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IRC: 110-2005

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS
AND
CODE OF PRACTICE
FOR
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
OF
SURFACE DRESSING

THE INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS


2005

IRC: 11 0-2005

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS
AND
CODE OF PRACTICE
FOR
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
OF
SURFACE DRESSING

Published by

THE INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS


Sector

6,

Kama Koti Marg,


R.K. Puram, New Delhi -

110 022

2005

Price

(Packing

Rs 100.00

& Postage Extra)

IRC

110-2005

First Published
Reprinted

January, 2007

Reprinted

July,

Reprinted

May, 2005

2008

March, 2011

(Rights of Publication

(The

official

in its

amendments

and

to this

Translation are Reserved)

code would be published by the IRC

periodical, 'Indian Highways',

effective

and as

which

shall

be considered as

part of the code/guidelines/manual, etc. from the

Date specified therein)

Printed at Abhinav Prints, K-37,

Udyog Nagar

Rohtak Road, Delhi-1 10041


(500 copies)

Ind.

Area

IRC: 110-2005

CONTENTS
Personnel of the Highways Specifications and Standards Committee

(i)

&

(ii)

1.

Introduction

2.

Scope

3.

Definitions

4.

Materials

5.

Construction Method

Appendix

13

Digitized by the Internet Archive


in

2014

https://archive.org/details/govlawircy2005sp110_0

IRC: 110-2005

PERSONNEL OF THE HIGHWAYS SPECIFICATIONS AND


(As on 10-12-20(14)

2.

Velayutham
Convenor)
G. Sharan (Co-Convenor)

3.

Chief Engineer

V.

Add!. Director General, Ministry of Shipping,

& Highways, New Delhi

4.

(R&B)

S&R

Member

(Tech),

Ministry of Shipping,

A.P.

Bahadur

RK. Chakarabarty
P.K. Dutta

Road Transport

&

Road Transport

&

New Delhi

Chief Engineer Ministry of Shipping,

New Delhi

Executive Director, Consulting Engg. Services

New
7.

Road Transport & Highways, New Delhi

Chief Engineer, Ministry of Shipping,

highways,
6.

Delhi

Member-Secretaiy)

Highways,
5.

NHAI, New

Road Transport

J.R Desai

Sr.

(I)

Pvt. Ltd.,

Delhi

Vice-President (Tech. Sen ), Gujarat Ambuja Cements Ltd.,

Ahmedabad
Dhingra

Professor, Indi an Institute of Technology,

8.

Dr. S.L.

9.

A.N. Dhodapkar

10.

D.P.

11.

S.K. Gupta

Chief Engineer, Uttaranchal

12.

R.K. Jain

Chief Engineer (Retd.), Sonepat

13.

Dr. S.S. Jain

Professor

Director,

DG

Gupta

(RD)

NITHE,

&

AS,

&

Mumbai

NOIDA

MOST

New Delhi
PWD, Almora

(Retd.),

Coordinator (COTE), Indian Institute of

Technology, Roorkee

&

14.

Dr. L.R. Kadiyali

Chief Executive, L.R. Kadiyali

15.

Prabha Kant Katare

Joint Director (PL), National Rural

of Rural Dev.),

Mathur

16.

J.B.

17.

H.L.

New

New

Delhi

Roads Dev. Agency (Min

Delhi

Chief Engineer (Retd.),

Meena

Associates,

NOIDA

Chief Engineer-cum-Addl. Secy, to the Govt, of Rajasthan,

PWD,

Jaipur

PWD, Mumbai

18.

S.S.Momin

Secretary (Works), Maharastra

19.

A.B. Pawar

Secretary (Works) (Retd.), Pune

20.

Dr.

21.

S.S. Rathore

Gopal Ran an
j

Director, College of Engg.

Roorkee

Secretary to the Govt, of Gujarat,

R&B

Department,

Gandhinagar
22.

Arghya Pradip Saha

Sr.

23.

S.C. S harm a

DG

24.

Dr. P.K.

25.

Dr. C.K. Singh

Nanda

Consultant,

&

(RD)

New

AS,

Director, Central

Engineer

in

Ranchi

(i)

Delhi

MORT& H

(Retd.),

Road Research

New

Institute,

Chief-cum Addl. Coram

cum

Delhi

New

Delhi

Spl Secy. (Retd.)

IRC: 110-2005
26.

Member

Nirmal Jit Singh

New
27.

Highways Authority of

(Tech.), National

India,

Delhi

Chief General Manager, National Highways Authority of India,

A.V. Sinha

New

Delhi

28.

N.K. Sinha

DG

29

V.K. Sinha

Chief Engineer, Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport

(RD)&SS,

Highways,
30.

K.K. Sarin

31.

T.P.

32.

Maj. V.C. Verma

DG

Velayudhan

(RD)

MOSRT& H

New

&

(Retd.),

New

MOST

AS,

(Retd.),

New

Delhi

New

Delhi

Executive Director, Marketing, Oriental Structural Engrs.

New

Delhi

R&B

33.

The Chief Engineer (NH)

(B.

34.

The Chief Engineer

(S.B. Basu), Ministry of Shipping,

(Pig.)

Prabhakar Rao),

The Chief Engineer (Mech)

Department, Hyderabad

Road Transport

&

V.K. Sachdev), Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport

&

Highways,

Highways,

New

Delhi

New Delhi

36.

The Chief Engineer (Mech)

PWD,

37

The Chief Engineer (NH

(Ratnakar Dash), Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneshwar

38.

The Engineer-in-Chief

(Tribhuvan

39.

The Chief Engineer

National Highways,

Kolkata

Ex-Officio
40.

&

Delhi

Addl. D.G., Directorate General Border Roads,

Pvt. Ltd,

35.

Delhi

President

(S.S.

Ram)

PWD, Lucknow
PWD, Bangalore

U.P.

