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IN-HOUSE PRACTICAL TRAINING

ON

TITLE: ELECTROMAGNETIC BRAKES


Submitted to

AMITY SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY


Guided By:
Prof GK Singh
Btech. MAE (2014-18)

Amity University, Uttar Pradesh

CERTIFICATE

THIS IS TO CERTIFY THAT MR. AAKASH UPADHYAYA, MR AMAN SHOKEEN,


AND MR. HIMANSHU JANGID STUDENT OF B.TECH. IN MAE(ASET) HAS
CARRIED OUT THE WORK PRESENTED IN THE PROJECT OF THE IN-HOUSE
PRACTICAL TRAINING ENTITLE "ELECTROMAGNETIC BRAKES" AS A PART OF
SECOND YEAR PROGRAMME OF BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN MAE FROM
AMITY SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY , AMITY UNIVERSITY,
NOIDA, UTTAR PRADESH (AUUP) UNDER MY GUIDANCE AND SUPERVISION.

NAME & SIGNATURE OF THE FACULTY GUIDE

AMITY INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING, AUUP

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

WE WOULD LIKE TO EXPRESS OUR SPECIAL THANKS OF GRATITUDE TO OUR


PROFESSOR MR GK SINGH WHO GAVE US THE GOLDEN OPPORTUNITY TO DO
THIS WONDERFUL PROJECT ON THE TOPIC ELECTROMAGNETIC BRAKE WHICH
ALSO HELPED ME DOING A LOT OF RESEARCH.

SECONDLY, WE WOULD LIKE TO THANK OUR FRIENDS, PARENTS & OUR


PROJECT PARTNERS WHO HELPED A LOT IN FINALIZING THIS PROJECT IN LIMITED
TIME PERIOD.

AAKASH UPADHYAYA (A2305414219)

AMAN SHOKEEN

(A2305414223)

HIMANSHU JANGID

(A2305414226)

ABSTRACT

AN ELECTROMAGNETIC BRAKE USES MAGNETIC FORCE TO ENGAGE THE BRAKE,


BUT THE POWER REQUIRED F0R BRAKING IS TRANSMITTED MANUALLY. THE
DISC IS CONNECTED TO SHAFT & MAGNET IS MOUNTED ON THE FRAME.WHEN
ELECTRICITY IS TO COIL A MAGNETIC FIELD IS INDUCED ACROSS THE
ARMATURE BECAUSE OF THE ELECTRIC CURRENT FLOWING ACROSS THE COIL
& CAUSES ARMATURE TO GET ATTRACTED TOWARDS THE COIL. AS A RESULT IT
DEVELOPS A TORQUE & EVENTUALLY THE MACHINE (VEHICLE) COMES TO REST.
IN THIS PROJECT THE PERKS OF USING THE ELECTROMAGNETIC BRAKING
SYSTEM IN AUTOMOBILE IS STUDIED. THESE BRAKES CAN BE USED IN HEAVY
VEHICLES AS SECONDARY BRAKES. THIS BRAKE CAN BE USED IN
COMMERCIALIASED VEHICLES BY CONTROLLING THE CURRENT SUPPLIED TO
PRODUCE THE MAGNETIC FLUX. MAKING SOME IMPROVEMENT IN
ELECTROMAGNETIC BRAKE IT CAN BE USED IN AUTOMOBILES IN COMING
DAYS.

S.NO

TOPICS

1)

INTRODUCTION

PAGE
NUMBER
6

2)

BRAKING SYSTEM

7-8

3)

THE ELECTROMAGNETIC BRAKE

9-12

4)

TYPES OF ELECTROMAGNETIC
BRAKES

13-15

5)

APPLICATIONS

16-17

6)

RESULT AND STUDY

18

7)

CONCLUSION

19

8)

REFERENCE

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TABLE OF CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION

Electromagnetic brakes have been used as secondary/extra retardation equipment with the
regular frictional brakes in required automobiles. The principle of braking in vehicles involves
the conversion of kinetic energy into thermal (heat). When pressing on the brakes, the driver
commands a stopping force many times as strong as the force that puts the car in motion &
dissipates the associated kinetic energy as heat. Brakes must be able to hold the speed of a
vehicle in short interval of time regardless how fast the speed is. As a result, the brakes are
required to have the capability to generate high torque and absorbing energies at extremely high
rates for short frame of time.

