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There are two principal types of source, namely voltage source and current source. Sources can

be either independent or dependent upon some other quantities.

An independent voltage source maintains a voltage (fixed or varying with time) which is not

affected by any other quantity. Similarly an independent current source maintains a current

(fixed or time-varying) which is unaffected by any other quantity. The usual symbols are shown

in figure 1.3.

Some voltage (current) sources have their voltage (current) values varying with some other

variables. They are called dependent voltage (current) sources or controlled voltage (current)

sources , and their usual symbols are shown in figure 1.4.

Remarks -- It is not possible to force an independent voltage source to take up a voltage which is

different from its defined value. Likewise, it is not possible to force an independent current

source to take up a current which is different from its defined value. Two particular examples are

short-circuiting an independent voltage source and open-circuiting an independent current

source. Both are not permitted.

Figure 1.4: Symbols for dependent sources. Variables in brackets are the controlling variables

whose values affect the value of the source.

Michael Tse

Tue Mar 10 13:15:28 HKT 1998

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Apr 28 Engineering Notes 15638 Views 16 Comments on Electric circuit- dependent and

independent sources

Electric circuit: An electric circuit is a closed path comprising of electrons flowing along it from

a voltage source or a current source.

Important points:

1.Source-The point where the electrons enter an electrical circuit.

2.Return- exit point.

3.Load- The part of an electrical circuit that is between the electrons starting point and the

point where they return to the source.

4. The electric circuit use alternating current sources.

Electric Circuit

Sources are of two types- dependent sources and independent sources

1)Dependent source : A dependent source is one whose value depends on some other variable in

the circuit. The voltage or current values is proportional to some other voltage or current in the

circuit. for example, in modelling the behavior of amplifiers.

Examples:

1)A bipolar junction transistor can be a dependent current source whose magnitude depends on

the magnitude of the current fed into its controlling base terminal.

2)An operational amplifier can be described as a voltage source dependent on the differential

input voltage between its input terminals.

Classification:

Dependent sources can be classified as follows:

Voltage-controlled voltage source: The source delivers the voltage as per the voltage of the

dependent element. V=avx

Voltage-controlled current source: The source delivers the current as per the voltage of the

dependent element. I=bvx

Current-controlled current source: The source delivers the current as per the current of the

dependent element. I=cix

Current-controlled voltage source: The source delivers the voltage as per the current of the

dependent element. V=Idx

-The proportionality constant between dependent and independent variables is dimensionless if

they are both currents (or both voltages).

A voltage controlled by a current has a proportionality factor expressed in units of resistance

(ohm), and this constant is sometimes called trans-resistance.

A current controlled by a voltage has the units of conductance , and is called transconductance.

-Trans-conductance is a commonly used specification for measuring the performance of field

effect transistors and vacuum tubes.

2) Independent sources: Ideal Independent Source maintains same voltage or current regardless

of the other elements present in the circuit.Its value is either constant (DC) or sinusoidal (AC).

The strength of voltage or current is not changed by any variation in connected network.

Example: a Copper resistance along the circuit

Classification:

1) Ideal Independent Voltage Sources

An ideal independent voltage source is a two-terminal circuit element where the voltage across it

a) is independent of the current through it

b) can be specified independently of any other variable in a circuit.

In a circuit, voltage across elements which are parallel with voltage sources are equal to the

voltage of the corresponding voltage sources

2) Ideal Independent Current Sources

In contrast to ideal independent voltage sources, an ideal independent current source is a twoterminal circuit element where the current passing through it

a) is independent of the voltage across it

b) can be specified independently of any other variable in a circuit.

IMPORTANT QUESTION and ANSWERS

1) What is an electric circuit?

ans) An electric circuit is a closed path comprising of electrons flowing along it from a voltage

source or a current source

2) What are the two type of sources?

ans) independent and dependent sources.

3) What is a load?

ans)The part of an electrical circuit that is between the electrons starting point and the point

where they return to the source.

4) What is a dependent source?

ans) A dependent source is one whose value depends on some other variable in the circuit.

5) What is the difference between dependent and independent sources?

ans) Dependent sources are current or voltage sources whose output value is based on time or

another value from the circuit. A dependent source may be based on the voltage over a resistor

for example, or even the current flowing through a given wire but Independent sources produce

current/voltage at a particular rate that is dependent only on time. These sources may output a

constant current/voltage, or they may output current/voltage that varies with time.

