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You are on page 1of 36

Haber, Philip, ed

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Book

PREFACE

This book contains an anthology of some of the most challenging problems in the field

of recreational mathematics, and is designed to arouse the interest of young and old,

amateur and professional. Everyone with a knowledge of simple arithmetic or

elementary algebra is invited to try his hand at the solutions,and it is hoped that many

hours of stimulating fun will be the end result.

THE AUTHOR

5

Peter Pauper's

Puzzles &: Posers

The Questions

1. If you would add to a number 4/7 of the same number, the sum would be twice the

number, less 27. What is the number?

2. B is now \/^ as old as A, but 8 years ago A was 7 times as old as B. How old is each

now?

6

3. Phil had 1/4 as much money as Jack, but after Jack had given $35 to Phil, he had

only i/^ as much as Phil. How much did each have originally?

4. Find the number whose double is greater than its half by 45.

5. Split up 34 into 2 parts so that 4/7 of one of the parts equals 2/5 of the other.

6. Determine the number which is greater than the aggregate of its third, tenth and

twelfth parts by 58.

7. See if you can divide 59 into 2 portions so that the sum of 1/7 of the greater portion

and 1/^ the lesser equals 13.

8. Allan is 4 times Bob's age, and in 30 years Bob will only be i/^ as old as Allan. How

old are they now?

9. A husband is 62 years old when his wife is 36. How many years ago was she i/^ as

old as he?

10. ^ had twice the money A had, but after A received I42 from B, B had 14 as much as

A. How much did they start with?

11. The difference between 2 numbers is 3, and the difference of their squares is 51.

Find the numbers.

7

12. A farmer bought some oxen and cows paying $ 1,428. If he paid $55 for an ox and

$32 for a cow, and if he has twice the number of cows as oxen, how many of each were

bought?

13. A man left $1,872 in his will with instructions that it be divided among his widow, 3

sons and 2 daughters. The widow's share amounted to 3 times the amount either of the

daughters received, while each son got 1/2 as much as each of the daughters. Find

each one's share.

14. Tom is 34 years younger than Joseph, who is as many years past 50 as Tom is

below 40. Find their ages.

15. A person traveled 4/7 as many miles on foot as by water and 2/5 as many miles on

horseback as by water. If he covered a total of 3,036 miles, how many miles did he

travel in each manner?

16. See if you can find 4 consecutive numbers totaling 94.

17. Could you divide I47 among A, B, C and D, so that A and B together will have J27,

A and C $25, and A and D $23?

8

18. I can do a piece of work in 8 days which can be done by you in lo. How long would it

take to do it working together?

19. A, B and C found some money and it was agreed that A's share would be $ 15 less

than 1/4 of it, while B was to get $ 13 more than 14 of it, and C, the remainder, which

was $27. How much did A and B get?

20. A bag of money amounting to $4.32 contains 108 coins, consisting of pennies and

dimes. Find the number of coins per denomination.

21. A picture was bought at a certain sum, which was the same price paid for its frame.

Had the frame cost % 1 less and the picture 75 cents more, the price for the frame

would have been only 1/4 that of the picture. Find the price paid for the picture.

22. The second digit of a number is smaller than its first digit by 4, and if you were to

divide the number by the digits' sum, the quotient would be 7. Find that number.

23. A man and woman 63 miles apart start traveling toward each other at the same

time. If the man covers 4 miles per hour to the woman's 3 miles per hour, how far will

each have traveled upon meeting?

9

24. An investor places S/g ^^ his money in 5% bonds and the remainder in 6%. If his

annual return on the bonds is $180, how much was invested per bond?

25. The denominator of a fraction is greater than its numerator by 6, but if 8 were added

to the denominator, the value of the fraction would then become I/3. What is the

fraction?

26. Find the time between 7 and 8 when the hands of your watch are opposite each

other.

10

21. Alice sold 1/2 an apple more than i/^ her apples, then she sold i/^ an apple more

than 1/2, of the remainder, and finally, she sold 1/^ an apple more than i/^ she now had,

leaving her none. Find the number of apples she originally had.

28. If I have 2 kinds of money consisting of nickels and dimes and I am offered $1.35 for

20 coins, how many would you say I should give of each coin?

29. Find the time between 4 and 5 when the minute hand of your watch is exactly 5

minutes in advance of the hour hand.

30. If I had bought a number of eggs at 3 for 10 cents, sold i/^ of them at 2 for 7 cents

and the remainder at 4 for 15 cents, making 16 cents on the sale, how many eggs

would I have bought?

31. A greyhound chases a fox, who has a start of 60 of her own leaps. The fox can

make 3 leaps to the greyhound's 2, but the greyhound goes in 3 leaps as far as the fox

does in 7. How many leaps does each make before the greyhound catches the fox?

32. A crew can row 10 miles in 5/6 of an hour downstream and 12 miles in 90 minutes

upstream. Find the current's rate and the crew's rate in still water.

11

33. Messrs. Smith and Jones invested 3240 and 596 respectively in a business venture.

After a certain time Smith found that he had lost twice as much as Jones, and on

settling their accounts, it was found that Smith had 3 times as much remaining as

Jones. How much did each lose?

34. A fellow's 2 horses and harness cost him $300. The value of the poorer horse and

harness was $20 below the value of the better horse, while the value of the better horse

with the harness was twice that of the poorer horse. ^Vhat is the value of each?

35. When I was asked my telephone number, I gave this information: "My telephone

exchange is TEmpleton 8 and the last 4 figures of my number add up to 24. If the third

figure is i/^ of the first, and the second is 2 less than the fourth which is 1 more than

twice the third figure, can you figure out what my number is?"

36. A friend of mine spent some money on oranges. If he had gotten 5 more for his

money, they would have cost 1/4 cent less each. If there were 3 less they would have

cost 1/2 cent more each. How much was spent and for how many oranges?

12

57. S. O. Rich left some money to be divided among his 4 boys. The oldest got 1/4 of

the sum of what the other 3 got, his younger brother got i/^ of the sum of the other 3, the

next younger brother got 13/47 ^^ the sum of the other 3, and the youngest got i/^ of the

sum of the other 3. The oldest boy received $160 more than the youngest. Find the

money to be shared and the amount each received.

38. At the time of his marriage a man found his wife's age to be 34 of his. After 12 years

of marriage he found it to be 5/6 of his age. Find their ages at the time they were

married.

39. Phil has a number of brothers and sisters; he has twice as many sisters as brothers,

but any one of his sisters has as many brothers as sisters. How many of each does he

have?

40. A train running from X to Y meets with an accident, causing its speed to be reduced

to 1/3 of what it was before, arriving at its destination 5 hours late. Had the accident

occurred 60 miles closer to Y, the train would have been only 60 minutes late. Find the

train's rate prior to the accident.

13

41. Moe and Joe are building a fence 126 feet long. After 3 hours, Moe is called away

and Joe finally does the job in 14 hours. If after 7 hours Moe had been called away,

then Joe would have done it in 42/^ hours. H many feet does each build in 1 hour?

ow

42. Two married couples play at cards, with the first man's wife having $1 more than the

second man. After the first man had won 1/4 of his wife's money, the first man's wife

1/9, of the second man's money and the second man 14 of his wife's money, the first

man, his wife and the second man each had 18. How much did each have at first?