Members

Momin), Secretary (Works), Mumbai

Indian Roads Congress

41

Director General

(Indu Prakash), Ministry of Shipping,

(Road Development)

Highways,

&
42.

New

Road Transport

&

Delhi

Special Secretary

Secretary

(R.S. Sharma), Indian

Roads Congress,

New

Delhi

Indian Roads Congress

Corresponding Members

PWD (Retd.), Panchkula

M.K. Agarwal

Engineer-in-Chief, Haryana

2.

Dr. C.E.G. Justo

Emeritus Fellow, Bangalore University, Bangalore

3.

M.D. Khattar

Executive Director, Hindustan Construction Co. Ltd.,

4.

Sunny C. Madhathil

Director (Project), Bhagheeratha Engg. Ltd., Cochin

5.

N.V. Merani

Principal Secretary, Maharashtra

1.

(ii)

PWD

(Retd.),

Mumbai

Mumbai

IRC: 110-2005

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS AND CODE OF PRACTICE FOR


DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF SURFACE DRESSING
1

INTRODUCTION

held on the 8 th September, 1971.

1.1.

This document covers the Specifications

approved by the Specifications and Standards


Committee and then by the Executive Committee.
Finally,

subject listed

below

the

IRC 17-1965

"Tentative Specification for

Single Coat Bituminous Surface Dressing

"

at

Delhi on the 26

Bituminous Pavements Committee

March,

all

1963

Trivandrum on the 5 December,

1987. Later the

document was discussed by the


& Standards Committee

Highways
in their

Specifications

meeting held at

New Delhi on the 25

and the Council

was approved for publication by the


Executive Committee in their meeting held on the
30 th September, 1964, and was first published in
the Council

April, 1988

5.

August, 1965.

in their

IRC.23-1966 "Tentative Specification for


Two-Coat Bituminous Surface Dressing"

"

The Bituminous Pavements Committee

by the Executive Committee at their meeting held


on the 20 th August, 1 966 and was later approved
for publication by the Council of the Indian Roads
Congress at their 65 th meeting held at Trivandrum
on the 3 rd September, 1966.

1.2.

IRC :48-1972

at

The Flexible Pavement Committee

(personnel given below) constituted a sub-group

"Tentative Specification for

Surface Dressing
"
Precoated Aggregates

meeting held

Madras on the 13 March, 1987. The document


was considered by the Specifications and
Standards Committee in their meeting held on the
23 rd April, 1987. Later the document was approved
by the Executive Committee and the Council in
th
their meetings held on the 28 April, 1987 and
22 nd May, 1987 respectively.

for two-coat

Bituminous Pavements Committee was approved

Bituminous

its

th

bituminous Surface Dressing prepared by the

3.

respectively.

IRC:96-1987 "Tentative Specification for


Two-Coat Surface Dressing Using Cationic

finalized this specification at

The Tentative Specification

April,

th
meetings held on the 26

and the 7 th May, 1988

Bitumen Emulsion
2.

th

1988 and was approved by the Executive Committee

at Chandigarh in November,
comments of the members of

meeting held

in light of the

in their

th

at

meeting held

adopted by the Bituminous Pavements Committee


in their

"

This Specification was finalised by the

members of the Council for


comments. The Tentative Specification as

1963 was sent to


their

New

th

IRC: 100-1988 "Tentative Specification for


Single Coat Surface Dressing Using Cationic

Bitumen Emulsion

The Tentative Specification as prepared by


the Bituminous Pavements Committee in its
meeting held

it

4.
1.

later

th

of single and two-coat Surface Dressing and


>n

was

was approved by the Council in their


th
79 meeting held at Gandhinagar on the 25
November, 1972.

and Code of Practice for Design and Construction


supersedes the existing five document'

It

with Dr. Animesh Das and Prof. B. B. Pandey as

Using

members

above mentioned
documents taking into account the current
developments in the practice of design and
its

This Standard was prepared by the


Bituminous Pavements Committee in its meeting

to revise the

construction of Surface Dressing and prepare a

IRC: 110-2005
Personnel of Flexible Pavement Committee upto December, 2002
S.C.

Sharma

Secretary

R&B,

Convenor
Co-Convenor

Gujarat.

(S.S. Rathore)

Member-Secretary

Dr. S.S. Jain

Members
D. Basu
Dr.

R.K. Pandey

A.K. Bhatnagar

Swaminathan

Prof. C.G.

Dr.

Animesh Das

S&R, T&T (Jai Prakash)


Rep. of DG(W), E-in-C Br., AHQ

Dr.

M.P Dhir

(Col. R.N. Malhotra)

S.K. Bhatnagar

C.E. (R)

DGBR (Hargun Das)

D.P. Gupta

Rep. of

Dr. L.R. Kadiyali

Head, FPDn.,

Dr. C.E.G. Justo

(Dr. Sunil Bose)

H.L.

Meena

Prof. B.B.

Director,

CRRI

HRS, Chennai

Pandey

Corresponding Members

Sukomal Chakrabarti

S.K. Nirmal

Dr. P.K. Jain

Suit.

A.P. Joshi

R.S. Shukla

Personnel of Flexible Pavement Committee reconstituted


S.C.

Convenor
Co-Convenor

Sharma

Chief Engineer (Roads),

PWD,

January, 2003

vv.e.f.

Guwahati
Member-Secretary

Dr. S.S. Jain

Members
Chief Engineer (R&B)

Arun Bajaj
Sukomal Chakraborty
Dr. Animesh Das
D.P. Gupta

MORT&H
A

S&R

Rep. of IOC, Faridabad

(B.R. Tyagi)

Dr. L.R. Kadiyali

A Rep.

D. Mukhopadhyay

(Col. V.K.P. Singh)

Prof. B.B.