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Kirchoff's laws

There are two laws necessary for solving circuit problems. For simple circuits,we

1. The voltages around a closed path in a circuit must sum to zero.

(Kirchoff's law #1)

, the voltage drops being negative

(following a current through a resistor), while the gains are positive (going

through a battery from the negative to the positive terminal).

2. The sum of the currents entering a node must equal the sum of the

currents exiting a node. (Kirchoff's Law #2)

The first law is a simple statement of the meaning of potential. Since every point

on a circuit has a unique value of the potential, travelling around the circuit,

through any path must bring you back to the potential. Using the analogy to

elevation: If one hikes from a starting point of a mountain, taking several paths,

then finishes at the same point, the sum of the elevation changes of each path

had better add to zero.

The second law is the statment of current conservation mentioned before in the

Ohm's law lecture. For the node on the right, i1=i2+i3. If all currents had been

defined as enterning the node, then the sum of the

currents would be zero.

Examples

Kirchhoff's Laws

Although useful to be able to reduce series and parallel resistors in a circuit when they occur,

circuits in general are not composed exclusively of such combinations. For such cases there are a

powerful set of relations called Kirchhoff's laws which enable one to analyze arbitrary circuits.

There are two such laws:

the 1 st law or the junction rule: for a given junction or node in a circuit, the sum of the

currents entering equals the sum of the currents leaving. This law is a statement of charge

conservation. For example, in Fig. 17.6,

the 2 nd law or the loop rule: around any closed loop in a circuit, the sum of the potential

differences across all elements is zero. This law is a statement of energy conservation, in

that any charge that starts and ends up at the same point with the same velocity must have

gained as much energy as it lost. For example, in Fig. 17.7,

where the boxes denote a circuit element, the loop rule tells us 0 = (Vb - Va) + (Vc - Vb) +

(Vd - Vc) + (Vd - Va) .

The second law entails certain sign conventions for potential differences across circuit elements.

For batteries and resistors, these conventions are summarized in Fig. 17.8. Note that in these

conventions the current always flows from a high to a low potential.

Figure 17.8: Sign conventions for Kirchhoff's loop rule

In analyzing circuits using Kirchhoff's laws, it is helpful to keep in mind the following

guidelines.

1.

Draw the circuit and assign labels to the known and unknown quantities, including

currents in each branch. You must assign directions to currents; don't worry if you guess

incorrectly the direction of a particular unknown current, as the answer resulting from the

analysis in this case will simply come out negative, but with the right magnitude.

2.

Apply the junction rule to as many junctions in the circuit as possible to obtain the

maximum number of independent relations.

3.

Apply the loop rule to as many loops in the circuit as necessary in order to solve for the

unknowns. Note that if one has n unknowns in a circuit one will need n independent

equations. In general there will be more loops present in a circuit than one needs to solve

for all the unknowns; the relations resulting from these ``extra'' loops can be used as a

consistency check on your final answers.

4.

Solve the resulting set of simultaneous equations for the unknown quantities.

Proficiency in analyzing circuits with Kirchhoff's laws, particularly with regard to the sign

conventions and with solving simultaneous equations, comes with practice.

Maxwells Loop Current Method

This method is particularly well-suited to coupled circuit solutions employs of loop or mesh

current instead of branch currents as in Kirchhoffs laws. In this method the currents in different

mesh are assigned continuous paths so that they do not split at a junction into branch currents.

Basically, this method consists of writing loop voltage equation by Kirchhoffs voltage law in

terms of unknown loop currents.

In fig above, there are two loops (or mesh).Let the current flowing in upper loop be I 1 and the

current flowing in lower loop is I2. Let the direction of flow is same (in clockwise direction) for

both currents as shown in fig.2.4. Then applying KVL in upper loop, we get:

-10 -2I1 -1(I1 I2) +12 = 0

Or

3I1 I2 = 2 .. (1)

-12 -1(I2 I1) -5 I2 = 0

Or I1 -6I2 = 12 . (2)

Solving these equations, we get

I1 = 0 and I2 = 2 A.

In this way in Maxwells Loop current method, loop current is calculated to find all the

branch currents.

Assume that all the loop currents are flowing in same direction (say in clockwise).

When writing loop equation (KVL) on N th loop, assume the current flowing in that loop

i.e. In is largest current. See on above example: For loop (1) -1(I1 I2) and for loop (2)

-1(I2 I1) is taken because I1 is assumed as largest current in loop (1) and I2 I1 is

assumed as largest current in loop (2).

