used.
The weld metals used are shown on
the diagram. No consistent trends
were f o u n d . This lack of correlation
indicates that both the welding procedures and the consumable chemistry
are important in hot cracking behavior.

dimensional view. Microfissures were


found in the unbent fully austenitic E3
weld metal deposit. All cracking was
along the grain or subgrain boundaries
as shown in Fig. 2A. The fracture surface of a typical fissure (after bending)
is shown in Fig. 2B. The segregation
pattern is similar to that of the unfissured weld metals, and optical microscopy does not reveal the cause of the
difference in behavior (cracked vs.
uncracked).
Figure 3 shows the microstructures
of t w o of the austenitic stainless steel
weld deposits near the fusion line. It is
clearly evident that there is a significant amount of ferrite (FN a* 6) in the
unmixed zone which located between
the HAZ of the base metal and the
composite fusion zone (basically filler
metal). Although the unfused base
metal and fusion zone show essentially 0 FN, the unmixed zone has about 6
FN. In the case where low permeability
(low FN) is desired, one should be
aware of the fact that the outer periphery of a deposited weld will have
increased permeability due to the " u n -

Effect of Welding Procedure/Process on


the Fissuring Tendency of Fully Austenitic
Stainless Weld Metal

Fig. 5Microstructures of transverse sections of Wl weld metal: AGMA deposit


(Ar); B-GMA
deposit (Ar + 2% O.,);
C-GMA deposit, GTA remelting (Ar). X50
(reduced 46% on reproduction)

In the previous section it was shown


that the W1 filler metal, when

Table 5-Chemical Analysis on the Wl Bare Wire, GTAW Deposited Weld Metal, and GMAW Deposited Weld Metal
Wt-%
Materials

Si

Mn

Cr

Ni

Mo

Bare wire
G T A W weld metal
G M A W w e l d metal

0.019
0.023
0.029

0.130
0.190
0.210

4.40
3.99
4.08

0.010
0.007
0.010

0.010
0.013
0.011

24.67
24.35
23.26

22.49
21.06
20.20

2.23
2.03
1.91

0.120
0.100
0.100

25

oo

'

15

--

0,30

l
ES

20

10
3

308L(MODIFIED)

304

.r
<K

-A__
V-f ._._
^

10

15

20

25

n,?5

30

VOL, % N2 IN SHIELDING GAS


Fig. 6Measured ferrite numbet vs. % N, in shielding gas in
austenitic stainless steel GTA autogenous welds

ry
1
^r

i
<=c
CD t u
HZ
1

-*

A/a

<JD
CD

0,7(1

- /
/

0,1b

1 ?'

0.1U

I /

rfiM

( i 11 1

/
w

A 308L(i'IODIFIED)

0.05

0,C0

304
i

10

15

20

25

30

VOL. % N2 IN SHIELDING GAS


Fig. 7Weld metal nitrogen content vs. % N., in shielding gas for
austenitic stainless GTA autogenous welds
W E L D I N G RESEARCH S U P P L E M E N T j 229-s

melting are shown in Fig. 5. There is no


significant difference in the grain or
substructure size. The macroscopic
solidification rate was approximately
the same for these welds, and thus this
might be an anticipated result.
However, the grain boundary conditions are apparently altered (cracking
tendency indicates this) by the deposition mode. Preliminary studies show
that higher energy inputs are more
detrimental, but the effects of each
variable (I, V, and T.S.) has not been
determined. Continued study in this
area is underway.

