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Table of Contents
Background Project SALAM ...................................................................................................................... 4

List of Abbreviations .................................................................................................................... 7
Concept Note............................................................................................................................... 8
Program ..................................................................................................................................... 10
Executive Summary .............................................................................................................................. 15
Conclusion & Recommendations ....................................................................................................... 19
Policy Proposal for Countering Violent Extremism: Global Action Plan ................................... 24
Media Report............................................................................................................................. 31

Press Coverage .............................................................................................................. 32

#CVE2015 ...................................................................................................................... 73

Pakistan’s Fight Against Violent Extremism by Senator Sehar Kamran (TI) .................... 74

Poll Results ................................................................................................................................ 77
Fatalities in Terrorist Violence in Pakistan ........................................................................................ 79
About CPGS ............................................................................................................................................ 80

`

Winning Hearts and Changing Minds Through

Sensitizing, Accessing, Linking, Acting and Monitoring
The name of the project has been derived from Islamic greeting which is extended to everyone
at first meeting to offer cordial welcome, respects and convey peace and blessings. The literary
meaning of Salam is “Peace", which reflects the core objective of CPGS of promoting global
peace, security and harmony by making substantive intellectual, academic and diplomatic
contributions. The Arabic and Urdu word SALAM also lays out the entire strategy of the project.
Each word denotes a required action in the desired order of priority.
S Sensitize society and institutions to highlight the gravity of the problem based on detailed
research and comprehensive view of existing environment focusing on possible drivers of change.
A Access everyone involved at all stages of the project including the people of the affected areas,
local administration, policy makers, media experts, academics and experts from other countries.
L Link all individuals, organizations and institutions working in the field to focus efforts of the
society and develop coordinated response.
A Act timely to persuade policy decision at national level and encourage implementation of
mutually agreed plan of action in a sequential manner. Also help establish a model institution to
execute required plan of action.
M Monitor progress throughout to ensure sustainable change and recommend suitable changes
if required as and when identified.

CPGS held its first two-day international seminar titled “Innovating Means to Resolve Radical Extremism in Pakistan”. The project includes commissioned research studies and surveys. link their efforts. “National Policy for Peace and Harmony” and “Policy Proposed for Countering Violent Extremism: Global Action Plan” under Project SALAM. To date the Centre has launched two policy papers. think tanks and relevant stakeholders.In 2013. SALAM aims at formulating a comprehensive plan of action to first sensitize society. created by interaction with the relevant institutions and stakeholders as well as by conducting ground research. Under the umbrella of the national category. Under the project “SALAM .e. violent extremism and their perceived root causes. and an effective way forward. a one day national conference titled “National Action Plan: Policy to Practice” was held.SALAM aims to examine the current discourse around terrorism. international seminars/conferences and different other activities including establishment of a model institution and center. the national and the international paradigm. SALAM aims to strengthen the understating of the violent extremism by addressing the basic root causes and devising counter strategies. In addition to these. the Centre aims to facilitate local policy makers through substantive policy recommendations. access all possible groups and institutions. act to persuade decision makers and finally manage and monitor the progress. to deliberate joint policies to combat the menace of radicalization and extremism which is threatening the very foundations of the current world order. . especially diplomatic missions. Under the international category. discourse and our findings. Project SALAM has been divided into two categories i. followed by a twoday international seminar on “Countering Violent Extremism: Global Action Plan” September 2015. the Centre is engaging with the international community. In accessing and linking all relevant stakeholders at one platform. in February 2015. The project will entail specific research into the origins of this phenomenon and highlight any discrepancies between popular perceptions. various roundtables and in-house meetings have been conducted by CPGS since the initiation of the project in 2013.

Work to sensitize relevant segments of policy makers to increase awareness regarding the existing situation in the country. 4. Global response strategies and best practices for countering violent extremism. Concept and causes of radicalization as well as global extremism – violent and nonviolent on both national and international level. based on these shared best practices. Help formulate local policy makers by presenting various possible alternatives and recommendations. 5. region and the world. Role of national/international media and their narrative in countering violent extremism. Regional mechanisms and their role in countering extremism to date.` Objectives The aim of the Project is to achieve following objectives:    Provide a joint platform to both local and foreign experts and engage with them to share ideas. 2. 3. Devising a counter strategy at national. and analysis on the subject of extremism. . concepts. regional as well as global levels. Scope of the Project The scope of Project SALAM is to address: 1.

List of Abbreviations CT Counter Terrorism CTITF Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force CVE Countering Violent Extremism ETIM East Turkestan Islamic Movement GWOT Global War on Terror ISIL Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant NGOs Non-Governmental Organisation RATS Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure SAARC South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation SCO Shanghai Cooperation Organisation TTP Tehreek-i-Talibaan Pakistan UN United Nations UNAMA Council United Nation’s Assistance Mission in Afghanistan UNSC United Nations Security Council VE Violent Extremism .

Concept Note .

it equally affects all. and from one corner of the world to the other. from being formerly known as the “Global War on Terror” (GWOT) to “Countering Violent Extremism” (CVE). . the Centre for Pakistan and Gulf Studies (CPGS) organized a Two-Day International Seminar on “Countering Violent Extremism: Global Action Plan” on 9th and 10th September 2015. deliberate response strategies and to formulate a counter policy at the National. Some 40 countries have implemented CVE and de-radicalization programs. extremist ideologies have permeated across borders. nation or ideology. Various international and regional organizations are also focusing on means and methods for countering VE.9 Countering Violent Extremism: Global Action Plan Aim "To redress the gap between the perceived vs real origins of violent extremism. the global war against terrorism has shifted. region. culture and cast. This offers an opportunity for global experience sharing in developing a common strategy for CVE. In this globalized world. Regional and Global levels" Given the changing dynamics of today’s world. Today. and given the increasing social inequality. only a well-informed counter-ideology aimed at identifying and eradicating the problem from within communities can help cope with this menace. the phenomenon continues to threaten international peace and security. irrespective of creed. at least in narrative. injustice and economic disparity. is leading to the marginalization of moderate entities in societies. The world has perseveringly been tackling the peril of violent extremism in various forms and shapes. Furthermore. and the realization at a policy level that violent extremism cannot be treated militarily. the threat spectrum of violent extremism is intensified by the fact that it is not linked to a specific religion. This shift has occurred in light of the expansion of the reach of extremism. In this context. violent extremism has become a monumental challenge. The ideology behind violent extremism cannot be defeated in a battlefield. civilization. rather a proactive and preventive all-encompassing approach led by all segments of society. however. It is multidimensional.

10 Program .

Mr Rodolfo J Martin-Saravia and Global Responses Argentinian Ambassador to Pakistan 1220-1235 Ms. Centre for Pakistan and Gulf Studies (CPGS) Mr Ronny Heine Resident Representative.Adenauer Stiftung 0955-1005 Keynote Address 1005-1035 Senator Sehar Kamran (TI) Member Senate Standing Committees on Defence & Defence Production. 2015 DAY ONE TIME (HRS) 0900-0930 0930-0935 TOPICS SPEAKERS Registration Recitation from the Holy Quran Opening Session 0935-0945 Opening Remarks 0945-0955 Welcome by Konrad. Sehar Tariq Response of International Civil Society to Country Representative Violent Extremism United States Institute of Peace .E.11 Countering Violent Extremism: Global Action Plan September 9-10. NDU 1035-1050 Evolution of the Transnational Threat of Mr Ahmer Bilal Soofi Violent Extremism: Legal Implications and Former Law Minister Limitations 1050-1105 The Political Nature of Violent Extremism Dr Manzar Abbas Zaidi Former Director NACTA 1105-1120 Social Transformation of Violent Extremism: Afghanistan’s Response H.E. Senate Standing Committee on Defence Group Photo/Refreshments Evolution of Violent Extremism as a Legal and Political Challenge Chair: Dr Pervaiz Iqbal Cheema Dean FCS. President. Pakistan Senator Mushahid Hussain Sayed Chairman. Mr Janan Mosazai Afghanistan’s Ambassador to Pakistan 1120-1200 Q & A Session International Perspectives and Contemporary Response Strategies to Counter Violent Extremism Chair: Ambassador (R) Akram Zaki Former Secretary General Foreign Affairs 1205-1220 Violent Extremism Across Borders: Challenges H.

Broadcasting and National Heritage 1535-1620 Q & A Session 1620-1650 Tea Break DAY TWO TIME (HRS) TOPICS SPEAKERS 1000-1030 Registration Countering Violent Extremism: Role of International Media in Shaping the Narrative Chair: Air Vice Marshall (R) Faaiz Amir. Inter Services Public Relations 1435-1450 Dr Zafar Jaspal Comprehensive National Security: Director & Associate Professor. Federal Ministry of Pakistan Information. S Bt Vice Chancellor. Government of Pakistan Peace Collective. Quaid-e-Azam University Action Plan 1520-1535 Mr Usman Zafar CVE Communications Initiatives of the Manager Research and Campaigns Federal Information Ministry.1200 Mr Talat Hussain Journalist & FP Analyst and Mr Haroon Rashid BBC Urdu Q & A Session .1045 Stratfor Causes versus Perception 1045 .12 1235-1250 The German Experience: Success and H. Ms Ina Lepel Limitations of De-Radicalization Strategies German Ambassador to Pakistan 1250-1330 Q & A Session 1330-1430 Lunch Pakistan’s Fight Against Extremism: Challenges and Lessons Learned Chair: Major General (R) Athar Abbas Former Director General.1115 Shaping Public Opinion: Role Responsibilities of Global Media 1115 . HI (M). Air University Militancy and Extremist Outfits: Root Mr Kamran Bokhari 1030 . Quaid-e-Azam Imperatives for Combating Violent Extremism University 1450-1505 Pakistan’s Limitations in the War against Mr Khalid Muhammad Extremism: Challenges and Prospects Defence Analyst 1505-1520 Reassessing Pakistan’s Narrative on Dr Nazir Hussain Extremism: A Critical Analysis of the National Associate Professor.E.1100 Pakistan’s Fight Against Extremism: Dissecting Media’s Coverage 1100 .