Pandey
R.K. Pandey

R.S. Shukla

(P.K. Mahajan)
Area Co-ordinator (FP Dn.), CRRI

of E-in-C's Branch

Rep. of

DGBR

K.K. Singal

(Dr. Sunil Bose)

Dr. A. Veeraragavan

Director,

HRS, Chennai

Corresponding Members
Dr. P.K. Jain

S.K. Nirmal

Dr. C.E.G. Justo

The Manager (Bitumen), HPC,

J.T.

Mumbai

Nashikkar

(Vijay Kr. Bhatnagar)

IRC: 110-2005

The Council in its 173 rd meeting held on


th
January, 2005 at Bangalore approved the
8
document for publication subject to modification

consolidated single draft document on "Surface


Dressing".

The

draft prepared

1.4.

by the sub-group

was discussed by the Flexible Pavement


Committee in their meetings held on 1 September,
2001 and 17 th May, 2002. The new Flexible
Pavement Committee (constituted in January, 2003)
st

reviewed the draft document

on 3

st

in its

in light of the

comments/suggestions given by the

The document was modified suitably


by Shri S.C. Sharma, Convenor, Flexible
Pavement Committee and edited by Shri R.S.
participants.

meeting held

October, 2003 and approved in principle

Sharma, Secretary, IRC.

and authorised the group consisting of Shri S.C.


Sharma, Dr. L.R. Kadiyali, Prof. S.S. Jain and

References

1.5.

Animesh Das to finalise the document and


forward the same to the Highways Specifications

Dr.

The following IRC,

and Standards Committee.

IS and

BS

standards

contain provisions, which, through reference in the


text, constitute

provisions of this standard. At the

1.3.
The draft document finalised by the I-if.-xible
Pavement Committee was considered and approved

time of publication, the editions indicated were

by the Highways Specifications and Standards


Committee in its meeting held on the 10 th December,
2004 and by the Executive Committee in its meetir g

parties to agreements

held on 18

th

valid. All standards are subject to revision

based on

this

and

standard are

encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying


the

December, 2004.

most recent editions of the standard indicated

below:

No.

Title

IRC:SP: 16-2004

Guidelines for Surface Evenness for Highwa)


Pavements (First Revision)

IRC:SP:34-1989

General Guidelines about the Equipment for Bituminoui


Surface Dressing

IRC:SP:53-2002

Guidelines on Use of Polymer and Rubber Modifies

Bitumen

in

Road Construction

IS 73:

Specification for Paving

IS 2386:Part 1:1963

Methods of

test for

Particle Size

IS 2386:Part3:1963

Part

and Shape

Methods of test

Methods of

Bitumen (Second Revision)

aggregates for concrete

for concrete

density, voids, absorption

IS 2386:Part4:1963

(First Revision)

test for

Part 3

Specific gravity,

and bulking

aggregates for concrete

Part 4

Part 5

Mechanical properties
IS 2386:Part 5:1963

Methods of

test for

aggregates for concrete

Soundness
IS 8887:2004

Bitumen Emulsion

for

Roads (Cationic Type)

Specification (Second Revision)

Method of Test for Determination of Stripping Value of


Road Aggregates

IS 6241:

BS

812

(Part 114)

Method for determination of the polished-stone value

IRC: 1 10-2005

SCOPE

2.

Bitumen

Aggregate

This Document covers the specification and


design of

a)

Single-Coat Surface Dressing and

b)

Two-Coat Surface Dressing

Depth of embedment
Fig. 1(a) Just after rolling

Using penetration grade bitumen and cationic


bituminous emulsion as binder.

Bitumen

Aggregate

The work shall consist of application of one


coat or two coats of Surface Dressing, each coat
consisting of a layer of bituminous binder sprayed

on a previously prepared base, followed by a


cover of stone aggregates rolled in to fonn the
wearing surface to the requirement of these

Depth of embedment
Fig. 1(b) Aggegates
traffic

specifications.

after rolling

section of Surface Dressing just after rolling and


after

construction of single-coat Surface Dressing and

some

diagram

two-coat Surface Dressing and shall apply unless

traffic

has passed.

It is

seen in the

that a part of the aggregate has intruded

into the base course.

to take into

account unusual conditions.


Since aggregate particles evenly
3.

3.1.

flattest side, the

DEFINITIONS

Dressing

is

common

their

is

referred as Average Least


(Fig. 2).

When

aggregates are dropped from a spreader, the voids

and cost

in the aggregates are

rolling

dust free wearing surface over a granular base,

and

about 50 per cent. After the

traffic operations, the air

about 30 per cent and there

impermeability against rain-

is

voids drop to

further reduction of

when exposed to
The thickness of the finished layer
approximates ALD. The optimum thickness to
air

water percolation into the pavement,

on

the average of least dimension of the

Dimension (ALD) of the aggregates

effective surface treatment used (a) to provide a

(b) to provide surface

is

lie

average thickness of the Surface

aggregates. This

Surface Dressing
Surface Dressing

and

Figs.l (a) and (b) schematically represent a

The specifications are intended to indicate


what is considered to be a good practice for

modified by special provisions

and bitumen

operation in Surface Dressing

(c) to arrest

voids to about 20 per cent

traffic.

disintegration of the road surface, (d) to provide

a non-skid riding surface, and (e) to serve as a

renewal coat for periodic maintenance of

Average Least Dimension

bituminous surfaces.