14

43. Ay and Bee run a race of 480 feet. In the first heat, Ay gives Bee a head start of 48

feet and beats him by 1/10 of a minute. In the second heat, Ay gives Bee a head start of

144 feet, and is beaten by 1/30 of a minute. How many feet per second did each run?

44. The fore wheel of a carriage makes 4 more revolutions than the hind wheel in going

96 feet. But, if the circumference of the fore wheel were 3/2 as great and of the hind

wheel 4/3 as great, then the forewheel would make only 2 revolutions more than the

hind wheel in going the same distance. What is the circumference of each wheel?

45. A grocer bought some flour for $175 and the number of dollars per barrel was 7/4 of

the number of barrels. Find the number of barrels bought and their price.

46. Two friends bought a farm of 104 acres, paying $320 each. When they divided the

land, one said to the other: "If you will let me have my portion wherever I choose, you

shall have so much more land than I, but mine shall cost $3 an acre more than yours."

To this the other readily agreed. How much did each have and at what price per acre?

15

47. Someone I know saved annually i/4 as much again as he saved the previous year,

and in 7 years was able to save $2,059. How much did he save the first year?

48. If 3 apples are worth 2 oranges, how many oranges are 24 apples worth?

49. I have 2 dimes, and if 4/5 of what I have is 8/9 of what you have, how much do you

have?

50. If a staff 5 feet long casts a shadow^ 2 feet long, w^hat is the height of a steeple

whose shadowy at the same hour, is 80 feet long?

51. A can make a shoe in 2/J of a day while B can do it in 2/5 of a day. How many

shoes could both make in a day?

52. If after earning a sum of money I added to it 12.50 and then found that ^vhat I had

now w^as equal to 1331/3% of w^hat I earned, how^ much w^as earned?

55. Philaber, Inc., owns several buildings built under the 'slum devastation' program

insured by HAHA. Each building has as many floors as there are buildings, and each

floor has as many apartments as there are floors; while each apartment contains as

many rooms as there are apartments. The

16

floors for all of the buildings plus the total number of buildings. This nets the landlord

$134,456 in rent monthly. How many rooms, apartments and floors does each building

contain, and what rent does the tenant pay per room?

54. In $700 there's an equal number of quarters, half-dollars and dollars. How many of

each are there?

55. A man divided a dollar bill among 12 children, giving some 9 cents and the

remainder 7 cents. How many children received 9 cents apiece?

56. Two shepherds owning a flock of sheep agree to divide its value equally. If one

takes 20 sheep and the other 30, and the latter pays the former $150, what is the value

per sheep?

57. I have 2 empty containers, one of which can hold 4 pints of liquid while the other

holds 7. Assuming that there is a water well nearby and I wished to fill both containers

so that their combined contents totaled 7 pints, how would I go about it, not using any

measuring devices?

17

One-half, one-third, and three times three. Six score and ten the sum will be. What is

my age? Pray show it me.

59. How many numbers of 2 figures each can be expressed by the 9 digits and 1

cipher?

60. My 'phone bill is JS.oo a month which includes the 10% federal excise tax and 3%

local sales tax. How much would I pay, exclusive of taxes?

61. What number when added to itself, subtracted from itself, multiplied by itself and

divided by itself, will add up to 22.09?

62. My wrist watch has an hour hand, a minute hand and a sweep-second hand, all

turning on the same center. \Vhen it is 12 o'clock, all hands are together, pointing at 12.

How long should it take before the minute hand will be between the other 2 hands, and

equally distant from them?

63. You and I found some money. If you take $2.40 and 1/6 of the remainder and I take

$3.52 and 1 /7 of the remainder and we then find that we've both taken equal amounts,

how much money did we find and how much did each of us take?

17

18

64. Little Tim has in his piggy bank $7.86, consisting of pennies, dimes and dollars. If he

has i/g as many pennies as dimes and twice as many pennies as dollars, how many

coins does he have of each kind?

65. A "benevolent" fellow decided to divide $26.50 among some men and women. But

to his dismay, he discovered that if he gave each of them 75 cents, he would be 50

cents short. So he gave each of the men 60 cents and each of the women 95 cents,

leaving him 70 cents. How many people were there of each sex?

66. If the produce of 3 consecutive numbers is divided by each of them in turn, the sum

of the 3 quotients will be 74. What are the numbers?

67. It takes 9 hours by train to travel a certain distance. If on the return trip a train is

taken which runs 9 miles an hour faster than the first and it does it in ^ of the time it took

the first train, how fast is each train traveling?

68. Six chickens and 2 geese were bought for $15. If 4 more chickens were bought for

$14 than geese for $9, what would be the price of each?

19

69. You, he and I together do a piece of work in 1 hour. If you do twice as much work as

I, and if you alone require i hour more than he alone to perform the work, in what time

can each alone do the work?

10. See if you can find 2 fractions whose denominators are g and 5 and the sum is

equal to 113/45.

11. Once upon a time, there were 4 men of different height. If the difference in height

among the first 3 men was 2 inches and the difference between the third and fourth man

was 6 inches, and the average height was 74 inches, how tall was each?

12. A banker had 2 kinds of money with which he paid a bill of J40, giving 60 of the

more valuable coins and 100 of the less valuable. If it required 8 more of the latter than

of the former to make one dollar, what would be the value of each coin?

13. The population of Exe City in 1890 was 12,298, which was a decrease of 814% of

its population 10 years ago; yet 10 years ago, there was an increase of 71/^% according

to the census of 20 years ago. Find its population 20 years ago.

20

14. In determining the height of the top of a steeple from the ground, I found that if I

used my hand (measuring 4 inches wide near the thumb) and held it 2 feet from my eye,

it covered the height of the steeple at a distance of 240 paces of 3 feet each. I was then

able to find the height of the top of the steeple from the ground. Can you?

15. A farmer was driving a flock of geese and turkeys to market. Now, in order that he

may distinguish his own from any he might meet on the road, he pulled 5 feathers out of

the tail of each turkey and 2 out of the tail of each goose. Then when he counted them,

he found that the number of turkeys' feathers lacked 15 of being twice those of the

geese. Since he had bought 20 geese and sold 15 turkeys by the way, he discovered

that the number of geese was to the number of turkeys as 8 is to 3. What was the

number of each at first?

16. Many years ago my uncle bought some horses at $50, oxen at $40, cows at $25

and calves at 110. If the average price per head was $30, how many did he buy of

each?

11. A lumber dealer has several grades of boards. He would like to know how many at

$10 and $15 per 1,000 feet each should be sold on an order for 60,000 feet, so that

21

*>

the price for both grades shall be $12 per 1,000 feet. Can you help him out?

18. If each person in breathing pollutes the air of a closed room at the rate of 8 cubic

feet a minute, and an audience of 400 people enters a closed hall 70 feet by 40 feet by

20 feet high, how long will it take them to pollute the air?