Brakes may be applied for a long periods of time in some applications such as a heavy
-duty vehicles at high speed. Brakes must have to have the mechanism to keep the heat
absorption rate for long periods of time. In the EM brake, the coil attracts a steel disk. This disc
presses a brake disc made of sintered b/w itself & a stationary steel disc. The torque is thus
'grounded' & braking action takes place. This brake is used in various machines like lathe,
presser etc. In EM brake both electric and magnetic properties is used due to this action of
braking will be done. In this system, EM iron plates, liners, tension spring, studs, disc brake plate
are often used .The brake liners are connected with electro-magnet & iron plate individually &
both plate insert the disc plate & this plate rigidly connected with wheels. The battery of
minimum 10 volt is used for external power supply. Electromagnet consists of wire mounted
over a soft iron core. When electricity is passed through the coil, it produces a field which
magnetizes the core into the bar magnet with magnetic polarities. Strong magnetic field is
obtained by high currents of huge self-induction. High currents are not always doable, which is
why a high self-induction is produced by making a loop of the wire in the shape of a coil, called
solenoid.. When current is turn OFF field disappears & the iron core no longer a magnet. This
ability of the electromagnet provides a powerful magnetic Force of attraction.

2. BRAKING SYSTEM

A brake is a mechanical device that restricts motion by absorbing the energy from a moving
system. It is used for slowing or stopping a moving vehicle, wheel, axle, or to prevent its motion,
most times accomplished by means of friction.
It is the most important system on your vehicle. Its maintenance & proper working are vital to
you, family & other motorists.

Fig1 : IMAGE OF A BRAKING SYSTEM

There are many a little mechanical parts which are linked with each other to form the whole
braking system. Some major component of braking systems are

Brake Pedal

Brake Booster

Master Cylinders

Brake Fluids

Hydraulic Lines

Proportional Valve

Hydraulic Calipers

Disc Brakes

Brake Pad
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Rotor

2.1 TYPES OF BRAKE


2.1.1 Disc Brakes
This type of brakes consists of a disc brake rotor - which is connected to the wheel & a caliper,
which holds the disk brake pad. The main cylinder applies the pressure (Hydraulically) which
causes the caliper piston to press the disc brake rotor b/w the disc brake pads. This results in
friction between the pads & rotor, causing your automobile to slow down or completely stop.

2.1.2 Drum Brakes


Drum brakes subsist of a brake drum attached to the wheel, a wheel cylinder, brake shoes, &
brake return springs. Hydraulic pressure from the main cylinder causes the wheel cylinder to
press the brake shoes against the brake drum. It induces friction b/w the shoes & drum to slow or
stop your automobile.

2.1.3 Emergency Brakes


Many a vehicles also come equipped with an auxiliary braking system, known as emergency or
parking brakes. It is independent of the service brakes, & is not work by hydraulic pressure.
These brakes use cables to mechanically apply the brakes (usually the rear brake). There are less
different types of emergency brakes, which include: a stick lever located between the driver &
co-passenger seats; a pedal located to the left of the floor pedals; or a push button situated near
the steering. Emergency brakes are most often used as a parking brake to help keep a vehicle in
one place while parked. And, yes, they are also used in emergency conditions, when in case the
other brakes system fails but these brakes are not to be often used while driving with the main
braking system fully functional.

2.1.4 Anti-Lock Brakes


Computer controlled anti-lock braking systems (ABS), is an important safety option which is
equipped on most never vehicles. When we swiftly apply this brake, ABS prevents the wheels
from locking up & the tires from skidding. The system watches the speed of each individual
wheel & automatically fluctuate the brake pressure on & off rapidly on that individual wheel
where skidding is indicated. ABS is one of the best braking systems while driving in wet and
rainy condition. ABS works with the service brakes to decrease stopping distance & to enhance
control & stability of the vehicle during hard braking.
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2.1.5 Electromagnetic Brakes


Electromagnetic brakes are the brakes working on the electric power & magnetic power. They
work on the principle of electromagnetism. These are totally friction less; due to this durability
of system is very good & have longer life span. Literally less maintenance and service is required
there. These brakes are somewhat perfect replacement on the convectional brakes due to their
many advantages and enhance functions. And also one other reason to use this brake is to prevent
the wear of brakes which is very common problem as this brake is friction-less.

