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# DETERMINATION OF THE SOLUBILITY

PRODUCT

## F.G. QUEZON AND F.D. GARCIA

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, DILIMAN QUEZON CITY, PHILIPPINES
DATE PERFORMED: FEBRUARY 1, 2013
INSTRUCTORS NAME: IRINA DIANE CASTAOS

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this experiment is to determine the K sp of the calcium
hydroxide solid. It also demonstrates the common ion and the diverse ion effect.
For the value of Ksp in water, the value 3.01 x10-5 was obtained. This value was then
contrasted to the theoretical value, 5.5 x10-6. A percent error of 447% was
obtained. The experiment was done by preparing calcium hydroxide from calcium
nitrate and sodium hydroxide, and then using calcium hydroxide suspended in
different media as an analyte and then titrating them with HCl. From there, we can
already calculate the value of the Ksp.

INTRODUCTION
The
Ksp of
a
substance,
according
to
Petrucci,
is
the
equilibrium
constant
for
the
equilibrium between a solid ionic
solute and its ions in a saturated
aqueous solution.
The solid in question in this
experiment
is
Ca(OH)2.
Its
decomposition reaction is shown
below.
Ca(OH)2(s) Ca2+(aq) + 2 OH-(aq)
(1)
While the equation for its Ksp is:
Ksp = [Ca2+][OH-]2
(2)
One of the factors affecting K sp
is the ionic strength of the substance.
Ionic strength could be measured
through the equation displayed below:
= cizi
(3)
Where:
= Ionic strength
ci = molar concentration of each
ions

## zi = charge of the each ions

When ions similar to the ones in
the principal reaction are introduced,
they
shift
the
equilibrium.
To
determine in which direction the shift
occurs, we use the equation for Qsp
shown below.
Qsp = [Ca2+][OH-]2
(4)
Upon addition of Ca2+, Qsp has a
larger value than Ksp. To maintain
equilibrium, the reaction shifts to the
left to form more solids. The purpose
of this experiment is to determine the
Ksp of Ca(OH)2 and the effect of the
addition of common-ions to the
product formed.
METHODOLOGY
First, Ca(OH)2(s) was prepared
from NaOH and Ca(NO3)2. When the
precipitate from this reaction is
already obtained, each group would be

## assigned to prepare a Ca(OH)2

suspension in the following media:
distilled water, 1.0M KCl, 0.5M KCl,
0.1M KCl, 0.005M KCl, and 0.001M KCl.
The KCl solutions are formed initially
from KCl solid and then through serial
dilution. 100 mL of the assigned
solution is used. Ca(OH)2 is gradually
added and stirred for 5 minutes and
left to stand for 10 minutes. 50 mL of
the solution was filtered through a
Whatman filter paper. 25 mL of aliquot
from the supernate was transferred in
a 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask. It was then
titrated with 0.1M HCl after the
addition
of
3
drops
1%
phenolphthalein. It was titrated until
the color vanishes.
In the next part of the
experiment, 100 mL of Ca(NO3)2 and
Ca(OH)2 was mixed until saturated. It
was then left for 10 minutes. 50 mL of
the suspension was filtered through a
Whatman filter paper. 25 mL of the
aliquot solution was transferred in a
250 mL Erlenmeyer flask. 3 drops of
1% phenolphthalein was added and
then titrated with 0.1 M HCl until the
solution turns colorless.
For all titration procedures, the
endpoint is indicated by the drop
immediately
before
the
analyte
solution turned colorless, or on the
drop where the analyte solution turned
faint pink.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The chemical equation for the
decomposition of Ca(OH)2 is shown
below:
Ca(OH)2(s) Ca2+(aq) + 2 OH-(aq)
(1)
Since the reactant is a solid and its
activity is just equal to 1, both its K sp
and Keq is represented by the equation
shown below, therefore, these 2
quantities are equal.
Ksp = [Ca2+][OH-]2
(2)
In the reaction, NaOH was
added in excess so that the product
would depend on the limiting reactant,

## Ca(NO3)2. Dropwise addition of the

Ca(NO3)2 reagent was also done so
that complete dissolution of the
substance would happen and also to
prevent
the
formation
of
a
supersaturated solution which would
yield incorrect results. The precipitate
was washed with water, ethanol, and
acetone because it is insoluble in
these substances and wont react with
them when they are used to wash it
from impurities.
The calcium hydroxide solution
is said to be saturated already when it
can no longer dissolve any solids. The
point when the solution is already
saturated is evident since the solid is
gradually being added. The solution
was filtered because based on the
equation, only ions would matter in
the computation for Ksp. If calcium
hydroxide solids would be included in
the analyte solution, it would react
with the titrant and yield incorrect
results.
Upon
addition
of
phenolphthalein, the solution turned
purple.
This
is
because
phenolphthalein
is
an
acid-base
indicator. A basic solution turns purple
while an acidic one is colorless. The
color signifies that the solution is
basic. The endpoint of the titration
process is signified by the solution
turning a faint pink. It is signaled by
the drop right before the solution turns
colorless.
Since [Ca2+] = [OH-] 2 = s, and
plugging in these variables in the K sp
equation, we get the equation:
Ksp = 4 s 3 (5)
Where s = solubility
Using the equation
[OH-] =