79. If in a pair of nutcrackers the nut is placed at a distance of 1 inch from the hinge and

the hand presses at a distance of 8 inches from the hinge, find the pressure upon the

nut for every ounce of pressure exerted by the hand.

22

80. Take a sling 30 inches long containing a stone weighing i/^ pound and whirl it

around 80 times a minute. At this rate, what is the force pulling on the string?

8L If a rock is dropped over a cliff and it hits the bottom in 71^ seconds, how high is the

cliff?

82. If an article costs 60% of the selling price and there was a profit of 50 cents made,

then what was the selling price and the original cost?

83. How long should a ladder be to reach a window 40 feet from the ground, assuming

that the distance from the foot of the ladder to the wall is 9 feet?

84. I. M. Rich Corporation has a safe containing a certain number of drawers. For each

drawer there are as many divisions as there are drawers and in each division there are

4 times as many dollars as there are drawers. If the safe contains $5,324 in cash, how

many drawers are there?

85. Someone stole my stick. When I found it, 20 inches of it was in water, \/^ of i/^ of it

was embedded in mud and 4/6 of it was out of the water. What is its length?

23

86. See if you can make 6 different numbers using the three digits i, 2 and 3, and find

their sum.

87. The right and left hand pockets of my trousers contain some coins and bills. I have

$3.47 in pennies, dimes, quarters and $1 bills. Find the least and most of the number in

the aggregate that I might have, using each denomination.

88. If a dishonest dealer gained 12% by using false weights, what ^vould be the real

weight of his pound?

89. Joe opens his business with a capital of 12,400 on the 19th of March. On the 17th of

July he admits Moe into the business as a partner, with a capital of 1,800. If on

December 31st the profits amount to $943, what is the share of each?

90. Assuming a boy does I/2 as much work as a man, how many hours a day must 42

boys work to do as much in 45 days as 27 men, working 10 hours a day, would

accomplish in 28 days?

91. If a pole 38 feet high is shown on a scale drawing as 1 1/9 inches high, what

measurement on the same scale will represent a house 45 feet high?

24

92, Four places are situated in the order of the letters A, B, C and D. If the distance from

A to D is 34 miles, and from A to B is to the distance from C to D as 2 is to 3; and if 14

of the distance from A to B added to i/^ the distance from C to D, is 3 times the distance

from B to C, what are the respective distances?

93. A boy was asked to carry 100 glass vessels to a certain place and for every one he

delivered intact he would receive 3 cents, and for every one he broke he was to forfeit 9

cents. On settlement he received I2.40. How many vessels were broken?

94, Said A to B and C: "If each of you will give me 4 sheep, I shall have 4 more than

both of you will have left." Said B to A and C: "If each of you will give me 4 sheep, I shall

have twice as many as both of you will have left." Said C to A and B: "If each of you will

give me 4 sheep, I shall have 3 times as many as both of you will have left." How many

did each have?

95. Jim has $620, Tim |i,i 16 and Sam $1,488, with which they agree to buy mules at

the highest price per head that will allow each man to invest all his money. How many

can each buy?

25

96. A small shop sold silks at 60 cents, 50 cents, 42 cents, 38 cents and 30 cents a

yard, and marked them all at 45 cents. How many yards of each kind must be sold so

as to neither gain nor lose?

97. If you invested 2/7 of your money at 6%, 2/5 at 41/4% and the rest at 31/4%, what

per cent would you receive on the whole amount?

98. If a farmer took a quantity of butter to market and received $49 for it, receiving as

many cents a pound as there were pounds, how much did the butter weigh?

26

99. Going to market, a man was met who had 7 wives. Each of the wives had 7 bags,

containing 7 cats, and each cat had 7 kittens. Taking all things into consideration, how

many were going to market?

100. If a high school has 3, 4, 5 or 6 classes each term in the subject of astronomy and

there are usually 20 to 40 pupils per class, what would be the greatest number failing if

10% of them did not make the grade in 1 term?

101. A car going downtown is driven at an average speed of 40 miles an hour, returning

the same way at 25 miles an hour. What was the average speed for the round trip?

102. If Joe gets time and a half for work performed in excess of 40 hours a week and he

receives $23 more for working 45 hours than for 36 hours, what would be his regular

hourly pay?

103. Ten men go on a fishing trip, whom we'll call A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I and J. Each

tries his luck separately, then decides to do it in pairs to pool his efforts. Accordingly, A

and B caught 5 fish, A and C 6, A and D 5, A and E 4, A and F 4, A and G 5, A and H 6,

A and I 5, A and J 4, B and C 7, B and D 6, B and E 5, B and F 5, B and G

27

6, B and H 7, B and I 6, B and J 5, C and D 7, C and E 6, C and F 6, C and G 7, C and

H 8, C and I 7, C and J 6, D and E 5, D and F 5, D and G 6, D and H 7, D and I 6, D and

J 5, E and F 4, E and G 5, E and H 6, E and I 5, E and J 4, F and G 5, F and H 6, F and

I 5, F and J 4, G and H 7, G and I 6, G and J 5, H and I 7, H and J 6, and J and I 5. If 28

fish were brought in, how many did each catch?

104. \ group of men accountants, engineers and dentists have a total age of 2,160

years and an average age of 36 years. If the average age of the accountants and

engineers is 39, that of the engineers and dentists, 32-8/11, while that of the

accountants and dentists is 36%, and if each accountant had been 1 year, each dentist

7 years and each engineer 6 years older, then their average age would have been

greater by 5 years. Find the number in each category and their ages.

103. At one time a number of immigrants consisting of Armenians, Frenchmen,

Russians, Spaniards and Englishmen, were admitted into our country. Now, if the

Armenians are 1 less than i/^ of the number of Spaniards and 3 less than 1^ the number

of Englishmen, then the French28

men and Spaniards would outnumber the Russians and Englishmen by 3, the Russians

and Spaniards would be 1 less than 1^ the total number of immigrants, while the

Englishmen and Russians would consist of 7/16 of the total number of immigrants. How

many of each nationality would be represented?

106. Dolly Dressmaker wants to use some material of a certain width for making

women's skirts. However, she can't seem to recall whether 32 or 36 inches of the

material would be the correct length of each skirt. Can you help her find the length of

the material, so that all of it may be utilised in either case?

107. A cow and goat can eat the contents of a pasture in 40 days, while a cow and

goose can do it in 60 days, and a goose and goat in 90 days. How long should it take all

of them eating together?

108. A bookstore reserved 3 sets of different books for one of its customers. The first

set contained 1/6 of all of the books and the second had more than a couple of fifths of

all of the books, while the last set contained only 4 books. What is the least number of

books that might be found in the aggregate?

29

iNk: xator

109, Roger Ward in his Leader Special, won the 1962 annual Memorial Day 500-mile

race held in Indianapolis.The second man averaged 125/1000 of a mile per hour behind

the winner and the third averaged 92/1000 of a mile per hour behind the second. If the

total of all average speeds was 420.534 miles an hour, what was the average speed of

each car?

110. You have in your pocket a half-dollar, a quarter, a dime and a nickel upon entering

a small retail store in your neighborhood. If the clerk at one of the counters shows you

several items, each at a differ30

ent price and any one of which could be purchased with one or more coins without

receiving change, what would be the largest number of items he could show you?

