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Hydro-dynamic models for different gate lengths for

a fixed polysilicon doping

Nalluri Mohan Krishna

Department of Electrical Engineering

Arizona State University

Tempe, United States

mnalluri@asu.edu

ASU ID:1206405755

Nareen Molleti

Arizona State University

Tempe, United States

nmolleti@asu.edu

ASU ID:1206339741

Arizona State University

Tempe, United States

vnitta@asu.edu

ASUID:1206450358

applicability of the drift-diffusion and hydrodynamic

models as applied to the study of Polysilicon doping effects

in MOSFET. The hydrodynamic model is an extension of

the standard drift-diffusion technique which determines

the electron and hole energies in addition to the carrier

concentrations and potential. The hydrodynamic method

can properly account for energy dependent phenomena

such as nonstationary transport phenomena and

thermionic emission currents. The comparison of Drift

diffusion and Hydro dynamic model for different channel

lengths are studied using the results simulated by

Sentaurus TCAD tool in case of N channel MOSFETs.

Index TermsDrift Diffusion, Hydrodynamic, Polysilicon.

(Key words)

I. INTRODUCTION

MOSFETS are of increasing important in semiconductor

applications and VLSI, To predict the performance of the VLSI

circuits, the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the semiconductor

device are required. The fabrication of devices is cost related so

predict the functionality and different effects on MOSFET

characteristics. Drift diffusion and Hydro-dynamic model are

used to study the devices characteristics.

Polysilicon; which is used as the gate electrode in MOSFETs;

is doped heavily to imitate the metal electrode. But polysilicon

bias to switch on the transistor; the gate itself is depleted.

However, the voltage due to this depletion is negligible in case

of heavily doped polysilicon gates. But gate depletion affects

the performance of the MOSFET if the gate is not heavily

doped.

In this paper MOSFET with different polysilicon doping

concentrations are simulated using Silvaco tool using both

drift diffusion and hydro dynamic model. The drain current

(Id) versus gate voltage (Vg) characteristics of the MOSFETs

are studied using Athena and Atlas. The intention of

simulation is to study the effects caused by polysilicon doping

variations and Comparison of Drift Diffusion and Hydro

Dynamic Model. So, simulations are done in a very simple

way. The mobility used in the simulations is the temperature

dependent bulk mobility. Simulation are done using default

lattice temperature (300K), at which electron and hole

mobilitys are respectively 1000 and 300 cm2/V.s.[3]

II. MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSIONS

Simulation for different polysilicon doping ranging from 1E19

to 1E22 are done and set of curves are plotted. For different

concentrations, the flat band voltages and the polysilicon

depletion voltages are calculated using the mathematics given

in the following sections.

The flatband voltage is expressed using the following

EquationVfb=ms Qox/Cox. (1)

The first term is the work function difference between the

polysilicon gate and the substrate and the second term is the

voltage drop due to oxide interface charges.

But the second term in flatband voltage can be neglected

because the effect of oxide charges contributes less than

50mV to flatband voltage for thin gate oxides.

For highly doped polysilicon, the Fermi level lies near the

conduction band edge. The flat band voltage becomes:

Vfb = (-Eg/2)q - B .......................... (2)

where Eg is the silicon bandgap, Na is the doping

concentration of the substrate, ni =1.4 x 1010/cm3 ; is the

intrinsic carrier concentration of electrons or holes.

In Silicon at room temperature (300K) and the chemical

potential of the silicon substrate is B = (KT/q).ln(Na/ni); all

symbols having their usual meanings. We assume that at room

temperature KT/q =0.0259eV. The substrate doping

concentration is 1016/cm3.

When the polysilicon is doped moderately; the Fermi level can

no longer be assumed to lie near the conduction band edge.

So, a correction in flat band voltage is required. A new term;

the Fermi potential of polysilicon with respect to the intrinsic

Fermi potential in polysilicon BP = (KT/q).ln (Nd/ni) is

needed to be included in flatband voltage equation. The

modified flatband voltage becomes;

Vfb = - BP - B = - (KT/q).ln (Na.Nd/ni2)..............(3)

B. Polysilicon gate depletion effect:

As the polysilicon doping is reduced, the gate gets depleted

near the polysilicon-oxide interface and a part of the gate

voltage drops across the depletion region of polysilicon

[Fig-1].

charge in the channel region at the oxide-substrate interface.

The applied gate voltage is denoted as Vg; the band bending at

the polysilicon-oxide interface and silicon substrate-oxide

interfaces are respectively denoted as p and s. It is to be

noted that, while s is a positive quantity, p is a negative

quantity. Using Poissons equation in one dimension and

Considering the complete depletion approximation, the

polysilicon depletion charge is;

Qp = (2qsiNd p ) (4)

where, si is Silicon permittivity which equals to 1.04x10-12

F/cm.

Now, the total channel charge Qs (depletion and inversion)

should be equal to the depletion charge Qp in polysilicon.