1455 1500 .E.1520 1520 . Yu Xueyong Regional Peace Building: China’s Strategy 1215 – 1230 Director of Political and Press Section. CPGS Lt. Wijayanthi Endirisinghe Experience Acting High Commissioner. Embassy and Experience of People’s Republic of China 1230 – 1245 Addressing Violent Extremism: Sri Lankan H.E. Dedov 1200 . Institute of Strategic Studies Islamabad Countering Violent Extremism: Role of the H.A.1215 Shanghai Cooperation Organization Ambassador to Pakistan. Embassy of Russia Mr.13 Global Experience Sharing: Countering Violent Extremism Chair: Ambassador (R) Khalid Mahmood Chairman. E.1530 Q & A Session Lunch Concluding Session Recommendations & Counter Strategies Special Address and Concluding Remarks 1530 – 1540 Vote of Thanks Senator Sehar Kamran.1620 Tea Break / Refreshments .S. (TI) President. Mr Alexey Y. Responses and Strategies National Defense University 1315 – 1355 1355 . Embassy of Sri Lanka 1245 – 1300 Resilience and Capacity-Building Against Mr Lachlan McLeod Extremism: An Australian Perspective Second Secretary (Political) Embassy of Australia Dr Khuram Iqbal Violent Extremism in South Asia: Regional 1300 – 1315 Centre of Excellence to Counter Extremism. General (R) Abdul Qadir Baloch Federal Minister Ministry of States and Frontier Regions (SAFRON) Ms Sundus Ahmad Editor CPGS 1540 – 1550 Group Photo 1550 .

14 Executive Summary .

The Seminar witnessed impressive representation from all relevant institutions. ambassadors and other senior diplomats. An all-encompassing approach based on the ethics of pluralism. The Program for the event is included in the report. and ethnicity that leads to violent extremism may be prevented. poverty. legal experts. the defense community and civil society. The concept of countering violent extremism or CVE is a policy parameter aimed at addressing the structural and social conditions that contribute to the process of radicalization and violent extremism. pre-seminar research was conducted and drafted into a policy proposal. defining extremism will remain a legal and political challenge. cultural and racial tensions and political differences. The problem of terrorism and extremism has been projected primarily as a ‘Muslim’ problem. that were followed by detailed Q&A sessions. high level dignitaries. 3. Unless states and societies identify and adopts a ‘centrist’ position. and hosted twenty-two speakers and five chairs in five thematic working sessions. ideological. foreign interventions and occupations. The Seminar was conducted over a span of two days. This seminar was an important milestone in CPGS’ continuing endeavors under mega ‘Project SALAM’ to understand the evolving dynamics of violent extremism in national and international paradigms. religious. but ground realities reflect that this problem transcends regions and religions. Executive Summary .15 Executive Summary The two-day International Seminar on ‘Countering Violent Extremism: Global Action Plan’ was aimed at exploring and sharing the ways and means to curb the menace of violent extremism. without which an effective proactive response to the challenge of violent extremism cannot be formulated. academic scholars. To make it more productive than a simple academic exercise. At the end of the seminar. ethnic. Unlike counter terrorism approaches that rely on both security legislations and ‘catch & kill’ strategies. representatives from relevant organizations as well as university students. so that discrimination on the basis of religion. Extremists use such injustices to lure people into supporting their agendas. A summary of the salient points discussed and debated by seminar speakers. The occasion was graced by a galaxy of parliamentarians. 2. this policy proposal was presented by the President CPGS. The rise of violent extremism has a direct co-relation with conflicts and disputes (such as Palestine and Kashmir). racial and ethnic discrimination or persecution as well as social and economic exclusion. right to exist and peace coexistence should be adopted as a fundamental principle for policy-making. racism. members of the media. religious. countering violent extremism focuses on preventive strategies by alleviating underlying causes of violent extremism such as injustice. chairs and participants are as follows:1. sectarianism.

thus providing space to ‘terrorist’ propaganda.16 4. economic opportunities and alternatives to the victims of extremism. It has the ability to develop. Civil Society based movements in Afghanistan. The second challenge is the application of Human Rights Law versus International Humanitarian Law. Lastly. In reporting terrorismrelated news. and poor enforcement once a decision is meted out results in a distancing of society from the state. agreeing that terrorism has no religion or ethnicity. This in turn exacerbates confusion within the ranks of society. Political and societal efforts to create an environment of trust between civil society and law enforcement is key to the success of any CVE strategies. therefore becomes a key catalyst in the radicalization process. 6. Afghanistan and the entire region will continue to suffer at the hands of violent extremism. Australia. Terrorism and violent extremism in Afghanistan is a regional problem which requires a political solution that involves legitimate regional stakeholders. the people are naturally inclined to turn towards violence. 7. They also provide compensation. The Australian approach is based on ‘preventive’ measures. 9. three major challenges lie at the heart of the CVE debate. and a loss of faith in its ability to govern. 5. 8. or alternative options for its provision. Until that happens. When the government fails to provide justice to the people. The rise of TTP in Swat and the adjacent areas is a classic example in this regard. The ‘Tunnel Manual’ on cyber security. 10. they promote a peaceful. Foremost is with regard to the right of ‘freedom of speech’. Germany. The new digital age has produced enormous ways of public outreach. or lack thereof. multicultural society. However. Media can play a vital role in developing a counter narrative. reduced prejudices and promotion of women rights have proven successful. a global consensus empowered by an international legal regime to regulate the cyber and digital world has become a necessity. Justice. Africa and South America have been successful in establishing a robust response to this challenge. Cyber space offers a novel medium to miscreants to disseminate toxic material across the globe without detection. The real challenge lies in how we tackle the problems emerging from this new digital world. and creating fertile grounds for recruitment. designed to regulate cyber space. From a legal perspective. present and sustain the legitimacy of counter narratives against VE. The German response in this context revolves around a holistic approach where policies based on counseling services. the challenge that arises from the dovetailing of Muslim jurisprudence with international law and principles. Executive Summary . Civil Society has the potential to play a central role in countering violent extremism. is a welcome step. Weak institutions prevent the timely provision of justice. particularly in the context of the state’s efforts to counter radicalization. over-exaggeration and sensationalization can hinder state efforts to establish a legitimate counter narrative.

The Seminar was organized by the Centre for Pakistan and Gulf Studies (CPGS) in collaboration with German foundation Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung (KAS). there is a vital need to control terrorist financing. 14. multilateral. 15. like other states. Executive Summary . The SCO has proven to be an effective platform for formulating and implementing regional mechanisms to counter challenges like terrorism. terrorism related incidents and target killings in the country have decreased significantly. China. the Regional Anti-Terrorism Structures (RATS) offers the best model for regional cooperation. 13. and has been playing a vital role in bringing peace to the region. as the custodian of international security. It can further assist member states in developing their capacities to fight violent extremism. is what is missing. extremism and separatism. In the context of Pakistan. 12. At the regional level. China also recognizes the efforts of Pakistan in the War on Terror. such as ‘Haq Haqdar Tak’ and ‘Purazm Pakistan’. In this context. empowered by consensual. launched by the Ministry of Information are a step in the right direction. legally binding arrangements are the need of the hour. The Armed Forces of Pakistan have taken the lead in CT operations that have had a stabilizing impact on the entire region.17 11. Comprehensive international strategies. is a victim of terrorism at the hands of groups like the East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM). The counter narratives and awareness campaigns regarding the charity system. The success of Operation Zarb-e-Azb is evidenced in the fact that since its inception. However establishing a proper legislative structure. An active role by the political leadership however. with clear enforcement mechanisms is the need of the hour. In order to cope with such evolving threats. the UNSC should take the lead in evolving proposals for devising such mechanisms. institutions such as the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) present a practical model for regional cooperation.

18 Conclusion & Recommendations .

19 Conclusion & Recommendations Conclusion Violent Extremism is not a new phenomenon. the set of final recommendations have been divided into two segments. in order to devise effective and constructive mechanisms that can attain specific policy goals. isolation and compound grievances especially in the context of long-standing disputes that morphs radical sentiments into acts of violent extremism and terrorism. minority rights. At the international level. It is the need of the hour to effectively counter this menace collectively by identifying basic root causes and learning from shared international best practices to counter violent extremism (CVE). National 1. The state must also identify a coherent ‘centrist’ position. The state must define the terms of extremism. so as to clear lingering confusion over what identifies a ‘violent extremist’ and ‘terrorist’. and freedom of speech v hate speech. Different education systems inculcate feelings of inequality. an overhaul of the education system may help bring increase parity among the three existing branches of education in Pakistan. particularly surrounding sensitive phenomenon such as religion and its political use by non-state entities. Education Recommendations . Policies of inclusion must be at the heart of any national and international CVE program. against which views of extremism may be gauged within society. public sector. which ultimately create discord among the general population. so that any such entities may accordingly be chastised effectively. For this purpose. i. Furthermore. are the exclusionary policies adopted by the state that isolate vulnerable segments of society and exploit religion for political ends. It was also acknowledged that one of the core phenomenon behind the marginalisation that leads to radicalisation. This requires a uniformity within official narratives. all stakeholders must be agreed upon the aforementioned root causes. at the national level. Recommendations Keeping in view the national and international scope of the seminar. private sector and the madrassa system. The world has been grappling with this threat for decades. 3. particularly in the legal context. as well as the difference between the two. violent extremism and terrorism. 2. national and international.e. the same process occurs when discriminatory policies are implemented at the global stage creating feelings of resentment. etc.

