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An electrical grid is an interconnected network for delivering electricity from suppliers to

consumers. It consists of generating stations that produce electrical power, high-voltage
transmission lines that carry power from distant sources to demand centers, and distribution lines
that connect individual customers. Power stations may be located near a fuel source, at a dam
site, or to take advantage of renewable energy sources, and are often located away from heavily
populated areas. The electric power which is generated is stepped up to a higher voltage at which
it connects to the electric power transmission network, until it reaches its wholesale customer or
usually the company that owns the local electric power distribution network. On arrival at a
substation, the power will be stepped down from a transmission level voltage to a distribution
level voltage. As it exits the substation, it enters the distribution wiring. Finally, upon arrival at
the service location, the power is stepped down again from the distribution voltage to the
required service voltages.

As the 21st century progresses, the electric utility industry seeks to take advantage of
novel approaches to meet growing energy demand. Electric utilities across regions are many
times interconnected for improved economy and reliability. Interconnections allow for
economies of scale, allowing energy to be purchased from large, efficient sources. Utilities can
draw power from generator reserves from a different region in order to ensure continuing,
reliable power and diversify their loads. Interconnection also allows regions to have access to
cheap bulk energy by receiving power from different sources. It also helps others to maintain the

overall system frequency and also help manage tie transfers between utility regions. With
everything interconnected, and open competition occurring in a free market economy, it starts to
make sense to allow and even encourage distributed generation (DG). The smaller generation
facility might be a home-owner with excess power from their solar panel or wind turbine. It
might be a small office with a diesel generator or by owner of the generation could sell
electricity. Many small generators are allowed to sell electricity back to the grid for the same
price they would pay to buy it.
Furthermore, numerous efforts are underway to develop a "smart grid" which allows twoway ow of electricity and information to create an automated and distributed advanced energy
delivery network. Smart grid offers advanced electricity generation, delivery, and consumption,
advanced information metering, monitoring, and management and advanced digital
communication technologies. The main purposes of the smart grid would be to allow real time
information to be received and sent from and to various parts of the grid to make operation as
efficient and seamless as possible. Management system is the subsystem in smart grid that
provides advanced management and control services. Most of the existing works aim to improve
energy efficiency, demand profile, utility, cost, and emission, based on the infrastructure by using
modeling and optimization technique. The protection system is the subsystem in smart grid that
provides advanced grid reliability analysis, failure protection, and security and privacy protection


Interconnected Grid Transmission System allows following advantage

1. Exchange of peak load: Peak demand is available for only some period so rated capacity
of plants can share peak load in interconnected grid system.
2. Ensure economical operation: Due to sharing of load gives efficient work continuously
throughout the year at high load factor which reduce overall cost of generation.
3. Reduce plant reserve capacity: Due to variation in load demand, generating units must
keep standby capacity during emergency. Due several units running parallel reduces
reserve capacity and increase efficiency of system.
4. Increase reliability of supply: It gives uninterrupted supply even any faults or forced shut
down for maintenance purpose.
The distribution of energy resources and consumption centers are extremely unbalanced.
The load centers are scattered at far-off places away from resource rich areas. Electricity is a
regulated sector in India with Central Electricity Regulatory Commission at the central level and
State Electricity Regulatory Commission in each of the states. Power grid Corporation of India
Limited (POWERGRID), the Central Transmission utility (CTU) is responsible for wheeling
power of central generating utilities and inter-state mega IPPs, while State Transmission Utilities
are responsible for wheeling of power from State generating units and State level IPPs. As per
the Electricity Act, 2003 the functions of the Central Transmission Utility are to

Undertake transmission of energy through inter-State transmission system.

Discharge all functions of planning & co-ordination for inter-state transmission system

with state transmission utilities.

Ensure development of an efficient, coordinated and economical system of inter-state

transmission lines for smooth flow of electricity from generating stations to load centers.
Exercise supervision & control over the inter-state transmission system.
Ensure integrated operation of the regional grids through RLDCs.

To meet the growing power demand of various regions, power transfer capacity of the interregional links is being enhanced continuously. However a variety of issues and challenges need
due emphasis in expansions to the desired level, some which are as under:
1. Right Of Way: The most notable and challenging issue the transmission sector is facing
today is the Right of Way (ROW). It is the need to develop high intensity transmission
corridor (MW per meter ROW).