The Surface Dressing work consists of


application (by spraying using a suitable

Fig. 2

equipment) of appropriate grade of bitumen/


emulsion on a previously prepared base followed

Average Least Dimension (ALD) of aggregates

by application of a coat of cover material of


appropriate size and grading and well rolled.

which bitumen should rise is about 75 per cent of


the average vertical dimension of the aggregates.
If the thickness of binder is more than this optimum

Surface Dressing does not enhance the structural

thickness,

strength nor does

it

it

may cause

surface relatively slippery, and

restore the riding quality of a

surface having large surface irregularities.

cause loss of aggregates.

make the
less, it may

bleeding and
if it is

IRC: 110-2005
provided for in the proposal and satisfy the related

Single-Coat Surface Dressing

3.2.

specification, e.g., paving

The

bitumen (Type

1)

formed by spraying a layer

conforming to IS 73 or cationic bitumen emulsion

of binder on the previously prepared pavement

The grade of binder to be


used would depend upon the climatic conditions.
The binder should be fluid enough to permit uniform

structure is

surface, spreading

conforming

one layer of cover aggregates

and rolling.

to IS 8887.

spraying. After the cover aggregates are rolled

Two-Coat Surface Dressing

3.3.

into position, binder should

be hard enough to hold

the particles in position against displacement

The

structure

is

formed by spraying a layer of

by

traffic.

binder and then spreading of one layer of cover

Paving bitumen: For Surface Dressing

aggregate and rolling, followed by a secord krer of

4.1.2.

binder, spreading of another layer of co ver ag*"

j; tes

using paving bitumen, the binder shall be paving

and rolling. The size of second layer of u_gr _ ^

tes is

bitumen of

smaller than thai of the

suitable penetration grade

appropriate to the region,

layer aggregates

first

traffic, rainfall

and other

environmental conditions as directed by the


3.4.

Surface Dressing Using Pre-coaled

Engineer-in-Charge. The binder should have a

Aggregates

viscosity at the time of application, such that


fluid

This technique

is

same

the

to permit

is

uniform spraying. The

application temperature for the grade of binder

as conventional

Surface Dressing except that the cover material


is

enough

it

used shall be as given in Table- 1(a).

aggregates pre-coated with binder.

4.13.

MATERIALS

4.

Cationic bituminous emulsion: For

Surface Dressing using bitumen emulsion, the


binder shall be of cationic type bitumen emulsion

4.1.

Binder

of appropriate grade (Rapid Setting) and having

bitumen content of 65 per cent minimum by


weight. The emulsion is said to have set when the

Genera! requirements: The binder shall


conform to the requirements as specified and
4.1.1.

water breaks away leaving the black residual

Table 1(a) Spraying Temperatures for Binders


Spraying Temperature

Binder
penetration

Whirling spray

Minimum

(C)

Slot jets

jets

Maximum

(C)

Minimum

(C)

Maximum

(C)

grade

S-90

200

180

Table

I (b)

165

175

Spraying Temperatures for Binders


Spraying Temperature

Binder

Bitumen

Whirling spray

Minimum

(C)

Slot jets

jets

Maximum

(C)

Minimum

(C)

Maximum

Emulsion
Repid Setting

68

50

80

70

(C)

IRC: 110-2005
bitumen on the surface. The application temperature

cubical fragments free from disintegrated pieces,

for the emulsion shall be as given in Table- 1(b).

salt, alkali,

coatings.

Uncrushed rounded gravel should not

be used. The aggregate shall preferably be


hydrophobic in nature and of low porosity.

Before opening, the cationic bitumen emulsion

drums should be

vegetable matter, dust and adherent

roiled at slow speed, to and fro,

for a distance of about 10 metres, 5 to 6 times to

mix

Requirements for cationic-bitumenemuision Surface Dressing: The general

the contents properly.

42.2,

Binder for pre-coated aggregates: For

4.1.4.

requirement of aggregates as stated in Clause 4.2.

Surface Dressing with pre-coated aggregates, binder

shall apply. Additionally, the following points are

be a paving bitumen of suitable penetration

relevant to the aggregates for Surface Dressing

shall

The grade of binder to be used for pre-coated

grade.

using bitumen emulsion.

aggregates would depend upon the climate conditions


at the

construction

Damp

site.

aggregates can be used for Surface

Dressing with cationic bitumen emulsion and

Cover Materials (Aggregate)

4.2.

hence when the aggregates are dusty, they

shall

be cleaned by dipping or washing or by sprinkling

General requirements: The aggregates

4.2.1.

shall consist of

water copiously.

crushed stone, crushed gravel

(shingle) or other crushed aggregates, as specified,

and

shall

have clean, strong, durable, and

Aggregates should preferably be hydrophobic


in nature

fairly

and of low porosity. However, even the

Table 2 Physical Requirements of Aggregates

Property
Abrasion value Los Angeles machine

1.

or,

Aggregate impact value

Value

Method

Max 40%
Max 30%

IS

2386

(Part 4)

IS

2386

(Part 4)

Max 30%

IS

2386

(Part 1)

of test

2.

Combined Flakiness and Elongation index

3.

Stripping value 2

Minimum

4.

Polished stone value 3

Min60

BS 812

5.

Water absorption4

Max 1%

IS

6.

Soundness:

Max 12%

IS 2386 (Part 5)

Max 18%

-do-

Min 1120 kg/m3

IS

(a)

Loss with sodium sulphate


(in case

(b)

5 cycles

Note

5 cycles

2386

(Part 114)

(Part 3)

2386

(Part 3)

Maximum 25 per cent may be permitted for low category roads.


When the proposed aggregate fails to pass the stripping test then an approved adhesion agent may be
-

the binder in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

The

agent must be demonstrated by the Contractor, before approval.


4.2.2.

Tor high
4

IS 6241

'Aggregates having Flakiness index


2

95%

of slag only)

Loss with magnesium sulphate

Unit weight or bulk density (in case of slag only)

7.

retained coating

Except

speed roads

in

(NH

& SHs).

case of slag.

added

to

effectiveness of the proposed anti-stripping

When cationic emulsion is used refer to Clause

IRC: 110-2005
recommended. Although a well

aggregates having stripping value higher than the

sized aggregates

permissible limit can be considered for use to the

graded aggregate

extent of the anti-stripping properties of emulsions,

best gradation for

as directed

by the Engineer-in-Charge. Because

mixture,

it is

is

is

usually considered to be the

compacted asphalt aggregate

quite undesirable for Surface Dressing

of the very nature, cationic emulsions have better

construction because the oversize aggregates are

adhesive properties with wet aggregates as well

liable to suffer fracture or

displacements and the

small size aggregates are liable to sink below the

as aggregates having stripping tendencies.

bituminous

layer.