111. A large apartment house contains 437 rentable apartments. This figure contains 2room apartments5% in number, 2i/^'s 7% in number, 3's 15% in number, 3i/4's

20% in number, 41/^'s 49% in number, 5's 33% in number, 5i/4's 12% in

number, 6's 3% in number, and, oh yes, a number of 4's. How many apartments are

there of each type, using round figures?

112. If $240 gains $5.84 in 4 months and 26 days, what is the rate per cent?

113. It takes 24 men 189 days, working 10 hours a day, to dig a trench 33^4 yards long,

2% yards deep and 5!/^ yards wide. Now, if 217 men were put to work digging a trench

231/4 yards long, 2I/J yards deep and 3% yards wide, how many hours a day must they

work to do it in 51/^ days?

114. Three men engaged in a business venture with a joint capital of $2,128. A's

investment was in the business 5 months, B's 8 months and C's 12 months. If A's share

31

of the net profit was $228, B's $266.40 and C's $330, what was the capital of each?

115. Abe travels 7 miles the hrst day and 51 miles the last, increasing his journey 4

miles each day. Tell me, how many days will he travel, and how far?

116. A lad buys peaches at 5 for 2 cents and sells them at 4 for 3 cents. At these prices,

how many must be bought and sold to make a profit of $4.20?

117. Three gentlemen paid $100 for a pasture. One man put in 9 horses, another 12

cows for twice the time and the last put in some sheep for 214 times as long as the

second man's cows and paid 1/2 of the cost. How many sheep did the last man have,

and how much did the first and second man each pay, if 6 cows eat as much as 4

horses, and 10 sheep as much as 3 cows?

118. Four boys are playing at the game of hare and hounds. The two representing

hares are 45 feet in advance of the two playing hounds. Each hound's leap covers 61/4

feet of ground and each hare's leap is 4!/^ feet, but the hares take 4 leaps to the

hounds' 3. In how many leaps will the hounds overtake the hares?

32

119. A boat having sailed due south and due east on alternate days, was found, after a

certain time, to be 118.794 miles southeast of her starting place. What distance had she

sailed?

120. Five men are engaged to build a house. A, B, C and D can do it in 13 days; A, B, C

and E in 15 days; A, B, D and E in 12 days; A, C, D and E in 19 days; and, B, C, D and

E in 14 days. In how many days can all together build it, and which one could do the

work alone in the shortest time?

121. A man has 3 teams used in transportation. His horse team can accomplish the trip

in 5 days, the mule team in 7 days and the ox team in 11 days. If all teams started

together and each team rests a day after each trip, then, how many days will pass

before they all rest on the same day?

122. A certain family I know consisted of a mother, a father and their son, whose total

ages amounted to 174. If each person had his age reversed, the sum would become

255, and the son would be 7 years older than his mother and 13 years younger than his

father. Oh yes, before I forget, each person's true or reversed age was less than 99 but

more than 29. Can you guess the true age of each?

33

123. A friend of mine sent his Aunt Tillie a box of chocolates for her birthday. If she took

out 3 at a time, i would remain; if 4 were taken 2 would remain; 5 at a time 3 would be

left; and if she took 6 at a time, 4 would remain. How many, at least, would you say

were in the box?

124. Alice and Betty have an 8-gallon cask of wine and wish to share equally of it. One

has an extra empty container having a capacity for 5 gallons, and the other has an

empty container with a capacity for 3 gallons. How can they effect this division without

the use of any measuring device?

34

125. A hoodlum stole a basket of pears and divided them among 3 of his friends and

himself. The first received i/^ of the total plus 14 of a pear more. The second got i/^ of

the remainder and i/^ of a pear more; while the third received 1/4 of the remainder and

1/4 a pear more.The hoodlum kept for himself what was then left, which amounted to i/^

of what he gave to the first. How many pears did the basket hold originally and how

many did each person get?

126. A farmer was driving a small truck containing 3 baskets of eggs on his way to

market, when a car, going at full speed, collided with the truck destroying all the eggs.

The car driver admitted his responsibility and offered to pay the farmer for damages.

The farmer estimated the number of eggs at between 50 and 100, and if these were

counted by 2's and 3's at a time, none would remain; but if counted by 5's at a time, 3

would be left. How many eggs might there be in the 3 baskets?

127. A boat was chartered by 20 people for a fishing trip. However, prior to leaving the

dock, a group of 10 more people expressed their desire to go along. This reduced the

expense of each person in the original party by $11/3. What was the charge for the use

of the boat?

35

128. A team of 3 laborers was assigned the task of lugging 2 specially-constructed

crates from the factory to a store 3 miles distant. Each is supposed to carry a crate the

same distance. How should they go about it?

129. Ida bought a number of A articles, B articles and C articles. If the number of A and

B articles bought is 55, the number of A and C articles is 62, and the number of B and C

articles bought is 83, how many articles w^re bought altogether and of each type?

130. A mother tried to instill her boy's mind with the need of faithful attendance at

school. She instituted a program of paying him 15 pennies for every day the boy was

prompt in his attendance and charging him 12 pennies for each day he was late. At the

end of a period of 200 school days, the boy expected 2,946 pennies from his mother for

his cooperation. How many days did the boy attend school punctually?

131. The Pee Aitch Tailors can offer you a suit at S35, usually selling for 8/7 of that

price, and a suit at $30 usually selling for 7/6 of that price. Of the two offers, ^vhich is

the better buy, and by how much per cent?

36

132. A young, country school teacher agreed to teach for ^ of a year for the flat sum of

$562.50 plus board. When the school term closed, she received a check for only

$409.50 due to 2 months' absence caused by illness. What was the value of her board

per month?

133. Many years ago, a teacher's salary was based on the number of students he had.

So, let us assume that a salary of $60 a month was to be paid for 50 students and J50 a

month for 30. If the actual number of students was 45, what should the teacher be paid?

134. A horse and mule were traveling together heavily laden with bags of golden

trinkets. After a time, the mule complained to the horse that his load was too heavy.

"What's wrong with you?" said the horse. "You shouldn't complain, for had I taken one

of your bags, I would have had to carry twice as many. On the other hand, if you would

agree to take one of mine, we'll both carry the same number of bags." How many did

each have?

135. Here we have a mixture of 150 gallons of wine and water of which 72% is wine.

How much of the wine must be added to make the mixture 85% wine?

37

136. In a local election, 3 candidates, A, B and C were running for the office of sheriff.

The total votes cast were 15,424, of which A received 1,006 more than B and 1,213

more than C. How many votes did each receive?

137. A boy was presented with 3 gifts a rooster, a goose and a duck. The duck had

cost 20 cents. If the rooster and the goose cost twice as much as the duck, and the

goose and duck cost 3 times as much as the rooster, how much did the goose and duck

cost?

38

Solutions and Answers

1. Let 7/7 equal the number, then 7/7 + (4/7 X 7/7) =z 11/7, which equals twice the

number or, (2 X 7/7) = 14/7, less 27. The difference between 14/7 and 11/7, or 3/7, is

equal to 27. Hence 27 times 7/3 results in 63.