2. Regulation of Power: Another important aspect is the need towards regulation of power
flow due to wide variation in demand on day as well as seasonal basis
3. Flexibility in Line Loading: To handle more power as well as to optimize the use of
transmission corridor to send load the different lines efficiently.
4. Improvement of Operational Efficiency: Power system is required to be operated at the
rated capacity with security, reliability and high availability. This can only be achieved
through smart on-line condition monitoring, repair and maintenance with advance
In view of the above, key technological requirements for development of future power
system are upgrading of existing transmission system. Such technology suitable for bulk power
transfer over long distances like high capacity EHV/UHV AC system, HVDC system, compact
tower/substation, mitigating devices to address high short circuit level, intelligent grid etc.
Increasing grid connectivity is accompanied with various factors viz. spread of the grid
geographically, wide variation in generation as well as loads on daily/seasonal basis, multi
direction flow of power, open access, unscheduled interchange (UI) which the need optimize and
economic dispatch. It necessitates reliable and precise Grid Management. Grid Management
effectively means managing supply and demand to maintain frequency, voltage and stability of
the network. It essentially requires taking care of the overall reliability, security, economy and
efficiency of the power system.
At present in India, 5 regional grids Northern, Eastern, Western and North Eastern grids are
synchronously connected forming central grid operating at one frequency. Southern grid operates
at different frequency and is asynchronously connected to central grid through HVDC link to
facilitate the transfer of power from central grid to southern grid and vice-versa. Operation of
each of these regional grids is handled by the regional load dispatch centers, RLDCs. The Load
Dispatch Centers are responsible for optimum scheduling and dispatch of electricity, real time
grid operation and energy accounting. Electricity cannot be stored and has to be produced when
it is needed. It is therefore essential that power system is planned and operated optimally &
economically. Thus the objective of LDC is to co-ordinate generation, transmission and
distribution of electricity from moment to moment to achieve maximum security and efficiency.
Maharashtra State Load Dispatch Center located in Navi Mumbai worked under

The complexity of Grid is increasing continuously due to Growing number of
interconnections within and across the regions. To ensure safe, secure and reliable operation of
large interconnected Indian Grid, system operation in future would be equipped with an
Intelligent/Smart Grid with placement of Phasor Measurement Unit, Wide Area Monitoring, Self
Healing, and adaptive islanding features etc with an intent to quickly evaluate system
vulnerability with respect to cascaded events involving faults, device malfunctions and provide
remedial action. The main motive of proposed study to develop user-friendly modeling tool
which analyze available power at main grid which schedule and plan of supply-demand balance
and help to operate, monitor and control of the power system at local main grid at zonal level.
During it focuses on economy of generation, transmission and distribution of supply of electric
power to the consumers and continuity and high reliability of power supply.

Load flow study also known as power flow study, is an important tool involving numerical
analysis applied to a power system. A power-flow study usually uses simplified notation such as

a one-line diagram and per-unit system, and focuses on various forms of AC power (i.e. voltages,
volt-age angles, real power and reactive power). Load-flow studies are performed to determine
the steady-state operation of an electric power system. It calculates the voltage drop on each
feeder, the voltage at each bus, and the power flow in all branch and feeder circuits. Determine if
system voltages remain within specified limits under various contingency conditions, and
whether equipment such as transformers and conductors are overloaded. It is used to identify the
need for additional generation, capacitive, or inductive support, or the placement of capacitors
and/or reactors to maintain system voltages within specified limits. Losses in each branch and
total system power losses are also calculated. It is Necessary for planning, economic scheduling,
and control of an existing system as well as planning its future expansion.
There are two popular numerical methods for solving the power-flow equations. These
are the Gauss-Seidel (G-S) and the Newton-Raphson (N-R) Methods (Grainger and Steven-son,
1994; Elgend, 1982; Glover and Sharma, 1994). The N-R method is superior to the G-S method
because it exhibits faster convergence characteristics. However, the N-R method suffers from the
disadvantages that a flat start is not always possible since the solution at the beginning can
oscillate without converging towards the solution. In order to avoid this problem, the load-flow
solution is often started with a G-S algorithm followed by the N-R algorithm after a few
iterations. Admittance matrix (Ybus) can be calculated from individual feeder resistance and
reactance by applying KCL at each bus. The network equations are complex non-linear algebraic
equations in terms of node current. Ybus further utilized in power flow analysis. For n-bus
network model demonstrated as follows;
Vbus = Vector of bus


Ibus =

Vector of the injected

currents (the

current is positive when

flowing into

the bus and


flowing out of the bus)


Ybus = Admittance matrix. Diagonal element of Y matrix is known as self-admittance or

driving point admittance, i.e.,
Diagonal elements of Ybus matrix is known as self admittance or driving point admittance

Off-diagonal element of Ybus matrix is known as transfer admittance or mutual admittance,

Hence, Vbus becomes;

In fig. shows simple radial network, current Ii entering bus i given by following equation

Fig. 7: Bus i connected n number of feeder in radial power network

Hence the equation can be written in terms of bus admittance matrix,

In the above equation j includes bus i , expressing equation in polar form, we have

The complex power at bus i

By putting Ii we get
Separating real and imaginary part

Above active and reactive power equations constitute a set of non linear algebraic equation in
terms of independent variable, voltage magnitude per unit and phase angle in radians.
By expanding using Taylor Series, and neglecting higher order term, get

Here bus 1 assumed as slack bus, Jacobian matrix gives linearized relationship between small
changes in voltage angle i(k) and voltage magnitude |Vi(k)| with small changes in real and
reactive power Pi(k) and Qi(k).