Since with good design and

Physical requirements: The aggregate

construction practice, the binder rises to only about

should satisfy the physical requirements given in

3/4 th of the average depth of cover aggregates,

Table-2.

the tyres are prevented

4.2.3.

4.2.4.

Grading and

type of surface over which


traffic intensities.

Table-3

it

surface, reducing the chances of hydro-planning.

may be used as a guidance.

If

same

with

For Surface Dressing course, use of single-

Table 3

Type of Surface

all

size aggregates are used, tyre gets contact

of them firmly. This has been pictorially

represented in Fig.

Recommended Nominal

Traffic intensity

direct contact

with the binder and also the surface channels


between the aggregate particles provide rapid
removal of water between the tyre and road

The size
depend on the
is laid and the

size of aggregates:

of aggregates to be used shall

from making

Size of Aggregates

3.

The recommended

(mm)

(Number of Commercial Vehicles with Unladen weight


kN) per day in the lane under consideration

greater than 15

2000-4000

1000-2000

200-1000

20-200

Less than 20

Very Hard

10

10

Hard

13

13

10

Normal

19

13

10

10

Soft

19

13

13

10

Very Soft

19

13

10

* Unsuitable for Surface Dressing

Oversize

(he other

Fig. 3 Effect of using other

fidbte to

90%

than single-sized aggregate

IRC: 110-2005
Table 4 Grading Requirements for Aggregates used for Surface Dressing

Cumulative per cent by weight of total aggregates passing


for the following nominal sizes (mm)

IS sieve

(mm)

designation

19

13

10

26.5

100

--

19.0

85-100

100

13.2

0-40

85-100

100

9.5

0-7

0-40

85-100

100

0-7

0-35

85-100

6.3

4.75

0-10
0-35

3.35

0-2

2.36

0-2

0-2

0-10
0-2

0.60

0.075

0-1.5

0-1.5

0-1.5

1-5

Minimum 65%

Passing 19

Passing 13.2

Passing 9.5

Passing 6.3

by weight of

mm, retained

mm, retained

mm, retained

mm retained
on 3.35 mm

aggregate

13.2

mm

9.5

mm

The aggregates

shall

conform

to

mm

application of aggregates, penetration grade bitumen

gradations for various aggregate sizes are given


in Table-4.

6.3

one

and emulsion required under average conditions are


given in Tables 5(a) and

of these gradings.

(b).

Guidance on the design

of Surface Dressing and spread rates of aggregates


4.2.5.

Pre-coated

aggregates:

As

an

and binder

is

given in Appendix.

alternative to use of an adhesion agent the

may be

aggregates

spread except

pre-coated before they are

when

the sprayed binder film

bitumen emulsion. The aggregates


coated with 0.75 to

per cent of

shall
its

5.

CONSTRUCTION METHOD

5.1.

Weather and Seasonal Limitations

is

be pre-

weight of

binder and shall not be pre-coated simultaneously

Preferably, the Surface Dressing

work

shall

with the paving operation. The aggregates free

be carried out when the atmospheric temperature

from dust or

in

fine particles shall

be preheated to

shade

is

16C or above for penetration grade

160C for pre-coating and then mixed with binder


heated to its application temperature. The

bitumen and 10C or above when cationic

aggregate and binder should be thoroughly mixed

shall

in a

mixer (of approved type)

are uniformly coated.


shall

till all

bitumen emulsion

The pre-coated aggregates


at least one week or

become non-sticky and can be taken

out easily from baskets like normal aggregates.

4.3.

Quantities

4.3.1.

The

quantities

No bituminous material

is

standing water in depressions.

5.2.

of aggregates

used.

damp, when the weather is foggy


or rainy or during dust-storm. In the cases where
emulsion is used as binder, the work can be carried
out when the base is damp but there should be no
cover material

the aggregates

be allowed to cure for

until they

is

normally be applied when the surface or the

and

Arrangements of Traffic

The road to be treated shall be closed to traffic


length equal to one day's work. Suitable

bituminous binder required will depend on the

in

nominal size of the aggregate and the extent of its

diversions shall be

embedment

Adequate arrangements of

into the surface.

Approximate

rate of

made

to divert the traffic.

barriers, flags,

IRC: 110-2005
Table 5(a) Approximate Rate of Application of Binder'" Materials and

Aggregates for 'non-Pre-coated' Aggregates


Aggregate

Nominal

No.

Binder

aggregates

mm

Emulsion' 3

Penetration grade

Quantity

size of

cum/m 2

bitumen kg/m

kg/m

19

0.015

1.2

1.8

13

0.010

1.0

1.5

10

0.008

0.9

1.3

0.004

0.75

1.10

'

Table 5(b) Approximate Rate of Application of Binder'" Materials and

Aggregates for Pre-coated Aggregates


Aggregates

Nominal

No.

Binder'"'

size of

aggregates

mm

Quantity

Penetration grade

cum/m

bitumen kg/m 2

19

0.014-0.015

1.0

13

0.009-0.011

0.8

10

0.007-0.009

0.7

0.003-0.005

0.6

Notes
(a,

In the case of two-coat Surface Dressing using bitumen emulsion, emulsion quantities for each coat are added

together and about 40 to 45 per cent of the total

second application. Field

trial

may be

is

applied for the

first

application and the balance for the

required to adjust the quantity.