hiring professional experts as well as allocating appropriate funds and resources within the federal budget will be the first step in this direction. 11. the curriculum of these madrassas needs reform. It is also crucial to put an end to the political exploitation of religion. It is of the utmost priority to identify their funding sources and channels to effectively cut non-state militias off at the source. Building a technical infrastructure. Further. The judicial system of the country similarly demands significant reform. 9. it should be struck down and denounced by the Ulemas. and the activities it supports. The social impact of these NGOs in terms of the scale of social services they provide cannot be ignored. and gatherings etc. 5. 10. 12. and no individual has the right to contradict it. Oversight of the implementation of such policies and reforms is also crucial. If ‘justice delayed is justice denied’. so that they may not become sources of fragmentation.20 systems should instead be utilized as a uniting force. 8. The financing of terrorists and violent extremists remains a critical issue. A law is the fatwa of the state in a statutory sense. it is only natural that people lose respect for the law and turn to alternative mechanisms for its provision. countering social and class differences by affording similar education and opportunities. Strict legislation in this domain to regulate the money flow in and out of the country should be implemented immediately. While laudable awareness campaigns have been launched by the Ministry of Information. Recommendations . Education curriculum that promotes basic civic values needs to be reintroduced at the school level for the purpose of inculcating better ethics in children. Steps need to be taken for a comprehensive implementation mechanism for transparent funding of these seminaries. including regulating any rallies. to make them a useful citizen for tomorrow.. funding and registration be channelized. 6. as well as to bridge sectarian differences among various sects. It is imperative their audit. particularly in lower courts where the justice process is slow and thereby. resulting in violence and increased terrorism in the country. If a religious decree advocates the violation of the law of the land. but also sows seeds for future conflict with the state. often ineffective. it is important that the state channelize all receiving organizations and people to ascertain that charity money will not be used for terrorism or promoting extremism in the country. particularly in the context of law enforcement. it is vitally important to strengthen civilian institutions. forums constituting of ulemas from all sects must sit together to propagate the message of peace and tolerance as per injunctions of Islam. meetings. Nationally. This not only disturbs harmony in the society at the time. that provide an essential underpinning or create motivation for the senseless violence that continues to blight our region. It is also estimated that approximately 1 in 5 people are entirely unaware of where their money culminates. According to one estimate. Capacity building of institutions such as the National Counter Terrorism Authority (NACTA) and the Police reform must be prioritized. sectarian violence and religious hatred. each year over 554 billion rupees are donated to charitable causes. The people of Pakistan are recognized for their extensive philanthropic activities. There are over fifty thousand madrassas and seminaries operating in Pakistan. 7. 4. Existing policies and legislations should be reviewed and reformed as necessary. Similarly.

but has resulted in more harm than good by actively spreading and mainstreaming an assumed connection between all militancy and ‘political Islam’. the international community should reconsider the focus in the Recommendations . International 17. The onus of responsibility now lies on media networks to play a responsible role in promoting national interests while discouraging and censoring activities of extremist and terrorist organizations to stop their message from spreading to the masses. and to recognize the ‘right to exist’ for all is vital. Organisations like the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) can also play a greater role in developing international counter-terrorism cooperation. 14. a misdiagnosis will only lead to an incorrect treatment. Despite consensus at the global level to root-out the menace of extremism and terrorism. There is a need to refocus the obsession with one particular form of radicalization – Islamist militancy – while downplaying all other sources of extremism. The Regional AntiTerrorist Structure (RATS) of SCO provides a very effective role model in South Asian nations to deal with rising religious extremism.21 13. anti-religion or sectarian content could be monitored. The role of media has extraordinary potential in combating violent extremism and terrorism. Community engagement in these efforts to develop the ethics of peace coexistence. especially the United Nations. Relevant legislation in this domain is of high importance. Their engagement in a dedicated campaign of countering violent extremism can have tremendous impact. Therefore. it is yet to be identified what limitations a state and its civil society face when trying to combat the menace. should play a leading role in curbing violent extremism. 15. 18. Comprehensive legislation against violent extremism in the form of a convention would be a right step in this direction. The resultant islamophobia has only been another hindrance in addressing the true causes of marginalization as well as becoming the justification for further policies of exclusion. 16. there is only one United Nations Security Council Resolution (2178) that denounces ‘violent extremism’ and not ‘terrorism’. examining Islamist militancy with a magnifying lens. so that anti state. 19. and its distribution limited. Governments and international organisations like the UN and its partner agencies have a critical role to play in advancing these discussions and their proposed solutions. Ulema and Mushaikh conferences across the country should be asked to ‘preach’ peace as well as call for the eradication of terrorism and violent extremism from society by terming them as ‘un-Islamic’. To date. International organizations. The regulation and supervision of this medium is becoming increasingly important in this context. The role of Ulema and Mushaik in the society is very important as they are primary opinion shapers. This strategy has been in place for decades. Cyber-space is now a popular and simple medium for disseminating information. The challenge facing States all around the world is how to balance the citizens’ right to freedom of speech against their actions for preventing non-state actors from propagating radical views. 20. until the two concepts have become both synonymous and widespread.

military strategies can only be successful to a limit. 23. besides supporting peace and reconciliation in conflict-prone regions can foster long-term peace.e. hence they should be discouraged. Violent extremism is a ‘hydra-headed monster’ and only a comprehensive approach can help deal with it by addressing issues like conflicts and disputes. 26. It needs to be understood that the non-conventional threats of violent extremism and terrorism can only be subdued by looking at the factors behind this phenomenon. By focusing on increasing trade and regional integration. Only by adopting a multidimensional approach i. especially those led by Muslims fighting against this menace should be on the frontlines of what is going to be a long struggle spanning decades. ideas or narratives cannot be defeated militarily. Unilateral interventionist actions have never been endorsed. which have an impact on people from all faiths. racial and ethnic discrimination. There is a need to invest and promote research to develop an alternative narrative which promotes critical thinking. They are a global threat. and persecution as well as social and economic exclusion. 25. Recommendations . religious. This cooperation should be conducted at both the government and society level. foreign interventions and occupation. 27. holding of inter-culture and inter-faith dialogue. hence. Extremism and terrorism do not belong to any specific region or religion. 28. Work on liberal trade regimes worldwide increasing trade and economic integration as well as state to state cooperation should be encouraged. ethnic. even by the United Nations General Assembly as they are against the norms of international law. 21. Although transnational boundaries have become blurred in a political and social sense. the threat of violent extremism can be lowered as strong economic linkages decrease the likelihood of violence and terrorism from the region. 24. 22.. which should include extremism along racist. There is growing realisation that NGOs. Violence has often been used by various states and actors as a strategic tool to further their political or economic interests. sectarian and religious lines but also other factors that result in political acts of extremist violence and their root causes. There is a need to develop a discourse that takes into account evidences and tackles the problem without any bias.22 literature produced on extremism. they remain a legal reality. No measures to counter violent extremism will be successful unless and until the basic grievances are resolved. resolution of political disputes around the world.

23 .

24 At the eve of the Two-Day International Seminar on Countering Violent Extremism – Global Action Plan The Centre for Pakistan and Gulf Studies Presents ‘Policy Proposal for Countering Violent Extremism: Global Action Plan’ .

the Anti-Narcotics Force Act. particularly its commitment to implement the UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy. the Control of Narcotics Substance Act. with great responsibility. we have enacted the Pakistan Arms Ordinance. the Pakistan Madrasah Education Board Ordinance. As a Pakistani citizen and a public representative. Our task to counter this scourge is thus unfinished. which include more than 10000 defence and security personnel. A uni-dimensional approach or a short term solution focused exclusively on operational and political counter-measures will not produce the long-term and durable results. But beyond suffering and sacrifices. the Terrorists Special Courts Act. We as a comity of nations. At the national level. And. I assure the world that Pakistan will continue to adhere to its commitment to strengthen mutual cooperation in the fight against terrorism and violent extremism. A piecemeal effort will not eliminate this scourge. and party to the SAARC Regional Convention on Suppression of Terrorism and its Additional Protocol on Terrorist Financing. We have lost more than 50000 precious lives of men. Our social and physical infrastructure has suffered colossal damages. As a Pakistani citizen and a public representative. We are a member of the Asia-Pacific Group on Money Laundering. I am equally confidant that international community recognizes Pakistan’s efforts and role in combating the forces of evil and terror. women and children. I see that Pakistan has sacrificed far more than any other nation in fighting against forces of terrorism and extremism. today I see that in the past fifteen years we have given huge sacrifices in blood and resources. Policy Proposal . and the full potential of our economy has been stunted. the Anti-Terrorism Act. this is our responsibility to act prudently and sincerely against the menace of violent extremism. Pakistan fulfills its international obligations. and the AntiMoney Laundering Bill. the Surrender of Illicit Arms Act. Pakistan is party to eleven universal and two regional counter-terrorism instruments.25 Message by the President CPGS Senator Sehar Kamran (TI) The scourge of terrorism and violent extremism continues to threaten the world. The complex challenges of terrorism and violent extremism defy simplified solutions and need a comprehensive approach.

and religious ideologies and groups. the Centre for Pakistan and Gulf Studies (CPGS). as have the ways and means to prevent these threats.  The role of multi-lateral institutions (especially of the UN) in tackling the problem of violent extremism. religious fanaticism and racism leading to violent extremism and jet-black terrorism.. multilateral consensual efforts are required to effectively counter it.  Political instability in the Middle East and Africa and rise of transnational terror outfits (ISIL. To understand the underlying causes of violent extremism at a broader level. proxy wars.g. state sponsored terrorism. and provision of services). them’ approach. and calculated interventions (kinetic. face to face with unprecedented vulnerabilities and challenges. which have brought the entire world.26 Background Violent extremism remains a potent threat to international peace and security. democratic values. which have turned various regions into breeding grounds for violent extremism. political.  Competing powers and the quest for regional and global dominance (pre-emptive wars. Islamabad. five main issues that are at the heart of the contemporary debate on countering violent extremism must be acknowledged. Boko Haram). non-kinetic. Aside from debates around definitional differences. These are: The ‘us vs. justice.  Underdeveloped regions and poor governance (e. Counter Violent Extremism (CVE) falls precisely into realm of policy. lack of rule of law. the understanding of how and why individuals engage in violent extremism and terrorism has evolved and become more nuanced. religious and racial bases for violent extremism. Since violent extremism has become a global phenomenon and is not associated with a single ideological. covert operations for geopolitical. and subsequently help in formulating a comprehensive and systematic response to deal with the menace. has compiled certain policy recommendations that may provide a better framework for at least understanding the basic causes for violent extremism. ideological. and sometime both) designed to prevent individuals from engaging in violence associated with radical political. therefore while devising a comprehensive CVE strategy. Policy Proposal . social. geostrategic and geo-economic objectives etc). Keeping in view the above cited fundamental issues and to initiate a productive and objective debate over ways and means to counter violent extremism. Over the past decade. or the cultural. which have given rise to hatred. cultural. carefully premeditated programs. especially Europe. The most recent among these is ongoing refugee crisis in the Middle East and Europe. religious or ethnic entity. cultural.

and continuity. There should be increased support and coordination among states. travel and/or support of any known violent extremists may be subject to strict legal controls as adopted by all the member states of the UN. In many countries. 2178. and keeping in view the heterogeneous behaviour and social realities of UN member states. direction. In reference to Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations. organizations and their affiliates. vi) Reaffirming the ban on violent non-state actors. individuals. so as to better understand the phenomenon of violent extremism. iii) Emphasizing upon states to increase international cooperation in information sharing. However. CPGS recommends that. there are hundreds of counter extremism programs. iv) Reiterating the UNSC resolutions stating that terrorism should not be associated with any religion.27 Globally. and better coordinate strategies against the threat it poses to international peace and security under the umbrella of UN. The purpose of this policy paper is to propose mechanisms and strategies to address the gaps in the international efforts to counter violent extremism. training. 2161. 2129. 2199). Policy Proposal . UN as a custodian body of international peace and security must come forward to lead this global venture. coordination. v) Emphasizing that the sheltering. 2195. capacity-building of states for countering violent extremism. Proposal i) Considering the dangers that are posed by acts of violent extremism to the international peace. practitioners focus on strengthening communities to reduce their vulnerability towards radicalization. there remains a need to understand and tackle this menace at global level and synchronize international efforts in an effective way to achieve the best results possible. ii) Believing violent extremism and the consequent acts of terrorism are a grave danger to the global peace and security. 1989. 1. wherever they may be located. financing. nationality or civilization (S/RES/ 1963. These policy recommendations hope to be amenable to all state parties. Garnering support to combat violent extremism under the umbrella of a global venture will require a centralized effort from an international body (not a state or states in isolation) that can lend the venture prestige. 2. and productive in forwarding the debate in this context by incorporating global best practices of countering violent extremism.

