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- is a complex whole which includes

knowledge, belief, art, law, morals,

custom, and any other capabilities
and habits acquired by man as a
member of society.

- is also viewed as a complex web of

relationships existing out of mans
interaction with one another.
- has several definitions throughout
the different branches of social

Society is a social organism possessing a

harmony of structure and function.
- August Comte (The Father of Sociology)

Society is a system comprised of the

interactions of many individuals within a
situation through commonly understood
cultural norms of generalized symbols and
associated meanings.
- Talcott Parsons (American Sociologist)

Society is a complex of organized associations

and institutions within a community.
- G.D.H. Cole (English Political Theorist and Economist)

Society is a system of usages and procedures

of authority and mutual aid of many groupings
and divisions, of controls of human behavior
and liberties.
- Robert MacIver and Charles Page (Social Scientists)

Can we separate
society from culture?
Why do you think they

Culture and society are two different

things but very interrelated concepts.
Both culture and society require the interaction
of people with one another.
Culture is somehow distinct from society in that
it adds value, merit, and meanings to created
Culture refers to how people behave and interact
with one another within social institutions.

Culture would not be outwardly manifested

without a group of people interacting.
Culture and society are becoming more
interrelated than ever as specific culture arises
which in turn creates and shapes a particular

How do you describe

your present
generation? What
cultural traits and
practices do you have?

Culture varies across time and space. Societies

across the world have acquired different sets
of customs and practices over generations and
historical contexts.
There is no generalization as to how culture
develops and progresses within a society.
However, from various definitions, the
following characteristics may be deduced:

1) Culture is Learned
It is not innate in a person.
It is not biological in nature.
It is acquired and developed through families,
peers, institutions, and media.
ENCULTURATION is the process of learning
about culture.
For most people, learning about a certain
culture is an unconscious process.

2) Culture is Shared
It is not possessed by one person alone.
As individuals interact, they tend to share
beliefs, customs, ideals, and practices.
However, it does not mean that it is
Example 1:
Within the Filipino society, different religions are practiced such as
Catholicism, Islam, Protestantism and etcetera
Example 2:
The people in Malaysia are ethnically diverse Malays, Chinese, and

3) Culture is Integrated
Though it is composed of specific parts or
aspects, when taken together, forms a unified
whole which distinguishes it from all others.
Example 1:
People across different regions (i.e. Luzon, Visayas, Mindanao) in the
Philippines may have varied food preferences
Example 2:
People from different walks of life and various religious practices

This makes a certain culture unique and of


4) Culture is Adaptive and Dynamic

It can change and be adjusted according to
conditions as witnessed throughout the context
of history of the world.
The ways of clothing of people, lifestyle, leisure,
nature of work
GLOBALIZATION is the change in state of a country or area in terms
of economy

Certain aspects may last for a long time.

5) Culture is Abstract
It is not tangible for it only exists in the minds
of individuals within or across societies.
mannerisms, and activities.
It is not tangible for it only exists in the minds
of individuals within or across societies.
It embodies the ideals, aspirations, and norms of the
It can be observed through the physical works or
products of the people.

6) Culture is Symbolic
Since culture is abstract, societies have
developed ways by which concepts and ideas
would be represented. As such, all cultures in
the world are driven with so many symbols that
stand for something
Symbols are only validated when people agree
on what symbols stand for.
Example 1:
The color white represents purity and peace in many western cultures
and even in the Philippines

What are the cultural

symbols that we have
in the Philippines?

Take home task:

Interview your grandparent,
parents, and relatives who belong
to the 70s, 80s, 90s generation.
Ask them about what makes their
generation unique and different
from the generation now.