If there is a current source in the perimeter of the N th loop, then the current flowing

through that loop (In) is equal to the magnitude of the current of the current source.

In this case, as shown in fig.2.5, there is a current source on the perimeter of loop (1).

Hence I1 equals -2A because the direction of I1 (assumed) is opposite to the direction of source

current.

If a current source is present on the common branch of M th and Nth loop, then sum or

difference of currents flowing on those loops is equal to the magnitude of the current source

present. And a new loop is considered to obtain the equation of loop which is known as superloop. Super-loop is made by mixing those loops which has common current source (i.e. M th and

Nth loop) without considering that common branch.

For example, there is 3A current source on the common branch of loop (1) and loop

(3).But in loop (2), there is no current source on perimeter as well as on common branch. So, for

loop (2), we can write a simple KVL equation:

For loop (1) and (3)

. (2)

And from super loop:

. (3)

By solving these three equations we can get the unknown currents.

Cramers rule is used for the solution of linear equations by determinants. Let the system

of linear equations in three unknown I1,I2 and I3 are:

Where Rii = the total resistance of the ith loop with +ve sign.

Rij = common resistance between ith loop and jth loop with ve sign.

Then by Cramers rule, the solution of these simultaneous equations is given by:

Where,

and

Cramers rule can be used for solving simultaneous equations if the numbers of unknown

are more than two. This gives quick results.

In this method, we set up and solve a system of equations in which the unknowns are

the voltages at the principal nodes of the circuit. From these nodal voltages the

currents in the various branches of the circuit are easily determined.

The steps in the nodal analysis method are:

Count the number of principal nodes or junctions in the circuit. Call this number

n. (A principal node or junction is a point where 3 or more branches join. We

will indicate them in a circuit diagram with a red dot. Note that if a branch

contains no voltage sources or loads then that entire branch can be considered

to be one node.)

Number the nodes N1, N2, . . . , Nn and draw them on the circuit diagram. Call

the voltages at these nodes V1, V2, . . . , Vn, respectively.

Choose one of the nodes to be the reference node or ground and assign it a

voltage of zero.

For each node except the reference node write down Kirchoff's Current Law in

the form "the algebraic sum of the currents flowing out of a node equals

zero". (By algebraic sum we mean that a current flowing into a node is to be

considered a negative current flowing out of the node.)

For example, for the node to the right KCL yields the

equation:

Ia + Ib + Ic = 0

Express the current in each branch in terms of the nodal voltages at each end

of the branch using Ohm's Law (I = V / R). Here are some examples:

and the resistance in the branch.

In this case the voltage difference across the resistance is V1 - V2 minus the

voltage across the voltage source. Thus the downward current is as shown.

In this case the voltage difference across the resistance must be 100 volts

greater than the difference V1 - V2. Thus the downward current is as shown.

unknown nodal voltages (where m is one less than the number of nodes; m = n

- 1).

The

form:

Alternatively, the system of equations can be gotten (already in simplified

form) by using the inspection method.

Solve the system of equations for the m node voltages V1, V2, . . . , Vm using

Gaussian elimination or some other method.

Example 1: Use nodal analysis to find the voltage at each node of this circuit.

Solution:

at the bottom is actually 1

extended node. Thus the

number of nodes is 3.

shown to the right.

reference node and assign it a

voltage of zero.

Write down Kirchoff's Current Law for each node. Call V1 the voltage at node 1,

V3 the voltage at node 3, and remember that V2 = 0. The result is the following

system of equations:

The first equation results from KCL applied at node 1 and the second equation

results from KCL applied at node 3. Collecting terms this becomes:

This form for the system of equations could have been gotten immediately by

using the inspection method.

method gives the following voltages:

V1=68.2 volts and V3=27.3 volts

Example 2: Use nodal analysis to find the voltage at each node of this circuit.

Solution: Click here for solution.

find the voltage at each node of this

circuit.

Solution: Click here for

solution.

Electricity

Thevenins Theorem

Chapter 10 - DC Network Analysis

Thevenins Theorem states that it is possible to simplify any linear circuit, no matter how

complex, to an equivalent circuit with just a single voltage source and series resistance connected

to a load. The qualification of linear is identical to that found in the Superposition Theorem,

where all the underlying equations must be linear (no exponents or roots). If were dealing with

passive components (such as resistors, and later, inductors and capacitors), this is true. However,

there are some components (especially certain gas-discharge and semiconductor components)

which are nonlinear: that is, their opposition to current changes with voltage and/or current. As

such, we would call circuits containing these types of components, nonlinear circuits.