Iteration solution of Jacobian elements of J1, J2, J3, J4 as follows

The diagonal and off-diagonal elements of J1 are

The diagonal and off-diagonal elements of J2 are

The diagonal and off-diagonal elements of J3 are

The diagonal and off-diagonal elements of J4 are

The terms of Pi(k) and Qi(k) are difference between scheduled and calculated values, known as
power residuals, given by

The new estimates of bus voltages are

From above table get that Newton- Raphson method is appropriate for proposed project because
1. It usable for wide complex transmission network.
2. It is having high accuracy and not depends on type of bus.
3. It is programmable using simulation software.
Transmission Loss:

Transmitting electricity at high voltage reduces the fraction of energy lost to resistance,
which varies depending on the specific conductors, the current flowing, and the length of the
transmission line. For a given amount of power, a higher voltage reduces the current and thus the
resistive losses in the conductor. Even if the conductor size (cross-sectional area) is reduced the
I2R losses are also reduced. At extremely high voltages, more than 2,000 kV exists between
conductor and ground; corona discharge losses are so large that they can offset the lower
resistive losses in the line conductors. Measures to reduce corona losses include conductors
having larger diameters; often hollow to save weight or bundles of two or more conductors.
To evaluate exact transmission losses of complex network uses Kron technique but it
requires all the entities associated with transmission network which can be obtained from power
flow model. It expresses system losses in terms of interconnected generators real power output.
It also called B-coefficient method. Total injected complex power at bus I, denoted by S i, is given
by Si= Pi + jQi= Vi Ii*. The summation of power over all buses gives the total system loss

Where PL and QL are real and reactive power loss of system but

Substituting above functions we get

But Zbus is symmetrical matrix; therefore

and total system loss becomes;

But active power loss plays major role in loss component hence it becomes;

If Sgi is the complex power at bus I, the generator current is;

All above results are put in active power loss equation gives resultant equation;

So above formula can be written in general form as follows;

The transmission losses are due to energy dissipated in the conductors, equipment used
for transmission line, transformer, sub-transmission line and distribution line and magnetic losses
in transformers. Technical losses are normally 17-19 %, and directly depend on the network
characteristics and the mode of operation. The major amount of losses in a power system is in
primary and secondary distribution lines. While transmission and sub-transmission lines account
for only about 30% of the total losses. Therefore the primary and secondary distribution systems
must be properly planned to ensure within limits. The unexpected load increase was reflected in
the increase of technical losses above the normal level Losses are inherent to the distribution of
electricity and cannot be eliminated. Main Reasons for Technical Losses are
1. Lengthy Distribution lines: In practically 11 KV and 415 volts lines, in rural areas are
extended over long distances to feed loads scattered over large areas. Thus the primary and
secondary distributions lines in rural areas are largely radial laid usually extend over long
distances. This results in high line resistance and therefore high I2R losses in the line.
2. Inadequate Size of Conductors of Distribution lines.
3. Installation of Distribution transformers away from load centers
4. Low Power Factor of Primary and secondary distribution system i.e. most of LT distribution
circuits normally the Power Factor ranges from 0.65 to 0.75. A low Power Factor contributes
towards high distribution losses. For a given load, if the Power Factor is low, the current drawn

in high and the losses proportional to square of the current will be more. By connecting the
capacitors across individual loads, the line loss is reduced from 4 to 9% depending upon the
extent of PF improvement.
5. Bad Workmanship contributes significantly role towards increasing distribution losses. Joints
are a source of power loss. Therefore the number of joints should be kept to a minimum
6. Feeder Phase Current and Load Balancing: One of the easiest loss savings of the distribution
system is balancing current along three-phase circuits. Feeder phase balancing also tends to
balance voltage drop among phases giving three-phase customers less voltage unbalance.
7. Load Factor Effect on Losses: Power consumption of customer varies throughout the day and
over seasons. Residential customers generally draw their highest power demand in the evening
hours. Same commercial customer load generally peak in the early afternoon. The current level is
the primary driver in distribution power losses.
8. Distribution transformers use copper conductor windings to induce a magnetic field into a
grain-oriented silicon steel core. Therefore, transformers have both load losses and no-load core
9. Balancing 3 phase loads: Balancing 3-phase loads periodically throughout a network can
reduce losses significantly. It can be done relatively easily on overhead networks and
consequently offers considerable scope for cost effective loss reduction, given suitable
10. Switching-off transformers: If two transformers of a certain size are required at a substation
during peak periods, only one might be required during times of low demand so that the other
transformer might be switched off in order to reduce fixed losses.
Other Reasons for Technical Losses are unequal load distribution among three phases in L.T
system causing high neutral currents, leaking and loss of power, over loading of lines, abnormal
operating conditions at which power and distribution transformers are operated, low voltages at
consumer terminals causing higher drawl of currents by inductive loads, poor quality of
equipment used in agricultural pumping in rural areas, cooler air-conditioners and industrial
loads in urban areas.