2. If B's age now is 14 that of A's, then the ratio for each is as 1 is to 3; and if 8 years

ago B's age was 1/7 that of A's, then the ratio for each was as 1 is to 7. The difference

between A's proportional of now and that of 8 years ago is equal to 4, or, for every year

of B's age 8 years ago, A's age was 4 to 1 that of B's age. Therefore, by multiplying 4 by

7, which was A's ratio 8 years ago, you obtain 28, A's age then, while 1/7 of 28 = 4, B's

age. Adding 8 to 28 gives 36, A's age now, and by adding 8 to 4 gives 12, B's current

age.

3. If the amount of money originally had by Phil was 1/2 that of Jack's, then a ratio of 1

to 2 becomes evident; and if Jack gave Phil $35 leaving him with 14 as much money as

Phil, then the difference between Jack's ratios of 2 and 1/3 or 5/3 = $35. Hence, if 5/3 =

$35, then by inverting 5/3 to 3/5 and multiplying by $35 or, 3/5 X 35 you will get $21,

the money remaining to Jack. Adding $21 to $35 gives $56, Jack's original amount, and

since this represents twice Phil's original amount, then Phil must have started with $28.

39

4. If the difference between twice the number and 1/4 of it amounts to 45; or, 1^ the

number phis the whole of it represented by 1, adds up to 45, then 1/4 -I- 1 = 45,

equaling i^ + 2/2 + 3/2, which equals 45. To find what number 3/2 is the equal of 45,

invert 3/2 to ^ and multiply by 45. This will give you 2/^ x 45 = 305. 14 and 20.

6. 120.

7. 24 and 35.

8. The ratios of Allan and Bob's age is now 4 to 1, and 30 years from now it will be 2 to

1. Since the period of 30 years equals the difference of the two ratios or 2 to 1, then 30

X 2 = 60, Allan's age and i/4 X 3^ = i5 Bob's age.

9. 23.

10. A with I30, B, $60.

11. xz=z one of the numbers y = the other number

x^ y2 = 5i, ..x = y + 3

X y = 3. (y+3)(y + 3)-r==5i

6y+9 =51 6y = 42, ..y = 7 andx = 10.

12. Let 3/3 represent all the animals bought and 2/^ represent the number of cows,

while 14 represents the number of oxen. Now, if $32 was paid per cow and $55 per ox,

then 2/^ x $32 = $64/3, the price paid for the cows and Vs X $55 = $55/3' the price paid

for the oxen, and the total price paid was $119/3 of the total

40

number of animals bought for $1,428. To find the total number of animals invert 1119/3

to $3/119, multiply by $1,428 and the result will be 36. Thus, ^ X 3^ = 24 cows @ $32,

which equals $768 and i/^ X 3^ = 12 oxen @ $55, which equals $660. The total is 36

animals for $1,428.

13. The widow's share was $864, each daughter's share, $288, and each son received

$144.

14. Joseph is 62 and Tom, 28.

75. Let 7/7 represent the number of miles traveled by water, 4/7 represent the number

of miles traveled on foot, and (2/5 X 7/7) represent the number of miles traveled on

horseback. (7/7 _|- 4/7 _j_ 14/35) = 3,036, the total miles

41

covered. 35/35 + 20/35 + 14/35 = 3,036 or 69/35 = S'O.S^- To find the number of miles

traveled by water, invert 69/35 to 35/69 and multiply by 3,036, resulting in 1,540, 4/7 X

1,540 = 880, the number of miles traveled on foot and 14/35 X i540 = 616, the number

of miles traveled on horseback.

16. X := the first number

X -|- 1 m second consecutive number X -f 2 = third consecutive number X -|- 3 = fourth

consecutive number 4X -|- 6 ^ 94 4x = 88,

.'. x = 22,x-)- 1 r= 23,x -f- 2 = 24, X + 3 = 25. Total: 94.

17. A gets $14, B, $13, C, $11 and D, $9.

18. If I can do the job in 8 days, then in 1 day I can do only i/^ of it, and if you can do the

job in 10 days, then in 1 day you could do only 1/10 of it. Therefore, i/^ -f- 1/10, or 9/40

represents the portion of work both of us working together can accomplish in 1 day. To

find the time it would take us to complete the job, divide 1 by 9/40, giving 40/9 or 4-4/9

days.

19. Assume 4/4 to represent the money that was found. If A gets $15 less than 1/2 of it,

B $13 more than 14 of it and C the remainder of $27, then the difference between 1/9

and 14 equals the difference found by subtracting $13 from $15 and subtracting the

remainder from I27, leaving $25, which is i/^ of the money. Hence, $25 X 4 = 1100, the

money found and A's share equals (i^ X Si00) $15 or S35, and B's share equals (14

X $100) -f $13 or $38.

42

and their value 108 X = the number of dimes 10 (108 x) = their vakie x-|-1,0801

ox = 432 9x^648, .*. X = 72 and 108 X = 36.

21. $2.75.

22. 84.

23. Since the man's rate of speed is 4 miles an hour to the woman's 3, then their total

rate is 7 miles an hour, and since they are 63 miles apart then they can cover an

average of 9 miles in 1 hour. Therefore, 9 X 4 = 3^ miles, the distance traveled by the

man and 9X3 = 27, the number of miles traveled by the woman.

24. 11,200 in 5% bonds and $2,000 in 6%.

25. 7/13.

26. 5-5/11 minutes past 7.

27. In order for Alice to have disposed of the apples she had remaining after her second

sale, she must have had at least 1 whole apple remaining so that she could deduct from

it "1/9 of her apples plus I/2 an apple," for the third or final sale. Now, if 1 apple

represents I/2 of the number remaining after the second sale, then she must have sold

2 apples in her second sale, leaving her 3 apples after the first sale. Finally, if 3 apples

alone represent 1^4 the original number, plus I/2 ^^ apple, then she must have started

with [(3 X 2) + 1] or 7 apples, prior to selling 4 apples in her first sale.

42

43

29. 27-3/11 minutes after 4.

30. It costs me 10/3 cents or 31/3 cents per egg. Now if I sold 1/3 of the eggs at 7/2

cents or 31^4 cents and then sold the remaining 2/^ at 15/4 cents or 3^ cents, then I

must have sold all of the eggs at 6 for 22 cents or 32/^ cents an egg. Subtracting 3I/3

cents, the cost per egg, from 32/^ cents, the combined selling price per egg, gives a net

profit of I/3 cent per egg or 16 cents for all the eggs. If the net profit of 1/^ cent reflects

the amount made on 1 egg, and 16 cents represents the total profit made, then form a

proportion as follows: I/3 cent: 16 cents:: 1 : ? or / [1/3 X 1/100] : 16/100:: 1:?

1/300:4/25:: 1 :?.

To find what the question mark is, take the product of the means or 4/25 X 1 = 4/25 and

divide it by the product of the extremes or 1/300, hence 4/25 divided by 1/300 r= 4/25 X

300, which equals 48 eggs.

31. The greyhound does 72 leaps and the fox, 108.

32. The rate of the current was 2 miles an hour and the crew's rate in still water was 10

miles an hour.