Thevenins Theorem is especially useful in analyzing power systems and other circuits where

one particular resistor in the circuit (called the load resistor) is subject to change, and recalculation of the circuit is necessary with each trial value of load resistance, to determine

voltage across it and current through it. Lets take another look at our example circuit:

Lets suppose that we decide to designate R2 as the load resistor in this circuit. We already

have four methods of analysis at our disposal (Branch Current, Mesh Current, Millmans

Theorem, and Superposition Theorem) to use in determining voltage across R2 and current

through R2, but each of these methods are time-consuming. Imagine repeating any of these

methods over and over again to find what would happen if the load resistance changed (changing

load resistance is very common in power systems, as multiple loads get switched on and off as

needed. the total resistance of their parallel connections changing depending on how many are

connected at a time). This could potentially involve a lot of work!

Thevenins Theorem makes this easy by temporarily removing the load resistance from the

original circuit and reducing whats left to an equivalent circuit composed of a single voltage

source and series resistance. The load resistance can then be re-connected to this Thevenin

equivalent circuit and calculations carried out as if the whole network were nothing but a simple

series circuit:

The Thevenin Equivalent Circuit is the electrical equivalent of B1, R1, R3, and B2 as seen from

the two points where our load resistor (R2) connects.

The Thevenin equivalent circuit, if correctly derived, will behave exactly the same as the original

circuit formed by B1, R1, R3, and B2. In other words, the load resistor (R2) voltage and current

should be exactly the same for the same value of load resistance in the two circuits. The load

resistor R2 cannot tell the difference between the original network of B1, R1, R3, and B2, and the

Thevenin equivalent circuit of EThevenin, and RThevenin, provided that the values for EThevenin and

RThevenin have been calculated correctly.

The advantage in performing the Thevenin conversion to the simpler circuit, of course, is that

it makes load voltage and load current so much easier to solve than in the original network.

Calculating the equivalent Thevenin source voltage and series resistance is actually quite easy.

First, the chosen load resistor is removed from the original circuit, replaced with a break (open

circuit):

Next, the voltage between the two points where the load resistor used to be attached is

determined. Use whatever analysis methods are at your disposal to do this. In this case, the

original circuit with the load resistor removed is nothing more than a simple series circuit with

opposing batteries, and so we can determine the voltage across the open load terminals by

applying the rules of series circuits, Ohms Law, and Kirchhoffs Voltage Law:

The voltage between the two load connection points can be figured from the one of the batterys

voltage and one of the resistors voltage drops, and comes out to 11.2 volts. This is our

Thevenin voltage (EThevenin) in the equivalent circuit:

To find the Thevenin series resistance for our equivalent circuit, we need to take the original

circuit (with the load resistor still removed), remove the power sources (in the same style as we

did with the Superposition Theorem: voltage sources replaced with wires and current sources

replaced with breaks), and figure the resistance from one load terminal to the other:

With the removal of the two batteries, the total resistance measured at this location is equal to R1

and R3 in parallel: 0.8 . This is our Thevenin resistance (RThevenin) for the equivalent circuit:

With the load resistor (2 ) attached between the connection points, we can determine voltage

across it and current through it as though the whole network were nothing more than a simple

series circuit:

Notice that the voltage and current figures for R2 (8 volts, 4 amps) are identical to those found

using other methods of analysis. Also notice that the voltage and current figures for the Thevenin

series resistance and the Thevenin source (total) do not apply to any component in the original,

complex circuit. Thevenins Theorem is only useful for determining what happens to a single

resistor in a network: the load.

The advantage, of course, is that you can quickly determine what would happen to that single

resistor if it were of a value other than 2 without having to go through a lot of analysis again.

Just plug in that other value for the load resistor into the Thevenin equivalent circuit and a little

bit of series circuit calculation will give you the result.

REVIEW:

composed of a single voltage source, series resistance, and series load.

(1) Find the Thevenin source voltage by removing the load resistor from the

original circuit and calculating voltage across the open connection points

where the load resistor used to be.

(2) Find the Thevenin resistance by removing all power sources in the original

circuit (voltage sources shorted and current sources open) and calculating

total resistance between the open connection points.

(3) Draw the Thevenin equivalent circuit, with the Thevenin voltage source in

series with the Thevenin resistance. The load resistor re-attaches between

the two open points of the equivalent circuit.

(4) Analyze voltage and current for the load resistor following the rules for

series circuits.

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