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16 | Oswaal CBSE Sample Question Papers, Chemistry-XII

Marking Scheme
1. The temperature in increasing order are T1<T2<T3
2. The formula of noble gas which is isostructural with IBr2- is XeF2
F

1
1

90
Xe
120
F

3. The synergic bonding between the metal and ligand strengthens the bod between CO and the metal. 1
4. The oxidation state of phosphorous is + 5 in PCl5, which is maximum, thus it cannot increase its
oxidation state further. It can only reduce its oxidation state to + 3 by gaining electrons, thus acting as
oxidizing agent.
1
Example : 2 Ag +PCl5 2AgCl +PCl3
I

5. The name of the product is Iodobenzene


6. The Schottky defect decreases the density of a ionic solid. It is shown by those ionic solids in which
cation and anion are of almost similar size. For example : NaCl.
1+1
7. The value of 0m is 150.0 S cm2 mol1 and A = slope = 87.46 S cm2 mol1

1+1

8. Cubic close packing is same as FCC


a = 2 2r


a = 2 4.414 125 pm
For
FCC

a = 354 pm

a = 354 1010 cm
9. (i) The structure of H2S2O7 is
O

HO

1+1

OH

O
O


(ii) The structure of XeOF4 is

F
F

Xe

F
F

....

XeOF4
Square pyramidal

OR
(i) Reaction of chlorine with hot and concentrated NaOH.
6NaOH ( hot and conc. ) + 3Cl2 5NaCl + NaClO3 + 3H2O
1
(ii) Sulphur dioxide is passed through an aqueous solution of Fe (III) salt.
2Fe3+ + SO2 + 2H2O 2Fe2+ + SO42 + 4H+
1
10. The boiling point depression constant of a solution is given by Tf = Kf m

Where Tf is the depression in freezing point, Kf is the freezing point depression constant and m is the
molality of the solution.
1

Sample Question Paper (Issued in November, 2014) | 17



M2 =

K f w2 1000
Tf w1


Here

Mass of KCl (w2) =0.5 g

Molar mass of KCl (M2) = 74.5 g ( Normal molar mass)

Mass of solvent (w1)= 100g

Tf = 24C

Kf = 1.86 K kg/mol

On solving the above equation by substituting values we get M2=38.75 h

Thus the experimental molecular mass M2=38.75 g ( Abnormla molar mass)

Now on dissolving in water KCl dissociates as
KCl K+ + Cl


Let x be the degree of dissociation, then (1 x) mol of KCl left undissociated, thus 2x will be dissociated
moles of KCl at equilibrium

Thus the total number of moles will be 1 x + 2x = 1 + x

This number of moles at equilibrium will be equal to Vant Hoff factor (i)

Now
i=

Normal molar mass


Abnormal molar mass


The Normal molar mass of KCl is 39+ 35.5 = 74.5 g


Thus
i=

74.5
= 1.9226
38.75


Equating both equations we get.


1.9226 = 1 + x

x = 0.9226


Thus the degree of dissociation will be 92.26%.
11. (i) Zone refining of a metal : This method is based on the principle of fractional crystallization, i.e.,
difference in solubilities of impurities in molten and solid state of metal. The impurities are more
soluble in the melt form than in the solid form of the metal.

Example : Semiconductors like silicon, germanium are purified by this process.

1+

(ii) Hydraulic washing : This is based on the differences in gravities of the ore and the gangue
particles. It is therefore a type of gravity separation. In one such process, an upward stream of
running water is used to wash the powdered ore. The lighter gangue particles are washed away
and the heavier ores are left behind.

Example : Heavy oxides ores of tin, lead

1+

12. (i) Warming up of the solution means that the process is exothermic i.e H= ve. This implies that the
solution shows negative deviation.

Negative deviations : In this type of solutions, the total pressure of any mole fraction is less than
that expected from Raoults law. For such solutions, Vmix and Hmix are always negative. In
case of negative deviations from Raoults law, the intermolecular attractive forces between AA
and BB are weaker than those between AB and leads to decrease in vapour pressure resulting in
negative deviations.