The UN must gear up its efforts to examine and enforce the implementation of the various components of its strategies by all state parties. 5. The UN should extend its fullest support to a regional approach for resolving such regional conflicts. with the aim of launching an inter-cultural and inter-faith dialogue that would have been started and supported by the UN. to overcome the lack of international support and cooperation that is preventing counter-terrorism committees established by UNSC Resolutions from effectively dealing with terrorists. United Nation’s Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) must support and push forward the process of national reconciliation undertaken and led by Afghans themselves. imams. UN member states should put more ‘power to the elbow’ to effectively meet the challenges of violent extremism and terrorism. “Afghanistan stands on the cusp of challenge and opportunity”. and government officials to define objectives and elect an oversight board from within their ranks. thinkers. A global venture that identifies and funds counter-radicalization projects in affected countries would be the first step in reversing the grip of the violent extremist narrative. The world is currently confronted with a humanitarian crisis of historic proportions – a global wave of displacement and forced migrations – in Europe. It is also suggested that UNSC develop a comprehensive and consensual proposal for ending the conflict and humanitarian crisis in Afghanistan and the Middle East. as well as create space that can be manipulated by violent extremists for their own political ends. Ambassador Dr Maleeha Lodhi. community leaders. Given that violent extremism knows no borders. 8. 7. 4. 6. the Middle East and Policy Proposal . 9. Unresolved territorial and political issues must not be confused with terrorism or violent extremism. As rightly pointed out by Pakistan’s Permanent Representative to the UN. It is also suggested that the UN may like to convene an international conference of highprofile Muslim and non-Muslim philanthropists. particularly in the context of tackling the financing of terrorism. 10.28 3. “Countering violent extremism and radicalization that lead to terrorism following a multidimensional approach” and “promoting and protecting human rights and fundamental freedoms in the context of counterterrorism measures” are two strategic aspects that all states involved must focus on when developing strategies for dealing with violent extremism at national level. disputes such as Palestine and Kashmir have the potential to escalate tensions in the entire region(s). They may also devise proposals that could contribute to increasing the effectiveness of the implementation by Member States. A clear distinction should be made between ‘freedom struggles’ and ‘acts of terrorism’ as well as transparency and fairness in any policies formulated in this context.

Similar arrangements should be erected to discourage states from taking unilateral or preemptive actions against other states under the cover of combating terrorism. in order to help the member states build their capacity to effectively prevent any sponsorship of transnational terrorism. geostrategic and geo-economic objectives. The UN member states should support forces of democracy and pluralism and amplify voices that oppose the exploitation of religion by violent extremist groups for their own political motives. the UN should work towards marking a clear distinction between ‘free speech’ and ‘hate speech’. 13. The rise of trans-national terrorist outfits like ISIL (DAISH) and Boko Haram have posed unprecedented challenges to global peace and security. it is the prime responsibility of the state to empower its civil society against the forces of violent extremism by bolstering and catalyzing support to community-based Policy Proposal . The UN and international community are urged to encourage and support states to enhance the role of the civil society in development of a counter-extremism narrative. 11. 12. in East Asia and elsewhere.29 Africa. A consensus at the international level is required to deal with hate speech that incites violence. However. community-oriented policing efforts. The UN should establish an effective counter terrorism consultative body at par with the Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force (CTITF) to effectively eradicate this menace across all platforms permanently. Moreover. 14. and with an iron hand. Similarly. persecution and poverty. 17. 16. as it may then incorporate all its members into its folds. the supporters. UN must vamp up its global response on an emergency basis to decisively address the issues of displacement and forced migration. abettors and financers of these groups must be dealt collectively. such a mechanism should have a consultative mandate over the parties. The UN may perhaps be the most effective platform for the formulation of such a mechanism. including information-driven. The international community should discourage recruitment or individual mobilization for terrorism by supporting local law enforcement programs (capacity building). There should be a framework mechanism for the prevention of covert operations by states against other states for the purpose of destabilization and to achieve geopolitical. The UNSC should act proactively to deal with these groups. These massive human movements are the consequence of conflicts. 15. Such a consultative mandate can educate and help the member states to develop an ethics of cultural pluralism and mutual coexistence. which have proven highly effective in this regard. At the international level.

legal and political challenges in this regard. These factors.30 programs and strengthening relationships with communities that may help in evolving the counter narrative. The Pakistani nation is famous for its resilience in the face of adversity and history will remember Pakistan as a country which defeated the scourge of violent extremism and emerged victorious. ` Policy Proposal . It requires a serious and frank discussion at global level that addresses how best to implement and frame the question of violent extremism and terrorism within the lens of social inclusion and effective governance. CTITF’s Working Group on ‘Countering the Use of Internet for Terrorist Purposes’ should gear up its efforts to overcome technical. and acknowledge the troubling disconnect between national interests and global security. These groups often target areas marked by ongoing conflicts and tension. racial. yet it has been paying the price of this fight with the blood of its people. Use of cyber space for the promotion of terrorism and extremism is a rapidly growing phenomenon. role of youth in formulating a counter narrative against violent extremism and terrorism in different communities should be appreciated and promoted on every count. 18. Extremist groups take advantage of globalization to expand their networks and operations. Despite the challenges. UNSC should initiate a proactive and coordinated response. ethnic. ideological. Therefore. so as to design consensual intervention and preventions strategies in a systematic way by adhering to all statues of international law. Pakistan has been one of the hardest hit victims of violent extremism. today the world community recognizes Pakistan’s successful efforts against countering violent extremism. The UN. norms and customs. Conclusion Violent extremism is a complex and multi-dimensional phenomenon usually rooted in diverse underlying factors such as religious. cultural. political and societal misperceptions of differences. when mixed in a globalized environment pose diverse and complex challenges with complex security dynamics. They exploit local and regional grievances by effectively using communication technologies to spread their violent ideologies. In this vein. response to counter these groups should go well beyond the symbolic pageantry of conventions and political summits. Although no Pakistani national was involved in any international conspiracy against the world peace. as the custodian body of international peace and security should organize this discussion.

31 Media Report .

`Countering Violent Extremism: Global Action Plan\' is being organized by the Centre for Pakistan and Gulf Studies in collaboration with Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung. Experts of international relations.thefrontierpost. 2015 07:03am Seminar Centre for Pakistan and Gulf Studies (CPGS) is organizing a two-day international seminar on ‘Countering Violent Extremism: Global Action Plan’ from Wednesday. faculty members of different varsities. METRO EVENTS http://www. The seminar titled.32 CPGS to Organize 2-Day Seminar http://www. September 9 at 9:30am . government officials and officials of CPGS would attend the seminar. Experts would share their recommendations for establishing a framework to get rid of terrorism and ensure sustainable peace in South Asia to nurture conducive environment for progress and prosperity. scholars.com/news/1205638 Published Sep 08. said a news release issued here on Friday.dawn.com/article/333962/cpgs-to-organize-2-day-seminar/ 2015-09-05 ISLAMABAD (APP): Centre for Pakistan and Gulf Studies (CPGS) will organize a two-day international seminar on Countering Violent Extremism from September 9.

Speaking at the opening session of a two-day international seminar on “Countering Violent Extremism: Global Action Plan” organized by the Centre for Pakistan and Gulf Studies in collaboration with Konrad Adenauer Stiftung (KAS). which has transcended borders and is now present across the world. and persecution as well as social and economic exclusion that tended to promote this problem. Furthermore. “The complex challenges of terrorism and violent extremism defy simplified solutions. Senator Kamran called for a multi-dimensional global response to counter the threat. Senate Defense Committee Chairman Senator Mushahid Hussain in his keynote presentation regretted that violent extremism was often presented as a Muslim problem. He . racial and ethnic discrimination.” she said.pk/story/954002/transnational-issues-diplomats-call-for-internationalcooperation-to-fight-extremism/ Published: September 10. Violent extremism was one of the biggest challenges of the 21st century. and Pakistan’s own experience of fighting the problem. said a press release. They emphasized the need for cooperation among states both at government level and people to people to fight the menace. the speakers looked into the evolution of violent extremism as legal and political challenge.33 Transnational Issues: Diplomats Call For International Cooperation to Fight Extremism http://tribune. insisted President CPGS Senator Sehar Kamran.com. religious. 2015 ISLAMABAD: Diplomats and parliamentarians have called for resolution of longstanding disputes and promoting international cooperation to fight extremist ideology from spreading. foreign interventions and occupation. She linked the problem of violent extremism to a ‘hydra-headed monster’ and said that a comprehensive approach was required for dealing with it by addressing issues like conflicts and disputes. The causes of terrorism and violent extremism are multiple and need a comprehensive response from the international community. international perspectives and response strategies.