""Excluding the quantity of binder required for pre-coating of aggregates.


(c)

The suggested quantities of binder application

are for Surface Dressing, over existing bituminous surfaces

and

primed granular bases.

diversionary signs, warning red lights,

equipment

etc. shall

may be preferred for better control and

be made for the convenience and safety of traffic.

uniformity in construction. In this type of

All diversions shall be kept watered so as to

equipment, binder and aggregates are spread in a

prevent dust getting on to the cleaned or painted

coordinated

surface.

automatically stops

The

way.

binder

spraying

the aggregate spreading

if

ends (or vice-versa) and, therefore, there

Equipment

5.3.

is

no

excess binder waiting for the aggregates to be


spread. This ensures better quality of construction

All equipment necessary for the proper

and subsequent durability

work

shall be on the site of the


good condition. The description of some
of the equipment used for Surface Dressing is
given in IRC:SP:34 "General Guidelines about the
Equipment for Bituminous Surface Dressing".
Spraying and compaction by synchronized

construction of

work

in terms of strong

binder-aggregate bond.

in

5.4.

Preparation of Base

The underlying surface course on which


Surface Dressing

is

to

be laid shall be prepared,

IRC: 110-2005
c

shaped and conditioned to a uniform grade,


camber and section as specified. Any depressions

using appropriate mechanical sprayers. During

made up and

spraying, the ratio between the /ruck speed and

or pot-holes shall be properly

compacted

sprayed uniformly over the sur ace preferably

pump

sufficiently in advance. All pot-holes

and depressions

shall

be

filled

up with a

revolution speed

held constant, either

is

by automatic control or manually oy

suitable

[he operator.

premix material and rammed or rolled properly

Tables 5(a) and (b) give approximate quantity of

and brought to shape. Where the existing surface

application of binder per

shows sign of
be

surface should be swept clean free of

caked earth and other foreign matter cleaned

starting point

first

binder

blowing off with sacks or gunny bags to


the fine dust.

be

surface

dry

It is

should be ensured that the required

is

and when the work

is

from the

resumed the

not sprayed on the surface of earlier

completed work. This can be done by covering,

important that the

the surface of the completed

and thoroughly cleaned

immediately before applying the binder.

It

to the su face

rate of spray of binder is achieved right

with hard brushes, then with softer brushes and

remove

area of surfacing.

Binder shall be applied


uniformly.

finally

"fatting-up". such portion should

rectified.

The

work with building

paper/bitumen impregnated paper for a length to

If the

be sufficient for the bitumen distributor (manually

base to be treated consists of granular material, a

controlled) to attain the required rate of spraying.

suitable bituminous primer, should be applied

Excessive deposit of bituminous material upon

uniformly, preferably by a mechanical sprayer.

the road surface caused

is

preferable to slightly

emulsion

is

If the

Dressing

is

dampen

It

by stopping or

starting

the sprayer, by leakage or otherwise, shall be

the surface if

immediately removed.

used as binder.

base to be covered by the Surface


an old bituminous surfacing,

be swept clean and free from sand,

dirt,

it

of

cover

materia!

(aggregates): Immediately after the application

shall

dust and

other loose, deleterious, foreign matter, by

Application

5.5.3.

of binder, clean, dry aggregates (in the case of

means

emulsion, the aggregates

vacuum sweepers and blowers, if


hand brooms
wherever necessary or by means of wire brushes,

may be damp)

and quantity mentioned

of the

and

of mechanical

size

available, supplemented by

shall

be spread uniformly by means of a mechanical

grit

spreader so as to cover the coated surface

small picks, brass brooms,

Whenever a prime

coat

etc.,

is

and

shall

be dry.

(b)

completely with a single layer of aggregates.

applied on granular

no bituminous material

in Tables 5(a)

Rolling:

5.5.4.

Immediately

the

after

be applied

application of the cover material as described in

prime coat has thoroughly cured. The

Clause 5.5.3, the entire surface shall be rolled,

edges of the surface to be treated shall be defined

preferably by a pneumatic tyred roller, or with a

by rope

60

surface,
until the

shall

lines stretched in position.

80

to

kN smooth wheeled

road

The

roller.

rolling shall begin at the edge and proceed


5.5.

First

Coat

lengthwise over the area to be rolled, lapping not


less than

5.5.1.

General: This Clause describes the

one third of the

towards the centre.

roller tread,

When

and proceed

the centre

is

reached,

and

application of binder and aggregates for single-

the rolling shall then start at the opposite side

coat Surface Dressing, or

again proceed towards the centre. In the super-

first

coat of the two-

elevated portions, the rolling should proceed from

coat Surface Dressing.

inner to outer edge. While the rolling


5.5.2.

Application of binder for

first coat:

is

in

progress, additional aggregate shall be spread

by

After the surface to be treated has been prepared

hand

as specified above, the binder heated to

to prevent picking

appropriate temperature as specified shall be

roller.

10

in required quantity to

fill

irregularities

and

up of the aggregate by the

Rolling shall be continued until the particles

IRC: 110-2005
are firmly

embedded

in the

bonded once the emulsion breaks or sets and should

bituminous layer and

forms a uniform closed surface. Excessive rolling

which
shall

not be disturbed.

results in crushing of aggregate particles,

Application

5.6.4.

be avoided.

Immediately
shall

Second coat

5.6.

General: This Clause describes the

5.6.1.

after application

be spread uniformly preferably by means of a


spreader so as to cover the surface

grit

completely

at the rate specified in

While rolling, the surface shall be broomed with

After each pass of the

Time

Interval between first coat

second coat: Where Surface Dressing

in

removed

and
two

is

specified, the second coat should not be

applied until the


traffic for

aggregate

coat has been opened to

first

Application of binder: Prior

is

spread uniformly, rolling shall be done

and the

80

kN

static roller in the

same manner

as

with cationic emulsion, the finishing rolling can be

performed on the next day;

this helps to give a

firm surface.

matters removed. After getting the surface

corrected

to

to the

be cleaned and loose materials and foreign

irregularities

depressions should be

described in Clause 5.5.4. For Surface Dressing

application of second coat of binder, the surface


shall

roller,

uniform surface.

preferably with a pneumatic tyre roller or with a

2 to 3 weeks.