'

Hi

Effect of Nitrogen in the Shielding Gas on


the Ferrite Number of Deposited Weld
Metal

Fig. 8Effect of nitrogen on the microstructure of autogenously fused Type 304 stainless steel
base: A-0.0% N 5.2 FN (X200); B-2.0% N._ 0.2 FN (X200); C-0.0% N2, 5.2 FN (X100);
D-2.0% N. 0.2 FN (X100). A, B, C and D reduced 33% on reproduction

deposited by the " c o l d w i r e " (i.e.,


electrically neutral) GTAW process,
had no sensitivity toward cracking.
However, it was also noted that this
same filler metal had a definite tendency toward fissuring w h e n deposited by G M A W . These tendencies
were first found from full-scale heavy
section procedure qualifications utilizing the same heat of W1 wire deposited by GTAW (cold wire) and G M A W
processes.12
The dichotomy in cracking behavior
was duplicated w i t h the fissure bend
test procedure in the laboratory. The
results are shown in Table 4. GTAW
(cold wire) deposited W1 w e l d metal
showed no tendency toward fissuring.
However, W1 weld metal deposited by
G M A W w i t h both pure argon and
argon + 2%
02
shielding
gases
showed extensive fissuring and directly reflects the full-scale procedure
qualification test results.
It was initially considered that due
to the process differences some m o d -

ification of the deposited weld chemistry might account for the great difference in cracking behavior. Chemical
analysis of the wire and the w e l d
metals deposited by both techniques,
as shown in Table 5, did not support
this contention. There are some minor
differences but, in reality, nothing
which could account for significant
cracking sensitivity change noted.
To put to rest the chemistry question, weld metal deposited by G M A W
was refused autogeneously by GTAW
over the w e l d pad surface and tested
by the normal fissure bend test methods. This remelting of the G M A W
deposit virtually eliminated the cracking as shown in Table 4. Thus, it
appears that the deposition technique,
probably related to both solidification
mechanics and the HAZ thermal cycle
severity, is a primary reason for the
behavior.
The microstructures of the welds
deposited by G M A W and GTAW re-

A (

IH
B

It is to be noted from Fig. 6, which


shows the results of the addition up to
25% N 2 in the argon shielding gas, that
the 0% N 2 developed ferrite potential
is essentially identical to that calculated. Further, Fig. 8 shows a rapid
drop in measured ferrite numbers as
nitrogen is added. The 22'/2 FN material
is reduced to a 4 FN material by the
addition of 2% N, in the shielding gas
and is not further influenced by N 2
additions. The Type 304 (4 FN) material
experiences a drop to 1 FN w i t h 2% N 2
and remains at this level w i t h further
increases in N,.
Chemical analyses for nitrogen of
these test welds, presented graphically
in Fig. 7, show that the weld metal
becomes saturated w i t h N after being
exposed to a shielding gas w i t h
approximately 2% N 2 and thus no
further effect of N 2 is noted on ferrite
number as the shielding gas percentage is increased. This is of importance
since the 2% N.2 addition to argon does
LOCATION
AND
NUMBER OF
REMELTING PASSES

BEAD SEQUENCE

CG

In order to evaluate the influences


of nitrogen additions to the shielding
gas on the ferrite number of weld
metal, t w o sheet materials were
selected. A Type 304 stainless steel
with a calculated ferrite potential of 4
FN and a modified Type 308L consumable w i t h a calculated ferrite potential
of 22V2 FN were used because of the
difference in ferrite range. The sheet
form permitted full-penetration welds
with single passes and thus avoided
any multipass or unfused base metal
effects.

IK

yJ_^-^~~C~^

[ L \
p
\

304 BASE DLATE


Fig. 9Typical weld pad cross sections showing bead sequence: AGTA or SMA deposit bead sequence; BGTA remelting passes

230-s I A U G U S T 1980

Table 6Welding Parameters for Deposited Weld Metal and GTA Remelting

Process

W e l d metal
W1

GTAW
GTAW
SMAW
GTAW

E2

uu

Voltage
10.8
9.5
25.0
10.5

deposit
remelting
deposit
remelting

0 FN (Wl)

1/2 FN (E2)

(0.32)
(0.33)
(0.33)
(0.37)

Interpass temperature
250F
90F
200F
90F

(121 C)
( 32C)
( 93C)
( 32C)

30
60

7.6
7.7
7.8
8.8

195
180
100
180

90

70

Travel speed
i p m (cm/s)