If the answer is no. while Daesh was a result of the Iraq war. Emphasizing on his contention. “Till we attack the core questions and root causes and are aware of the political context it would be difficult to counter the problem. “We have to keep asking ourselves the questions that having suffered so much at the hands of terrorists groups are we ready to suffer from another group for another decade.34 said the historical perspective of the problem needed to be kept in mind for its fuller comprehension. He was of the view that actions by global powers based on their respective strategic calculations led the world to the current state where its security was being challenged. Mushahid recalled that al Qaeda was a product of Afghan jihad. criminalizing Islamophobia and promotion of democracy in Muslim countries. But. Mosazai said that Afghanistan’s fight against terrorism was not only for its own security. we then need to rethink our policies and strategies and move towards state-to-state cooperation.” he said and suggested speedy resolution of outstanding disputes.” Leading international law expert and former law minister Ahmer Bilal Soofi. while speaking about the legal aspect of the issue. said the challenge facing the states was how to balance the citizens’ right to freedom of speech against their actions for preventing non-state actors from propagating radical views particularly the regulation of the cyberspace. He underscored the need for regional cooperation to counter the growing threat of terrorism and extremist violence. but that of the entire region. Afghan Ambassador Janan Mosazai spoke about the country’s response to the problem. . he regretted that the states in the region have still not agreed on the basic principles that could form the basis of cooperation. Focusing on extremism in Afghanistan.

President CPGS Senator Sehar Kamran. while introducing the seminar. political leaders. The speakers looked into the evolution of violent extremism as legal and political challenge. foreign interventions and occupation. and persecution as well as social and economic exclusion that tended to promote this problem. and Pakistan’s own experience of fighting the problem. national experts. She likened the problem of violent extremism to a ‘hydra-headed monster’ and said that a comprehensive approach was required for dealing with it by addressing issues like conflicts and disputes. The seminar was organized by Centre for Pakistan and Gulf Studies (CPGS) in collaboration with German foundation Konrad Adenauer Stiftung for discussing and sharing experiences about countering this menace. religious. Say Experts http://nation.A two-day international seminar on “Countering Violent Extremism: Global Action Plan” which opened here yesterday called for resolution of longstanding international disputes and broader international cooperation to prevent the fanatic ideology from spreading. . Speakers on the first day of the event that featured presentations by foreign envoys. which transcended borders and was now present across the world.com. international perspectives and response strategies. and academicians called for cooperation among states both at the level of the government and society. 2015 Islamabad . Senator Sehar Kamran called for a multidimensional global response to counter the threat. “The complex challenges of terrorism and violent extremism defy simplified solutions. whereby different countries could work together to defeat this problem by building upon what has already been done.35 Int’l Disputes Resolution to Help Check Terrorism.pk/islamabad/10-Sep-2015/int-l-disputes-resolution-to-help-check-terrorismsay-experts September 10. said violent extremism was one of the biggest challenges of the 21st century. racial and ethnic discrimination. The seminar also aimed at exploring the way forward.

. “Till we attack the core questions and root causes and are aware of the political context it would be difficult to counter the problem. “We have to keep asking ourselves the questions that having suffered so much at the hands of terrorists groups are we ready to suffer from another group for a further decade. Mosazai said that Afghanistan’s fight against terrorism was not only for its own security. Senator Mushahid Hussain in his keynote presentation said that in the today’s world. Argentinean Ambassador to Pakistan Rodolfo J Martin Saravia also emphasized on the need for a “comprehensive. regional and global. the threat of terrorism and violent extremism is real.36 The causes of terrorism and violent extremism are multiple and need a comprehensive response from the international community. He said the corrective course being pursued by the country made him hopeful about the future. while ISIS was a result of Iraq war. Emphasizing on his contention. In his assessment Pakistan was reversing the mistakes of the past and moving forward. But. He was of the view that actions by big global powers based on their respective strategic calculations led the world to the current state where its security was being challenged. which in the absence of a just resolution were feeding extremist narrative. cohesive policy formulation around the world” for addressing the problem. Afghan Ambassador Janan Mosazai spoke about Afghanistan’s response to the problem. but that of the entire region. If the answer is no. and needed to be dealt at various levels. He regretted that violent extremism was often presented as a Muslim problem. He said violence was used by various actors as a strategic tool to further their political or economic interests. criminalizing Islamophobia and promotion of democracy in Muslim countries. He said Kashmir and Palestine were two festering issues.” He further asked for closing down of centers of propagation of extremist views.” she said. He said the historical perspective of the problem needed to be kept in mind for its fuller comprehension.” he said and suggested speedy resolution of outstanding disputes. he regretted that the states in the region have not still agreed on the basic principles that could form the basis of cooperation. He underscored the need for regional cooperation to counter the growing threat of terrorism and extremist violence. including national. Senator Mushahid recalled that al-Qaeda was a product of Afghan jihad. we then need to rethink our policies and strategies and move towards state to state cooperation.

Leading international law expert and former law minister Ahmer Bilal Soofi. but are not limited to. trade and energy resources and media’s inclination towards sensationalism. have contributed to further aggravating the situation. Programmes offered by federal. state and local authorities focus on. The competition over oil. whole-of-society approach with a strong focus on prevention. Former Director NACTA Dr Manzar Abbas Zaidi while dwelling upon the political nature of violent extremism said that the problem has been misleadingly associated to religion. He emphasized that it had been used as a tool of power politics for achieving political goals.37 He said the threat posed by terrorism and violent extremism has grown in absence of research into the effectiveness of the military strategies for dealing with the problem or looking into the factors behind the phenomenon. The legal treatment of transnational non-state actors is another point of discussion in the legal circles. he said. he added. particularly the regulation of the cyberspace.” she said adding improving the overall conditions for the Muslim communities and thus the reduction of grievances is an integral part of Germany’s strategy. German Ambassador Ina Lepel said Germany considered ISIS and its support networks as the most important threat to its security. . youth and women. while speaking about the legal aspect of the issue said the challenge facing the states was how to balance the citizens’ right to freedom of speech against their actions for preventing non-state actors from propagating radical views. “Germany follows a holistic.

” he said. whereby different countries could work together to defeat this problem by building upon what has already been done. “We have to keep asking ourselves the questions having suffered so much at the hands of terrorists groups are we ready to suffer from another group for a further decade. Region: Mosazai’ International Moot on Countering Violence http://pakobserver.38 ‘Daesh Poses Threat to Afghanistan. Afghan envoy was addressing the first session of a 2-day international seminar on “Countering Violent Extremism: Global Action Plan. Afghan nationals fear another decade of turbulence.net/detailnews. 2015 Islamabad—Afghan Ambassador Janan Mosazai while addressing a seminar here on Wednesday cautioned that Daish is going to pose a major threat to the regional peace as Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) elements are joining it in large numbers. we then need to rethink our policies and strategies and move towards state to state cooperation.asp?id=272704 Thursday. He underscored the need for regional cooperation to counter growing threat of terrorism and extremist violence. The seminar also aims at exploring the way forward.” He further asked for closing down of centers of propagation of extremist views.” Speaking about Afghanistan’s response to the problem Mr Mosazai said Afghanistan’s fight against terrorism was not only for its own security. If the answer is NO. “Having suffered so much at the hands of terrorist groups. . He regretted that the states in the region have not still agreed on the basic principles that could form the basis of cooperation. but for peace and prosperity of the entire region. September 10. The two-day International Seminar on ‘Countering Violent Extremism: Global Action Plan’ is organized by Centre for Pakistan and Gulf Studies (CPGS) in collaboration with German foundation Konrad Adenauer Stiftung for discussing and sharing experiences about countering this menace.

national experts. President CPGS Senator Sehar Kamran. youth and women. but are not limited to.” she said adding improving the overall conditions for the Muslim communities and thus the reduction of grievances is an integral part of Germany’s strategy. political leaders. international perspectives and response strategies. and so academicians called for cooperation among states both at the level of the government and society. and above all Pakistan’s own experience of fighting the problem. Programmes offered by federal. while opening the seminar said. which transcended borders. They addressed the issues of violent extremism which is a legal and political challenge. state and local authorities focus on. approach with a strong focus on prevention. German Ambassador Ina Lepel said Germany considered Daesh and its support networks as the most dangerous threat to global security “Germany follows a holistic. . violent extremism was one of the biggest challenges of the 21st century.39 Speakers on the first day of the event that featured presentations by foreign envoys.

while introducing the seminar. political leaders. called for the resolution of longstanding international disputes and broader international cooperation to prevent extremist ideology from spreading. said violent extremism was one of the biggest challenges of the 21st century. and Pakistan’s own experience of fighting the problem. and persecution as well as social and economic exclusion that tended to promote this problem. President CPGS Senator Sehar Kamran.” she said. 2015 ISLAMABAD: A two-day international seminar themed “Countering Violent Extremism: Global Action Plan”.dailytimes.com. racial and ethnic discrimination. speakers called for cooperation among states both at the level of the government and society. Pakistan. foreign interventions and occupation.pk/national/10-Sep-2015/big-powers-actions-blamed-for-globalinsecurity September 10. was one of the countries that had been hit hardest by the phenomenon. which transcended borders and was now present across the world. and academicians. religious. The speakers looked into the evolution of violent extremism as legal and political challenge. “The complex challenges of terrorism and violent extremism defy simplified solutions.40 Big Powers’ Actions Blamed For Global Insecurity http://www. Senator Sehar Kamran recalled. whereby different countries could work together to defeat this problem by building upon what has already been done. She likened the problem of violent extremism to a “hydra-headed monster” and said that a comprehensive approach was required for dealing with it by addressing issues like conflicts and disputes. national experts. The seminar is organized by Centre for Pakistan and Gulf Studies (CPGS) in collaboration with German foundation Konrad Adenauer Stiftung for discussing and sharing experiences about countering this menace. but resiliently found back to control its . It is also aimed at exploring the way forward. which opened on Wednesday. Senator Sehar Kamran called for a multi-dimensional global response to counter the threat. On the first day of the event that featured presentations by foreign envoys. The causes of terrorism and violent extremism are multiple and need a comprehensive response from the international community. international perspectives and response strategies.