For example : benzene+ chloform, water + sulphuric acid, phenol + aniline etc.

1+

18 | Oswaal CBSE Sample Question Papers, Chemistry-XII

Vapour pressure

Vapour pressure
of solution

p2

x1 = 0

Mole fraction

x2 = 1

x1

x1 = 1
x2 = 0

x2

(ii) Vant Hoff factor is a colligative quantity i.e it depends upon the number of solute particles
irrespective of their nature relative to the total number of particles present in the solution.
Vant Hoff factor of the given solution is as follows
CH3OH : Methanol is a non-electrolyte, it does not dissociate in solution. Thus Vant Hoff factor
i =1

KCl : Potassium chloride will dissociate into K+ and Cl- ions. Thus Vant Hoff factor i =2

K+ + Cl
KCl

Na3PO4 : Sodium phosphate will dissociate into four ions. Thus Vant Hoff factor i =4

3Na+ + PO 3
Na3PO4
4

Therefore, the increasing order of Vant Hoff factor for the solutions is

CH3OH < KCl < Na3PO4
2+
13. The Cell reaction : Mg + Cu Mg2+ + Cu ( n = 2)

The Nernst equation is

1+
1

2+


Ecell = Ecell

[Mg ]
0.0591
log
2
[Cu2+ ]


Calculating of Emf

Substituting values the above equation we get

Ecell = Ecell

Ecell = 2.71

[Mg 2 + ]
0.0591
log
2
[Cu2+ ]
0.0591
10 3
log 4
2
10


Ecell = 2.71 0.02955

Ecell = 2.68 V

Ecell will increases with increase in concentration of Cu2+ ions

Ecell decreases with increase in concentration of Mg2+ ions
1
14. (i) Ozone is thermodynamically unstable with respect to oxygen since its decomposition into oxygen
results in the liberation of heat (H is negative) and an increase in entropy (S is positive). These
two effects reinforce each other, resulting in large Gibbs energy change(G) for its conversion into
oxygen.
1
(ii) The HEH bond angle of the hydrides of group 15 elements decrease as we move down the group
due to decrease in bond pair-bond pair repulsions due to increase in size.
1

Sample Question Paper (Issued in November, 2014) | 19


(iii)
Bleaching effect of chlorine is permanent due to oxidation. In presence of moisture or in aqueous
solution, Cl2 liberates nascent oxygen, which brings about oxidation of coloured substances and
convert them into colourless

Cl2 + H2O 2HCl + [O]
Coloured substance +[O] Colourless substance.
1
15. (i) [MnBr4]2
Atomic number of central metal atom= 25
Electronic configuration of Mn : 4s23d5
Electronic configuration of Mn2+ = 4s0 3d5
As there are five electrons, in d- orbital all of them will be unpaired
Thus the number of unpaired electrons = 5
1
Hybridisation = Sp3 ( Tetrahedral)
(ii) The geometrical isomers of
[Co(NH3)4Cl2]+ are
+
+
Cl
NH
3

(1)

H3N

Co

H3N

Cl
NH3

and

(c) doc b

H3N

Co

Cl

Cl
(2)
NH3

H3N
NH3


(iii)
The formula of Amminebromidochloridonitrito-N-platinate(II) is [Pt(NH3)BrCl(NO2)]
1
16. Explain
(i) When silver nitrate solution is slowly added to potassium iodide solution, silver iodide sol
formed adsorbs I1 (present in plenty)ions from the medium and becomes negatively charged
sol (AgI / I1).
1
(ii) The size of the finest gold sol particles increases in the gold sol due to coagulation. There is also
change in colour from red to blue when size of particle increases.
1
(iii)
When two oppositely charged sols are mixed in equal proportions, they neutralize their charges
and get partially or completely precipitated.
For example : Mixing of hydrated ferric oxide (+ve sol) and arsenious sulphide (ve sol) form
precipitate. This type of coagulation is known as mutual coagulation.
1
Cl