33. Smith lost $96 and Jones, I48.

34. The value of the better horse was $160 and the poorer horse was valued at $100,

while the value of the harness was $40.

43

44

35. The standard American telephone dial contains the figures i through 9 and a zero,

and since it is obvious that the first number must be either 3, 6 or 9 to form an exact

multiple required for finding the third figure, it will be found by elimination that only 9 can

qualify for the first figure. Hence, the first number equals 9, the second 5, the third 3 and

the fourth 7, for a total of 24; or the third equals i/^ of the 1st, the fourth is 2/3 of the first

plus 1, the second is 2/^ of the first less 1. Therefore, 14 times 9 equals 3 the third

number, 2/^ times 9 equals 6, plus 1, = 7 the fourth number, 2/^ times 9 equals 6,

less 1, = 5 the second number, and 9 is the first number.

45

37. There was a total of $1,200 to be divided. The oldest got $400, the next $300, the

next $260 and the youngest got $240.

38. The man was 24 and the woman 18.

39. Since there's a ratio of 2 to 1 in the number Philip has, the least that he could have

proportionately, would be 4 sisters and 2 brothers.

40. 45 miles an hour.

41. Moe builds 8 feet of fencing in 1 hour and Joe builds 6 feet of it.

42. The first man had $7 and his wife, $22. The second man had $21 and his wife, $ 16.

43. Ay ran 16 feet per second while Bee ran 12 feet per second.

44. The circumference of the forewheel is 8 feet and that of the hind wheel, 12 feet.

45. 10 barrels at $17.50.

46. The first had 40 acres at $8 and the other, 64 acres at $5.

47. $64.

48. 16.

49. 18 cents.

45

46

57. 4.

52. $37.50.

55. B equals the number of buildings B^ equals the number of floors B3 equals the

number of apartments B4 equals the number of rooms B4 times (B^ plus B) equals

$134,456. By analysis and inspection of the number 134,456 we find that the last two

digits formulate a number containing the square of 7 times 49 plus 7, corresponding to

(B^ plus B). Hence, if $134,456 is divided by $56 per-room-per-month, we arrive at

2,401, the total number of rooms. Therefore, there were 7 buildings, 49 floors (7 floors

per building), 343 apartments (7 apartments per floor, per building), 2,401 rooms (7

rooms per apartment, per floor, per building).

5^. 25 cents -|- 50 cents -\- 100 cents = 175 cents, and $700 == 70,000 cents. Divide

70,000 cents by 175 cents, which equals 400, the number for each type denomination.

55. The problem is to find the highest multiple of 9 which is closest to $1.00. To

accomplish this, simply subtract as many 7's from 100 (4), so that the balance forms an

exact multiple of 9. Hence, 100 7 = 93, not an exact multiple, 93 7 ziz 86, not an

exact multiple, 86 7 =

46

47

79. not an exact multiple, 79 7 = 72, which is an exact multiple of 9. Therefore 72/9 :=

8, the number of children receiving 9 cents apiece, leaving 4, who received 7 cents

apiece.

^6. $30.

57. Simple. I would just take the 7-pint container to the well, fill it, then empty its

contents into the 4-pint container, leaving 3 pints in the 7-pint one. I will now have a full

4-pint can plus 3 pints in the 7-pint one, giving a combined total of 7 pints.

58. 66.

59. 90.

60. The total bill of $8.00 represents 113% of the net cost. Hence to find what the net

cost at 100% is, divide the $8.00 by 113% or 1.13, giving us I7.08, the original net cost,

exclusive of taxes. Based on this amount, the federal tax of 10% is 71 cents and the

local sales tax of 3% is 21 cents, totaling 92 cents for all taxes. Therefore, when 92

cents is added to $7.08 we arrive at $8.00 for the whole bill.

61. 3.7.

62. 1 minute, 1 and 683/697 seconds.

63. We found $15.36 and each took $4.56.

64. 6 pennies, 48 dimes and 3 dollars.

48

65. 24 men and 12 women or 5 men and 24 women. Both answers can be used.

66. 4, 5 and 6.

67. 27 and 36 miles an hour, respectively.

68. Chickens cost $1.75 apiece and geese $2.25.

69 I can do it in 6 hours, you in 3 hours and he in 2 hours.

70. 19/9 and 2/5; 10/9 and 7/5; or 1/9 and 12/5.

71. The first man was 70 inches tall, the second 72, the third 74 and the fourth was 80

inches tall.

72. 50 cents and 10 cents, respectively.

73. The population in 1880 was 12,298 divided by 91-2/3/100. And the population in

1870 was 12,298 divided by 91-2/3/100 divided by 107-1/2/100, which is equal to

12,298 X 300/275 X 200/215, which equals 12,480.

74. 120 feet.

76. He bought at least 1 horse, 1 ox, 2 cows and 1 calf. Other answers are possible.

77. 36,000 at $10 and 24,000 at $15.

78. 70X40 X 20 = 35, which equals 171/^ minutes.

400 X 8 2

79. 1 : 8 :: 1 oz. : ? Therefore, 8 X 1 oz. = 8 ounces.

49

80. The radius equals 30 inches, which equals 2i/4 feet. 80 times a minute equals 4/3

times a second. 1.227 X 21/2 X (4/3)' X 1/2 lb. = 1.227 X 5/2 X 16/9 X V2 lb., which

equals 2.727 lbs.

81. 1^ : (71/4)^ :: 16-1/12 ft. : ? 1 : 225/4 '' 16-1/12 ft.: ? 225/4 X 16-1/12 ft. =

225/4X193/12 ft., which equals 904.7 feet.

82. If the cost is 60% or 3/5 of the selling price, then the selling price equals 100% or

5/5 and the difference between the two amounts represents the profit of 50 cents or

40%, which =: 2/5. Therefore, if 2/5 =1 50 cents, then by inverting 2/5 to 5/2 X 50, you

will get $1.25, the selling price and $1.25 50 cents = 75 cents, the original cost.

83. V40' + 9' ft. = Vi'6oo + 8ift. =Vi,68ift., which equals 41 feet.

84. 11.

85. \/g plus 4/6 plus 20 equals the length of the stick, then 1 minus (i/^ plus 4/6) equals

20 inches or 5/24 equals 20 inches. Therefore, 20 divided by 5/24 equals 20 times 24/5

or 96 inches, or 8 feet.

86. 123 + 132 + 213 + 231 + 312 + 321 = 1,332.

87. Least number zi= 11:

2 pennies, 2 dimes, 5 quarters, 2 |i bills

42 pennies, 18 dimes, 1 quarter, 1 $1 bill.

50

88. His pound weighs 16 ounces divided by 112/ 100 = 100/12 X 16 ounces, which

equals 100/7 ounces or 14-2/7 ounces.

89. From March 19th to December 31st equals 288 days and from July 17th to

December 31st equals 168 days.

288 X $2,400 = $691,200

168 X 1>800 =: 302,400

$993,600

$691,200/993,600 X 943 = $656, Joe's share and $302,400/993,600 X 943 = I287,

Moe's share.