Current, A

40
30

50

A /
y

20

-""" a ~" "~

10

-111

1
OF HAZ EXPOSURES

Fig. 10Fissure count as a function

of multiple

HAZ thetmal

cycle

:':.
n o t i n f l u e n c e arc b e h a v i o r t o a n y great
extent,
whereas
greater
additions
c h a n g e t h e arc b e h a v i o r in a n o n advantageous manner.
Figure 8 s h o w s t h e m i c r o s t r u c t u r e
change w h i c h w o u l d be e v i d e n c e d by
a d d i n g N 2 t o t h e a r g o n s h i e l d i n g gas
f o r a u t o g e n o u s l y m e l t e d T y p e 304 base
material. The substructure does not
c h a n g e s i g n i f i c a n t l y as t h e f e r r i t e n u m ber c h a n g e s f r o m 5.2 w i t h p u r e a r g o n
t o 0.2 w i t h t h e 2% N 2 in a r g o n . In
a d d i t i o n , t h e u n m i x e d z o n e is e v i d e n t
w i t h the predicted a m o u n t of ferrite
( c a l c u l a t e d FN p o t e n t i a l ) in t h e n i t r o g e n - c o n t a i n i n g w e l d m e t a l (Fig. 8 D ) .
T h e fissure b e n d test w a s u t i l i z e d t o
e v a l u a t e t h e e f f e c t of n i t r o g e n o n t h e
fissuring t e n d e n c y of t h e austenitic
stainless steel base m a t e r i a l
when
a u t o g e n o u s l y fused. The plate surface
w a s f u s e d w i t h six o v e r l a p p i n g beads.
These w e l d s
were
made
at
220
a m p e r e s ( A ) , 10.8 i p m (0.34 c m / s ) ,
200F (93C) i n t e r p a s s t e m p e r a t u r e .
Welds were made w i t h pure argon and
a r g o n + 2% N 2 in t h e s h i e l d i n g gas.
The pure argon autogenous
weld
e x h i b i t e d a f e r r i t e n u m b e r o f 5.2 a n d
t h e 2 % N 2 w e l d h a d 0.2 F N .
N o fissures w e r e f o u n d in e i t h e r t h e
p u r e a r g o n or t h e a r g o n + 2% N 2
w e l d s w i t h t h e fissure b e n d test, e v e n
t h o u g h 2% N 2 a d d e d w e l d h a d o n l y 0.2
FN. This indicates that t h e a d d i t i o n of
N 2 i n t h e s h i e l d i n g gas h a d l i t t l e e f f e c t

o n t h e f i s s u r i n g t e n d e n c y o f t h e base
plate derived w e l d metal and that l o w
f e r r i t e per se m a y n o t b e t h e reason f o r
f i s s u r i n g . It is r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h i s
effect may be c o m p o s i t i o n - d e p e n d e n t
a n d is n o t t o be c o n s i d e r e d as g e n e r a l
behavior.

Effect of Multiple Weld Metal HAZ Thermal


Cycles on the Fissuring Propensity of Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld Metals
In o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t o f
m u l t i p l e w e l d metal H A Z
thermal
cycles o n t h e f i s s u r i n g t e n d e n c y of
a u s t e n i t i c stainless steel w e l d m e t a l ,
several s t u d i e s w e r e c o n d u c t e d . 8 1 0 1 3
T h e fissure b e n d test w a s u s e d w i t h
t w o commercial consumablesa fully
austenitic G T A W deposited wire (W1)
a n d a Vi FN a u s t e n i t i c stainless steel
S M A W e l e c t r o d e (E2).
T w e l v e beads in t w o layers o f E2
w e r e d e p o s i t e d o n a T y p e 304 stainless
steel base p l a t e b y t h e S M A W p r o c e s s
( s t a n d a r d fissure b e n d test c o n d i t i o n s ) , w h i l e 18 beads in 3 layers of W 1
wire were G T A W deposited (in order
to give the same pad height). The
d e p o s i t w a s g r o u n d t o a VA i n . (0.64 c m )
h i g h p a d . T h e n , 16 a u t o g e n o u s G T A
r e m e l t i n g beads w e r e m a d e as s h o w n
s c h e m a t i c a l l y i n Fig. 9. T h e w e l d i n g
c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e pads are p r e s e n t e d
in T a b l e 6.
By s e q u e n c i n g t h e G T A W

autoge-

<:V:-:

\y

Fig. 11Microstructures
of GTA remelted
fully austenitic stainless steel weld metal-transverse secton: AW1 weld
metal,
FN = 0.0; B-E2 weld metal, FN = 0.5 X200
(reduced 47% on
reproduction)

n o u s r e m e l t b e a d s as s h o w n in Fig. 9,
the heat-affected zone ( H A Z ) of the
previous bead along t h e pad surface
e x p e r i e n c e s m u l t i p l e e x p o s u r e s o f an
i d e n t i c a l n a t u r e . For e x a m p l e , t h e first
remelt bead (left side of pad) experiences o n l y o n e H A Z c y c l e f r o m t h e
second bead (immediately to
the
right) and t h e n the second
bead
receives t w o H A Z e x p e r i e n c e s f r o m
t h e t h i r d b e a d w h i c h is a d o u b l e
r e m e l t pass a n d so f o r t h u n t i l t h e last
b e a d ( w h i c h is r e m e l t e d 5 t i m e s )
exposes t h e p r e c e d i n g b e a d t o 5 H A Z
e x c u r s i o n s . T h e w e l d i n g c o n d i t i o n s are
carefully c o n t r o l l e d t o ensure a precise
r e m e l t i n g p r o c e d u r e so t h a t t h e H A Z
e x c u r s i o n s are i d e n t i c a l .
The
remelted
pads
were
then
ground,
polished,
electrolytically
e t c h e d , a n d b e n t in t h e fissure b e n d
test d e v i c e . Figure 10 s h o w s t h e results
o f t h e tests. It w a s f o u n d t h a t t h e
n u m b e r o f c r a c k s in t h e H A Z i n c r e a s e d
as t h e n u m b e r of m u l t i p l e t h e r m a l
c y c l e s e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e H A Z i n creased. W i t h
the fully
austenitic
stainless steel w e l d m e t a l , 12 cracks
w e r e f o u n d in a d o u b l e H A Z a n d 16
cracks w e r e f o u n d i n t h e t r i p l e H A Z .
Finally, 70 fissures w e r e f o u n d i n t h e

WELDING

R E S E A R C H S U P P L E M E N T I 231-s

five cycle exposed HAZ. In the Vi FN


weld metal (which was deposited by
SMAW) no cracks were found in the
double HAZ and only t w o cracks were
found in the triple HAZ but 20 to 30
fissures were found in the 4 and 5
cycle exposed HAZ's.
The microstructures of the tested
welds are shown in Fig. 11. The ferrite
number is consistent w i t h microstructural observations. Transverse sections
of the bent w e l d pads are shown in
Fig. 12. The fissures occur primarily
along grain boundaries or subgrain
boundaries in the HAZ and terminate
at the fusion boundaries. A partial
explanation w o u l d revolve around
liquation of the segregated grain
boundary region produced upon solidification and/or those boundaries w i t h
enhanced segregation produced during thermal cycling. In addition, the
continued HAZ straining by subsequent weld passes no doubt plays an
important part. Further definitive work
in this area is planned.

Ce)
Fig. 12Effect of multiple thermal cycles on
austenitic stainless steel weld metal: A
Wl weld metal, FN = 0.0; B- E2 weld
metal, FN = 0.5. Numbet on HAZ indicates
multiplicity ot HAZ cycles experienced.
x 200 (reduced 50% on reproduction)