Cl

is primary halide while

17. (i)

is secondary halide. The SN1 reactions is governed by


the stability of carbocation. Thus 2 halide will react faster due to greater stability of 2 carbocation
as compared to 1 carbocation.
1
(ii) Amongst the isomeric dihalobenzenes , the para isomer has the highest melting point. This is due
to its most symmetrical structure, the para isomer fits better into the crystalline lattice. This leads
to strong intracrystalline forces.
1
(iii)
The haloalkanes in increasing order of density are as follows :

CH2Cl2 < CHCl3 < CCl4
The CCl4 has the highest number of chlorine atoms, thus its molecular mass is highest among the
three. CHCl3 has three chlorine atoms, so its molecular mass will be less than CCl4 and greater
than CH2Cl2, which has two chlorine atoms. As the density is directly related to molecular mass,
so the density of CCl4 is highest and CH2Cl2 is lowest.
1
18. The structures of A, B, C and D along with equations are as follows
3
CH2OH

CHO

oxidation

CH2OH

50%

"B"

"A"

Benzyl alcohol

Benzaldehyde

Heat

NaOH

COONa

"B"

Benzyl alcohol

+ Na2CO3

NaOH(CaO)
"C"

Sodium benzoate

"D"

Benzene

20 | Oswaal CBSE Sample Question Papers, Chemistry-XII


19. (a) (i) Methylamine and dimethylamine.
Carbylamine test : Methylamine is a primary amine, therefore, it gives carbylamines test.
When heated with alcoholic solution of KOH and CHCl3, it gives offensive smell of methyl
isocyanide.

CH3NH2 + CHCl3 + 3KOH (alc.) CH3NC +3KCl + 3H2O


(1 Amine)
Methyl isocyanide ( offensive smell)
Dimethylamine is a secondary amine and hence does not give this test.
1
CHCl3 / KOH ( alc .)/

No Reaction
(CH3)2NH

(ii) Aniline and benzylamine
Benzyl amine will produce N2 gas on reaction with nitrous acid along with formation of
alcohol. ()
C6H5CH2NH2 + HNO2 C6H5CH2OH + N2 + H2O

benzylamine

Nitrogen gas
Aniline is an aromatic amine which diazotise on reacting with HNO2. It forms benzenediazonium
chloride which on treatment with alkaline solution of naphthol ( 2naphthol) given an orange
dye.
1
NaNO2 + HCl
+

NH2

N NCl +

OH

Base
(pH = 910)
273278 K

N=N

OH

273278 K


Phenol

Aniline
Orange dye
(b) As only 1 amines liberate nitrogen gas on treatment with nitrous acid, thus there will be tow
isomer structures out of four which will liberate nitrogen gas.
They are as follows
CH3 CH2 CH2 NH2
Propan 1 amine (1)
NH2

Propan 2 amine (1)


CH3CHCH3

CH3CH2CH2NH2 + HNO2 CH3CH2CH2OH + N2 + HCl
Propan1amine Propan1ol
CH3CHCH3 + HNO2
CH3CHCH3 + N2 + HCl
NH2

OH

1
Propan 2 ol
Propan 2 amine

20. Exemplify the following reactions
(a) (i) Rosenmund reduction reaction :
1
Acyl chloride (acid chloride) is hydrogenated over catalyst , palladium on barium sulphate.
O
C

Cl

CHO
H2
Pd BaSO4

Benzoyl
chloride

Benzaldehyde


(ii) Kolbe electrolysis reaction :
1
Carboxylic acids lose carbon dioxide to form hydrocarbons when their sodium salts are heated
with sodalime (NaOH and CaO in the ratio of 3 : 1). The reaction is known as decarbosylation.

NoHO & CaO


R-COONa
R-H + Na2 CO3
Heat

Alkali metal salts of carboxylic acids also undergo decarboxylation on electrolysis of their
aqueous solutions and form hydrocarbons having twice the number of carbon atoms present
in the alkyl group of the acid.
The reaction is known as kolbe electrolysis.