60
5.6.3.

to give a

Rolling for second coat: Soon after the

5.6.5.
coats

Tables 5(a) and

a view to ensure uniform spreading of aggregate.

coat of the two-coat Surface Dressing.

5.6.2.

of binder, aggregates

mechanical

(b).

application of binder and aggregates for the second

aggregates:

of

surface

Finishing

5.7.

conditioned to camber and gradient, a second

The

application of binder heated to appropriate

surface evenness of the completed

work

temperature shall be uniformly sprayed preferably

in longitudinal

with a mechanical sprayer

within the limits specified in Table

6.

Frequency

of Surface unevenness in 300

length in

Tables 5(a) and

(b).

at the rate specified in

When using cationic emulsion,

and transverse directions

shall

be

the aggregates of the first coat are likely to appear

longitudinal profile shall be within the limits

loose and unbonded in a few spots. These will get

specified in Table-7-

Table-6.

Type of Construction

Maximum

Permissible Surface Unevenness

Longitudinal profile

(Maximum

Transverse profile (when

permissible surface unevenness

measured with camber

measured with 3-metre

template)

straight edge)
(1)

Mechanised

(2)

Manual

Table-7.

mm
10 mm

mm
12 mm
10

Maximum Permissible Frequency


300

Type of Construction

m length

of Surface Unevenness in

in Longitudinal Profile

Maximum number of Surface

Unevenness (mm)

Unevenness

NH/SH

MDR and other category of roads

(1)

Mechanised

8-10

20

40

(2)

Manual

10-12

20

40

11

IRC: 110-2005

The longitudinal profile

shall

Evenness of Highway Pavement-".

be checked with

a 3-metre long straight edge, at the middle of each


traffic lane

along a line parallel to the center line

Opening

5.8.

to Traffic

of the road. The transverse profile shall be

checked with a
at intervals

series of three

Where paving grade bitumen

camber template

the binder, the finished surface she

of 10 metres.

traffic
It is

emphasized that Surface Dressing by

cannot remove any undulations present in the base


or the surface on

which it is

applied.

It is,

essential that all operations of rectification to

the requirements set out

is

meet

day.

work of Surface

employed as
be opened to
if in

special

required to be opened

after rolling,
till

speed rv the
the follox ing

When bitumen emulsion is used, the road may

rolling

of

is

be limited to 20 kmh

be opened to

begun.

traffic

not earlier than 4 hours after

and preferably

traffic shall

such

For detailed guidance

immediately

traffic shall

above be carried out on

the receiving surface before the

Dressing

to traffic

therefore,

ll

on the following day bus

circumstances, the road

itself

is

as,

after

24 hours. Controlling

be done by some suitable device,

barricading and posting of watchman,

installation of suitable signs, etc. consistent with

in this respect, reference

may be made to IRC.SP: 16 "Guidelines for Surface

safety.

12

IRC: 110-2005

Appendix

Guidance on the Design of Surface Dressing


General

A.l.

Small size aggregates are best for hard surfaces

Where

or light traffic.

The design of Surface Dressing


decide about the

(i)

is

made

type of Surface Dressing,

skid resistance

is

important

large size aggregates should be used.

to
(ii)

aggregate type and gradation and binder type, and

In selecting the nominal size of aggregate for

quantity of binder and aggregate. These are

two-coat Surface Dressing, the size of the

(iii)

aggregates should be selected on the basis of the

decided based on considerations of (a) availability


of materials, (b) relative
(c) traffic, e.g.,

economy among materials,

hardness of the existing surface and the

volume, percentage of trucks,

permitted speed, (d) operating conditions,

category as indicated in Table 3 under Clause 4.2.4.

The nominal

e.g.,

(f)

climatic conditions, vegetation, urbanization,

alignment and grade of existing road,

The

single-coat Surface Dressing

treatment and, therefore,

is

is

of the

first coat.

The assessment of the hardness of the existing


road surface may be made on the basis of
judgement with the help of definitions given in

a versatile

Under

Table

1.

two-coat Surface

traffic conditions, the

Dressing

second

etc.

for practically all types of traffic conditions.

heavy

and

currently being used

it is

size of aggregates for the

coat should be about half the nominal size of that

winter maintenance, (e) environmental conditions,


e.g.,

traffic

The following two methods

preferred.

are used for

estimating the rate of application of the rate of

The
Dressing

first step in
is

aggregate and bitumen. The second method

the design of a Surface

more elaborate

the selection of the nominal size of

aggregates. Large size aggregates are required


for soft surfaces or

where

Table

traffic is

takes into account the

and the type of aggregates and

volume

is

recommended.

Road Surface Based on Hardness

Category of Surface

Very Hard

it

of traffic, condition of the existing surface, climate

very heavy.

Categories of

as

is

Definition
Surfaces, such as, concrete, or very lean bituminous pavements with dry

stony surfaces, into which negligible penetration of aggregates will occur

even under the heaviest

Hard

traffic.

Surfaces into which aggregates will penetrate only slightly under heavy
traffic.

Normal

Surfaces into which aggregates will penetrate moderately under

and heavy
Soft

Very Soft

traffic.

Surfaces into which aggregates will penetrate considerably under

and heavy

medium

medium

traffic.

Surfaces, usually rich in binder, into which even large aggregates will be

submerged under heavy

traffic.

13

IRC: 110-2005

Method-I

A.2.