” He further asked for closing down of centers of propagation of extremist views. The competition over oil. while Daesh was a result of the US invasion and occupation of Iraq. Argentinean Ambassador to Pakistan Rodolfo J Martin Saravia also emphasized on the need for a “comprehensive. Mosazai said that Afghanistan’s fight against terrorism was not only for its own security. regretted that violent extremism was often presented as a Muslim problem. he regretted that the states in the region have not still agreed on the basic principles that could form the basis of cooperation. has contributed to further aggravating the situation. which in the absence of a just resolution were feeding extremist narrative. He was of the view that actions by big global powers based on their respective strategic calculations led the world to the current state where its security was being challenged.41 spread. criminalizing Islamophobia and promotion of democracy in Muslim countries. He said the historical perspective of the problem needed to be kept in mind for fuller comprehension. Afghan Ambassador Janan Mosazai spoke about Afghanistan’s response to the problem.” he said and suggested speedy resolution of outstanding disputes. “We have to keep asking ourselves the questions that having suffered so much at the hands of terrorists groups are we ready to suffer from another group for a further decade. trade and energy resources and media’s inclination towards sensationalism. He said the threat posed by terrorism and violent extremism has grown in absence of research into the effectiveness of the military strategies for dealing with the problem or looking into the factors behind the phenomenon. Senator Mushahid recalled that al Qaeda was a product of Afghan jihad. Senate Defense Committee Chairman Senator Mushahid Hussain. German Ambassador Ina Lepel said Germany considered Daesh and its support networks as the most important threat to its security and was therefore the focus of Countering Violent Extremism (CVE) alongside other forms of extremism including the right wing and left wing . but that of the entire region. cohesive policy formulation around the world” for addressing the problem. in his keynote presentation. In his assessment Pakistan was reversing the mistakes of the past and moving forward. we then need to rethink our policies and strategies and move towards state to state cooperation. “Till we attack the core questions and root causes and are aware of the political context it would be difficult to counter the problem. He said Kashmir and Palestine were two festering issues. He said violence was used by various actors as a strategic tool to further their political or economic interests. He underscored the need for regional cooperation to counter the growing threat of terrorism and extremist violence. If the answer is NO. he said. Emphasizing on his contention. But. He said the corrective course being pursued by the country made him hopeful about the future.

youth and women.” she said adding improving the overall conditions for the Muslim communities and thus the reduction of grievances is an integral part of Germany’s strategy. whole-of-society approach with a strong focus on prevention.42 outfits. state and local authorities focus on. but are not limited to. The legal treatment of transnational non-state actors is another point of discussion in the legal circles. “Germany follows a holistic. . Programmes offered by federal. Leading international law expert and former law minister Ahmer Bilal Soofi. he added. while speaking about the legal aspect of the issue said the challenge facing the States was how to balance the citizens’ right to freedom of speech against their actions for preventing non-state actors from propagating radical views particularly the regulation of the cyberspace.

organized by the Centre for Pakistan and Gulf Studies (CPGS) in collaboration with Konrad Adenauer Stiftung here on Thursday. The participants said that violent extremism could only be fought under the umbrella of a global venture which required a centralized effort to lend the effort a direction and continuity. Russian Ambassador Alexey Dedov discussed the steps the Shanghai Cooperation Organization had taken to counter the threat of extremist violence in the region and said that his government was ready to work under the aegis of the UN to fight extremist violence. Federal Minister for States and Frontiers Region Lt-Gen (retired) Abdul Qadir Baloch said that extremism in Pakistan began from the tribal areas. They further called for greater international collaboration for tackling the problem instead of solely relying on the military option.43 Combating Extremism: UN Urged To Take Lead http://tribune. He said the militants maintained a stronghold there till military operation Zarb-e-Azb was launched.com. Baloch said that the government reversed the policies of the past and now there were no good and bad Taliban. which hosted fighters from all over the world during the AfghanSoviet war. They said that efforts needed to be made to promote peace and reconciliation in Afghanistan.pk/story/954669/combating-extremism-un-urged-to-take-lead/ Published: September 11. They also called for preventing proxy wars and sponsorship of terrorism. . They were speaking at the concluding session of a two-day seminar titled “Countering violent extremism: global action plan”. 2015 ISLAMABAD: Participants of a seminar have urged the United Nations to come forward and take the lead in the fight against violent extremism.

which need to be recognized by the international community. he said. looked forward to continue working with Pakistan for regional peace and security. . The envoy emphasized on dealing with problems such as terror financing and narcotics trafficking Chinese diplomat Yu Xueyong said Pakistan had made great sacrifices in the fight against terrorism. Acting Sri Lankan High Commissioner Wijayanthi Edirisinghe.44 He said that countries should not only deal with the symptoms. He said that the Pakistan Army had been performing well in Operation Zarb-e-Azb and hoped that more progress could be made so that conditions conducive for economic development could be created. China. but also tackle the root causes. and Australian diplomat Lachlan McLeod discussed their respective country’s experiences in dealing with the problem.

Chinese Diplomats Call For Shunning ‘Double Standards’ On Terrorism http://www.” he underscored. “All countries should cooperate without employing double standards and selectivity. who also spoke at the seminar. Mr Dedov cautioned against the policy of dividing Taliban into ‘good’ and ‘bad’ and said that if the concerned countries did not correct their course. Mr Dedov said that militants’ progress in Northern Afghanistan.com/news/1206282/russian-chinese-diplomats-call-for-shunning-doublestandards-on-terrorism SEP 11. Kazakh and Uzbek militants. “Countering the threat emanating from Afghanistan is important for the region’s security. organized by the Centre for Pakistan and Gulf Studies in collaboration with German think tank Konrad Adenauer Stiftung. He suggested that the way forward was in extending “well-coordinated political support” to the Afghan government for recommencing reconciliation process in Afghanistan for creating peace and stability there. In his speech. the scenes witnessed in Iraq and Libya would repeat themselves in Afghanistan. The militant onslaught in Northern Afghanistan is of particular concern to Russia because it involves Chechen. was of particular concern to Moscow. Russian envoy to Pakistan Alexey Dedov asked certain ‘partner’ countries to shun double standards in the fight against terrorism. “We call on our partners to abandon double standards in the fight against terror and abandon attempts to [classify] terrorists as good and bad. .” Mr Yu said. The Russian envoy’s remarks came as 65 villages in the Raghistan district of Badakhshan province fell to the Taliban over the past few days.dawn. Mr Dedov’s comments were echoed by Chinese diplomat Yu Xueyong.45 Russian. Tajik. 2015 10:09AM ISLAMABAD: Expressing alarm over the territorial gains made by militants in Afghanistan.” the Russian ambassador said at a seminar on Countering Violent Extremism. which borders the Central Asian Republics. without specifying who he was talking about.

Minister for States and Frontier Regions Abdul Qadir Baloch blamed the creation of violent extremists in Pakistan on the West-centric policies of two ‘individuals’ – thinly-veiled references to Gen Zia u lHaq and Gen Pervez Musharraf – who “could not win the support of the people. But we’re doing our utmost to resolve the issues there. such as the two world wars. China is willing to continue cooperation with Pakistan for ensuring regional peace and stability. but Kabul seems cautious about the proposal. his constituency was nearly as big as all of Khyber Paktunkhwa and Fata combined. Hassan Belal Zaidi adds: Addressing the closing session of the two-day seminar. Mr Dedov said Russia supports China’s initiative for preparing the draft Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) convention regarding the fight against extremism. as was being portrayed.” he said. “The government would [welcome their] return to parliament.” He said that in terms of area. About regional cooperation against terrorism. He insisted that extremism was not a Islamic phenomenon. the diplomat said. .” he said. also praised Pakistan’s fight against terrorism and said that these efforts deserved international recognition.46 The reconciliation process Pakistan began facilitating in July stalled after disclosures about Mullah Omar’s death. Speaking about the Karachi operation. and recounted some of the greatest follies of man. he said that certain political parties who had pursued the policy of maintaining militant wings had been “given the realization that they will be forced to abandon this policy” and that they could not rely on terror to get votes. meanwhile. Balochistan is a problem. so they sought the support of the Americans”.” he added. he said. The Chinese diplomat. the Russian ambassador remarked. but that no major development schemes had been implemented in the areas since 1947. Talking about his home province. “We expect that Zarb-e-Azb would make further achievements to create favorable conditions for economic development. “We want SCO to play greater role in developing international counter-terrorism cooperation under the aegis of the UN. The fight against terrorism. as examples of extremism displayed by those of other faiths. However. religious extremism and separatism is one of the top priorities for SCO because these threats pose a real danger to the region and beyond. he said. “Balochistan was a problem. one positive development was that people who were previously talking about secession from Pakistan had now come back to the negotiating table. Islamabad has again offered to assist restart the process.

47

CPGS Unveils Recommendations
http://www.thenews.com.pk/Todays-News-6-339745-CPGS-unveils-recommendations
Saturday, September 12, 2015
The Centre for Pakistan and Gulf Studies (CPGS) on Friday unveiled a set of recommendations
for countering violent extremism, which envision a lead role for the United Nations in the
international collaborative efforts against this menace.
The recommendations were presented at the conclusion of a two-day international seminar on
‘Countering Violent Extremism: Global Action Plan’, which was organized by Centre for Pakistan
and Gulf Studies (CPGS) in collaboration with German foundation Konrad Adenauer Stiftung.
A government minister, diplomats, retired military officials, national experts, academicians and
representatives of civil society and media took part in the two-day long deliberations.
The seminar was preceded by a series of consultative workshops hosted by CPGS. “I am confident
that outcomes of the seminar will provide a better framework for at least understanding the basic
causes of violent extremism, and subsequently help in formulating a comprehensive and
systematic response to deal with this problem,” CPGS President Senator Sehar Kamran said as
she read out the policy recommendations. “Garnering support to combat violent extremism
under the umbrella of a global venture will require a centralized effort from an international body
(not a state or states in isolation) that can lend the venture prestige, direction, and continuity.
UN as a custodian body of international peace and security must come forward to lead this global
venture,” one of the eighteen recommendations presented by CPGS said.
The CPGS recommendations further urged for an international convention against violent
extremism by the UN. As the UN may perhaps be the most effective platform for its formulation.
Such a consultative mandate can educate and help the member states to develop an ethics of
cultural pluralism and mutual co-existence.
Other recommendations called for greater international collaboration; adoption of a
multidimensional approach for tackling the problem instead of solely relying on the military
option; holding of inter-culture and inter-faith dialogue; resolution of political disputes around

48
the world particularly Kashmir and Palestine, besides supporting peace and reconciliation in
Afghanistan to end the conflict there.