3. THE ELECTROMAGNETIC BRAKE


Electromagnetic brakes are the brakes working on the electrical & magnetic power. The electro
magnets work on the principle called electromagnetism .There is literally no friction present in
this type of brakes. And due to this they are more substantial & have longer lifespan than other.
Very less and simple maintenance is indeed required. These brakes are an excellent replacement
on the old-fashioned brakes due to their many advantages. The reason for implementing this
brake in vehicles is to reduce wear and tear in brakes as it friction less. Therefore the energy loss
(thermal) will also not be there. It can be used in both the heavy-duty vehicles as well as in lightduty vehicles/machines. The EM brakes are much effective than conventional brakes & the time
taken for applications of brakes are also quicker. There is very less need of lubrication and oiling.
Electromagnetic brake gives such better performance with less cost. There are many more
advantages of Electromagnetic brakes. Thats why electromagnetic brakes are best replacement
on old-fashioned or conventional type brakes.

Fig2- AN ELECTROMAGNETIC BRAKE

EM brakes are of todays automobiles lifeline .An electromagnetic braking system for
automobiles, an effective braking system. &, by using this type of brakes, we can increase the
life period/span of the braking system. The principle of this system is that when the flux passes
through & perpendicular to the rotating wheel/rotor the eddy current flows opposite to the
rotating wheel/rotor direction. The eddy current trying to stop, rotating wheel or rotor. This result
in the rotating wheel or comes to complete stop. [2]

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3.1 HISTORY

It is found that electromagnetic brakes can potential to develop a negative power which
represents twice the maximum power output of a normal engine, & at least 3 times the braking
power of an exhaust brakes. These performances of EM brakes make them more competitive
option as substitute retardation equipment compared with other retarders. By using the
electromagnetic brakes as subsidiary retardation element, the frictional brakes can be used less
frequently & therefore practically never touch its high temperatures. The brake linings would last
a longer before requiring maintenance & the brake fade! problem could be NEGLECTED. In
research conducted by a truck manufacturer, it was proved that the electromagnetic
brake assumed 70-80% of the load which would otherwise have been asked of the regular service
brake! .Further the electromagnetic brake also prevents the danger that can arise from the long
time use of brake beyond their reach to transfer heat. This is most likely to happen during a
vehicle descending at high velocity. In study with a vehicle with 5-6 axles & weighting 40 tones
powered by a powered by an engine of 330 BHP; travelling down a gradient of 7% at a steady
speed b/w 30 & 45 Mhp , it can be calculated that braking power necessary to maintain this
speed at the order of 460 hp. The brakes, therefore, would need to absorb 300 hp, meaning that
each brake in the 5 axels must absorb almost 30 hp, that a friction brake can normally absorb
with Self destruction.

The magnetic brake is also Well suited to such vast conditions since it independently absorb
more than 300 hp It therefore can meets the requirements of continuous constant braking, leaving
the friction brakes cool & ready for emergency braking in total safety condition. The installation
of electromagnet brake is not a big work if there is enough space b/w the gearbox & the rear
axle. If did not need an extra cooling system. It depends on the efficiency of engine components
for its use, so do exhaust & hydrokinetic brakes. The electromagnet brake control system is an
electric system which gives it better control and stability. [5]

3.2 CONSTRUCTION
The construction of the EM braking systems is simple. The parts needed for the construction are
electromagnetic, rheostat, sensors & magnetic insulator. A ring shaped cylinder having winding
is kept side a side to rotating wheel disk. The electro magnet is fixed, like stator & coils are
wounded along the electromagnets. This coil is linked with electrical circuit containing single
rheostat which is connected with brake pedal. & the rheostat is used to control the electric
currents flowing is used to control the flux. & also it is used to prevent the magnetization of
other parts like axle & it act as a support frame for the electromagnet. The sensor used to tell the
disconnection in the full circuit. If there is some kind of faultiness or error it gives us alert, so we
can avoid the damage of any type. [5]

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The parts of the Electromagnetic Brake are:


AC Motor
Frame work
Shaft and Rods
Electromagnet
Belt and pulleys
Disc

3.3 PRINCIPLE & WORKING


3.3.1 WORKING
The working principle of electric retarder is based on the creation or production of
electric current (eddy) within a metal disk moving between 2 electromagnets, which
is an origin for the force opposing the rotation of disc. If the electromagnet is not energized, the
rotation of the disc is natural & the disc accelerates uniformly under the action of the mass to
which its shaft is linked. When the electromagnet is energized, the rotation of the disc is
backwards & the disc is heated which is a result of absorbing high energy.
In this type of electromagnetic braking system, electromagnet is fixed in the back of the plate in
this way the uneven braking effect at 1 shoe is completely balanced, even if linings on one it is
worn more than other the hanger will move to one side so that shoe share equal acting force. In
this braking system, any one shoe out of 2 will remove & instead of it we will use the
electromagnetic coil. As the current passes through this electromagnetic coil, it will create the
flux, this flux will attract the shoe with force, & brake will be applied.
A typical retarder consists of stator & rotor. The stator holds 16
inductive coils, energized separately in the group of 4. The coils are made up
of
al
wire
mounded
in
the
sticky
resin.
The
stator
assembly
is
supported nicely through anti-vibration mountings on the body of frame of
the vehicle. The rotor is made up of two discs, which gives the braking force
when put to the electromagnetic influence when the coils are energised.
Careful designs of the fin, which are inside to the disc, permit free
cooling of the arrangement. [1]