90. 42 boys equals 21 men

27 men 1 21 men 10 hours I : ? hours

28 days I 45 days 27 X 10X28, which equals 8 hours.

21X45 P7. 38:45:: 11/4 in.:? 45 X 3 = i_35

38 X 2 in. 76 in., which equals 1-59/76 inches.

92. 12,4 and 18 miles.

93. G =: the number of glasses delivered intact 3G r=z the amount earned

B =: the number of glasses broken 9B r= the amount forfeited 3G 9B=:24o, 9!^ =

240

G+ B=ioo. 3B = 300

Gzz: 95.

51

95. Jimcanbuy 5,Tim9andSam 12.

96. 3 yards at 6o cents, 2 at 50 cents, 1 at 42 cents, 1 at 38 cents, 3 at 30 cents or, 1

yard at 60 cents, 10 at 50 cents, 5 at 42 cents, 5 at 38 cents and 1 at 30 cents. Other

answers are possible.

97. 2l^ + 2/5 = (10 + i4)/35 = 24/35 35/35 24/35= 11/35

2/7 X 6% + 2/5 X 4/2% + 11/35 X 31/2% = 1-5/7% + 1-4/5% + 1-1/10%, which equals 443/70% oi" 4-61%.

98. B = the number of pounds of butter

B^ = the amount he earned in cents or I49

=r 4,900 cents B2 = 4,900, therefore B z= + \/4'90o, which

equals 70, and 70 pounds of butter at

70 cents =rr $49.00.

99. Only 1 person was going towards the market and all of the others were met coming

from the opposite direction.

100. Since the largest number of classes is 6 and the largest number of pupils per class

is 40, then 6 X 40 = 240 and 10% X 240 = 24, the greatest possible number that could

have failed.

101. Many would jump at the 'obvious' answer of 321/2 miles an hour, but this figure is

the average of the 2 speeds and not the Average Speed for the whole trip. Therefore, if

the time is equal to the distance divided by the average speed, then the time for the trip

51

52

downtown equals D/40 and the time for the return trip is D/25, giving a total time of D/40

-f- D/25, which equals 13D. Hence the aver200 age speed for the whole trip when the average speed equals the distance divided

by the time is 2D divided by 13D equals 2D times 200,

200 13D

which equals 400D or 30-10/13 miles an hour.

102, His regular hourly pay is $2. 36 hours at $2 equals $72, his regular weekly pay. (40

hours at $2 plus 5 hours overtime at $3) equals $95, his regular weekly pay plus

overtime. $95 $72 = $23, the difference between the two.

lOB. There are 4 possibilities I caught 1, A, E and F each caught 2, B, D and G each

caught 3, and C, H and J each caught 4, or, A, E, F and I each caught 2, B, D, G and J

each caught 3, and C and H each caught 4, or, A, E, F and J each caught 2, B, D, G

and I each caught 3, and C and H each caught 4, or, J caught 1, A, E and F each

caught 2, B, D and G each caught 3, and C, H and I each caught 4.

104. 16 accountants had an average age of 45 years, 24 engineers averaged 35 years

in age and 20 dentists averaged 30 years in age.

105. 7 Armenians, 14 Frenchmen, 15 Russians, 24 Spaniards and 20 Englishmen,

totaling 80 immigrants in all.

53

107. If it takes a cow and goat 40 days, in 1 day 1/40 would have been eaten, and if it

takes a cow and goose 60 days, in 1 day 1/60 would have been devoured, while if it

takes a goose and goat 90 days, 1 day should see i/goth taken care of. Hence, 1/40

plus 1/60 plus 1/90 equals 19/360, which equals what 2 cows, 2 goats and 2 geese eat

in a day and 19/360 divided by 2 equals 19/720, which is equal to what 1 cow, 1 goat

and 1 goose eat in 1 day. Since it takes 1 day to eat 19/720 of the contents of the

pasture, 1/720 will require the 19th part of 1 day and 720/720 or the whole of the

contents of the pasture will require 720 times as many days, or 37-17/19. Therefore,

19:1 :: 720:37-17/19.

53

54

108. The crux of the problem lies in the number of books in Set 2 which contained more

than a couple of fifths of the aggregate. This means that the numerator in the fraction is

greater than 2, extending into infinity. However, since we are limited to finding the least

number contained in the aggregate, an exact multiple of 5 in the denominator must be

found which would lead to an integral sum. Hence, by trial and error we obtain 2, 5, 3I/2

or 4 as acceptable numerators for denominator 5.

Answer I 1/q of the aggregate Set 1 214 divided by 5 of the aggregate Set 2 4

books Set 3

I/5 plus 2I/2 -T- 5 equals 5/30 plus 15/30, which

equals 20/30,

30/30 minus 20/30 equals 10/30, and 10/30

equals 4,

30/10 times 4 equals 120/10 or 12.

Yq times 12 equals 2 books in Set 1,

2.5/5 times 12 equals 6 books in Set 2

and 4 books are in Set 3. Therefore, the least

number possible would be 12 books in the

3 sets.

Answer II i/q plus 3.5/5 equals 5/30 plus 21/30, which equals 26/30,

30/30 minus 26/30 equals 4/30 and 4/30 equals 4, 30/4 times 4 equals 120/4 or 30.

55

Yq times 30 equals 5 books in Set 1, 3.5/5 times 30 equals 21 books in Set 2 and 4

books are in Set 3. Therefore, there could also be 30 books in the 3 sets.

Answer III 1/6 plus 4/5 equals 5/30 plus 24/30, which equals 29/30,

30/30 minus 29/30 equals 1/30, and 1/30 equals 4, 30/1 times 4 equals 120/1 or 120.

Yq times 120 equals 20 books in Set 1, 4/5 times 120 equals 96 books in Set 2, and 4

books are in Set 3. Therefore, still another possibility could exist of 120 books in the 3

sets.

109. The winner: 140.292 mph; second: 140.167 mph; third: 140.075.

110. Obviously, the smallest number of items the clerk could have offered would be 4,

or 1 for each denomination coin. However, by forming combination of (5 -\- 10), (5 -f 25),

(10 -f25)' (5 + 25 + 10)' (5 + 50), (10 + 50), (5 + 10 + 50), (25 + 5o),(5 + 25 -f 50), (10 + 25 +

50)' (5 4- 10 -f 25 + 50) and by adding 1 at 5 cents, 1 at 10 cents, 1 at 25 cents and 1 at

50 cents, you will find that the largest number offered was 15.

111. If 437 contained the percentages of all apartments including the number of 4's, and

the total of these percentages is 244, then the number of 4's must be represented by

100%

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113. 16 hours.

114. A: $912, B: $666, C: $550. 113. 12 days covering 348 miles.

116. 1200.

117. 25 sheep; first man: $18, second man: $32. lis. 90.

120. 11-4813/12137 days for all. B can do it in the shortest time.

121. 23.

56

57

722. The true ages are: Mother is 67, Father, 69, Son, 38, and in that order their

reversed ages would be 76, 96 and 83.

m. 58.