100

A. 2.1

Fig.

aggregates are just

be 50 per

laid, the

However,

When the

cent and finally

voids

when

open

it is

become about 20 per

for the case of Surface Dressing

occupy upto the level of ALD, because,

and compaction,

after

evaporation, the level of residual binder will be

reorientation of particles take place and voids

traffic the

(3)

with bituminous emulsion, the binder should

may be assumed

voids

cent, after rolling

become 30 per

x
100

presents the voids at various

stages of Surface Dressing construction.

to

3/4 th of

to

ALD only (as

shown

A 2).

in Fig.

cent.
lALO
(a)

Initial level of cationic bitumen


emulsion ( before curing)

50%

void immediately after


spreading the aggregates

(a)

0.75

ALD I

IA10

residual bitumen

(b) Final level of

(after curing)
(b)

30%

void immediately after

rolling the

ALD

aggregates

Fig. A-2.

Design of two-coat Surface Dressing is to be


done separately for each layer, except that the
aggregate size of the second coat must be smaller

ALD
.

20%

(c)

Fig.

Binder thickness using bitumen emulsion

void after traffic operation

than the aggregate size of

first layer.

Voids at different stages of Surface

A.2.2. Determination of ALD: If the


aggregates used for Surface Dressing construction

Dressing construction

Thus the quantity of aggregates required

cubic metres per

Surface Dressing

in

are all of

ALD

of area for laying single-coat

same

size

and spherical

will be equal to the

median

aggregates. However, in reality

is:

in shape, the

it

size of the
is

not so.

Empirical relationship between the median


flakiness index

(1)

50

1000

Where

ALD

of aggregates in

is

is

procedure described in the Clause A.2.2.

to

be

lost in

whip off due

._

110

100

A.3. Method-II

is:

This method

1000

application.

Completed Surface Dressing where

is

more

suitable for general

(2)

The design

steps are

traffic is
1

operational has voids of 20 per cent, out of which

Select nominal size of aggregates using Table 3

75 per cent)

2.

Select type of binder to be used.

Thus the quantity of bitumen required

3.

Determine the

kg per m of area for laying single-coat Surface

4.

Select factors appropriate to the site of Surface

bitumen should occupy 3/4 th


thickness.
in

ALD.

to traffic. Therefore,

50

3 in the

flakiness index to obtain

may be assumed

the correct estimate of required aggregate

80

size,

has been presented in

size through

determined as per the

10 per cent of the aggregates

ALD

form of a nomograph. The sieve


which 50 per cent of the aggregates
pass is the median size of the aggregates. The
flakiness index is found out separately. A line is
drawn joining the median aggregate size and the
Fig.

the average least dimension

mm and

and

Dressing

(i.e.,

is:

ALD

of the aggregates.

Dressing from the following four Tables for

14

IRC: 110-2005
(iii)

Climate Conditions
Factor

Wet and cold

+2

Tropical (wet and hot)

+1

Temperate

Semi-arid (hot and dry )

-1

Arid (very dry and very hot)

-2

(iv)

Type of Aggregates
Factor

+2

Round/dusty

ALU (mm)

Cubical

Flaky

-2

Pre-coated

-2

-18

Fig.

Nomograph

for determination of

ALD

For example,
(i)

Volume of traffic,

surface,

(iii)

(ii)

Condition of existing

Climate conditions, and

(iv)

if

flaky aggregates (factor -2)

medium

are to be used at a road site carrying

Type

heavy

of aggregates.

traffic (factor -1)

rich bituminous

and which

has a very

surface (factor -3) in a

wet tropical

climate (factor + 1) the overall weighting factor

Add the
weighting

four factors to determine the overall

is

-2-1 -3+1 =-5

Determine the design binder and chipping

application rates by

Volume of Traffic

summing the four factors and


A 4. The intersection

entering the value in Fig.

Vehicles/iane/day

Factor

(Un laden weight


greater than 15

Very

kN

0-50

+3

50-250

+1

250-500

Medium-heavy

500-1500

-1

Heavy

1500-3000

-3

3000+

-5

light

Light

Medium

Very heavy
(ii)

factor.
5.

(i)

to

Condition of Existing Surface

Factor
Untreated or primed base

+6

Very lean bituminous

+4

Lean bituminous

0
9.6 0.?

Average bituminous

-1

Very rich bituminous

-3

OB

"Rale of spread

Fig.

15

0.9

i.O

1.1

!.2

1.3 1.4

I.*

IB

1.7

1.9

2.0

5.1

2.2

kg/n2

of binder (cutback grades with viseesKy greater lhan


2000 cSl al 60"C)

4 Surface Dressing design chart

IRC: 110-2005
part of

ALD

and the factor

grade binder, decrease the rate of spread by 10

line gives the rate of

spread of binder (bottom scale).


*

For slow

traffic or

per cent.

climbing grades steeper than 3

For emulsion, multiply the rate of spread given

per cent, reduce the rate of spread of binder by 10

in the chart

by

'Z'

per cent.
*2.

downgrades steeper than 3 per


cent increase the rate of spread of binder by 10 to
20 per cent.

For

fast traffic or

ALD

6.

The

and the

line

AB

on the top scale gives the application

rate

intersection part of

for the aggregates.

The aggregates

where,

Z=

Bitumen content of emulsion

8.

The aggregates

further adjusted

application rate

(%.)

application rate needs to be

by observing on

site

whether any

extra binder remains after spreading, indicating

includes a 10 per cent allowance for whip off.

too low a rate of application, or whether there


7.

The

is

overlapping of aggregates, indicating too high an

rate of spread of binder is adjusted to

application rate.

allow for the type of binder used. For penetration

16

(The

official

amendments

effective

and

code would be published by the IRC


Highways', which shall be considerd as

to this

in its periodieal/Indian

as part of the code/guidelines/manuals, etc.

Date specified therein)

from the