(6)

## the values for [OH-] are computed and

tabulated in the table below:
Table 1. [OH-] in different medium.

Medium

[OH-]

Trial 1
Trial 2
distilled
0.0388
0.0396
H2O
0.001 M KCl
0.0354
0.0392
0.005 M KCl
0.0384
0.0424
0.010 M KCl
0.0420
0.0420
0.050 M KCl
0.0440
0.0440
0.100 M KCl
0.0440
0.0460
0.500 M KCl
0.0492
0.0552
1.000M KCl
0.0540
0.0548
0.100 M
0.0292
0.0324
Ca2+
Based on the chemical equation
for the decomposition of calcium
hydroxide, hydroxide and calcium ions
have a two is to one ratio respectively.
By
halving
the
hydroxide
concentrations we come up with the
concentration of calcium ions and thus
the solubility values for each medium.
Table 2. [Ca2+] and s
Medium
[Ca2+] = s
Trial 1
Trial 2
d H2O
0.0194
0.0198
0.001 M
0.0177
0.0196
KCl
0.005 M
0.0192
0.0212
KCl
0.010 M
0.0210
0.0210
KCl
0.050 M
0.0220
0.0220
KCl
0.100 M
0.0220
0.0230
KCl
0.500 M
0.0246
0.0276
KCl
1.000M
0.0270
0.0274
KCl
0.100 M
0.0146
0.0162
Ca2+
The average Ksp for water is
computed to be 3.01 x 10-5.
The
literature value for Ksp is 5.5 x 10-6. The
percent difference between them is
447%.
Using the equation

= cizi
(3)
the ionic strength of each solution
could be computed. The results
obtained are tabulated below and the
calculations are found in the appendix.
Table 3. (ionic strength) of different
media
Medium

Trial 1
Trial 2
distilled
0.0582
0.0594
H2O
0.001 M KCl
0.0531
0.0588
0.005 M KCl
0.0576
0.0636
0.010 M KCl
0.0630
0.0630
0.050 M KCl
0.0660
0.0660
0.100 M KCl
0.0660
0.0690
0.500 M KCl
0.0720
0.0828
1.000M KCl
0.0810
0.0822
0.100 M
0.0438
0.0486
Ca2+

## Figure 1. Plot for molar solubility vs.

ionic strength
The plot shows a linear trend,
sloping upward to the right. This
signifies a direct proportion between
molar solubility and ionic strength.
Solubility in water is greater
than solubility in calcium nitrate. This
could be accounted for by the
common-ion effect. According to
equation (4), an additional in the
calcium ions would cause an increase
in the Qsp. To maintain equilibrium, the
additional calcium ions would be
consumed to form more of the solid
product
making
the
solution

## supersaturated and decreasing its

solubility. On the other hand, there is
also the diverse ion effect which
increases
the
solubility
of
the
substance. During the addition of
diverse ions, ionic strength increases
and a higher concentration of ions
must
be
present
to
establish
equilibrium, thus the solubility of the
solution increases.
Below is a list of possible
sources of errors in the experiment.
Table 4. Possible sources of errors
Source of
Parameter
Effect
Error
Calcium
[OH-]
Increase
hydroxide
solid was
not
washed
with
ethanol
Unsaturat
Solubility
Decrease
ed
solution
Presence
[OH-]
Increase
of calcium
hydroxide
solids in
the
analyte
Burrette
Amount of
Increase
was not
HCl needed
washed by
to titrate
the titrant

The
methodology
for
the
experiment is sufficient for the
computation of the required values
and it proved its purpose by
demonstrating the effect of common
and diverse ions.
Overall, the experiment could
be considered a failure because of the
huge percent error between the
theoretical and experimental Ksp
values.
REFERENCES

CONCLUSION AND
RECOMMENDATION
The experiment showed that
the reaction had Ksp value of 3.01 x 105
in water. This is contrasted to the
theoretical value which yielded to a
447% error. The experiment also
showed that the addition of common
ions would decrease the solubility of
the solution while the addition of
diverse ions would increase its
solubility.