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Fig 3- Working of Electro Magnetic Disc Brake

3.3.2 PRINCIPLE

INSTALL LOCATION
EM
brakes
work
in
a
comparatively
cool
condition
&
satisfy
all
the energy requirements of braking at very high speeds, fully without the use
of the friction, due to its precise installation location (transmission line of rigid
vehicles)
There are in presence several types of EM retarder. In particular, there are electromagnetic
retarders of the axial & electromagnetic retarders of the central type. An electromagnetic retarder
of the axial type is designed to be placed on a transmission shaft between a rear axle & a gearbox
of the vehicle. In that case, the transmission shaft is in 2parts, for mounting b/w those of the
retarder. An electromagnetic retarder of the central type is designed to be put directly on a
transmitive shaft on the product side of the gearbox or on the axle of the vehicle. The axle of a
vehicle drives at least one road wheel, which road rotor drives at least 1 wheel of the same
vehicle.[4]
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4. TYPES OF ELECTROMAGNETIC BRAKES


4.1 SINGLE FACE BRAKE
A friction-plate brake uses only one plate friction surface to engage the input & the output links
of the clutch. Single face EM brakes make up approximately 70% of all of the power applied
brake applications.[2]

4.2 POWER OFF BRAKE


Power off brakes pauses or holds the load when electric power is either accidentally lost or
intentionally cutoff. In the past, many companies have termed to these as "fail safe" brakes.
These brakes are regularly used on or near an electric motor. Common applications include
micro robotics, holding brakes for the Z axis ball screws & servo motor brakes. Brakes are
available in multiple voltages & can have either standard backlash or zero backlash hubs.
Multiple discs also does increase brake torque, without increasing brake diameter
2 Types a) SPRING TYPE
b) PERMANENT MAGNET TYPE

Fig 4- ELECTROMAGNETIC POWER OFF SPRING BRAKE


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4.3 PARTICLE BRAKE


Magnetic particle brakes are exclusive in their design and made-up from other electromechanical brakes because of the vast operating torque range available. Like an EM brake,
torque to voltage is kind of linear; however, in MP brakes, torque can be controlled very
correctly (within the operating RPM range of the unit). This makes these units ideally
desirable for tension control applications, such as fill, film, & tape tension control.

FIG 5- PARTICLE BRAKE

4.4 HYSTERESIS POWER BRAKE


Electrical hysteresis system has a plenty large torque range. Since these units can be controlled
remotely, they are practically ideal for test stand applications where fluctuating torque is needed.
Since drag torque is minimum, these units offer the widest feasible torque range of any of the
products. Most applications involving powered hysteresis units are in test stand requirements.
When electricity is applied to the field, it creates an internal magnetic flux. That flux is then
shifted into a hysteresis disk passing through the field. The hysteresis disk is connected to the
brake shaft. A magnetic drag on this disc allow for a constant drag, or eventual brake of the
output shaft.[3]

4.5 MULTIPLE DISK BRAKE


Multiple disk brakes are used to deliver exceptionally high torque within a small space. These
brakes can be used in both wet and dry condition, which makes them ideal to run in multi gear
box applications, machine tool applications, or in off road equipment.

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Electro-mechanical disc brakes operate via electrical actuation, but transmit torque mechanically.
When electric current is applied to the coil of an electromagnet, the flux attracts the armature to
the face of the brake. As it does so, it crunches the inner & outer friction disks together. The hub
is normally mounted on the shaft that is rotating. The brake system is molded solidly to the
machine frame. As the disks are squeezed, torque is transmitted from the hub into the machine
frame, stopping & holding the shaft.
When electricity is cutted from the brake, the armature is free to move with the shaft. Springs
keep the friction disk & armature away from each other. There is no contact b/w braking surfaces
& minimal drag.[3]

FIG 6- EM MULTIPLE DISK BRAKE

5. APPLICATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC BRAKE

5.1 APPLICATIONS
a) It is used in crane control system.
b) It is used in winch controlling.
c) It is used in lift controlling.
d) Electromagnetic brake system is used as modern tech for high-class vehicles.
e) They are used in automatic purpose.
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f) In locomotives, a mechanical linkage transmits torque to an electromagnetic braking


g) Electric motors in industrial & robotic applications also employ electromagnetic.

h) This brake system can be used too wheeler.


i) Electromagnetic braking system will be used in all types of light motor vehicle like car etc.