Sample Question Paper (Issued in November, 2014) | 21


(b) The reactivity depends upon inductive effect and steric hinderance .The more the inductive effect
and steric hinderance less will be the reactivity.Therefore the reactivity towards HCN will be in the
order given below.
Ditert-butyl ketone < acetone < acetaldehyde.
1
OR
(a) (i) The products are as follows
CH3CH2COOH

(i) Cl2 / Red phosphorous


(ii) The product is as follows

(ii) H2O

CH3CHCOOH + HCl

Cl

CH3

CHO

+ CrO2Cl2

(i) CS2
(ii) H3O +


1
(b) The compounds in increasing order of acidic strength are as follows
4Methoxybenzoic acid < Benzoic acid << 4Nitrobenzoic acid
The acid strength depends on electron withdrawing (EWG) and electron releasing groups(ERG).
EWG increases the acid strength and ERG decreases the acid strength. 4Methoxybenzoic acid
is electron donating therefore it is weaker than benzoic acid. 4Nitrobenzoic acid is electron
withdrawing.
1
CN


21. (i) The monomers are 1, 3 Butadiene (CH2 = CH CH = CH2) and Acrylontrile CH 2 =CH .

(ii) Neoprene is an example of Elastomers.


1
(iii)
No, only addition polymerization can result in the formation of co-polymer, as in this two different
monomers possessing double or triple bond take part.
1
22. (i) Keratin is insoluble in water as they contains high amount of sulphur in them and also due to
presence of strong disulphide bonds.
1
(ii) The Haworth structure for DGlucopyranose is as follows :
6 CH OH
2
5
O
H
OH
H
4
1
OH
OH H
H
HO
1
2
3
H
OH
-D-Glucose



(iii)
The chemical reaction to show that glucose contains aldehyde as carbonyl group is
CHO
COOH
|
|
Br2 water
(CHOH)4
(CHOH)4
1
|
|
CH2OH
CH2OH
Gluconic acid

23. (a) No the chemist gave wrong medicine to the young man.
Cimitidine is used for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Its usage causes nasal
congestion.
The chemist should have given Brompheniramine ( Dimetapp) or Terfenadine ( Seldane) which
acts as antigistamines.
2

22 | Oswaal CBSE Sample Question Papers, Chemistry-XII


(b) Johs action was appreciated by his mother because
(i) John behaved as a responsible citizen, took the courage to give a proper advise to the stranger.
(ii) John though a young boy had knowledge about what is right and wrong and could take
appropriate steps to follow the right path.
2
24. (a) Write the mechanism of hydration of ethene to form ethanol
2

(i) By acid catalysed hydration : Alkenes react with water in the presence of acid as catalyst to
form alcohols. In case of unsymmetrical alkenes, the addition reaction takes place in accordance
with Markovnikov's rule (Unit 13, Class XI).
C=C

+ H2O

CC
H OH
H

CH3CH = CH2 + H2O

CH3CHCH3

OH

Mechanism
The mechanism of the reaction involves the following three steps :
Step 1 : Protonation of alkene to form carbocation by electrophilic attack of H3O+.

H2O + H+ H3O+
H
H

+ H2O

Step 2 : Nuclephilic attack of water on carbocation.
H
H
H
C=C

CC

+ HOH

CC

+ H2O

CCOH


Step 3 : Deprotonation to form an alcohol.
H

H OH

C C O H + H2O

CC

+ H3O


(b) Conversion
(i) Propanol to propan-2ol
CH3 CH2 CH2 OH + KOH (alc.) CH3 CH = CH2
CH3CH=CH2 + HBr

Markovnikov's rule

CH3CHCH2

Br
CH3CHCH2 + aq KOH

CH3CHCH2

Br
OH

(ii) Propanol to 1propoxypropane.
2CH3CH2CH2OH + 2Na 2CH3CH2CH2ONa+ + H2

CH3CH2CH2ONa+ + CH3CH2CH2Br CH3CH2CH2O CH2 CH2CH3


dry ether / Heat

(c) The structure and IUPAC name are as follows

OH

OH
Conc. HNO3

O2N

NO2

NO2
2, 4, 6-Trinitrophenol
(Picric acid)

Sample Question Paper (Issued in November, 2014) | 23


OR
(a) Write the mechanism of the reaction of HI with methoxymethane
The reaction of an ether with concentrated HI starts with protonation of ether molecule.