124. Fill the 3 and pour it into the 5. Then fdl it again and from it fill up the 5, leaving 1

gallon in the 3. Empty the 5 into the 8 and pour the 1 from the 3 into the 5, then refill the

3 and empty it into the 5. This will leave 4 gallons in the 5 and the same in the 8.

125. 7. The first received 2, the second 2 and the third 2, while the hoodlum helped

himself to 1.

126. The solution lies in finding those numbers between 50 and 100 which are multiples

of 2 and 3 leaving no remainder. These numbers are 54, 60, 66, 72, 78, 84, 90 and 96.

By inspection you will find that if 78 is divided by 5 it will give 15 plus 3 left over;

therefore, 78 is the total number of eggs that the 3 baskets might have contained.

127. If 10 additional people tagged along and the expense is reduced by $11/3 per

person for the 20 people in the original group, then the total reduction amounts to 20 X

$1^3 o^" $262/3. Now, since the 10 additional people paid |262/^ and 1 person paid

$22/^ and 30 people in all were involved, each having paid the same, then the total

charge for the use of the boat will be 30 X %^Vi ^^ $^o58

128. The first and second man should each take a crate, with the first man carrying his

load 1 mile and then turning it over to the third man, who will carry it 2 miles. Then the

second man should carry his crate 2 miles then turn it over to the first man, who will

then carry it 1 mile. In this way, each man carries a crate 2 miles.

129. Since the sum of the number of A and B articles bought amounts to 55, and the

sum of A and C articles is 62, then the difference between 62 and 55 equals 7. Then, if

the sum of the B and C articles is 83, 83 plus 7 equals 90 or two times the number of C

articles bought. Hence, 90 divided by 2, gives 45 as the number of C articles.

Subtracting 45 from the sum of the B and C articles (83), we get 83 minus 45, leaving

38 as the number of B articles. Now, if the number of B articles is 38, and the sum of the

A and B articles is 55, then the difference between 55 and 38 is 17, the number of A

articles. Therefore, 17 A articles, 38 B articles and 45 C articles were bought, making a

total of 100.

130. Had the boy attended school promptly for the 200 days he would have been

entitled to (200 X 15 pennies) or $30, but since his mother owed him only $29.46, then

the difference of $30 and $29.46 represents a penalty of 54 cents for tardiness. Also,

since he was to receive 15 cents for punctuality at attendance each day and charged 12

cents for each day being tardy, he therefore would lose 27 cents

59

for each day of tardiness. Hence, if his total loss was 54 cents, he must have been tardy

as many days as 54 cents is equal to 27 cents, which amounts to 2 days. Therefore, if

we subtract from 200 days the 2 days, we arrive at 198 days, during which time the boy

was never tardy.

131. 8/7 of $35 equals $40, the usual selling price of the first suit, and 7/6 of $30 equals

$35, the usual selling price of the second suit. If the first suit usually sells for $40 and is

sold for $35, then you have saved yourself I5. Hence, the percentage of gain on the

cost to you is 5/35 or 1/7, which equals 14.28 plus. On the second suit, usually selling

for S35, costing you I30, you also save $5, and 5/30 or 1/6, amounts to a percentage

gain of 16.66 plus. The difference gained percentage-wise between 16.66 plus and

14.28 plus amounts to 2.38 plus, indicating that the second offer is the better of the two.

132. ^ of a year represents 9 months. To find her monthly salary without board, subtract

$409.50 from I562.50, leaving $153, the salary for 2 months without board. If $ 153 is

divided by 2, you will get $76.50, the monthly salary without board. Multiplying $76.50

by 9 we arrive at I688.50, the salary for 9 months without board. Now, if $562.50 is

subtracted from $688.50, we find that $126 is the cost of boarding for the 9 months or

$126/9 equals $14, the monthly cost of board.

60

133. By dividing $60 by 50, we get $1.20 per month, per student, and by dividing $50 by

30, we get $1,662^ per student, per month. Hence the difference in the number of

students is 20, while the difference per student per month is 462/^ cents. This means

that if there were 20 students less than 50, the teacher merited 462^ cents more per

student than if he had had 50. Therefore, since 20 less students give 462^^ cents more,

1 should give 1/20 or 2I/3 cents, and 5 students less, which is (50 45), the real

number taught less than 50, will give 5 times 2i/^ cents or 112/3 cents, an increase per

student over the $1.20 price when there were 50 students. Finally, $1.20 plus 112/^

cents equals $1,312/3, and $1,312/^ X 45 the number of students taught, equals

$59.25, the salary this teacher is entitled to.

134. If the horse and mule are to carry equal loads when the horse relinquishes 1 bag,

obviously then, the difference in the number of bags carried between the two, must be

equal to 2. Hence, had the horse received 1 bag from the mule then the difference

would be 4, and the horse would have had twice as many as the mule, or the horse

would have 8 and the mule, 4. Then, if the horse gave 1 to the mule, he would have 7

and the mule 5, the number of bags loaded, respectively.

135. In the original mixture 72% is wine or 108 gallons out of 150, therefore the

difference between 150 and 108 amounts to 42 gallons

61

of water remaining. Now, since enough wine must be added to the first mixture to make

the wine in the second mixture equal to 85% of the second mixture, and as the second

mixture will consist of 85% of wine, then the balance must consist of 15% of water, and

as the amount of water was unaltered in the first mixture, then the 15% of water in the

second mixture will equal the 42 gallons in the first mixture. If 15% of the first mixture is

42 gallons, the whole of the second mixture will be as 15:42 :: 100 : 280 gallons. The

second mixture consists of the addition of wine solely; therefore, there must have been

added to the first mixture the difference between 280 and 150 gallons, giving 130

gallons of wine.

Alligation Alternate Analytic Method

85

The proportional quantities of the second mixture will be found to be respectively 15 of

the first mixture and 13 of pure wine. Since 150 gallons of the first mixture instead of 15

are to be utilized, then 150 divided by 15 equals 10, the ratio times each of the

proportional parts is to be increased so that the gain and loss will be equalized. Hence,

15 times 10 equals 150 gallons of the original mixture and 13 times 10 equals 130

gallons of wine to be added. The second mixture, therefore, consists of 150 plus 130 or

280 gallons.

62

136. If 15,424 votes were cast for all three candidates and A received 1,006 more than

B and 1,213 more than C, or 2,219 more than B and C, then 15,424 plus 2,219 equals

17,643, the number of votes that would have been cast in order for each candidate to

have received as many votes as A. Furthermore, 17,643 divided by 3 equals 5,881

votes cast for A, and 5,881 less 1,006 equals 4,875 votes cast for B, while 5,881 less

1,213 equals 4,668 votes cast for C. Therefore, A received 5,881 votes, B 4,875 and C

4,668, making a total of 15,424.

137. Two ducks are equal to a rooster and a goose. A goose and a duck equal 60

cents, therefore, 2 ducks equal $1.20, less the value of 2 geese. If a rooster and a

goose are equal to |i.20, less the value of 2 geese, then a goose equals $1.00, less the

value of 2 geese, and 3 geese equal $1.00. Hence, the cost of 1 goose is 331/^ cents,

while a duck costs 60 cents less 33I/3 cents or 262/3 cents.

End of book

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