Therefore, using Qs in place Qp in (4); the band bending at the

polysilicon-oxide interface become;

p = Qs /2qsiNd (5)

The channel charge Qs is found by solving one dimensional

Poissons equation where the total charge density includes

both mobile carriers and immobile depletion charges due to

the uncovered ions [1,2]. It is further assumed that a very

small drain voltage is applied at the drain terminal of the

MOSFET that does not influence the channel charge from its

value at zero drain voltage. Therefore, channel charge is given

by

Qs = -[(2siNaKT){(exp(-qs/KT)+qs/KT -1)+

ni2/Na2 (exp(qs/KT) - qs/KT -1)}].(6)

The voltage balance equation becomes,

Vg = Vfb + p + s - Qs/Cox . (7)

For low drain bias, the drain current is;

Id = -eff.(W/L).Qi(Vg).Vds. . (8)

In case of both depletion and inversion, only two terms of (6)

are significant and the total charge can be approximated as,

2

Qs=[(2siKTNa)(qs/KT+ni2/Na2.(exp(qs/KT)}]......... (9)

The depletion charge is

Qd = [2si qNa s] (10)

From (10), maximum value of depletion charge Qd is

found by putting s =2B.

The inversion charge is

Qi = Qs - Qd .. (11)

From (3),(5),(7),(8),(9),(10) and (11) the drain current can be

calculated numerically for different values of gate voltages.

However, to avoid complex numerical solutions, one can start

from s = 0 V and go on calculating Qs and p . By putting

these values in (7); the corresponding values of gate voltages

can be found. The corresponding drain currents can be

calculated by the same way using (8) and (11).

III. NUMERICAL MODELING

Drift Diffusion model:

Interfaces

derived from the Boltzmann transport equation by considering

moments of the BTE. Consider steady state conditions and, for

approximation, the Boltzmann transport equation may be

shown as:

charge e has to be taken with the proper sign of the particle

(positive for holes and negative for electrons). The general

definition of current density is repeated here for completeness.

Comparisons between the simulated and analytically

calculated results are shown in the following figures. Constant

electron mobility is considered to be 1000 cm2/V.s. The

following figures (figure 2 to 6) show the variations of drain

current with respect to Gate voltage for polysilicon doping

concentrations ranging from 1x1020/cm3 to 1x1018/cm3

where the integral on the right hand side represents the first

moment of the distribution function.

hence the first integral is zero. Therefore, we have

Drain current Vs gate Voltage plot with polysilicon doping

1e20

From the above equation replace

replacing it with (kBT/m) and introducing mobility and

diffusion coefficient we get the drift diffusion current

expressions.

1e19

Hydrodynamic model:

The hydrodynamic model treats the propagation of electrons and/or

holes in a semiconductor device as the flow of a charged

compressible fluid. The model exhibits hot carrier effects missing in

the standard drift-diffusion model. The hydrodynamic description

should be valid for devices with active regions greater than 0.05

microns. The hydrodynamic model is equivalent to the equations of

electro-gas dynamics. The electron gas has a sound speed and the

electron flow may be either subsonic or supersonic. In general, a

shock wave develops at the transition from supersonic flow to

subsonic flow. The hydrodynamic model has been extensively used

to study the n+/n/n+ diode that model the channel of a field effect

transistor. The diode begins with a heavily doped n+ source region,

followed by a lightly doped n channel region, and ends with an n+

drain region.

1e21

1e22

.

Using Drift Diffusion model and Hydro dynamic model:

For channel length 100nm and polysilicon doping 1E19

polysilicon doping.

Plot analytical and practical values:

For doping 1e19:

For cahnnel length 120nm and polysilicon doping 1E19

Conclusion:

From the above plots we can see that for different polysilicon

doping concentration for high gate voltage the analytical

curves differ from the simulated curves; and it is more

prominent for the curves having low polysilicon doping

concentrations. From the plot it is also seen that the threshold

voltage decrease with increase with increase in the doping

which increases the sub-threshold leakage current. The current

curve is different for low concentration because of

approximations. For the polysilicon Doping concentration of

1E19 the characteristics for different channel lengths are

plotted to find when to use drift diffusion and when to use

hydro dynamic model it is seen that for shorter channel

lengths hydrodynamic model is used and for long channel

length drift diffusion model is used.

REFERENCES

[1] Yuan Taur and Tak H. Ning, Fundamentals of Modern VLSI

Devices. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1998, Ch. 2, pp.

58 -82.

[2] Effect of polysilicon depletion on MOSFET I-V characteristics

C.-L. Huang, N. D. Arora, A. I. Nasr and D. A. Bell

ELECTRONICS LETTERS 24th June 1993 Vol. 29 No. 13

[3] Gate Length Dependent Polysilicon Depletion Effects-ChangHoon Choi, P. R. Chidambaram, Rajesh Khamankar, Charles F.

Machala, Zhiping Yu and Robert W. Dutton, IEEEELECTRON

DEVICE LETTERS, Vol. 23, No. 4, April 2002

[4] Semiconductor device simulation by Carl.Gardner

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

www.silvaco.com.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polysilicon_depletion_effect

Atlas Manula version 2014.

http://nanohub.org/resources/

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