Step 1 :

H
+
CH3 O CH3

CH3 O CH3

+HI

+I


Methoxymethane
Dimethyl Oxonium Ion
The reaction takes place with HBr or HI because these reagents are sufficiently acidic.

Step 2 :
Iodie is a good nucleophile. It attacks the least substituted carbon of the oxonium ion formed in
step 1 and displaces an alcohol molecule by SN2 mechanism.
Thus, in the cleavage of mixed ethers with two different alkyl groups, the alcohol and alkyl iodide
formed, depend on the nature of alkyl groups. When primary or secondary alkyl groups are
present, it is the lower alkyl group that forms alkyl iodide (SN2 reaction).

H+
H+

I + CH3 O CH3
I ---- CH3 ---- O ---- CH3
CH3 I + CH3 OH

When HI is in excess and the reaction is carried out at high temperature. ethanol reacts with
another molecule of HI and is converted to ethyl iodide.
Step 3 :
H
+

CH3 O H + H I
CH3 OH + I

(b) Identify A and B in the following reactions
OH

(i)

Na

+ H2O

OH

COOH

(i) CO2

NaOH

CH3 I

(ii) H

2-Hydroxybenzoic acid
(Salicylic acid)
B


Cu/575K
(ii) C2H5OH
CH3CHO

CH3CHO

CH3MgBr/HOH

OC2H5

OC2H5
H2SO4

1
CH3
CH3CHOH

OC2H5

NO2

HNO3

2-Nitroethoxybenzene

NO2
4-Nitroethoxybenzene
(Major)

(Major)

25. (a) A blackish brown coloured solid (A) which is an oxide of manganese is MnO2 (A)
2MnO2 + 4KOH +O2 2K2MnO4 + 2H2O
Dark green coloured compound (B) is Potassium manganate (K2MnO4)
2K2MnO4 + H2O + [O] 2KMnO4 + 2KOH
The purple coloured compound (C) is Potassium permanganate (KMnO4)
When KMnO4 is heated to 513 K, it decomposes to Potassium manganate, manganese dioxide and
oxygen

2KMnO4
K2MnO4 + MnO2 + O2

24 | Oswaal CBSE Sample Question Papers, Chemistry-XII


(b) (i) Two strong oxidizing agents are Mn ( MnO4) and Cr (Cr2O72)

1
2+

(ii) Cu(I) is not known in aqueous solution as Cu (aq) is not stable as compared to Cu (aq).
Although second ionisation enthalpy of copper is large but hyd H for Cu2+(aq) is much more
negative than that for Cu+ (aq) and hence it more than compensates for the second ionization
enthalpy of copper. Thus Cu(I) compounds are unstable in aqueous solution and undergo
disproportionation.
1

(iii) The highest oxidation state of a metal is exhibited in its oxide as oxygen is second most
electronegative element, has small size and is a very strong oxidizing agent.
1
OR
(a) Balanced equation
(i) Cu2+ is treated with KI
1
Cu2+ + 4I Cu2I2 + I2
(ii) Acidified potassium dichromate solution is reacted with iron (II) solution.
1
2
2+
+
3+
3+
Cr2O7 + 6Fe + 14H 2Cr + 6Fe + 7H2O
(b) (i) The third transition series has the highest first ionization enthalpy. This is due to poor shielding
of f orbitals. The effective nuclear charge increases, thus increasing the energy required to
removen an electron from valence shell.
1
(ii) The change in the size of ions in lanthanoid is small and hence their valency is same. Due to
this their chemical properties are also similar. Due to lanthanoid contraction, the ionic radii of
Dy and Ho fall to the level of Y, which is an element of the preceding transition series. Thus,
the chemical properties elements are very similar and they occur together in minerals. Hence,
their separation becomes difficult.
1
(iii) The typical stable oxidation state of lanthanoids is +3. Ions with oxidation state +2 or +4 tend
to change to +3 by loss or gain of electrons. Ce4+ gains electrons to change to Ce3+, hence it is
oxidizing agent while Sm2+, Eu2+ and Yb2+ lose electrons co change to +3 oxidation state, thus
acting as reducing agent.
1
26. (i) Graphically
Fraction of molecule