5.2 ADVANTAGES OF EM BRAKES OVER OTHER TYPE OF BRAKES


a) Electromechanical or electromagnetic brakes are easy to maintain than other types of braking system.
b) EM brakes work is done very quickly; because of electric component thus flowing of current is fast.
c) It is very efficient & reasonable than other brakes.
d) Very less effort is required to apply the EM brakes.
e) It increases life of friction of lining & keeps them cool.
f) It doesnt need any sort of separate cooling system for heat dissipation.
g) Better controllability is observed in this type of braking system.
h) It also absorb the load during heavy braking without self-destruction which many of older type of
braking system cant do.

5.3 DISADVANTAGES OF ELECTROMAGNETIC BRAKES


a) The installation of electromagnetic brake is very difficult if, there is
Not enough space/region between the gearbox & the rear axle.

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b) It need a separate compressor.


c) Maintenance of its various parts like valves has to be done regularly.
d) It cannot use grease or oil or any other petroleum based product. [5]

Fig 7- An Electromagnetic Brake

6. RESULT & STUDY

When we study electromagnetic brake we came to know that its very efficient & effective type
of braking system. We came to know that by using the electromagnetically brake as
supplementary/auxiliary retardation tool, the friction brakes can be used less often, & therefore
practically never reach the maximum temperature. The brake lining would last a little bit longer
before needing a maintenance, & the potentially brake fade problem could be altogether
avoided. In a research conducted by a semi-truck manufacturer, it was proven that the
electromagnetic brake assumed 70-80 % of the duty which would otherwise have been
demanded of the timely service brake. & we also find the same when we study & practically use
EM brake.
Furthermore, the electromagnetic brake prevents the dangers that arise from the constant use of
the brakes beyond their limit dissipate heat. This is most probable to happen while a vehicle
descending a long gradient at high velocity.
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We found that the installation of an electromagnetic brake is not very hard to do and also t does
not need a subsidiary cooling system. It does not effect on the productivity of the engine.
Electromagnetic brake also has better stability & Performance than the others. By means of
processes like radiation and convection at maximum temperature of heat energy the thermal
equilibrium of the electromagnetic brakes is obtained. The electromagnetic brake has great heat
dissipation efficiency.

Electromagnetic braking system has better and enhanced thermal performance than regular
conventional type frictional brake.

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7. CONCLUSION

With all the advantages of EM brakes over friction brakes mainly and also over other types
of brakes. Electro brakes have been used on heavy-duty type machine where the brake
fading problem is frequent. The very same technique is being produced for application on
lighter vehicles.. These electromagnetic brakes can be utilized as winged braking system
along with the frictional braking system to avoid overheating of system and also by avoiding
failure. ABS usage can be neglected by using a controlled electromagnetic disc brake system
.These find many an applications in immense vehicles or machines where high heat binge is
compulsory.

In the coaches of rail/train it can be used in combination of disk brake to make the train
travelling in very high speed. When these brakes are linked together or combined together it
increases the life of brake and also act like full loaded brakes. These electromagnetic brakes
can also be used in wet/watery conditions which removes the anti-skidding element, and
also these types of brakes are very much cheaper and affordable than the other types of
brake or braking system. Hence the braking force produced in EM braking system is less
than the disc brakes if can be used as a substitute for emergency braking system in the
automobiles (vehicles).

As we discussed about the limitations many brakes like drum or disc type or pneumatic ones, the
Electromagnetic brake is a nice, efficient and also dependable solution .These brake control
system is an electric switching system which gives us a better controllability and stability over
others. The installation of an Electromagnetic brake is not simple but it is also not rocket science
to do. From the study so far, it seems that the electromagnetic brake is a good complement to the
safe braking of heavy automobiles. Very promising results with present concept & design, a
planned budget would improve performance and the stability of these electrically based
Braking system.

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8. REFERENCE

1) www.seminarprojects.com/threadelectromagneticbrakes
2) www.wikipedia.com
3) A book of Automobile Engineering and technology By Dr. Kripal Singh
4) Catalogue of Ogura Industrial Corp and Limited
5) http://automobiletechinfo.blogspot.in/2013/05/electromagnetic-brake.html
6) www.google.com

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