Conclusions
The work described in this paper has
led to the following conclusions:
1. The fissure bend test can be used
to evaluate SMAW, GTAW. and
G M A W deposits and the results closely correlate w i t h fabrication experience.
2. Consumables are available and
others no doubt can be developed to
provide fissure-free fully austenitic
w e l d deposits.
3. M n and M o are to be strongly
favored as alloying elements for preventing hot cracking in the austenitic
weld metals.
4. Adding nitrogen in the shielding
gas is an economical and effective way
to reduce the ferrite number in the
austenitic welds.
5. Fissures found in the austenitic

weld metals occur primarily along the


grain boundaries of reheated weld
metal (HAZ produced by subsequent
passes).
6. M u l t i p l e weld metal HAZ thermal
cycles enhance the fissuring propensity in austenitic weld metals.
A ckno wledgm en t
The authors acknowledge the financial support of the High Alloys Committee of the Welding Research Council in this investigation. They also wish
to thank Mr. Raymond Bellamy of the
University of Tennessee staff for the
preparation of the test specimens.
References
1. Hull, F. G., "Effect of Delta Ferrite on

the Hot Cracking of Stainless Steels," Welding lournal, 46 (9), Sept. 1967, Research
Suppl. pp. 399-s to 409-s.
2. Gooch, T. G., "A Question of Ferrite,"
The Welding Institute Research Bulletin, 15
(7), 1974, pp. 183 to 188.
3. Malone, M. O., "Sigma and 885F
Embrittlement of Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Weld Metals," Welding journal,
46 (6), )une 1967, Research Suppl., pp. 241-s
to 253-s.
4. Hull, F. G., "Effect of Alloying Additions on Hot Cracking of Austenitic Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steels," Trans. ASTM,
60,1960, pp. 667 to 690.
5. Honeycombe, J., and Gooch, T. G.,
"Effect of Manganese on Cracking and
Corrosion Behavior of Fully Austenitic Steel
Weld Metals," Metal Const, and British
Welding lournal, December 1972, pp. 33 to
44.
6. Polgary, S., "The Influence of Silicon
Content on Cracking in Austenitic Stainless
Steel Weld Metal with Particular Reference
to 18Cr-8Ni Steel," Svetsaren, 6, (1-2), 1970,
pp. 8 to 13.
7. Linnert, G. E., "Weldability of Austenitic Stainless Steel as Affected by Residual
Elements," A5TM STP 418, 1967, pp. 105 to
119.
8. Honeycombe, )., and Gooch, T. G.,
"The Effect of Compositional and Process
Variables on Microcracking in Fully Austenitic Stainless Weld Metal," The Welding
Institute Research Report, M/74/73, June
1973.
9. Lundin, C D., DeLong, W. T and
Spond, D. F., "The Fissure Bend Test,"
Welding lournal, 55 (6), June 1976, Research
SuppL, pp. 145-s to 151-s.
10. Lundin, C. D DeLong, W. T and
Spond, D. F., "Ferrite-Fissuring Relationship
in Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld Metals,"
Welding lournal, 54 (8), Aug. 1975, Research
SuppL, pp. 241-s to 246-s.
11. Lundin, C D., and Spond, D. F., "The
Nature and Morphology of Fissures in Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld Metal," Welding lournal, 55 (11), Nov. 1976, Research
SuppL, pp. 356-s to 367-s.
12. Seth, O. W., C.B.I., Houston, Private
Communication, May 1979.
13. Haddrill, D. M., and Baker, R. G.,
"Microcracking in Austenitic Weld Metal,"
Brit Welding j., 13 (8), pp. 411 to 419.

WRC Bulletin 256


January 1980
Review of Data Relevant to the Design of Tubular
Joints for Use in Fixed Offshore Platforms
by E. C. Rodabaugh
The program leading to this report was funded by 13 organizations over a two-year period. The objective was
to establish and/or validate design methods for tubular joints used in fixed offshore platforms. The report is
divided into four self contained chapters, (1) Static Strength (2) Stresses (3) Fatigue (4) Displacements,
wherein detailed cross comparisons of various types of test data and design theories are reviewed.
Publication of this report was sponsored by the Subcommittee on Welded Tubular Structures of the
Structural Steel Committee of the Welding Research Council.
The price of WRC Bulletin 256 is $13.00 per copy, plus $3.00 for postage and handling. Orders should be
sent with payment to the Welding Research Council, 345 East 47th St.. Room 8 0 1 , New York. NY 10017.
232-s I A U G U S T 1980