[OH-] =

##  Bissonnette, C., Herring F. G.,

Madura J., Petrucci R.
General
Chemistry Principles and Modern
Application 10th Edition. Pearson
Prentice Hall, Toronto. 2011.
 Institute of Chemistry. General
Chemistry
II
Laboratory
Manual.
Institute of Chemistry, University of
the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City.
2011
 Food and Agriculture Organization
of
the
United
Nations.
http://www.fao.org/ag/agn/
jecfaadditives/specs/Monograph1/Additive086.pdf (accessed Feb 7, 2013).
APPENDIX
Distilled H2O:
Trial 1:
= 0.0388 M

Solubility = [Ca2+] =

= 0.0194

M
=

= 0.0582 M

## Ksp = 4 (0.0194)3 = 2.92 x10-5

Trial 2:
[OH-] =

= 0.0396 M

Solubility = [Ca2+] =

= 0.0198

M
=

[OH-] =

## Ksp = 4 (0.0198) = 3.10 x10

-5

0.1M Ca(NO3)2:

= 0.0292 M
= 0.0146

Trial 1:
= 0.0492 M

= 0.0438 M
Solubility = [Ca2+] =

= 0.0246

Trial 2:
= 0.0324 M

Solubility = [Ca2+] =

= 0.0162

= 0.0720 M

Trial 2:
[OH-] =

= 0.0552 M

= 0.0486 M

## Ksp = 4 (0.0162)3 = 1.70 x10-5

Solubility = [Ca2+] =

= 0.0276

1.0 M KCl:

= 0.0828 M

Trial 1:

## Average = 7.18 x 10-5

= 0.0540 M

Solubility = [Ca2+] =

= 0.0270

M
=

0.500 M KCl:

[OH-] =

[OH-] =

= 0.0822 M

## Average = 8.05 x 10-5

Solubility = [Ca2+] =

= 0.0274

## Ksp = 4 (0.0274)3 = 8.23 x10-5

Trial 1:

[OH-] =

Solubility = [Ca2+] =
M

= 0.0548 M

= 0.0594 M
3

[OH-] =

Trial 2:

0.100 M KCl:
Trial 1:
[OH-] =

= 0.0810 M

## Ksp = 4 (0.0270)3 = 7.87 x10-5

= 0.0440 M

Solubility = [Ca2+] =

= 0.0220

M
=

Trial 1:
[OH-] =

= 0.0660 M
3

## Ksp = 4 (0.0220) = 4.26 x10

-5

= 0.0420 M

Solubility = [Ca2+] =

= 0.0210

M
Trial 2:

[OH-] =

= 0.0460 M

Solubility = [Ca2+] =

= 0.0230

M
=

Trial 2:
[OH-] =

= 0.0690 M
3

## Ksp = 4 (0.0230) = 4.87 x10

-5

= 0.0420 M

Solubility = [Ca2+] =

= 0.0210

0.050 M KCl:

= 0.0630 M

Trial 1:

## Average = 3.70 x 10-5

[OH-] =

= 0.0440 M

Solubility = [Ca2+] =

= 0.0220

M
=

= 0.0630 M

0.005 M KCl:
Trial 1:
[OH-] =

= 0.0660 M
3

## Ksp = 4 (0.0220) = 4.26 x10

-5

= 0.0384 M

Solubility = [Ca2+] =

= 0.0192

M
Trial 2:

[OH-] =

= 0.0440 M

Solubility = [Ca2+] =

= 0.0220

M
=

Trial 2:
[OH-] =

= 0.0660 M
3

## Ksp = 4 (0.0220) = 4.26 x10

Average = 4.26 x 10-5
0.010 M KCl:

-5

= 0.0576 M

= 0.0424 M

Solubility = [Ca2+] =
M
=

= 0.0636 M

= 0.0212

## Ksp = 4 (0.0212)3 = 3.81 x10-5

Average = 3.32 x 10-5

= 76.5 %

0.001 M KCl:
Trial 1:
[OH-] =

= 0.0354 M

Solubility = [Ca2+] =

= 0.0177

M
=

= 0.0531 M

## Ksp = 4 (0.0177)3 = 2.22 x10-5

Trial 2:
[OH-] =

= 0.0392 M

Solubility = [Ca2+] =

= 0.0196

M
=

= 0.0588 M

## Ksp = 4 (0.0196)3 = 3.01 x10-5

Average = 2.61 x 10-5

% error =

% error =

x 100%

= 447 %
Ksp = s3
s=

s=
s = 0.0111 M
save = 0.0194 + 0.0198 / 2 = 0.0196

x 100%