The recommendations further suggest drawing a distinction between terrorism and the struggle
for political rights,(CPGS) dealing with the issue of displacement; sternly countering violent
groups like Daesh and all those who support them and recruit for violent actions, preventing
proxy wars and sponsorship of terrorism, establishment of a consultative body on countering
terrorism; promotion of democracy and the role of civil society in developing counter-narrative
to the extremist ideology and addressing the issues involved in regulation of cyber space to
prevent its misuse for promotion of extremist views.
Federal Minister for States and Frontiers Region Lieutenant General (r) Abdul Qadir Baloch, in his
key note speech at the end of the seminar, said that extremism in Pakistan began from tribal
areas, which hosted fighters from all over the world for war against Soviet Union in Afghanistan.
He said the militants maintained a stronghold there till military operation Zarb-e-Azb was
launched last year, which is about to end successfully and has restored the confidence of the
tribals.
Lieutenant General (r) Abdul Qadir Baloch said alongside the military operations the government
reversed the policies of the past and there are no good and bad Taliban at present.
The militants are now only seen as extremists and terrorists, he added. The organizational
structure of Taliban along with their communication channels and training camps, he said, has
been destroyed. Moreover, their funding channels and supply of arms and explosives, he
maintained, have been choked. The minister said that to prevent tribal areas from relapsing into
extremist control, it was important to restore the respect of the tribal people and launch a mega
development plan for the uplift of the area that long suffered neglect and backwardness.
“It is important to address the economic causes of extremism and militancy,” he said.
About Karachi, he said, a couple of political parties had militant wings and they too have been
conveyed in clear terms that they can do politics in a legitimate way, but would not be allowed
to use armed groups. “Karachi needs good governance,” Lieutenant General (r) Abdul Qadir
Baloch remarked.
The federal minister said there were positive news about Balochistan as well where those who
had taken up arms against the state were expressing their willingness to respect the Constitution
and peacefully engage in politics.
Russian Ambassador Alexey Dedov discussed the steps Shanghai Cooperation Organization
planned to take to counter the threat of extremist violence in the region. He said his government
supports the Chinese initiative at the SCO and was ready to work on plan for countering extremist

49
violence under the aegis of the United Nations. “We should unite our forces for fighting our
common enemy,” the ambassador said.

He said that countries should not only deal with the symptoms, but also tackle the root causes.
He emphasized on dealing with problems like terror financing and narcotics trafficking.
Chinese diplomat Yu Xueyong said Pakistan had made great sacrifices in the fight against
terrorism, which need to be recognized by the international community. China, he said, looked
forward to continue working with Pakistan for regional peace and security.
He said Pakistan Army was performing well in Operation Zarb-e-Azb and hoped that more
progress could be made so that conducive conditions for economic development could be
provided.
Acting Sri Lankan High Commissioner Wijayanthi Endirisinghe and Australian diplomat Lachlan
McLeod discussed their respective country’s experiences in dealing with this problem.
Earlier, Security Analyst Kamran Bokhari said that despite the international consensus on fighting
extremism, there was little agreement on how to proceed and what roles the State and the civil
society would have to play. Senior journalist Talat Hussain spoke about media’s role in Pakistan’s
fight against terrorism.

50

Fight Against Extremism Be Led by UN, Proposes CPGS
http://nation.com.pk/islamabad/12-Sep-2015/fight-against-extremism-be-led-by-un-proposescpgs
September 12, 2015
Islamabad - The Centre for Pakistan and Gulf Studies (CPGS) has proposed that international
efforts against violent extremism must be led by the United Nations.
The CPGS, which is an Islamabad-based think tank, has further asked the UN to convene an
international convention of eminent persons for developing a consensus on the intervention and
prevention strategies that need to be pursued for defeating violent extremism.
“While devising a comprehensive strategy for countering violent extremism, multilateral
consensual efforts are required to effectively counter it,” President CPGS Senator Sehar Kamran
said yesterday at a briefing on the recommendations framed by her think tank for dealing with
the issue.
The recommendations were the outcome of a two-day international seminar on ‘Countering
Violent Extremism: Global Action Plan’ which was organized by CPGS in collaboration with
German foundation Konrad Adenauer Stiftung and a series of consultative workshops that
preceded the seminar. This process undertaken as part of CPGS’ flagship project ‘Salam:
Innovating Means to Resolve Radical Extremism in Pakistan’ which was launched in March 2013.
Senator Sehar Kamran said that violent extremism was a global problem, but different countries
had different approaches to the issue.
“There remains a need to understand and tackle this menace at global level and synchronize
international efforts in an effective way to achieve the best results possible,” she said.
The CPGS recommendations, which would be shared with UN and governments, importantly
come at a time when Pakistan government is considering a request from the United States to join
the international coalition against Daesh (Islamic State). “Garnering support to combat violent
extremism under the umbrella of a global venture will require a centralized effort from an
international body (not a state or states in isolation) that can lend the venture prestige, direction,
and continuity. The UN as a custodian body of international peace and security must come

religious and racial divide. promotion of democracy and the role of civil society in developing counter-narrative to the extremist ideology. ideological. which led to rise of transnational terror outfits. holding of inter-culture and inter-faith dialogue. The recommendations further suggest drawing a distinction between terrorism and the struggle for political rights. Senator Sehar Kamran explained that the understanding behind these recommendations is that violent extremism poses grave threat to international security and is caused by the cultural. besides supporting peace and reconciliation in Afghanistan to end the conflict there. sternly countering violent groups like IS and all those who support them and recruit for violent actions. poor governance and underdevelopment. . preventing proxy wars and sponsorship of terrorism. and political instability. competition for regional and global dominance.51 forward to lead this global venture. Other recommendations call for greater international collaboration. resolution of political disputes around the world particularly Kashmir and Palestine. dealing with the issue of displacement.” one of the eighteen recommendations presented by CPGS said. establishment of a consultative body on countering terrorism. adoption of a multidimensional approach for tackling the problem instead of solely relying on the military option. She recalled that despite being one of the countries hit hardest by terrorism. and addressing the issues involved in regulation of cyber space to prevent its misuse for promotion of extremist views. Pakistan has done well to fight back against the scourge of violent extremism.

The CPGS recommendations.” she said. which would be shared with UN and governments. Senator Sehar Kamran said that violent extremism was a global problem. which is an Islamabad based think tank. importantly come at a time when Pakistan government is considering a request from the United States to join the international coalition against Daesh (Islamic State). The recommendations were the outcome of a two day international seminar on ‘Countering Violent Extremism: Global Action Plan’.52 UN Should Lead Fight Against Extremism http://pakobserver. which was organized by Centre for Pakistan and Gulf Studies (CPGS) in collaboration with German foundation Konrad Adenauer Stiftung and a series of consultative workshops that preceded the seminar. but different countries had different approaches to the issue. which was launched in March 2013. CPGS. This process undertaken as part of CPGS’ flagship project SALAM: Innovating Means to Resolve Radical Extremism in Pakistan.net/detailnews. “While devising a comprehensive strategy for countering violent extremism.—APP .asp?id=272917 Islamabad — The Center for Pakistan and Gulf Studies (CPGS) has proposed that international effort against violent extremism should be led by the United Nations. multilateral consensual efforts are required to effectively counter it.” President CPGS Senator Sehar Kamran said on Friday at a briefing on the recommendations framed by her think tank for dealing with the issue. has further asked the UN to convene an international convention of eminent persons for developing a consensus on the intervention and prevention strategies that need to be pursued for defeating violent extremism. There remains a need to understand and tackle this menace at global level and synchronize international efforts in an effective way to achieve the best results possible.

53 Lead Role Sought For UN in Countering Violent Extremism http://www. “Garnering support to combat violent extremism under the umbrella of a global venture will require a centralized effort from an international body (not a state or states in isolation) that can lend the venture prestige. diplomats. 2015 ISLAMABAD: violent extremism The Centre for Pakistan and Gulf Studies (CPGS) has unveiled a set of recommendations for countering violent extremism. “I am confident that outcomes of the seminar will provide a better framework for at least understanding the basic causes of violent extremism. national experts. UN as a custodian body of international peace and security must come forward to lead this global venture. direction.com. and subsequently help in formulating a comprehensive and systematic response to deal with this problem. A government minister. . which was organized by Centre for Pakistan and Gulf Studies (CPGS) in collaboration with German foundation Konrad Adenauer Stiftung.dailytimes. which was launched in March 2013. The recommendations were presented at the conclusion of a two-day international seminar on “Countering Violent Extremism: Global Action Plan”.” CPGS President Senator Sehar Kamran said as she read out the policy recommendations. The seminar was preceded by a series of consultative workshops hosted by CPGS. and continuity. The policy recommendations are the outcome of this process undertaken as part of CPGS flagship project SALAM: Innovating Means to Resolve Radical Extremism in Pakistan. retired military officials.pk/national/12-Sep-2015/lead-role-sought-for-un-in-counteringviolent-extremism September 12. academicians and representatives of civil society and media took part in the two daylong deliberations.” one of the eighteen recommendations presented by CPGS said. which envision a lead role for the United Nations in the international collaborative efforts against this menace.

Gen Baloch said alongside the military operations the government reversed the policies of the past and there are no good and bad Taliban at present. The minister said that to prevent tribal areas from relapsing into extremist control. . The federal minister said there were positive news about Balochistan as well where those who had taken up arms against the state were expressing their willingness to respect the Constitution and peacefully engage in politics. The militants are now only seen as extremists and terrorists. which is about to end successfully and has restored the confidence of the tribal people. a couple of political parties had militant wings and they too have been conveyed in clear terms that they can do politics in a legitimate way. promotion of democracy and the role of civil society in developing counter-narrative to the extremist ideology. As the UN may perhaps be the most effective platform for its formulation. He said the militants maintained a stronghold there till military operation Zarb-e-Azb was launched last year.54 The CPGS recommendations further urged for an international convention against violent extremism by the UN. sternly countering violent groups like Daesh and all those who support them and recruit for violent actions. and addressing the issues involved in regulation of cyber space to prevent its misuse for promotion of extremist views. adoption of a multidimensional approach for tackling the problem instead of solely relying on the military option. Other recommendations call for greater international collaboration. Federal Minister for States and Frontiers Region Lt Gen (r) Abdul Qadir Baloch. he said. Such a consultative mandate can educate and help the member states to develop an ethics of cultural pluralism and mutual coexistence. dealing with the issue of displacement. preventing proxy wars and sponsorship of terrorism. “It is important to address the economic causes of extremism and militancy. has been destroyed. The organizational structure of Taliban along with their communication channels and training camps. have been choked. The recommendations further suggest drawing a distinction between terrorism and the struggle for political rights.” Gen Baloch remarked. he said.” he said. their funding channels and supply of arms and explosives. he maintained. About Karachi. said that extremism in Pakistan began from tribal areas. in his key note speech at the end of the seminar. resolution of political disputes around the world particularly Kashmir and Palestine. besides supporting peace and reconciliation in Afghanistan to end the conflict there. but would not be allowed to use armed groups. holding of inter-culture and inter-faith dialogue. he added. Moreover. establishment of a consultative body on countering terrorism. it was important to restore the respect of the tribal people and launch a mega development plan for the uplift of the area that long suffered neglect and backwardness. which hosted fighters from all over the world for war against Soviet Union in Afghanistan. “Karachi needs good governance.