Most probable kinetic energy


Kinetic energy

Fraction of molecules

Fig. 4.8 : Distribution curve showing energies among gaseous molecules

t
(t +10)

Energy of
activation
This area
shows fraction
of molecules
reacting at t

This area shows


fraction of additional
molecules which
react at (t + 10)

Kenetic energy

Fig. 4.9 : Distribution curve showing temperature dependence of rate of a reaction

Sample Question Paper (Issued in November, 2014) | 25



All the molecules in the reacting species do not have the same kinetic energy. Since it is difficult
to predict the behaviour of any one molecule with precision, Ludwig Boltzmann and James clark
Maxwell used statistics to predict the behaviour of large number of molecules. According to them, the
distribution of kinetic energy may be described by plotting the fraction of molecules (NE/NT) with a
given kinetic energy (E) vs kinetic energy (Fig. 4.8). Here, NE is the number of molecules with energy
E and NT is total number of molecules.

The peak of the curve corresponds to the most probable kinetic energy, i.e., kinetic energy of maximum
fraction of molecules. There are decreasing number of molecules with energies higher of lower than
this value. When the temperature is raised, the maximum of the curve moves to the higher energy value
(Fig. 4.9) and the curve broadens out, i.e., spreads to the right such that there is a greater proportion of
molecules with much higher energies. The area under the curve must be constant since total probability
must be one at all tmes. We can mark the position of Ea on Maxwell Boltzmann distribution curve
(Fig. 4.9).

Increasing the temperature of the substance increases the fraction of molecules, which collide with
energies greater than Ea. It is clear from the diagram that in the curve at (t + 10), the area showing the
fraction of molecules having energy equal to or greater than activation energy gets doubled leading to
doubling the rate of a reaction.
2
Quantitatively :

Rate of reaction is directly proportional to temperature. It increases with increase in temperature.

Rate constant of a reaction is nearly doubled with rise in temperature by 10C. The dependence of the
rate constant on temperature is given by Arrhenius equation k = AeEa/RT where k is the rate constant,
A is Arrhenius factor or frequency factor, Ea is the activation energy measured in joule/ mole, R is the
gas constant, and T is the temperature
1
(ii) Given k = (4.5 1011 S1) e28000K/T

According to Arrhenius equation k = AeEa/RT where k is the rate constant, A is Arrhenius factor or
frequency factor, Ea is the activation energy measured in joule/ mole , R is the gas constant, and T
is the temperature.

Equating similar terms we get


Ea 2800K

=
RT
T

Ea = 28000K R

1+1
1

Ea = 28000 K 8.314 JK mol

Ea = 232.79 KJ mol1

1+1
OR

(i) As the concentration of reactant is decreasing with time, so its zero order reaction.

The overall order of the reaction is 0

The units of rate constant is mol L1S1

Rate (dx/dt) = k or dx = k dt

or x = kt

1+1+1
[R]1
2.303
(ii) The integrated rate equation for the first order reaction is written as k =
...(1)
log
t
[R]2

where, k is the reaction constant, t is the time in which the reaction has occurred, [R]1 is the
initial concentration and [R]2 is the concentration after time t.

[R]2 = [R]1x, where x is the amount of the reaction that has occurred

Three-fourth of life means that three-fourth of the reaction has occurred.

26 | Oswaal CBSE Sample Question Papers, Chemistry-XII


Let the initial concentration of the reactant be [R]1

The time is t in which the concentration is reduced by 3/4th

Thus [R]2 = [R]1

Given k = 2.54 103s1.

Now substituting the values in eq(1) we get


[R]1
2.303
log
k=
t
[R]2

2.54 103s1 =

On solving we get
t = 546s

[R]1
2.303
log
t
0.25[R]1