He said his government supports the Chinese initiative at the SCO and was ready to work on plan for countering extremist violence under the aegis of the United Nations. He said that countries should not only deal with the symptoms. “We should unite our forces for fighting our common enemy.55 Russian Ambassador Alexey Dedov discussed the steps Shanghai Cooperation Organization planned to take to counter the threat of extremist violence in the region. but also tackle the root causes.” the ambassador said. He emphasized on dealing with problems like terror financing and narcotics trafficking. .

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73 During the course of the Two-Day International Seminar. . CPGS's official Hashtag for the event #CVE2015 continued to trend in Pakistan on the social micro-blogging website twitter.

as in the 2009 Police Academy attack or the culminated horror of the December 16. and finds its following in appeals to frustrated. impressionable minds by creating a perverse connection between social taboos/extreme ideologies and a ‘difficult but righteous’ path. where 132 innocent school children were ruthlessly massacred along with other nine members of the school staff. Today. 2014 attack on the Army Public School. It is working hard to overcome its wounds from the atrocities committed by extremists under various guises – atrocities that have shocked the world – be it in the form of the innumerable suicide attacks on government buildings. Pakistan has now been tackling the menace of extremism – specifically violent extremism – for decades. the taking hostage of innocents. but is in fact amongst the most formidable of challenges that bedevil the global community today. violent extremism has emerged not only as one of the most daunting challenges faced by Pakistan. Quetta. extremists in this region gained much strength and the state of Pakistan suffered great setbacks as well as perhaps one of the worst crises in its history. 21st May. Pakistan is fighting a war for its very survival against this faceless enemy. The invasion in a region .”– General Raheel Sharif. There is no easy remedy for a narrative that hinges on verge of insanity.74 Pakistan’s Fight Against Violent Extremism Senator Sehar Kamran (TI) “War against terrorism and extremism is being fought for future generations. Chief of Army Staff (Command and Staff College. 2015) Contemporaneously. In the aftermath of 9/11 and as a repercussion of the US-led NATO invasion of Afghanistan.

relative peace prevails in the country. the Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) was also assassinated in one such cowardly attack. a focused de-radicalization project was launched by the Army in Swat. enabling them to better propagate their skewed narratives.75 where governance was not at its strongest inadvertently created a vacuum which provided space for these resurgent non-state actors to occupy. As a result the country has suffered some major set-backs. Recently. one particularly difficult group which emerged was the Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP). The Safoora Goth incident. Benazir Bhutto. either for politically motivated aims or for ideological objectives. This project was the first to acknowledge the sensitivity required when attempting de-radicalization at this scale by working separately with various segments within a militant group. as the fact remains that unless the root causes behind emergence of extremism and its turn towards violence are identified. and ‘Sparlay’ worked with the family members of detained militants. ‘Sabawoon’ is a facility that focused mostly on juveniles while ‘Mishal’ comprised work with adult detainees. and on a larger scale is seen by the mega operation launched by the Army in 2014 – Operation Zarb-e-Azb. for the first time in over a decade. Political leaders and workers as well as military officials have been specifically targeted. two major attacks occurred that once again highlighted this fact. no permanent progress can be made towards fighting and eliminating it. the leader of one of Pakistan’s largest popular political parties. with its anti-state agenda. to support the military operations. came into the limelight in 2007 and has since been involved in most of the terrorist activities inside the country in some form. The TTP. was perpetrated by an engineering student and his group of friends. Instability in the region reached its peak when these elements felt confident enough to issue ‘diktats’ to the state. which claimed lives of 45 people – mostly Ismaili Shias. It is important to note here the vital role the de-radicalization project has played in preventing a resurgence of militancy in Swat. An even greater success. which aimed at rehabilitating confirmed militants. who had been systematically . Of these non-state elements. when Pakistan Army reclaimed the area of Swat. The first real headway against these groups only came as late as 2009 with ‘Operation Rah-eRast’. This operation has destroyed the communication lines of terrorists and today. Furthermore. The use of violent acts for the pursuit of vested interests is the tactic most often employed by extremists groups. the Safoora Goth incident and the suicide attack on Punjab’s Home Minister Shuja Khanzada. The programme has been fairly successfully and many former militants have been rehabilitated.

the recruiters and funders of violent extremists. This transnational character along with easy access to mass media outlets eases the path for the propagation of their agenda. Policies need to be reevaluated. Article was originally published in The Nation on September 02. such factors and factions will continue to thrive. The use of force has been shown to be insufficient on its own. Moreover. resilience must be built into local communities to resist radicalization at the grass-root level alongside efforts towards the economic integration of the population that feels isolated or deprived. In this era of globalization. now more than ever. It is also multi-faceted. It is vital.76 brainwashed into getting radicalized by elements with political agendas that have the know-how for specifically targeting such vulnerable youth. To build upon the successes achieved by Operation Zarb-e-Azab.com. to agree on what the root causes are behind this menace in order to effectively tackle them. it is vital to engage all affected parties in dialogue that transcends sectarian and religious divides. it should also be understood that if discriminatory policies continue to exist across international platforms. a counter-narrative that promotes tolerance is critical while concurrently working to curb the dissemination of hate speech and extremist ideas. Violent extremism knows no borders. the infrastructure. long standing issues lead to long term grievances and provide a raison d’etre for manipulative extremist groups. These same students were also involved in killing a prominent Karachi based activist. Most importantly. Source: http://nation. and as such demands a broad and comprehensive approach to tackle it. 2015. or cultural boundaries.pk/columns/02-Sep-2015/pakistan-s-fight-against-violent-extremism . groups that are at the root of events like the Safoora Goth incident do not have any ‘return address’ or a specific territorial identity. Only a broader and more creative approach will help eradicate this menace permanently. providing them with the material to manipulate people with and incite them to violence in the name of some misplaced ideal of social justice. only a common strategy devised with international consent can effectively meet this transnational threat. A coordinated response from all the stakeholders is our best bet in this fight. religion. For the most part. It is a global enemy. Today we face an enemy that is dynamic and evolves with the strategies we pursue to counter it. while simultaneously making decisive action against them a formidable task. Although there is a realization that exists today at the global level to identify the ideologies. Understanding the phenomenon from an un-skewed perspective therefore is very important.

77 Poll Result .

culture or belief systems of a certain area by any means. There is often confusion at a conceptual level where the terms of ‘terrorism’ and ‘violent extremism’ are utilized. there is a significant difference. ‘Do you think that there is a difference between terrorism and violent extremism?’ 72 percent of respondents opined that yes there is indeed a difference. Source: http://cpakgulf. it is useful to note that terrorism is broadly denoted as the practice of intimidation through violence. and more often than not. This assertion is made on the basis of the result of an online survey conducted by the Centre for Pakistan and Gulf Studies where the audience was posed with the question. terrorism has always. to achieve a political objective. a consensus on a universal definition of what this ‘terrorism’ is comprised of exactly has not been achieved. including killing and destruction of property etc. As a part of gauging public opinion on matters of national importance. is identified as a broader political ideology that stands against the moderate.. To highlight the contrast between terrorism and violent extremism.78 Poll Results: Do you think there is difference between terrorism and violent extremism? The majority of Pakistanis understand that ‘Terrorism’ and ‘Violent Extremism’ are two separate concepts. It includes terrorism as well as other forms of politically motivated and communal violence. the two terms are used interchangeably. and one that has an impact on the counter-strategies being developed at the national level. been used as a political tool to further specific socio-political and economic ends and objectives. Despite 14 years of the War against Terrorism.org/2015/10/01/poll-results-difference-between-terrorism-and-violent-extremism/ . in one form or another. CPGS regularly conducts surveys on topics of national interest. including violence. Historically. Violent extremism. centric values and norms of a society in order to change the said values. on the other hand. However. whereas 28 percent disagreed.

cpakgulf.79 Fatalities in Terrorist Violence in Pakistan 2003-2015 Fatalities in Terrorist Violence in Pakistan During 2015 Source: http://salam.org .

security and economic development and to assess emerging trends in regional policies and devise future strategies. Peace building and Conflict Resolution. . The Centre regularly conducts seminars. Identify opportunities and areas of common interest for potential cooperation between Pakistan and the countries of the region at all levels including both public and private sector.80 CPGS Vision Innovate future prospects for peace and security in the region and beyond through undertaking research on Global Security. governments and other entities. Strengthen strategic. Operational Framework & Objectives     Promote regional peace and harmony through integrated and comprehensive understanding of issues between peoples. Geopolitics. civil society and academia. economic and social cooperation among countries of the region and beyond. About the Centre The CPGS is a non-partisan leading research institute established to undertake research on Global Security. The Centre aims to harness the immense potential for increasing cooperation in the region to attain peace. political. security and stability by making substantive intellectual. Conduct research on strategic and security issues. roundtables and conferences with dignitaries. assess emerging trends at regional and global level and devise strategies for addressing possible future challenges. academic and diplomatic contributions. Peace building and Conflict Resolution. in order to actively promote regional harmony. workshops. academics and experts from every walk of life. Geopolitics. global peace. discussion and dialogue amongst all relevant stakeholders. to resolve conflict and build peace through academic engagements. The Centre aims to promote an alternative perspective in advancing the cause of peace through policy analysis and direct engagement with decision makers in government.

Activities and Services        Organize periodic seminars. practitioners and other stakeholders. projects and initiatives. . Offer training and academic services for Skill Development and Strategic analysis. Provide dedicated Consultancy and help create conducive environment for development of our society. Organize workshops and events to develop strong working relationship between academia and practitioners.81     Contribute towards development of ideological and social ideas to promote tolerance and co-existence for building multicultural human society based on shared ideas and common goals. Map out future policy options by analyzing existing trends and emerging scenarios. Compile. Collaborate with the other research institutions and Think Tanks for achieving the core objectives. Prepare annual report of all activities for interested parties and stakeholders. academics. Conduct Research and compile reports for the governments and private entities to explore alternative options for efficient management and resolution of regional and international issues. lectures and other events which would bring together leaders. edit and publish (print and electronic) relevant information. commentaries and analysis regularly. data. to study and discuss issues of importance for the overall good of the society. All such other activities which help in achieving core objectives of the Centre and its programs. workshops.

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